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Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

**International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
**

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijhmt

**Research on convection heat transfer character of super critical carbon
**

dioxide ﬂows inside horizontal tube

Tao Ding, Zhen Li ⇑

Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Meng Min Wei Technology Building, Beijing 100084, China

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 3 May 2015

Received in revised form 8 September 2015

Accepted 9 September 2015

Available online 25 September 2015

Keywords:

Carbon dioxide

Pseudo critical point

Super critical

Heat transfer coefﬁcient

Method of thermal resistance

a b s t r a c t

This paper mainly studied the heat transfer character of super critical carbon dioxide, also named R744.

Super critical carbon dioxide can be used in gas cooler for air conditioning system. Compared with traditional Freon coolant, R744 has higher density and lower viscosity, which is beneﬁt for heat transfer process. So it is important to study heat transfer character for super critical carbon dioxide. The experiment

research is taken for the temperature ranging from 29 to 55 °C, while pressure is 8, 9 and 10 MPa. The

Reynold number is about 2 105. Thermal resistance method is used to measure heat transfer coefﬁcient.

The results found that convection heat transfer enhances near the pseudo critical point, in the region far

away from pseudo-critical point, heat transfer character is just like ordinary single-phase ﬂuid. The heat

transfer coefﬁcient violently changeable region is also the region where thermal property change rapidly.

It is also found that heat transfer coefﬁcient gets its max at the region near the pseudo-critical point. In

addition, the results obtained in this paper are compared with other researchers’ results.

Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Ozone layer depletion and greenhouse effect are the two serious

environmental problems, which are caused mainly by Freon coolant like R22. So forbidding the use of Freon and searching for environmental friendly coolant seem to be serious problems. As a

result, reducing the carbon footprint and protecting environment

come more and more popular in the world [1].

Carbon dioxide, is an environmental friendly gas existing in the

atmosphere. Its ODP (ozone depression potential) equals to 0, and

GWP (global warming potential) equals to 1. It can be used widely

in industry, such as working ﬂuid in Rankine cycle [2], refrigeration

cycle [3–4] and seperated heat pipe system [5–7]. In the heat

exchanger of Rankine or refrigeration cycle, carbon dioxide is super

critical ﬂuid, so it is important to study the heat transfer character

of super critical carbon dioxide.

Researchers from all over the world have done a lot of work on

super critical carbon dioxide heat transfer character. Yoon [8] and

Son [9] study heat transfer character and pressure drop of super

critical carbon dioxide ﬂows in tube in tube counter ﬂow heat

exchanger, where carbon dioxide is cooled by water. Liao [10,11]

study both heating and cooling condition when super critical carbon dioxide ﬂows in mini tube, its tube diameter is 0.7 mm,

⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 10 62772918.

E-mail address: lizh@tsinghua.edu.cn (Z. Li).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2015.09.026

0017-9310/Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

**1.4 mm, 2.16 mm. Huai [12] does an experiment on ﬂow and heat
**

transfer of super critical carbon dioxide in multi-port mini channels under cooling condition. Jiang [13,14] has done some work

on convection heat transfer when carbon dioxide ﬂows in vertical

mini-tubes and in porous media. Table 1 shows some recent work

on super critical carbon dioxide convection heat transfer in horizontal tube.

Traditional method to test the heat transfer coefﬁcient is to use

the method of deﬁnition, which means h = q/(Tf Twall). In this

equation, q is the heat ﬂux, Twall means the inside wall temperature

and Tf means the ﬂuid’s bulk mean temperature. Twall is calculated

by one dimension heat transfer equation after getting the outside

wall temperature. Tf is tested by thermal couples which is inserted

into the tube. This is a simple method for its calculation equation is

simpler. Literature [13] use the similar method, there is a little

difference, the ﬂuid bulk mean temperature is not tested but calculated by thermal equilibrium. Literature [17] also use this method,

the difference is that temperature difference in not Tf Twall, but

the LMTD, where it is deﬁned by R744’s inlet/outlet temperature

and the inside wall temperature of each little section of the test

section.

However, there are some shortcomings for this method. First, as

for the super critical R744, its pressure is as high as 8–10 MPa,

inserting thermal couples into the tube can be dangerous, besides,

it is also difﬁcult to seal. Second, the inside tube diameter of our

experiment is 7.5 mm, which is very small, inserting thermal

Its viscosity Table 1 Researches on super critical carbon dioxide convection heat transfer. the problems of seal and dangerous can be solved. and LMTD is the log mean temperature difference deﬁned by the R744’s inlet/outlet temperature and the inside tube wall temperature. Where A is the heat transfer area. we call such ﬂuid ‘‘super critical ﬂuid’’. W/m2 K log mean temperature difference Nusselt number pseudo critical point Prandtl number heat capacity. 1. 4. Li / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 92 (2016) 665–674 Nomenclature Cp h LMTD Nu Pc Pr Q q R Re T speciﬁc heat.1. x = 1 10 MPa. Physical property of super critical carbon dioxide If temperature and pressure are lower than critical point. and calculate the inside wall temperature. W/m2 thermal resistance.5 10 7. If temperature and pressure are higher than critical point. 2.666 T. they use h = Q/A.16 0. Z.825 1. In fact.7. this method also has a little problem. Our research is taken for the temperature ranging from 29 to 55 °C. W heat ﬂux. heat transfer coefﬁcient is just calculated by the experiment results directly.73 7. there exists temperature difference of these 6 thermal couples.674 4. The author uses the average of the 6 thermal couples as the outside wall temperature.4 12 7. Super critical phase is a kind of uniform single phase. simple and safe. this method is accurate. 2.7 630 7. Literature [18] has used a similar method to determine in-tube evaporation heat transfer of carbon dioxide. Besides.16 1.4. Fluid type(R744) Condition Density (kg/m3) Viscosity (105 kg=ms) Heat difussion rate (108 m2 =s) Liquid Gas Super critical 5 MPa. x = 0 5 MPa. 2.983 .3 156. There are 6 thermal couples to measure the outside wall temperature of the inside tube (R744 tube).75 0. Besides. As a result. °C Greek symbols q density. kg/ms Subscripts i enthalpy m mean max maximal min minimum couples into the tube may inﬂuence the ﬂow ﬁeld. the ﬂuid is ordinary. Super critical carbon dioxide ﬂows in a tube in tube counter ﬂow heat exchanger.4. there is also another method to ﬁnd the heat transfer coefﬁcient [11]. a different method to measure heat transfer coefﬁcient is used.1 8 10 8 10 7. there is nearly no assumption on calculating the results. First is that there is no phase change for super critical ﬂuid. for example. kg/m3 k heat conductivity. cold water is used to cool the hot R744.8 Table 2 Thermal properties comparable table of R744. there is a tube in tube counter ﬂow heat exchanger where hot R744 ﬂows inside the tube and cold water ﬂows outside the tube. for thermal couples only need to be put at the inlet/outlet of cold water and carbon dioxide. the ﬂuid change its phase from liquid to two-phase and ﬁnally to gas. as a result.31 0. This method has some advantages. Third.79 1.5 8. it is easy to do the experiment.4 12 7. Researcher Heat exchanger type Temperature range (°C) Pressure range (MPa) Inside tube diameter (mm) Yoon [8] Son [9] Liao [10] Liao [11] Huai [12] Pettersen [15] Dang [16] Lv [17] Tube in tube Water cold Tube in tube Water cold Electric heating pipe Tube in tube Water cold Multi-port mini channels Multi-port mini channels Tube in tube Water cold Tube in tube Water cold 30 65 20 90 20 110 20 110 22 53 15 70 30 70 30 65 7.8 7. The diameter of the tube is 7. 40 °C 827. In this paper. while pressure is 8. it may be not very accurate to regard the outside wall temperature as constant. The author try to keep the out wall temperature of the inside tube as uniform as possible. for it use the average of the 6 thermal couples as the outside wall temperature. when absorbing heat. K/W Reynold number temperature. In this method. W/m K l viscosity. Thermal couples do not need to be inserted into the inside tube. However.7.4 8.774 3.5 mm. 6 3. where it is cooled by water. we called it method of thermal resistance. we have modiﬁed thermal resistance method which is different from literature [18]. Finally. in this paper.871 1. Ding. There are mainly 2 signiﬁcant characters for the super critical ﬂuid. At a certain pressure. J/kg °C heat transfer coefﬁcient. thus. thus.242 5.LMTD. it may not be accurate to use one dimension heat transfer equation to calculate the inside wall temperature after getting the outside wall temperature. 9 and 10 MPa. 2. The Reynold number is about 2 105. 1.5 8 10. Theoretical analysis of super critical carbon dioxide heat transfer 2.

If the tube diameter (d) and ﬂow rate (u) are constant. P is pressure. heat transfer coefﬁcient is the function of six parameters. h = f (k. Re ¼ ul t .7 °C) is nearly 9 times bigger than speciﬁc heat at 20 °C. speciﬁc heat at 64 °C (pseudo-critical point) is only 30% times bigger than speciﬁc heat at 40 °C.5 0 40 45 50 55 60 65 T/oC 70 75 80 85 (c) P=15MPa Fig. At 15 MPa.5 conductivity Cp viscosity 2 1. speciﬁc heat. The variation trend of thermal physical properties with temperature and pressure (R744). then the heat transfer coefﬁcient is only the function of thermal properties. the value of density at 30 °C is calculated by q30 C =qpc . viscosity.5 1 0.t. while its density is as heavy as liquid. Z. and T is temperature. take the change tendency of speciﬁc heat for example. which can be only determined by temperature and pressure. T.5 1 0. In the region where thermal properties change slowly (like 3 density 2. density. we can do some theoretical analysis about the heat transfer coefﬁcient. speciﬁc heat are thermal properties. viscosity. thermal properties are also changed. If we identify the Re number and Pr number. speciﬁc heat at 35 °C (pseudo-critical point is 34. Second. Ding.5 conductivity Cp viscosity 2 1. which leads to the change of heat transfer coefﬁcient. Now. (2) to determine the heat transfer coefﬁcient.cp. u. which are thermal conductivity. PrÞ ¼ ðP. as can be seen in Table 2. For example. density.l. in Fig. When temperature and pressure change.667 T. Pr ¼ tqcp k ¼ t hl . 1. As can be seen in Fig.5 0 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 T/oC (a) P=8MPa 3 density 2. When pressure is 8 MPa. ﬂow rate and inside tube diameter. Thus. Thermal conductivity. then we can use Eq.d). The variation trends of thermal property comes gentler with the increase of pressure.q. thermal properties change quiet violently with temperature and pressure. x-axis is temperature and y-axis means dimensionless thermal properties. Li / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 92 (2016) 665–674 is as sparse as gas. lÞ ð2Þ We take the diameter of the inside tube as characteristic length (l = d). 1. According to convection heat transfer theory [19]. 1(a).5 0 20 25 30 35 40 45 T/oC 50 55 60 65 70 (b) P=10MPa 3 density 2.5 1 0.5 conductivity Cp viscosity 2 1. 90 . Nu ¼ k a ð1Þ Nu ¼ f ðRe. especially temperature.

With the increase of temperature. On dealing with the heat transfer rate. 2. so it’s difﬁcult to determine the inside ﬂuid’s temperature. gradient of the curve is higher than the region far away from pseudo-critical point. It is a tube in tube counter ﬂow heat exchanger.c iout. Besides. ‘‘cp’’ means constant-pressure speciﬁc heat. the less R results to stronger heat exchange capacity. R2.668 T. we let hot water ﬂows in the inside tube. (4). even can be higher than 10 MPa.w DT w 1 R1 ¼ . Q c ¼ mc ðiin. we can calculate the total thermal resistance R. Tb ¼ T in þ T out 2 ð10Þ Tin means carbon dioxide inlet temperature of the test section (out wall temperature). Experiment results Heat transfer rate Q can be obtained by water side and carbon dioxide side. Apparently. (8). thus. the . heat transfer coefﬁcient decrease. This is the condition 2. at a certain temperature difference. It consisted of a high pressure carbon dioxide pump. thermal couples. In other words. test section. the inside super critical carbon dioxide pressure is particularly high. hot carbon dioxide ﬂows in the inside tube. (7)) [20] to calculate hot water side heat transfer coefﬁcient.c Þ ð8Þ In Eq. and ‘‘c’’ means carbon dioxide. it can release carbon dioxide in case the pressure is higher than 12 MPa. one difference pressure sensor (to measure the pressure loss when the ﬂuid ﬂows through the test section). pre-heater. hot carbon dioxide ﬂows in the inside tube and cold water ﬂows in the outside tube. as is shown in Fig. They are calculated by Eq. heat transfer coefﬁcient changes with temperature. Z. we can use thermal couples to determine the out wall tube temperature. The average heat transfer coefﬁcient h for the test section can be calculated by Eqs. most of the relative heat balance is less than 15%. Li / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 92 (2016) 665–674 ordinary single phase ﬂuid). the heat transfer coefﬁcient also changes slowly. There are 3 thermal resistance need to be considered when heat transfers from hot carbon dioxide to cold water. Effects of temperature The scheme of experiment equipment is showed in Fig. However. we need to get the inside tube convection thermal resistance R1. They are inside tube convection thermal resistance R1. Coriolis Mass Flow meter. so we can believe that heat is all transferred from hot carbon dioxide to the cold water.1. In condition 1. At a certain pressure and mass ﬂow rate. we can dry the inside tube and let carbon dioxide ﬂows inside. in the region near the pseudo-critical point. 3 shows the scheme of the test section. 5. Ding. then we can use Gnielinski correlation (Eq. we keep the inlet temperature and ﬂow speed of cold water constant. where Qmax mean the max of Qc and Qw. R means total thermal resistance. we can use the out wall temperature to replace the ﬂuid’s bulk mean temperature. the heat transfer coefﬁcient also changes quite a lot. after that. hi Ai 1 do R2 ¼ ln . see Eq. R is the sum of R1. (10) is used as the properties evaluated bulk mean temperature. then the total heat exchange capacity can be calculated by Newton cooling law (Eq. we call it condition 1. conduction through tube wall thermal resistance R2 and outside convection thermal resistance R3. and cold water ﬂows outside tube. besides. we can use Eq. As can be seen in Fig. U¼ Dt m R ð3Þ Fig. As the inside tube carbon dioxide ﬂow is turbulent. the outside wall temperature of the inside tube is equals to the inside wall temperature which is equals to the ﬂuid’s temperature. R¼ DT 1 . therefore. (3)). If we identify the temperature difference as the Logarithmic mean heat transfer temperature difference (LMTD). Heat needs to transfer from the inside hot carbon dioxide to the outside cold water. 1/R can be seen as the total heat transfer coefﬁcient. so its boundary layer’s thickness is thinner than laminar ﬂow. we can calculate total thermal resistance Rcondition 1 by Eq. (4) to calculate the heat transfer coefﬁcient of carbon dioxide. R3. Introduction of thermal resistance method In a counter ﬂow heat exchanger. higher pressure may be dangerous). Finally. in the region thermal properties change violently (like super critical carbon dioxide). 4. h ﬁrst increase. in the region near the pseudo-critical point. with temperature increase. Q w ¼ mw cp. subscript ‘‘w’’ means water. 3(b). then the thermal resistance of R’ is constant in both condition. thus the data is considered as believable. (11) and (12). There is heat insulated material outside the test section. as a result. P¼ Q max Q min Q max ð9Þ Tb in Eq. a ﬂow meter. and calculate inside water convection thermal resistance by Eq. 3. 2pkl di 1 R3 ¼ ho Ao 1 do 1 R0 ¼ ln þ 2pkl di pho do l LMTD ¼ Dt max Dtmin ln DDttmax min ð4Þ ð5Þ ð6Þ Then. h gets its max. Tout means outlet temperature. In condition 1 and 2. 4. In fact. The heat balance can be calculated by equation 9. The detail of the R744’s inlet/outlet temperature of our experiment is shown in appendix Tables 1 and 2. (6). We use water side heat transfer rate Qw to calculate. some spring safety valves (which can also be called pressure valve. (8). when temperature is higher than pseudo point. (1). Nuf ¼ ðf =8ÞðRe 1000Þ Prf pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 þ 12:7 f =8 ðPrf2=3 1Þ ð7Þ Second. Rc ¼ R R0 ¼ Q pdi lhi ð11Þ hi ¼ 1 ðR R0 Þpdi l ð12Þ 4. In other word. we use R in condition 2 minus R’ in condition 1 to get the carbon dioxide side thermal resistance. so there is no heat ﬂux through the wall of the inside tube. two pressure sensors (one sensors to measure inlet ﬂuid pressure and the other for outlet). It can be also seen from Fig. and it is cold by water outside the tube. ‘‘i’’ means enthalpy. relative heat balance error needs to be less than 15%. the tube is surrounded by heat insulated material. no heat loss from the test section. First. and use the out wall temperature to calculate the heat transfer coefﬁcient. Experiment equipment and procedure 5.

40. When temperature is less than pseudo-critical point. we can also regard such ﬂuid as constant property ﬂuid. heat transfer coefﬁcient gets its max at pseudo-critical point. peak comes more steeper when pressure comes lower. heat transfer decreased. Variation of heat transfer coefﬁcient.4 °C heat transfer coefﬁcient gets its max. at 35. 1. 6 shows heat transfer coefﬁcient changes with temperature and pressure. At 8 MPa. Z. on a certain pressure. at 9 MPa. ﬂuid’s properties are just like gas. Variation of thermal properties. 6 that. 2. Li / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 92 (2016) 665–674 669 Fig. besides temperature. Considering the measure error. 2. it’s heat transfer coefﬁcient is 9286 W/m2 K. 10 MPa. at pseudo-critical point speciﬁc heat gets its max. For super critical ﬂuid. so the variation tendency of heat transfer coefﬁcient and thermal properties are roughly analogous. more region closer to the pseudo-point. It can also be seen from Figs. The difference of super critical ﬂuid and single phase ﬂuids appears in three aspects. 5. When temperature is higher than pseudo critical point ﬂuid’s properties are just like liquid. In other words. there is no obvious peak appears. the curve’s peak at 8 MPa is far more steeper than peak at 10 MPa. the pressure is 8 MPa.259 W/m2 K. physical dimension and mass ﬂow rate determine the heat transfer coefﬁcient. heat trasfer coefﬁcient’s peak value is 13. at pseudo critical point. Effects of pressure Fig. . the ﬂuid has high viscosity and density. when mass ﬂow rate is 220 kg/h.2. with the increase of pressure. The scheme of experiment equipment. the heat transfer coefﬁcient severely changeable region is also the region where thermal property change rapidly. for example.T. In fact.1 °C. we can conclude from Fig. 7 and 6 when the pressure is high. Ordinary single phase ﬂuid’s thermal properties changes slowly with temperature. Thermal properties. 3. The variation tendency of the speciﬁc heat and heat transfer coefﬁcient is just the same. There is no phase change for super critical ﬂuid. at a certain pressure. In fact. when temperature is considerably higher or lower than pseudo-point. so we can regard such ﬂuid as constant property ﬂuid. the curve’s peak is gentle. We can see from Fig. 5. h’s peak value is 16516 W/m2 K. Ding. the more violent change of heat transfer coefﬁcient. pressure also makes a great difference for heat transfer coefﬁcient.

7 shows the speciﬁc heat’s variation tendency with temperature and pressure. 5. heat transfer changes with temperature. 16000 2 14000 1. 4.0 T/oC Fig. 8 MPa. There are four results in .0 38.670 T.5 x/xpc h(W/m2K) 18000 Density/Density_pc k/k_pc Viscosity/viscosity_pc Cp/Cp_pc h/h_max 12000 1 10000 0. The variation of speciﬁc heat and heat transfer coefﬁcient shows the same tendency. 9 (pressure is 9 MPa). 5. we choose a typical condition.0 0 0.0 48. 5. experiment results also shows the same tendency. In theory.4. Ding.3 1.2 1. 3. Effects of mass ﬂow rate There are 3 curves in Fig.9 1 1.3. Fig. 0. Test section.8 33. its pressure is 8 MPa and mass ﬂow rate is 220 kg/h. Li / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 92 (2016) 665–674 Fig.0 43. mass ﬂow rate is 220 kg/h.4 T/Tpc Fig. Comparison of the variation trends between Cp and h. Z.5 8000 6000 28. They represent the experiment results of heat transfer coefﬁcient at different mass ﬂow rates. increasing mass ﬂow rate will enhance heat transfer. The comparison of different empirical formula and our experiment results In order to compare. 8 (pressure is 8 MPa) and also 3 curves in Fig.1 1.

10.14 K calculated by Eq. (13). The uncertainty of heat transfer capacity (U) can be obtained by Eq. It can be seen that D–B empirical equation leads to the lowest result. ð14Þ Fig. then Z means Rco2. (13). The uncertainty of physical properties x1 x2 can be calculated by Eq. Heat transfer coefﬁcient changes with mass ﬂow rate when pressure is 8 MPa. 8. Yoon’s empirical equation. We can use uncertainty analysis to know measurement error. (15). which is also 0. (33 °C–36 °C) heat transfer coefﬁcient’s peak value is 25% less than Gnielinski equation. Li / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 92 (2016) 665–674 671 5. they are heat transfer capacity Q (J/s). Z ¼ x1 x2 sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 2 DZ @lnZ @lnZ Dx1 2 Dx2 2 ¼ Dx1 þ Dx2 ¼ þ Z @x1 @x2 x1 x2 x1 x2 40 ð13Þ 8MPa 10MPa 35 9MPa In Eq. Ding.14 K. Mass ﬂow rate is 220 kg/h. There are mainly two reasons lead to error. which is 0. The ﬁrst is the systematic error. If x1 means Rtotal and x2 means R’. The uncertainty of LMTD can be obtained by Eq. here. Cp(kJ/kg/K) 30 25 20 15 DT max DT min ln DDTTmax min sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 2 Df @ ln f @ ln f ¼ DT þ DT f @ DT max @ DT min vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ !2 !2 u DT DT u DT DT DT min DT max t ¼ þ þ DT max DT min ln DDTTmax DT max DT min ln DDTTmax min min f ¼ LMTD ¼ 10 5 0 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 T/oC Fig. experiment results are less than Yoon’s result but around 30% higher than Gnielinski equation. when temperature is higher than 33 °C and less than 36 °C. (14). Fig. if x means temperature. Speciﬁc heat changes with temperature and pressure. 7. When temperature is higher than 36 °C. which is caused by experiment method and the second is measurement error which is caused mainly by the accuracy of the measurement instruments. when temperature is near the pseudo critical point. in other word. then Z means temperature difference. However. and Dt means the uncertainty of temperature difference. where DT means temperature difference. heat transfer coefﬁcient changes with pressure. 6. ð15Þ .T. LMTD (K) and thermal resistance (Ks/J). (13). There are mainly 3 indirect measured physical properties when we calculate h. Dittus–Boleter equation. U ¼ cp mDT DU ¼ U sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 2 2 @ ln U @ ln U Dm 2 Dt Dm þ Dt ¼ þ m @m @t DT Fig. Gnielinski equation and our experiment results. DT mean the measurement error of temperature difference. while Yoon’s equation gets the highest result. It is important to know whether this experiment method is accurate. Z.5. Uncertain analysis Errors always consist in any experiment.

It is easy to explain such phenomenon. It may not ﬁt for super critical carbon dioxide. temperature is 35. Physical properties LMTD (K) Heat transfer capacity (J/s) Rtotal (Ks/J) Rco2 (Ks/J) Test section length (m) Inside tube diameter (mm) Heat transfer coefﬁcient (W/m2 K) Uncertainty 0. Table 3a Uncertainty of heat transfer coefﬁcient at the region far away from pseudo critical point. 10. it is measured by vernier caliper.672 T. when pressure is 8 MPa. In the region near the peseudo-critical point.0 T/oC Fig.03% 0.75% 0. thus. whose accuracy is 0. which is 3 m (inside tube is 3 m.51% 2.941) software to calculate thermal properties. a little measurement uncertainty of temperature can lead to large uncertainty of heat transfer coefﬁcient. L is the total length of the test section. Heat transfer coefﬁcient changes with mass ﬂow rate when pressure is 9 MPa. uncertainty can be lower than 10%.0 1 p di Rco2 l R¼ 5.58% 2.39% 2.27% 7. a new correlation between heat transfer coefﬁcients and Reynolds number and Prandtl number is developed. there are differences between these equations and our experiment results. they are used to calculate the heat transfer of ordinary ﬂuid like water or Freon in single phase. Physical properties LMTD (K) Heat transfer capacity (J/s) Rtotal (Ks/J) Rco2 (Ks/J) Test section length (m) Inside tube diameter (mm) Heat transfer coefﬁcient (W/m2 K) Uncertainty 0. 220 kg/h. in the region away from the peseudo-critical point. Comparison of different empirical formula and my experiment results 8 MPa. (17). Ding. A new correlation for super critical carbon dioxide ð16Þ As for Dittus–Boleter equation and Gnielinski equation.50 mm. Li / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 92 (2016) 665–674 Fig. Supposing that R’ and Rtotal has the same uncertainty.0 46. different condition (different temperature and pressure) leads to different heat transfer coefﬁcient. it’s accuracy is 0.27% 22. Where Re and Pr is deﬁned in Eq.53% 7. 60000 h¼ Experiment 50000 Dittus-Boleter h/Wm2K 40000 Gnielinski Dh ¼ h Yoon 30000 20000 31.0 41.6.93% 0. however.4 °C. 9. In order to solve this problem. uncertainty can be as high as 15–20%. We use the EES (version 9. d is the diameter of the inside tube. as is mentioned above. Finally. then the uncertainty of Rco2 can be calculated by Eq. In fact. we can obtain the total uncertainty of heat transfer coefﬁcient by Eq. physical properties and heat transfer coefﬁcient change violently with temperature and pressure.75% Table 3b The max uncertainty of heat transfer coefﬁcient. 10000 0 26. (1). The uncertainty of thermal resistance can be obtained by Eq. Z.03% 0. (16) DT m Usﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 2 2 2 DR @ ln R @ ln R Df DU ¼ Df þ DU ¼ þ R @f @U f U ð17Þ sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 2ﬃ DRco2 2 Ddi Dl þ þ l di Rco2 Table 3 is the result of uncertainty for each physical properties.1 cm. which is 7.93% .9 m).02 mm.90% 2. (13). and the results of the EES software is based on reference [21–23]. in the region near the peseudo-critical point.96% 22. outside cold water tube is 2.0 36.

[10] S. Fujima.R.9 32.9 45. X.8 43. Japan. Int. we can’t regarded such ﬂuid as ordinary single phase ﬂuid.0 38. Zhao. Liao. J.8 54.7 50. Experimental investigation of convection heat transfer of CO2 at super-critical pressures in vertical mini-tubes and in porous media. Li.X.4 33. [13] P.9 37. (3) Heat tranfer coefﬁcient changes with temperature and pressure. et al. thus.6 43. J.6 35. In fact.3 57. Conclusions (1) The variation of heat transfer and thermal property have the same trends. An experimental investigation of convection heat transfer to supercritical carbon dioxide in miniature tubes. et al.6 35. the application range of Re and Pr is also shown. 220 kg/h 8 MPa.1 40. 51138005).0 48. Huai.7 46.9 29. Zhao. T. Z. Comparison of a R744 cascade refrigeration system with R404A and R22 conventional systems for supermarkets. Koyama.3 34.org/10.8 45.5 50. Son. [3] G.9 42. [11] S. Park. 26 (8) (2003) 857–864. 2012. [4] A.H.2 42. Z. K. when the pressure is high.6 33.4 40. [6] Y. 2013.3 61. 685–694. Int.8 34.2 54. Tu.9 48.2 36. Y.9 37.4 40. . with increase of temperature. Jeong. Heat Transfer 24 (3) (2011) 257–265. 140 kg/h 10Mpa 220 kg/h Inlet (°C) Outlet (°C) Inlet (°C) Outlet (°C) Inlet (°C) Outlet (°C) Inlet (°C) Outlet (°C) 56.S.2 57. [5] X.9 36.0 45. Li.3 36. the heat transfer coefﬁcient also change quite a lot.6 65. http://dx. 180 kg/h 9 MPa.5 30. However. It may not ﬁt for super critical carbon dioxide. J.1 43.H.3 39.7 40. Ventilation and Air Conditioning. Antunes.1 43.0 48.8 49.4 38.1 31. Retroﬁt of air conditioning system in data center using separate heat pipe system.9 35. A.1 34.3 35. however.7 52. Ahearne.2 32. Appl.3 41. Eng. heat transfer coefﬁcient curve’s peak value is higher when pressure is higher.doi. in this equation. there are differences between these equations and our experiment results.7 33.0 40.6 33.6 54. Xu.0 39. Zhao. Panel on Energy Research and Development. Xi’an.7 37. Thermal properties change with temperature and pressure. et al.4 36.4 40.9 38.7 28. Acknowledgments This paper is supported by National Science Foundation of China (51376097.. J. An experimental study on heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of carbon dioxide during gas cooling process in a horizontal tube. Ser.2 44. [9] C. Yoon. [12] X. Tian. pressure is 8 MPa. In order to solve this problem.3 29. (2) In super critical region.H. J.L. Z. 24 (8) (2004) 1255–1270.8 29.0 35. A new.5 37.3 35. S.8 30.D. Balzhiser. in: Proceedings of the 3rd International Forum on Heat Transfer. as a result. heat transfer coefﬁcient gets its max at pseudo-critical point.2 34.1 33. As for pressure.9 34.5 36.7 38.6 41. Li.9 45. (18). An experimental study on heat transfer coefﬁcients of a CO2-ﬁlled thermosyphon.8 34.2 34. in the region far away from the psuedo-critical point.6 34.2 35.2 35. A feasibility study of CO2-based Rankine cycle powered by solar energy.W.H. Li / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 92 (2016) 665–674 Nu ¼ 0:028332Re0:837992 Pr0:078006 5 5 1:2 10 6 Re 6 4:97 10 .6 30. [7] S.9 47. Table A1 The results of R744’s inlet and outlet temperature.J.0 35. An experimental study of ﬂow and heat transfer of supercritical carbon dioxide in multi-port mini channels under cooling condition. ð18Þ 1:80 6 Pr 6 13:16 Liner regression is used to ﬁnd the correlation.0 46.0 33.S.7 36.5 34. the curve’s peak at 8 MPa is far more steeper than peak at 10 MPa. peak comes more steeper when pressure comes lower.1 25.1 37. which is Eq.2 33. Pettersen. At a certain pressure. China.5 36.5 53.0 30.6 30.S.1 36. 60 (12) (2005) 3337–3345. Z. Eng.8 43.3 48.W.. 16 (1) (1993) 4–12.5 50. Refrig.0 31.2 57. Holdren.0 34. 9 MPa. Exp.1 55. J.1 53.8 49. [8] S. [2] X.9 28. no. efﬁcient and environmentally benign system for car air-conditioning.7 47.0 43.3 42.1 35.9 52. on dealing with the super critical region’s convection heat transfer problem.0 35.673 T. heat transfer coefﬁcient ﬁrst increase then decrease.8 34. (4) As for Dittus–Boleter equation and Gnielinski equation. pp.7 34.0 35.8 35.0 37. J. Yamaguchi. 180 kg/h 8 MPa. Heat Mass Transfer 45 (25) (2002) 5025–5034. 29 (4) (2006) 539–546. E.1 37. Liao. H.9 42.6 34. Entransy-dissipation-based thermal resistance analysis and energy saving design of data center cooling system.8 39.7 35.3 36.0 39.8 52.7 39.5 38.2 36.H.1007/978-3-642-39581-9_67. Int. Kim. 41 (2012) 30–35. curve’s peak is gentle. November 13–15.9 Conﬂict of interest None declared. Tong. R. Ding.8 37.6 34.4 35.8 32. Washington DC.8 33. a new correlation of heat transfer coefﬁcients based on our experiment results is developed. Sci.8 37.3 34.1 34.X. 6.3 39. Int.3 35. there are 49% of the data whose results difference calculated by empirical correlation and experiment data is less than 5%.3 36.J.0 47. In the region where thermal properties change slowly (like ordinary single phase ﬂuid).8 48.0 39.P. the heat transfer coefﬁcient also change slowly.J. References [1] J. Eng.4 27.P.9 42.2 32. 220 kg/h 9 MPa. Liu. Presidents Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST). Hwang.3 39. S. Zheng.5 50.6 34.6 43. Zhang.7 40.9 Table A2 The results of R744’s inlet and outlet temperature.3 34.6 38.. B 48 (3) (2005) 540– 547.8 36.3 44.3 51. 140 kg/h Inlet (°C) Outlet (°C) Inlet (°C) Outlet (°C) Inlet (°C) Outlet (°C) 56. T. Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics during the in-tube cooling process of carbon dioxide in the supercritical region..7 58.4 38. Z. Report to the president on federal energy research and development for the challenges of the twenty-ﬁrst century. Appendix A The detail results of R744’s inlet and outlet temperature (see Tables A1 and A2).2 53. R.1 32.4 38.7 42.3 34.5 40. Appl. T. which leads to the change of heat transfer coefﬁcient. Bandarra Filho.7 57.8 37.1 33.5 56. in the region thermal properties change violently (like super critical carbon dioxide). Measurements of heat transfer coefﬁcients from supercritical carbon dioxide ﬂowing in horizontal mini/micro channels. J. Lorentzen.8 39. heat transfer changes violently with temperature. JSME Int. Qian.P. da Silva. Chem.3 26.9 49. IFHT 2012–027.7 34.2 37. Refrig. J. Refrig. et al. H.6 52. Jiang. Nagasaki.9 51.M. The equation ﬁts well with our experiment results.0 35.M. J. 1997. Therm. There are 91% of all the data whose results difference calculated by empirical correlation and experiment data is less than 15%. pressure is 9 and 10 MPa.3 34. they are used to calculate the heat transfer of ordinary ﬂuid like water or Freon in single phase. Y. in: Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Heating.9 36. Therm. Heat Transfer 124 (3) (2002) 413–420. we can regarded it as single phase ﬂuid.6 45. Lv. 8 MPa.

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