Toronto Torah

Beit Midrash Zichron Dov
12 Nissan 5770/March 27, 2010 Parshat Tzav/Shabbat haGadol

‫בס“ד‬

Vol. I Num. 24

Studying Torah Pesach Night
which the Torah mandated us to recite in specific situations. The rule of keeping verses intact does not apply to We were slaves to Pharaoh in Egypt, and statements the Torah requires us to Hashem took us out of there with a strong recite, and so we may use these partial hand and an outstretched arm. verses during the Seder. The Haggadah, as traditional a text as R’ Eliezer Waldenberg, in his Tzitz any in our canon, breaks a fundamental Eliezer (9:17:10), offered a different talmudic rule of Torah reading: ‫ כל‬solution. He explained that the authors ‫ פסוק דלא פסקיה משה אנן לא פסקינן‬of the Haggadah subtly altered the ‫ ,ליה‬Any verse that Moshe did not split, verses in use in the Haggadah. In the we are not permitted to split! example given above, the Haggadah The Sfat Emet pointed out this problem, reads “from there,” while the Torah noting that the Haggadah contains says “from Egypt.” Therefore, it is not a many incomplete verses. For example, direct quote, and so it does not after the Four Questions we begin the contradict the original dictum. '‫עבדים היינו לפרעה במצרים ויוציאנו ה‬ ‫אלוקינו משם ביד חזקה ובזרוע נטויה‬ retelling of the story of the Exodus with the words, “We were slaves to Pharaoh in Egypt.” However, that is only the second portion of Devarim 6:21; the verse begins with the words, “And you shall answer and say.” The Sefat Emet questions the permissibility of using this verse as the introduction to the Haggadah, for it seems to violate the rabbinic dictum! The Sfat Emet answered that the incomplete verses used in the Haggadah are exceptions to the talmudic rule. These verses are preceded in the Torah by the instruction, “And you shall say,” implying that the partial verses are actually considered full statements Both of these answers are lacking, though; some of the Haggadah’s partial verses do not fit into their formulations. To solve this problem, it is important to understand why the rule of kol psuka exists. One approach is rooted in the opinion of the first Lubavitcher Rebbe, R’ Shneur Zalman of Liadi, echoed by R’ Yaakov Kaminetzky and R’ Yoseph Soloveitchik, that the study of the Written Torah does not require understanding; simply reading the words fulfills the mitzvah of Talmud Torah, of Torah study. If this is the mitzvah, what is the cheftza shel mitzvah, the mitzvah object? A complete passuk. Reading a complete passuk would constitute an object on which one

Russell Levy
can perform this mitzvah, whereas an incomplete passuk would be inadequate. However, another type of Talmud Torah does not require pesukim: Torah shebe’al peh, the Verbal Torah. The rules for the Verbal Torah vary from those of the Writtne Torah, torah sh’bichtav. Whereas in torah shebichtav one fulfills his obligation by reading something without understanding, one has not performed any mitzvah whatsoever in studying torah shebe’al peh without comprehension. The more one delves into torah shebe’al peh, the more one can glean from it; the more one discovers independent insights, the greater is his fulfillment of the mitzvah. Based on the above, it would seem that both the Sfat Emet and the Tzitz Eliezer are assuming that the retelling of the Exodus is a fulfillment of the mitzvah to learn torah shebichtav, the Written Torah. Therefore, the rule of kol psuka, which applies to the recitation of fixed texts, would apply here too. However, it is possible that the Haggadah is actually a fulfillment of the mitzvah of torah shebe’al peh. At the beginning of the Haggadah, we state, “And even if we were all…Torah scholars, we would still be obligated to retell the story of the Exodus from Egypt. He who expands on it is praiseworthy.” It is this expansion which is the key to the retelling of the Exodus. Every new idea, every new nuance, and every new explanation is fundamental to the Seder. Our Seder is not meant to just be a recitation of a fixed text; through adding our own insights into the story, through a deeper understanding of the Exodus, we can re-experience the redemption of more than 3000 years ago, and possibly begin to comprehend and hasten the coming redemption, speedily in our days. rlevy@torontotorah.com

Parshah Questions
(Sources are provided to help the reader research answers) moed (meeting tent)? (Rashi, Ramban, and Ibn Ezra to Vayikra 8:2-4)

R’ Meir Lipschitz

 Why is it significant that Hashem commanded Moshe to gather the whole nation to the ohel  Did the Kohanim, Aharon and his sons, really not leave the entrance of the ohel moed
(meeting tent) for a full seven days? (Ramban, Ibn Ezra, Chizkuni, and Netziv to Vayikra 8:32-35)

 Why is the term ”‫ “צו‬used at the beginning of the parshah, instead of the more common

terms ”‫ “דבר‬or ”‫?“אמר‬ (Rashi, Ramban, Baal Haturim, Alshich, Chizkuni, Kli Yakar, Malbim, Netziv, Gur Aryeh, Shaarei Aharon, Ohr HaChaim, and Oznaim L’Torah to Vayikra 6:2, and Torat Kohanim 1:1) (Rashi Vayikra 7:12)

 For children: Who brings a korban todah, and why?

Thanksgiving in Nissan
The baker’s favorite korban, the Korban Todah, is featured in this week’s parshah. The Todah thanks G -d for a miracle and is a variety of the celebratory Korban Shelamim, but it is unique in that one brings forty loaves of bread, which must be eaten in a shorter time period, along with an animal. ‫וזֹאת ּתוֹרת, זֶ בַ ח הַ שלָמים, אֲ שר יַק ִריב, לַד. אם‬ ִ ְּׁ ֶ ִ ְּׁ ַ ‫עַ ל-ּתוֹדה, יַק ִריבֶ ּנּו--וְּׁ הק ִריב עַ ל-זֶ בַ ח הַ ּתוֹדה‬ ָ ְּׁ ִ ְּׁ ָ ‫חַ ּלוֹת מַ ּצוֹת בְּׁ לּוֹלת בַ שמֶ ן, ּורקיקי מַ ּצוֹת משֺ חים‬ ִ ְּׁ ֵ ִ ְּׁ ֶ -‫בַ שמֶ ן; וְּׁ סלֶת מֺ ְּׁרבֶ כֶת, חַ ֹּלת בְּׁ לּוֹלת בַ שמֶ ן. עַ ל‬ ָ ֹ ָ ‫חַ ֹּלת לֶחֶ ם חָ מֵ ץ, יַק ִריב ק ְּׁרבָ נו, עַ ל-זֶ בַ ח, ּתוֹדת‬ ַ ֹ ָ ְּׁ ,‫שלָמָ יו. ... ּובְּׁ שר, זֶ בַ ח ּתוֹדת שלָמָ יו--בְּׁ יוֹם ק ְּׁרבָ נו‬ ֹ ָ ְּׁ ַ ַ ְּׁ .‫יֵָאכֵל: ֹלא-יּנִיחַ ממֶ ּנּו, עַ ד-בֹקר‬ ֶ ִ ַ 7) asked: Why does the korban todah require forty loaves, to be consumed in only one day’s time, while the other varieties of shelamim require only ten loaves, which may be consumed in two days? There should be more time, not less, to consume the extra loaves!

R’ Meir Lipschitz bringing a korban, this person sanctifies the name of G-d. This is reflected in the modern day halachah of creating a seudat hodaah, a meal of thanks; we invite guests to partake of a festive meal in which we recount the miracle that was performed for us. We may extend this idea to the opening line of the maggid section of the Pesach Seder, when we proclaim, “This is the bread of affliction that our forefathers ate in the land of Egypt. Whoever is hungry, let him come and eat! Whoever is needy, let him come and celebrate Pesach!” Our retelling of the story of our miraculous salvation from Egypt begins with an open invitation for any and all to come join us. In this the Seder is the ultimate seudat hodaah; we recount and relive the story of the Exodus, and we invite guests—both family and friends—to join us to properly thank HaShem for all that He has done.

The Netziv’s answer offers us a lesson in thanksgiving: A person who needs to consume more food in less time will be forced to invite guests to share in his meal of gratitude. Through this large group, the miracle will be publicized and the name of Gd will be glorified. This is the model This is the law of the feast peace- for thanksgiving: Invite people to join offering that one will offer to HaShem. in a seudah, and relate the wondrous If he shall offer it for a thanksgiving- deeds performed on your behalf. offering, he shall offer with the feast thanksgiving-offering unleavened The Netziv expanded on this theme in loaves mixed with oil, unleavened his other commentary on chumash, wafers smeared with oil, and loaves of the Herchev Davar. Commenting on scalded fine flour mixed with oil. With the repetitive, confusing, and loaves of leavened bread shall he possibly contradictory language of bring his offering, with his feast Tehillim 116:17-19, he suggested that thanksgiving peace-offering…. And there are two distinct parts to a the flesh of his feast thanksgiving korban: the animal being sacrificed, peace-offering must be eaten on the and the accompanying meal. By day of its offering; he shall not leave gathering people together at a lavish any of it until morning. meal of thanksgiving to celebrate his

May it be His will that this year we bring a real korban todah in His Beit haMikdash and partake of a seudah recounting the miracle of the offering, and using this as an ultimate redemption. The Netziv (Haameik Davar Vayikra opportunity to explain why he is mlipschitz@torontotorah.com

The 613 Mitzvot – Mitzvah 30 :
Invoking G-d’s Name for a False or Vain Oath
Judaism’s belief in a personal relationship with HaShem, and its promotion of Ahavat HaShem, love of G-d, risks the possibility that we might be drawn into treating G-d with less than total respect, or that we might take the mitzvot less seriously, contending, ,‫ וותרן הוא‬that G-d will lovingly overlook our wrongs (Bava Kama 50a). overfamiliarity, instructing us not to invoke HaShem’s Name for a false or vain oath.

YU Pesach To Go
Don’t forget to pick up a YU Pesach-ToGo at your shul. You may also access it by visiting www.yutorah.org/ togo/pesach

The term “vain oath” includes oaths affirming well-known facts or swearing to perform impossible acts. The issue is not any falsehood, only that taking such an oath demonstrates a lack of respect for the Name of G-d, and therefore for Mitzvah 30 combats that concern by HaShem Himself. building a barrier to prevent torczyner@torontotorah.com 2

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Ha’Am V’Ha’Aretz
Netanya
Netanya, capital of the Sharon district, is located close to the seashores of the Mediterranean Sea (Yam Hatichon), between Poleg stream and Wingate Institute in the south and the Avichail stream in the north. Its proximity to the sea (14 kilometers of the most beautiful shores in the world) and its pleasant climate have made the city a most desirable tourist attraction and resort area. Netanya was founded in 1929 by citrus farmers, but now is primarily a center for tourism and the diamond trade. Israel is one of the world’s largest exporters of diamonds (this is the country’s principal export to the U.S.), and Netanya is home to many diamond-cutters and polishers who came to Israel primarily from Belgium before and during World War II. It was named in honor of philanthropist Nathan Straus, the owner of Macy’s department store in New York at the turn of the century. Netanya, the largest city on the crossroads between Tel- Aviv and Haifa, forms a connecting link between the northern and central parts of the country. Due to its central location near the Tel Aviv - Haifa railroad tracks, 30 kilometers north of Tel-Aviv and 50 kilometers south of Haifa), Netanya has become a center for tourists as well as for industrial development. Three features have contributed to the development of Netanya as a city of tourism and leisure: beautifully maintained sea shores offering a variety of high standard services, a wide selection of hotels, restaurants and places of entertainment appealing to the national as well as the international tourist, and the central geographic location allowing easy access to tourist sites all over the country. Nearby services provide a wide variety of activities from nature walks for the whole family to sports such as paragliding, miniature plane flying, jeep tours, horseback riding and sail boating. Adapted from an article originally published by Torah miTzion.

R’ David ben Yosef Abudarham
Torah in Translation
Why do we search for Chametz? Sefer Avudraham: Seder Bedikat Chametz
Before one looks [for chametz, bedikat chametz RL], one blesses, “Blessed are You… who commanded us regarding destroying chametz” (Pesachim 7b). We do not bless before we nullify chametz; the act of nullification depends on the intentions in one’s heart and one is not required to utter any words and no deed is involved at all, and one does recite a blessing on any mitzvah which is devoid of action, as we wrote in the introduction to this book. We do not bless upon searching for chametz, because that is a rabbinic mitzvah.

Russell Levy

R’ David ben Yosef Abudarham, a native of Seville, lived in the 14th century. Though very little is known of his personal life, his last name, “Abudarham”, derives from an ancestor whose name was also David. This ancestor served as the tax collector under Sancho IV in Toledo and was given the title, “Abu-darhanim”, which means “collector of taxes” in Arabic. (The Christians had already reconquered Toledo by the end of the 11th century, but the Jewish community resembled that of a community under Muslim rule for more than two centuries.)

It is believed that R’ Abudarham was a student of R’ Yaakov ben Asher, son of the Rosh and author of the monumental halachic work, “Arba Turim”. His extensive commentary on the siddur, originally called “Chibbur Perush After the bedikah, one must say, “All haBrachot v’haTefillot”, was completed in chametz that is in my possession that I have the same year R’ Yaakov passed away, in not seen and I have not destroyed, and 1340 (5100).

about which I do not know, shall be nullified and considered like dust.” One should not say, “that is in this house,” but “that is in my possession,” as one might possess chametz in a different location. You might ask: Why does one need to check for chametz in the corners and remove it from his house, which is more than is required for other forbidden items, such as the forbidden fat of an animal and meat that was not ritually slaughtered? You might answer that people separate from forbidden fat and meat that was not ritually slaughtered throughout the year, so we do not worry lest one accidentally partake of them, but one normally eats chametz and so we must worry. However, the question still stands, as we do not require a nazir to remove wine from his possessions even though he only separates himself from it during the time of his vow. Furthermore, even though we eat grain all year round, and the new grains are forbidden to be eaten until the 16th of Nisan even in the Diaspora, we are not required to remove it from our houses! Rather, we may explain that we are stringent regarding chametz because the Torah itself warned us more regarding chametz than regarding other mitzvot, prohibiting us from seeing chametz or having it found in our possession. Therefore, our Sages were more stringent and required us to perform bedikah to ensure we do not have a stumbling block.

R’ Abudarham’s commentary, widely referred to as “Sefer Avudraham”, covers the gamut of Jewish liturgy, elucidating the various customs and laws associated with daily, Shabbat and holiday prayers; the weekly readings from the Torah and the associated haftarah; blessings we say throughout the year, such as birkat hamazon, tefillin, tzitit, bedikat chametz and other mitzvot; blessings said before eating, drinking, or gaining other benefit from the world; blessings of praise and thanks; and the special holiday practices such as reading the megillah on Purim, the Haggadah of Pesach, and Sefirat haOmer. With a focus on the customs of the Jews of Spain and southern France, the Sefer Avudraham was quoted extensively by later works, such as R’ Yosef Caro’s Shulchan Aruch and the glosses of the Rama, R’ Moshe Isserles. With his commentary, R’ David achieved his goal of reaching the masses and enhancing the layman’s understanding of the services.
rlevy@torontotorah.com

forbidden [in a mixture RL] as long as they can be tasted. This even applies to wine used for libations to an idol; though even a minimal quantity of such wine prohibits wine into which it is mixed, it only prohibits other substances into which it is mixed so long as it can be tasted. On the other hand, any minimal amount of Chametz, in mixtures with both similar and You can see that this is true from the fact dissimilar substances, prohibits the that non-chametz prohibited foods are entire entity. rlevy@torontotorah.com

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NEW! Men’s Summer Kollel, May 3-June 11

8:00 Shacharit 8:40 Light Breakfast 9:00 Hilchot Tevillat Keilim with R’ Torczyner 9:30-12:00 Seder with Maareh Mekomot 11:00 Shiur Tuesdays and Thursdays with R’ Berzon $50 weekly stipend for those who attend daily, Monday through Friday, full sedarim and shiurim. For more info, contact summerkollel@torontotorah.com.

Sunday, April 18: Yom haZikaron learning Monday, April 19: Yom haZikaron and Yom haAtzmaut Program with Mizrachi Canada May 3-June 11: Women’s Weekly Study Program Sunday, May 9: Women’s pre-Shavuot learning program featuring R’ Meir Goldwicht Wed, May 12: Yom Yerushalayim program Sunday, May 16: Pre-Shavuot learning

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