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RAILWAY VEHICLE MANUFACTURING

T E R E S A E C H A N I Z I R I
A N E
F E R N A N D E Z
B A R
A I N H O A
L A C A L L E
A S
L I D E
R O D R I G U E Z
I N S

RAILWAYS ASSIGNMENT 14th of MARCH

A R T E
R A D O
E N SI O
A U S T I

RAILWAY VEHICLE MANUFACTURING

TABLA DE CONTENIDO
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 3
MANUFACTURING PROCESS ............................................................................ 3
1.

DESIGN ................................................................................................................ 3

2.

MATERIALS AND PARTS ...................................................................................... 3

3.

MANUFACTURING ............................................................................................... 3
I.

BODY ................................................................................................................ 3

II.

BOGIE ............................................................................................................... 4

4.

ASSEMBLY ........................................................................................................... 6
I.

UNDERFRAME .................................................................................................. 6

II.

SIDES ................................................................................................................ 7

III. BODYSHELL ..................................................................................................... 7


IV. FITTING OUT ..................................................................................................... 8
5.

PAINTING ............................................................................................................. 8

6.

TESTING ............................................................................................................... 8

7.

DELIVERY ............................................................................................................. 9

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ............................................................................... 9


RAILS ................................................................................................................ 10
OTHER KIND OF RAILWAYS ............................................................................. 10
BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................ 12

RAILWAY VEHICLE MANUFACTURING

INTRODUCTION
The manufacturing process of a railway begins with the
technical design of the parts and ends when the new
train starts working on the expected way. The stages to
complete the process are: design, materials and parts
ordering, manufacturing, assembly, testing and delivery.
Not all the parts are manufactured by the same
manufacturer. Some manufacturers are assemblers of
many parts that are purchased from other suppliers. For
example, bogies are usually manufactured by an external
company and then assembled to the main body.
Manufacturing a railway is complex, expensive and risky. A lot of things could go wrong
during the process.
M ANUFACTURIN G PROCESS
1. DESIGN
The project begins with the first outline design. This first concept is budgeted to check if it
can be manufactured at a competitive price, fulfilling customers specifications. These
specifications include: dimensions, capacity, speed, power requirements, reliability, door
engines, colours, seats, etc. The preliminary design gets more detailed when materials,
parts suppliers and deeper parameters are chosen. As it is the basis of the entire project,
the design process is one of the longest and most critical processes.
2. MATERIALS AND PARTS
Once the materials are selected on the design step they are ordered in long leads. For the
body of passenger coach aluminium is used because of its lightness and resistance. This
aluminium profile needs a special finish for unpainted vehicles. However, for most of the
remaining metallic parts (tram bodies, bogie frames, wagon chassis, etc.) structural steel
is the most common raw material. All the cables inside the frame are special fire proof and
with low toxicity grade.
3. MANUFACTURING
All the manufacturing process of the railway is carried out indoors in heated premises due
to the accuracy with which it has to be done. As it has been mentioned before, the parts
are manufactured separately:
I.

BODY

The body of a locomotive is compound by different parts. These parts can be structural
members, ribs, bolsters or panels and can be manufactured either at the plant or
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RAILWAY VEHICLE MANUFACTURING

contracted out to sub-suppliers. It is important that the parts are easy to assemble and
made of materials that can be processed with the equipment existing in the factory.
II.
BOGIE
DESCRIPTION
Bogies are rotary devices composed of two or more axis (each one with two wheels) that
make possible the motion of railway vehicles. The manufacturing of this mechanism
begins with a very simple shaped steel plate and ends in a very complicated fabricated
design.
Bogies carry the motors, brakes and suspension systems in a tight envelope. In the
picture below different components of the bogie are shown and they will be individually
analysed:

Bogie frame: It can be made of steel plate or cast steel. The structure shown in
the picture is formed by hollow section with the required shape.
Bogie transom: Transverse structural member of bogie frame that also supports
the body car guidance parts and traction motors
Brake cylinder: A brake cylinder is used to operate tread or disc brakes. The
bogies can be composed of one or two brake cylinders, depending on the design
features of the bogie.
Primary suspension coil: It consists of steel coil springs. In the design of the
picture two of them are fitted to each axle box. They carry the weight of the bogie
and anything attached to it.
Motor Suspension Tube: Usually, motors are suspended between transverse
members of the bogie frame. In these electric motors are situated between the
suspension tube and a single mounting on the bogie transom.
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RAILWAY VEHICLE MANUFACTURING

Gearbox: The gearbox is composed of the pinion and gear wheel. The second
one connects the trains armature to the axle.
Lifting Lug: Component that let to a crane lift the bogie without the use of tie
chains or ropes.
Motor: A motor is used to drive the axle through the gearbox. In each axle a motor
is placed.
Neutral Section Switch Detector: Located in the leading bogie of the railway, it
informs when it is needed to switch off the current due to the information given
from a magnetic device.
Secondary Suspension Air Bag: Most of the trains have suspension air bags as
the secondary suspension system. Compressed air systems supply this air.
Wheel Slide Protection System Lead to Axlebox: Axleboxes are equipped with
speed sensors. These sensors are connected by cable from the end of the axle to
the Wheel Slide Protection.
Loose Leads for Connection to Carbody: Flexible leads connect the motor circuits
to the traction equipment of the railway vehicle.
Shock Absorber: It is a component that reduces the vibration created by the
connection between the wheel and the rail.
Axlebox Cover: Protection for the axle bearing lubrication and the return current
brush.

BOGIE FRAME MANUFACTURING


Shaped steel plates are obtained from a wide range of suppliers and carried to the factory
with previously established requirements such as drilled holes and inclinations on the
edges (chamfers). When two of those components are joined, the two chamfers will form
a V-channel that is filled up later in the welding process.
After welding them, they are then assembled into large jigs. The cost of these jigs is very
high since they are unique for each bogie design.
To make a rigid structure, parts are sub-assembled into the jig and tacked together by an
experienced welder. In order to ease the process and reach all points, it is possible to
move the entire jig in three dimensions.
When the assembly is completed, it is moved to another jig which is connected to a robot
welding arm. This also moves in three dimensions. In this step, multi-pass weld is created
in the V-channels formed by the joint of two parts. It is specially used for huge
components.

RAILWAY VEHICLE MANUFACTURING

Once the frame is welded, all dimensions are checked on an automated line. Afterward,
everything is cleaned up and sent to paint. At this point, frames are first painted with
primer and then finished in a colour defined by the customer.
When everything is completed, the bogie assembly begins.
BOGIE ASSEMBLY
Regarding the assembly, all the parts mentioned above will be bought from other
suppliers and inserted one by one. The main parts of the bogie such as the wheels, axles
and brakes are first mounted in the frame. Then, the other items are mounted to create
the figure of a complete bogie. All is hand-assembled on large tables in cells.
Finally, the bogie will be tested to check that everything is working properly. In order to
measure the weight on each wheel, a machine hydraulically applies a load to the work
piece. Then, to check that the loads of the four wheels are within the range of
specifications, adjustments are made.
4. ASSEMBLY
Once all the parts are manufactured they are brought together to be assembled. To join
the parts of the car body the aluminium profiles are mounted in jigs. Thereby, the body is
welded rigidly in the correct position. One more jig is needed to assist in the assembly.
The assembling order can vary depending on the manufacturer but the underframe is
usually the first part to build.
I.

UNDERFRAME

The main parts of the underframe include, sole bars, runners, bolsters and transoms. It is
important to provide a camber to the underframe. The camber avoids the sagging in the
middle of the car shell. The underframe will be moved through different stations until is
completely finished.
As it can be seen in the pictures, the underframe is located in the assembly jig, where all
parts are laid out and welded. The underframe is inverted and bolsters are added, camber
is introduced and different sections are welded on. While the underframe is inverted the
buffing structure is added. Once the part is turned to its normal position the car end can
be welded and a completed underframe is manufactured.

RAILWAY VEHICLE MANUFACTURING

II.

SIDES

The parts of the vehicle side are located in a series of jigs for the assembly and welding.
Welding the panels to the frame can cause rippling of the panel. Sometimes it is helpful to
clamp the skin under tension but usually post welding straightening is required. There are
two ways to add the windows into the sides; the body side panels can be cut out to place
the window or the sides can be assembled in sections with the window frames already
installed. Windows are made of glass that cracks when they break, do not explode. They
also carry an anti-vandal paint protection.

III.

BODYSHELL

Once the different parts are finished, they are brought together in a jig for the final
welding. The jig clamps the assembly and aligns it in place before the welding is done.
When the welding is finished it is moved to inspection and straightening jig.
In some countries as UK vehicles are assembled by bolting sides, ends, roof and floor
together. Before attaching the car sides and ends, various brackets, pipes and cables are
attached to the underframe. Cranes are used to turn over the underframe and this makes
easier the welding of bolting of pipes, conduit and air reservoirs.
Currently trains are often designed to have aerodynamic shapes. As crashworthiness
standards need to be met, some protective structure will be needed as well. Usually a
steel framework is constructed and then the smooth, shaped end is mounted over it.
Some German manufacturers use steel and aluminium to get these three-dimensional
curved shapes. However, most manufacturers use glass reinforced plastic moulding.

RAILWAY VEHICLE MANUFACTURING

IV.

FITTING OUT

Once the bodyshell is assembled, it needs to be fitted out. In this process cables, pipes
and air reservoirs may be included. At the next step, the installation of windows, interior
panels and flooring must be done. As for the floor, carpeting or vinyl can be used. From
this moment on, it is important to keep the place clean; this is why protective covering is
required.

5. PAINTING
Car bodies need to be painted to keep them clean and avoid graffitists. First, body filler is
used on the outside of the body and it is sanded to present a smooth finish before
painting. This is made to remove the impurities of the joining process. Before the colour
painting, the car body is painted with a special adherent paint to ensure the colours
proper bonding. After that, the body is painted with the appropriate colours and it is
varnished to harden it and make it graffiti resistant.

Nowadays, the painting process is essential and it requires equipment with dying facility,
fume extraction and fire protections.
6. TESTING
The testing process starts a lot earlier than the manufacturing process. For example, all
the propulsion kit is tested with a dynamometer to simulate the kinetic energy of the train
during downhill running or braking. The dynamometer excitation is controlled by a
computer, which is programmed to simulate the real load cycle of the railway on which
the train will be used. This way, the software can be tested before the hardware is
manufactured.
All the pieces of the train will be tested before assembly into the train. If the piece is
mechanical it will be dynamically tested. For example, operating a gearbox on a test rig to
verify it works correctly or maintains the correct temperature for the oil. Otherwise, if the
piece is an electrical or electronic item, the continuity or breaker tripping will be tested.
Once the pieces pass all the tests as satisfactory they will be assembled into the train.

RAILWAY VEHICLE MANUFACTURING

When the train is assembled it is tested again to verify that the equipment functions as
intended. There are two types of tests: dynamic and static tests. Static tests check areas
like electromagnetic interference emissions, functioning of the lights or the raising and
lowering of a pantograph. These tests are useful to verify if the wiring is correct through
the vehicle. Moreover, the power level, the braking, the warning information and lights, the
heating and cooling systems and the emergency backup battery are also statically tested.
Every piece of equipment will be tested on each piece of rolling stock and witnessed and
approved by an Inspector appointed by the customer.
7. DELIVERY
Currently, the different parts of the railways are mostly delivered by road since the bogie
and body are made for diverse customers. Not only for those who are in the same
country but also the ones that are around the world. Although this is the common way,
deliveries can occur by ship too.
It is essential to pack the railway vehicle properly when is being shipped by road, sea or
even by plane. Usually, the bogies and bodies are shipped separately. If the process is
done by sea, careful protection is needed for the body and parts that are easy to damage
because of the seawater or the salty atmosphere.
With regard to the bogies, are packed in order to not to create wear caused by the
vibration of the suspension. The process involves crane what it is crucial to ensure the
docks that know how to manage railways. It is very difficult to move this part from one
side to another without damage.
Apart from the sea passage, there is another difficulty that has to be taken into account:
the railways vehicles have to be moved from the dock to the railway. The route is planned
before to ensure that there are no problems during the transport. Often the movements
have to be made at night because of traffic conditions and permission and assistance is
always needed from the local police.
When the first significant symbol of the order arrives to the customers, all tests must be
passed. If the customer is satisfied, the second delivery stage takes place: the other
elements are delivered.

ADDITIO NAL INFO RM ATIO N


It may be interesting to know technical characteristics of the trains to understand better
their manufacturing process. If a RENFE train with a maximum speed of 330 Km/h is
analysed, the following parameters need to be considered:

LENGTH
The total length: 200 m
Intermediate cars: 13,2
m
Powerheads: 20 m

WEIGHT
Total weight: 322 t
Intermediate cars: 14 t
Powerheads: 68 t

TECHNICAL DETAILS
Track: Electric
Power: 4.000 kW x 2

RAILS
Throughout the report, it has been referring to conventional Renfe railways which have
two rails, the parts where is located the bogie. The train without the existence of the rails
would not move and therefore would not be fulfilling its role. Hence it is important to
mention and give some detail about the manufacturing process of the railroad tracks.
The method of manufacturing these elements is a steelmaking process that should satisfy
many technological requirements for the rails to meet their goals. These are usually made
into pieces of 10 to 12 meters and are joining to form the entire route.
The rail section has this shape:

The top is called the railhead, the thin part in the middle is the soul and the lower part is
the shoe. Depending on the train that is being designed and where it would be located,
these dimensions suffer some changes to fit with the design.
These changes are done taking into account the bogie too, because as mentioned, it is
the part that links the body and the rails. The design changes also due to the
requirements, modifying some parameters as the total heights, widths (upper and lower),
tilt yard and the radius of curvature, for instance.
The rails are always placed parallel at a certain distance, which is called track gauge. This
distance varies depending on the country where the railway goes, so the overall design
and manufacturing of the rails also depends on this important fact. The gauge of the
national railway in Spain is 1668 mm, and 1435 mm for the high-speed rail-lines.
OTHER KIND OF RAILW AYS
Despite having explained the conventional train that has two rails and having detailed its
manufacturing process, it is worth to mention the different methods of "join the railway to

RAILWAY VEHICLE MANUFACTURING

the ground that exist, as the rails are not the only ones that allow the movement of the
train.
Talking about these processes, the most notorious difference always appears in the
manufacturing of the rails or the manufacturing of the system that the railway uses to
move. By changing the method of operation regarding to rails, it changes also this
process, because it could disappear some pieces like the bogie and some new ones
could appear to meet the new requirements.
The three different trains that are going to be mentioned in this report are Monorail, Metro
and the magnetic levitation train.
Monorail, as its name says, has only one rail. The bogie should be different and there is
not track gauge, as there is only one rail, so the manufacture of the body could be similar
but not the manufacture of the bogie (picture).

The Metro is very similar to the local train but the difference is that the track gauge is as
the high speed rail-lines track gauge, it is shorter.
Finally the most different method is the railway that has movement because some electro
magnetic forces, the MagLev. It goes above the air and frictional forces could be
considered nulls. The problem with this kind of railway is the high cost of the necessary
infrastructure and therefore the high cost of the manufacturing process.
The MonoRail, the Metro and the Maglev are manufactured by very light materials an in
terms of manufacture cost, Maglev is the most expensive and after goes the Metro. The
MonoRail would be the less expensive to produce.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Renfe Nuestros trenes: Avant Serie 114. [Online].
Available at: http://www.renfe.com/viajeros/nuestros_trenes/avant114_ficha.html
[Accesed 10 March 2016]
The railway magazine, 2005. Gestacin y construccin del tren Talgo I, prototipo
experimental.[Online]
Available at: http://www.vialibre.org/noticias.asp?not=1164&cs=hist
[Accessed 12 March 2016]
Railway technical web pages, 2016. Rolling Stock manufacturing. [Online]
Available at:http://www.railway-technical.com/Manufacturing.shtml
[Accessed 8 March 2016]
Rail Engineer, 2012. Biulding Bogies. [Online]
Available at: http://www.railengineer.uk/2012/05/16/building-bogies/
[Accessed 8 March 2016]
El Comercio LIMA, 2012. As se fabrican los trenes de ltima generacin para el Metro de
Lima. [Online]
Available at:
http://elcomercio.pe/lima/sucesos/fotos-produccion-trenes-ultima-generacion-metrolima-noticia-1503430
[Accessed 9 March 2016]
Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 2015. Track gauge. [Online]
Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Track_gauge
[Accessed 13 of March]
Proyecto Pragmalia, 2013. Rieles [Online]
Available at:
http://proyectopragmalia.blogspot.com.es/2013/02/353-recuperacion-de-rielesferroviarios.html
[Accessed 13 March 2016]
Quora, 2015, Differences between the Monorail, Metro and local trains. [Online]
Available at: https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-differences-between-the-Monorailthe-Metro-and-the-local-trains-in-India
[Accessed 13 March 2016]
Taringa, 2015. The magnetic levitation railway MagLev. [Online]
Available at:
http://www.taringa.net/posts/info/1255276/Tren-de-levitacion-magnetica-MagLev.html
[Accessed 12 March 2016]
Docutren, 2003. Introduccin a la historia del carril ferroviario. [Online]
Available at: http://www.docutren.com/HistoriaFerroviaria/Gijon2003/pdf/tc4.pdf
[Accessed 12 March 2016]

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