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HISTORY OF RED CROSS

Jean Henri Dunant (founder of Red Cross) a 31 year old man named
witnessed the suffering during the battle of Solferino in June 1859, liberating northern
Italy from Austrian domination. He realized the medical services were insufficient for the
enormous task of caring for all those who needed help.
Siamo Tutti Fratelli his word of wisdom which means We are all brothers. He
organized the local people to provide comfort and help wounded soldiers and even
wounded enemies were served.
Returning home to Geneva, still haunted by what he had seen, he wrote a book
entitled Un Souvenir de Solferino or A Memory of Solferino, a novel which clearly
described the horrible war he witnessed. Published on November 1862, it stirred the
soul of entire Europe. The book proposes two ideas:
1. Put up in every country a Relief Society composed of volunteers,
distinguished and reputable persons who will take care of the wounded in
times of war; and
2. Promote an international agreement protecting the wounded soldiers on the
battlefield and those who care for them.
At his own expenses he printed 1,600 copies. Dunant then had the idea to create
a neutral body which would serve to provide medical personnel in times of armed
conflict. This eventually led to the creation of the International Committee for Relief to
the Wounded, later to become the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).
This led to the creation of Red Cross Movement.
Henry Dunant died on 30 October 1910. The date of his birth, 8 May, is
celebrated as World Red Cross and Red Crescent Day.
7 PRINCIPLES OF THE RED CROSS
1. HUMANITY - The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, born of
a desire to bring assistance without discrimination to the wounded on the
battlefield, endeavors - in its international and national capacity - to prevent and
alleviate human suffering wherever and whenever it may be found. Its purpose is
to protect life and health and to ensure respect for the human being. It promotes
mutual understanding, friendship, cooperation, and lasting peace among its
people.
2. IMPARTIALITY - It makes no discrimination as to nationality, race, religion,
beliefs, class or political opinions. It endeavors to relieve the suffering of
individuals, being guided solely by their needs and to give priority to the most
urgent cases of distress.
3. NEUTRALITY - In order to continue to enjoy the confidence of all, the Movement
may not take sides in hostilities or engage at any time in controversies of a
political, racial, religious or ideological nature.

4. INDEPENDENCE - The Movement is independent. National Societies, while


auxiliaries in humanitarian service of their governments and subjects to the laws
of their respective countries must always maintain autonomy so that they may be
able at all times to act in accordance with the principles of the Movement.
5. VOLUNTEERISM - The Movement is a voluntary relief organization not
prompted in any manner by desire for gain.
6. UNITY - There can only be one society in any one country. It must be open to all.
It must carry one emblem in its humanitarian work throughout its territory.
7. UNIVERSALITY - The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, in
which all Societies have equal status and share equal responsibilities and duties
in helping each other, is a worldwide organization.
THE EMBLEMS
The Red Cross and the Red Crescent are among some of the most recognized
symbols in the world. The Federations member National Societies use one of these
emblems:

RED CROSS

RED CRESCENT

RED CRYSTAL

Unfortunately, the emblems are sometimes perceived as having religious,


cultural, or political connotations. This has affected respect for the emblems, especially
in certain conflict situations, and has diminished the protection. The emblems offer to
victims and to humanitarian and medical personnel.
The adoption of new emblem, the Red Crystal, will enable societies that find it
difficult to use either the Red Cross or the Red Crescent to become members of the
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.
USES OF EMBLEMS
1. PROTECTIVE USE In war times the use of the large protective emblems
identifies medical personnel, equipment, units, and transports.
2. INDICATIVE USE Use of the small emblems during times of peace shows that
volunteers are working for their National Society. The emblem identifies property,
vehicles, and materials as being part of the National society and International
Red Cross and Red Crescent Movememnt.
The emblems must only be used by representatives including volunteers, the
National Society, the International Federation and the International Committee of the
Red Cross. It is the responsibility of all members of the Movement to protect and
respect the emblems and guard against their misuse.

FIRST AID is the assessment and intervention that can be performed by the
bystander `or by the victim himself with minimal or no medical equipment.
ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE FIRST AIDER
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Bridge that fills the gap between the victim and the physician.
Ensure safety of him/herself and that of bystanders.
Gain access to the victim.
Determine any threats to patients life.
Summon more advance medical care as needed.
Provide needed care for the patient.
Assist more advance personnel (emergency medical technician).
Record all finding and care given to the patient.
OBJECTIVES OF FIRST AID

1. To alleviate suffering.
2. To prevent added/further injury or danger.
3. To prolong life.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD FIRST AIDER
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

GENTLE should not cause pain.


RESOURCEFUL should make the best use of things at hand.
OBSERVANT should notice all signs.
TACTFUL should not alarm the victim.
EMPHATHETIC should be comforting.
RESPECTABLE should maintain a professional and caring attitude.
GENERAL RULE

1. The victim should not be move.


WHEN CAN YOU MOVE A VICTIM?
1.
2.
3.
4.

If the area is unsafe for you and the victim.


Faced down.
Unresponsive.
Difficulty of breathing.
HINDRANCES IN GIVING FIRST AID

1. Unfavorable surroundings.
2. Presence of crowds.
3. Pressure from the victim/relatives.

TRANSMISSION OF DISEASES AND THE FIRST AIDERS


4 TYPES OF TRANSMISSION
1. DIRECT CONTACT Occurs when a person touches an infected persons body
fluids.
2. INDIRECT CONTACT Occurs when a person touches objects that have been
contaminated by the blood or another body fluid of an infected person.
3. AIRBORNE TRANSMISSION Occurs when a person inhales infected droplets
that have become airborne as an infected person coughs or sneezes.
4. VECTOR TRANSMISSION Occurs when an animal such as a dog or an insect,
such as tick, transmits a pathogen into the body through a bite.
Disease
Herpes
Meningitis
Tuberculosis
Hepatitis
HIV

DISEASES THAT CAUSE CONCERN


Signs and Symptoms
Infective Material
Lesions, general ill feeling,
Broken skin, mucous
sore throat
membranes
Respiratory illness, sore
Food and water, mucus
throat, nausea, vomiting
Weight loss, night sweats,
Saliva, airborne droplets
occasional fever, general ill
feeling
Flu-like, jaundice
Blood, saliva, semen,
(paninilaw)
feces, food, water, other
products
Fever, night sweats, weight Blood, semen, vaginal fluid
loss, chronic diarrhea,
severe fatigue, shortness of
breath, swollen lymph
nodes, lesions

Body Substance Isolation (BSI) are precautions taken to isolate or prevent risk
of exposure from any other type of bodily substance.
BASIC PRECAUTIONS AND PRACTICES
1. Personal hygiene (hand washing)
2. Protective equipment (gloves, face mask, gown, cap, goggles)
3. Equipment cleaning and disinfecting (soap and water, betadine/povidone iodine)

GUIDELINES IN GIVING EMERGENCY CARE


1.
2.
3.

4.

GETTING STARTED
Plan of action prepared in advanced and rehearse with personnel. It should be
based on anticipated needs and available resources.
Gathering of material emergency response begins with the preparation of
equipment and resources before emergency occurs.
Initial Response:
a. Ask for help
b. Intervene
c. Do no further harm
Instruction to Helper/s
EMERGENCY ACTION PRINCIPLES

1. Scene Safety (Personal safety; patient or victim;bystanders).


a. Survey the scene.
b. Mechanism of injury or nature of illness.
c. Determine the number of patients and additional resources.
2. Activate Medical Assistance (AMA) or transfer facility (call for help).
3. Do primary survey (check ABCs).
Health care provider: consciousness, pulse and respiration
Lay Rescuer: consciousness and respiration
4. Do the secondary survey.
Ask the name, what happened and elicit for the following:
Interview

Vital Signs

Head to Toe
Assessment