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# 12

FLUID MECHANICS
12.59. (a) IDENTIFY and SET UP:

p = p0 + gh
Apply !
to the water in the
left-hand arm of the tube.
See Figure 12.59.

!
Figure 12.59

EXECUTE: !

p0 = pa ,

## p pa = gh = (1000 kg/m3 )(9.80 m/s 2 )(0.150 m) = 1470 Pa.

!

(b) IDENTIFY and SET UP: The pressure at point 1 equals the pressure at point 2. Apply Eq. (12.6) to
the right-hand arm of the tube and solve for h.
p = pa + Hg g (0.150 m h)
p = pa + w g (0.150 m)
EXECUTE: ! 1
and ! 2
g (0.150 m) = Hg g (0.150 m h)
p = p2
! 1
implies ! w
(0.150 m) (1000 kg/m3 )(0.150 m)
0.150 m h = w
=
= 0.011 m
Hg
13.6 103 kg/m3
!

## h = 0.150 m 0.011 m = 0.139 m = 13.9 cm

!

EVALUATE: The height of mercury above the bottom level of the water is 1.1 cm. This height of mercury
produces the same gauge pressure as a height of 15.0 cm of water.
F = pA.
12.60. IDENTIFY: Follow the procedure outlined in the hint. !
dA = (2 R )dy.
gy.
SET UP: The circular ring has area !
The pressure due to the molasses at depth y is !
h

EXECUTE: !

F = ( gy )(2 R )dy = g Rh 2
0

where R and h are the radius and height of the tank. Using
the given numerical values gives! F = 2.11 10 N.
EVALUATE: The net outward force is the area of the wall of the tank, ! A = 2 Rh, times the average
gh /2
pressure, the pressure !
at depth ! h /2.
8

principle.

Fy = ma y

+y

## upward. The buoyant force is given by Archimedess

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12-!1

12-! 2Chapter 12

4
4
V = r 3 = (12.0 cm)3 = 7238 cm3.
3
3
SET UP: The balls volume is !
As it floats, it displaces a weight of
water equal to its weight.
EXECUTE: (a) By pushing the ball under water, you displace an additional amount of water equal to
(0.760)(7238 cm3 ) = 5501cm3.
76.0% of the balls volume or !
This much water has a mass of
2
5501 g = 5.501 kg
(5.501 kg)(9.80 m/s ) = 53.9 N,
!
and weighs !
which is how hard youll have to push to
submerge the ball.
(b) The upward force on the ball in excess of its own weight was found in part (a): 53.9 N. The balls
mass is equal to the mass of water displaced when the ball is floating:

a=

Fnet
53.9 N
=
= 31.0 m/s 2 .
m 1.737 kg

## and its acceleration upon release is thus !

EVALUATE: When the ball is totally immersed the upward buoyant force on it is much larger than its
weight.
12.80. IDENTIFY: Use Bernoullis equation to find the velocity with which the water flows out the hole.
SET UP: The water level in the vessel will rise until the volume flow rate into the vessel, ! 2.40 10
equals the volume flow rate out the hole in the bottom.

m3/s,

Figure 12.80.

!
Figure 12.80

## p1 + gy1 + 12 v12 = p2 + gy2 + 12 v22

Volume flow rate out of hole equals volume flow rate from tube gives that !
!

v2 =

2.40 10

m /s

1.50 104 m 2

= 1.60 m/s

v1 A1 = v2 A2

A2

Then !

pa + gh = pa + 12 v22

1 v2
1

says that ! 2

1 v2;
2
2

1 v2
1

neglect the ! 2
y =0
y = h.
Measure y from the bottom of the bucket, so ! 2
and ! 1
p = p2 = pa
! 1
(air pressure)
and !

and

A1

and !

term.

## h = v22 /2g = (1.60 m/s) 2 /2(9.80 m/s 2 ) = 0.131 m = 13.1 cm

EVALUATE: The greater the flow rate into the bucket, the larger !
the water will rise in the bucket.

v2