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# CBSE XII | Physics

## Board Paper 2006

CBSE Board
Class XII Physics Set 1
Board Paper 2006 (Solution)

## 1. Dielectric constant of a medium is defined as the ratio of the capacitance of a capacitor

with the dielectric as the medium to its capacitance with vacuum between its plates.
2. The resistivity of carbon decreases with increasing temperature as shown in figure.

3.
BV
BH

tan

3BH
BH

60o.

Angle of dip,

## 4. Davisson-Germer experiment confirmed the wave nature of electrons.

5. Digital communication
6.
1

20NC 1
4 o
1
q
.
10JC 1
4 o r

V
r

V
E

Ch arg e, q

10
20

0.5m
4

o Vr

10

0.5
9

9 10

0.55 10

C.

7.
Mobility

Drift velocity
or
Electric field

Vd
E

(i) The charge carriers in an electrolyte are positive and negative ions.
(ii) The charge carriers in an ionized gas are electrons and positively charged ions.

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Board Paper 2006

## 8. Principle of cyclotron: A charged particle can acquire a large amount of magnetic

energy with a comparatively smaller alternating electric field by making it cross the
same electric field time and again with the help of perpendicular magnetic field.
Uses:
(i) A cyclotron is used to bombard nuclei with energetic particles and to study the
resulting reactions.
(ii) It is used in hospitals to produce radioactive substances used in diagnosis.
9. The ray diagram of a reflecting type telescope is given below:

As reflecting telescope has mirror objective, the image formed is free from chromatic
aberration.
10. When the input voltage is + 5 V, the diode gets forward biased; the output across R is +
5V, as shown in the figure. When the input voltage is 5V, the diode gets reverse biased.
No output is obtained across R.

OR
When a p -n junction is forward biased, the majority charge carries flow towards the
junction, the width of the depletion layer decreases, as shown.

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## CBSE XII | Physics

Board Paper 2006

When a p-n junction is reverse biased, the majority charge carries flow away from the
junction, the width of the depletion layer increases, as shown below.

11. As q = CV, C

q
V

oA

## capacitor of larger capacitance. Also, C

i.e., C

As the plate area of C2 is double of that of C1, so C2 has a larger capacitance. Hence the
line A of the graph corresponds to C2.
12. Net emf = E2 E1 = 9 -5 = 4V
Total resistance = 0.3

1.2

4.5

## Current through the circuit, I

Current through the3

4
8

resistance =

6
6

3
3

0.5A
6 0.5
6 3

1
A.
3

13.
(i)

When the separation between the two coils is increased, the flux linked with the
secondary due to the current in the primary, decreases. Hence the mutual
inductance decreases.
(ii) Mutual inductance increases when the number of turns in each coil is increased,
because
M

N1N2

(iii) When an iron sheet is placed between the two coils the mutual inductance
increases, because
M permeability (r )
r is the relative permeability of the iron sheet.

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## CBSE XII | Physics

Board Paper 2006

14.
(i) Focal length fA in medium A of refractive index 1.65 is given by
A

fA

1
R1

0.15 1
1.65 R1

1
R2

1.5
1.65

1
R1

1
R2

1
R2

## As fA is negative, the lens is diverging.

(ii) Focal length fB in medium B of refractive index 1.33 is given by
B

fB

0.17 1
1.33 R1

1
R1

1
R2

1.5
1.33

1
R1

1
R2

1
R2

## As fB is positive, the lens is converging.

15. Threshold frequency: The minimum frequency of incident radiation, which can eject
electrons from a metal, is called threshold frequency. Below threshold frequency, there
is no photoelectric emission.
Stopping potential: The minimum negative potential given to the anode of a photocell
for which the photoelectric current becomes zero is called stopping potential.
(i) The increase of frequency of incident radiation has no effect on the photoelectric
current.
(ii) The photoelectric current increases proportionally with the increase in intensity
16.
(i)
238
92U

234
90Th

4
2He

## Neutron to proton ratio before

Neutron to proton ratio after
As

144
90

- decay =

238 92
92

234 90
90

- decay =

146
92
144
90

146
92

-decay.

(ii)
234
90 Th

234
91

Pa

0
1

## Neutron to proton ratio before

Neutron to proton ratio after
As

143
91

-decay =
-decay =

234 90
90

234 91
91

143
91

144
90

## Thus the neutron to proton ration decreases in a

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144
90

-decay
4

## CBSE XII | Physics

Board Paper 2006

17. The pure semiconductor whose conductivity is governed by the electrons thermally
excited from valence band to conduction band is called an intrinsic semiconductor.
P-type semiconductor:

## If we dope intrinsic semiconductor of Si, with a controlled amount of trivalent atoms

say indium (In) or boron (B) or aluminium (Al), trivalent (say indium) impurity atoms
will occupy places of some Si-atoms and there will be one incomplete covalent bond
with a neighboring Si-atom, due to the deficiency of an electron. This is completed by
taking an electron from one of the Si-Si bonds, thus completing the In-Si bond. This
makes it ionized (negatively charged), and creates a hole or an electron deficiency in the
covalently bonded electron system in the crystal as shown in figure. The trivalent atoms
are called acceptor atoms and this extrinsic semi- conductor is known as p - type
semiconductor.
n-type semiconductor:

If we dope silicon, which has four valence electron, with a controlled amount of
pentavalent atoms, say arsenic (As) or antimony (Sb) or phosphorus (P), which have
five valence electrons, the atoms, of the impurity element will substitute the silicon
atoms (see Fig). Four of the five valence electrons of As are shared in covalent bonding
while the fifth electron is comparatively free to move. The pentavalent atoms are called
the donor atoms because they donate electrons to the host crystal. Extrinsic
semiconductor is called n- type. On giving up their fifth electron, the donor atoms
become positively charged. However, the material remains electrically neutral as a
whole.

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## CBSE XII | Physics

Board Paper 2006

18. During the formation of a nucleus, the protons and neutrons come closer to a distance
of 10-14 m. The energy required for the purpose is spent by the nucleons at the expense
of their masses. So mass of the nucleus found is less than the sum of the masses of the
individual nucleons.
Since proton number and neutron number are conserved in a nuclear reaction, the total
rest mass of neutrons and protons is the same on either side of a reaction. But the total
binding energy of nuclei on the left side need not be the same as that on the right hand
side. The difference in these binding energies appears as energy released or absorbed in
a nuclear reaction.
OR
The graph showing the variation of binding energy per nucleon with mass number is
shown below.

When we move from lighter nuclei to heavier nuclei, we find that there will be gain in
the overall binding energy and hence release of energy. This indicates that energy can
be released when two or more lighter nuclei fuse together to form a heavy nucleus. This
process is called nuclear fusion.
19. Modulation: It is the process in which some characteristic such as amplitude,
frequency or phase angle of a high frequency carrier wave is changed in accordance
with the instantaneous value of the low frequency modulating signal.
A sinusoidal carrier wave can be modulated in three ways:
(i) Amplitude modulation.
(ii) Frequency modulation.
(iii) Phase modulation.

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## Amplitude modulation: In this process the modulating wave is superimposed on a

high frequency carrier wave such that the amplitude of the modulated wave varies in
accordance with the amplitude of the modulating wave. Frequency of the modulated
wave is equal to the frequency of the carrier wave.

20. The electric flux through a given surface area is the total number of electric lines of
force passing normally this area. It is given by
E. S

## The SI unit of electric flux = Nm2C-1.

According to Gausss theorem, the total flux through a closed surface is 1

times the

## total charge enclosed by the closed surface.

Derivation: Consider a non-conducting sheet of charge with surface charge density
Consider a cylinder of length 2r and cross - sectional area A as Gaussian surface.

From symmetry electric field E points at right angle to the end caps and away from the
sheet. There is no contribution from the curved surface because angle between
E and ds is 90o.

## At the end faces, angle between E and ds is zero.

From Gausss law,

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E.dS

q
o

Board Paper 2006
EA

EA

V
R AB R

5
20

0.01A

480

V

IR AB

0.01 20

0.2V

## Length of wire AB, l =10m

(i) Potential gradient is
V
l

0.2
10

0.02Vm 1

## (ii) Unknown emf,

E

Kl

0.02

0.12V

22. The circuit details for using an NPN transistor as common emitter amplifier are shown
in the Fig.

Numerical:
Given Rin = 1000
Ic

2mA

R out

5k

IB = 10 A = 10-5 A

2 10

5 103

IC

10 3
10 5

IB

200.

## (ii) Voltage gain,

Av

R out
Rin

200

5 103
1000

1000

23. Critical frequency is the highest frequency of the radio waves which when sent
normally towards the given layer of the ionosphere gets reflected from ionosphere and
returns to the earth. It is given by
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Board Paper 2006
fC

1
2

9 Nmax

## where Nmax is the maximum electron density of the ionosphere layer.

Numerical: fC = 10MHz, fc '= 8MHz
Nmax
N'max

fc
fc '

10
8

25 : 16

24. Figure shows the Hertzs experimental set-up used for producing electromagnetic
waves.

Two large metal plates P and P are connected to metal spheres S and S. The spheres
are connected to an induction coil. By interrupting current in the coils, a sudden high
voltage is set-up across the gap. This voltage ionizes the air in the gap which produces
oscillating current in the gap SS. This process results in the production of
electromagnetic waves. These waves are detected by detector which consists of a single
loop of wire connected to spheres G and G.
25.
a

LC

50

80 10

(b) At resonance, Z = R = 40
Current amplitude, Io

Vo

Vo

2Vrms

Z
R
R
1.414 230
8.1A
40

(c) Irms

Vrms

230
40

VLrms

Irms

rL

VCrms

Irms

1
rC

IrmsR

23
4

Vrms

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23
A
4

23
50 5 1437.5V
4
23
1
1437.5V
4
50 80 106
40

230V.

## CBSE XII | Physics

Board Paper 2006

The algebraic sum of the three voltages is more than the source voltage of 230V. These
voltages are not in the same phase and cannot be added like ordinary numbers. The
voltage across L and C are out of phase and get added to zero. So,
VRrms = Applied rms voltage.
OR
Given Np = 100, Transformation ratio = 100,
Vp = 220 V, PP = 1100W
(i) Ns = Transformation ratio Np = 100
(ii) IP

100 = 10000

PP
1100

5A
VP
220

(iv) Is

VP IP
Vs

220 5
22000

0.05A

## (v) For an ideal transformer, PS = PP = 1100W

26.

The intensity distribution wave for diffraction is shown in the above figure.
In interference, all bright fringes are of same intensity. In diffraction, the intensity of
bright fringes decreases with the increase in distance from the central bright fringe.
(i) When the width of the slit is decreased, the diffraction pattern becomes
pronounced.
(ii) When monochromatic source is replaced by white light source, we get a
coloured diffraction pattern. The central band is white. Then the red fringe of higher
wavelength is wider than the violet fringe and so on.

## 27. (a) Moving coil galvanometer

Principle: A current carrying coil suspended in a magnetic field experiences a
torque.

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## CBSE XII | Physics

Board Paper 2006

Working: When current is passed say long ABCD, the couple acts on it. AB experiences
outward force and CD, the inward force in accordance with Flemings left hand rule.
Since the plane remains always parallel to the magnetic field in all position of the coil
(radial field), the forced on the vertical arms always remains perpendicular to the plane
of the coil.
Let I = the current flowing through coil.
B = magnetic field supposed to be uniform and always parallel to the coil.
l = length of the coil
b = breadth of the coil
N = no. of turns in the coil
Deflecting torque acting on the coil is
NIBlb sin90o

NIBlb 1

NIBA

## where A = lb = area of the coil.

Due to deflecting torque, the coil rotates and suspension wire gets twisted. A restoring
torque is set up in the suspension wire. If is angle through which the coil rotates and k
k
is the restoring torque per unit angular twist, then Restoring torque,
In equilibrium,
Defecting torque = Restoring torque
NIBA = k
or, I

k
NBA

I

## This provides a linear scale for the galvanometer.

(b) Function of uniform radial magnetic field: Due to radial magnetic field, sin =1 in
the expression for torque. This makes the deflection proportional to current, i.e. it
makes the scale linear.

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## CBSE XII | Physics

Board Paper 2006

Function of soft iron core: To produce radial magnetic field pole pieces of permanent
magnet are made cylindrical and a soft iron core is placed between them. The soft iron
core helps in making the field radial and reduces energy losses produced due to eddy
currents.
OR
Consider two infinitely long thin conductors carrying current in opposite directions.
Magnetic field B1 due to I1 at P on 2nd conductor is given by
B1

o I1

2 r

The magnetic field B1 is perpendicular to plane of paper and directed inward. This field
will produce a force/length F2 and 2nd conductor given by
F2

B1I2

oI1I2

2 r

## By Flemings left hand rule direction of F2 is away from 1st conductor.

Similar the current I2 will create a field B2 at Q directed inward which is turn will create
force/lengthv F1
F1

B2I1

o I1I2

2 r

By Flemings left hand rule, the direction of F1 is away from the second conductor.
Hence the two conductors repel each other.
Ampere
If I1 = I2 = IA, and r = Im, then
F

10 7
2

10 7 Nm 1

Thus one ampere is that current which on flowing through each of the two parallel
uniform linear conductors placed in free space at a distance of one meter from each
other produces between them a force of 2 10-7 N per meter of their lengths.

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