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1. How many mode are in UE?

PS/CS mode of operation: The MS is attached to both the PS domain and CS domain, and the
MS is capable of simultaneously operating PS services and CS services.
PS mode of operation: The MS is attached to the PS domain only and may only operate
services of the PS domain. However, this does not prevent CS-like services to be offered over the
PS domain (like VoIP).
CS mode of operation: The MS is attached to the CS domain only and may only operate
services of the CS domain.
2. What are the functions of UMTS IC card?
UMTS IC card has same physical characteristics as GSM SIM card. It has several functions:
Support of one User Service Identity Module (USIM) application (optionally more that one)
Support of one or more user profile on the USIM
Update USIM specific information over the air
Security functions
User authentication
Optional inclusion of payment methods
Optional secure downloading of new applications
3. Draw the interfaces in UMTS network.

4. What are the interfaces?

5. What are Uu Iu?
Uu and Iu interfaces are divided into two categories 1)User plane 2) Control plane protocol.
User plane protocol: Radio Access Bearer (RAB), A bearer is an information transmission path of
defined capacity, delay, bit error rate, etc. A bearer service include s all the necessary aspects,
such as User plane data transport and QoS management , needed to provide a certain QoS.
The Control plane protocols are used for control ling the radio access bearers and the
connections between the UE and the network. These functions include service request,
control of transmission resources, handovers, and mobility management .
6. What is the minimum acceptable frequency error between Node B and RNC?How can we check it
in Huawei system?RNC and Node B clocks should not exceed a value of 1E-11 [5].
7. Does FDD needs phase synchronization? How about TDD?No ,Yes.
TDD= For asymmetric communication services it is chosen.

FDD=For symmetric communication services it is chosen.If we choose to implement voice

services as first priority.
8. What is the duplex distance in FDD?190Mhz
9. We are using non-synchronous or synchronous ? non-synchronous
10. What is auto correlation and correlation in WCDMA?
Autocorrelation measures the correlation between the signal and a timedelayed version of itself.
Cross-correlation measures the correlation between a signal and some other
(pseudorandom) code
In UMTS, Gold codes are chosen for their very low peak cross-correlation.
11.What are the methods used during channel coding to be interference prone?
1. Block coding
2. Channel coding=Convolution and on random data errors
3. Interleaving=Works on burst data error.
12.When do we use convolution and turbo coding?
In WCDMA network, both Convolution code and Turbo code are used.
Convolution code applies to voice service while Turbo code applies to high
rate data service.
13.What is the relation between Eb/No,Ec/No,PG?
Eb/No=Ec/No-Processing gain (25db)

lower the Eb/No we choose the more capacity gain we get but it
decreases the reliability.Every time a new UE is added the Ebit power
is increased to maintain the required Eb/No. To increase or decrease
the Ebit power 1500 times/Sec power control is used.

Processing gain=the ratio between dispreading and spreading.

14.What is RTWP? What is relation between noise and load?
RTWP can help us in checking the uplink interference.

15.What is the difference between RTWP and RSSI?

Received total wideband power (RTWP): indicates the total wideband power
received by a base station within a bandwidth (namely, the uplink load

generated due to the receiver noise, external radio interference, and uplink
traffic). This is a counter for measuring uplink load, similar to the received
signal strength counter (RSSI) in the CDMA system. RSSI is a downlink load
measurement, indicating the total channel power received by a UE.