You are on page 1of 10

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 92 (2016) 665–674

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijhmt

Research on convection heat transfer character of super critical carbon
dioxide flows inside horizontal tube
Tao Ding, Zhen Li ⇑
Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Meng Min Wei Technology Building, Beijing 100084, China

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 3 May 2015
Received in revised form 8 September 2015
Accepted 9 September 2015
Available online 25 September 2015
Keywords:
Carbon dioxide
Pseudo critical point
Super critical
Heat transfer coefficient
Method of thermal resistance

a b s t r a c t
This paper mainly studied the heat transfer character of super critical carbon dioxide, also named R744.
Super critical carbon dioxide can be used in gas cooler for air conditioning system. Compared with traditional Freon coolant, R744 has higher density and lower viscosity, which is benefit for heat transfer process. So it is important to study heat transfer character for super critical carbon dioxide. The experiment
research is taken for the temperature ranging from 29 to 55 °C, while pressure is 8, 9 and 10 MPa. The
Reynold number is about 2  105. Thermal resistance method is used to measure heat transfer coefficient.
The results found that convection heat transfer enhances near the pseudo critical point, in the region far
away from pseudo-critical point, heat transfer character is just like ordinary single-phase fluid. The heat
transfer coefficient violently changeable region is also the region where thermal property change rapidly.
It is also found that heat transfer coefficient gets its max at the region near the pseudo-critical point. In
addition, the results obtained in this paper are compared with other researchers’ results.
Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
Ozone layer depletion and greenhouse effect are the two serious
environmental problems, which are caused mainly by Freon coolant like R22. So forbidding the use of Freon and searching for environmental friendly coolant seem to be serious problems. As a
result, reducing the carbon footprint and protecting environment
come more and more popular in the world [1].
Carbon dioxide, is an environmental friendly gas existing in the
atmosphere. Its ODP (ozone depression potential) equals to 0, and
GWP (global warming potential) equals to 1. It can be used widely
in industry, such as working fluid in Rankine cycle [2], refrigeration
cycle [3–4] and seperated heat pipe system [5–7]. In the heat
exchanger of Rankine or refrigeration cycle, carbon dioxide is super
critical fluid, so it is important to study the heat transfer character
of super critical carbon dioxide.
Researchers from all over the world have done a lot of work on
super critical carbon dioxide heat transfer character. Yoon [8] and
Son [9] study heat transfer character and pressure drop of super
critical carbon dioxide flows in tube in tube counter flow heat
exchanger, where carbon dioxide is cooled by water. Liao [10,11]
study both heating and cooling condition when super critical carbon dioxide flows in mini tube, its tube diameter is 0.7 mm,
⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 10 62772918.
E-mail address: lizh@tsinghua.edu.cn (Z. Li).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2015.09.026
0017-9310/Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1.4 mm, 2.16 mm. Huai [12] does an experiment on flow and heat
transfer of super critical carbon dioxide in multi-port mini channels under cooling condition. Jiang [13,14] has done some work
on convection heat transfer when carbon dioxide flows in vertical
mini-tubes and in porous media. Table 1 shows some recent work
on super critical carbon dioxide convection heat transfer in horizontal tube.
Traditional method to test the heat transfer coefficient is to use
the method of definition, which means h = q/(Tf  Twall). In this
equation, q is the heat flux, Twall means the inside wall temperature
and Tf means the fluid’s bulk mean temperature. Twall is calculated
by one dimension heat transfer equation after getting the outside
wall temperature. Tf is tested by thermal couples which is inserted
into the tube. This is a simple method for its calculation equation is
simpler. Literature [13] use the similar method, there is a little
difference, the fluid bulk mean temperature is not tested but calculated by thermal equilibrium. Literature [17] also use this method,
the difference is that temperature difference in not Tf  Twall, but
the LMTD, where it is defined by R744’s inlet/outlet temperature
and the inside wall temperature of each little section of the test
section.
However, there are some shortcomings for this method. First, as
for the super critical R744, its pressure is as high as 8–10 MPa,
inserting thermal couples into the tube can be dangerous, besides,
it is also difficult to seal. Second, the inside tube diameter of our
experiment is 7.5 mm, which is very small, inserting thermal

Its viscosity Table 1 Researches on super critical carbon dioxide convection heat transfer. the problems of seal and dangerous can be solved. and LMTD is the log mean temperature difference defined by the R744’s inlet/outlet temperature and the inside tube wall temperature. Where A is the heat transfer area. we call such fluid ‘‘super critical fluid’’. W/m2 K log mean temperature difference Nusselt number pseudo critical point Prandtl number heat capacity. 1. 4. Li / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 92 (2016) 665–674 Nomenclature Cp h LMTD Nu Pc Pr Q q R Re T specific heat.1. x = 1 10 MPa. Physical property of super critical carbon dioxide If temperature and pressure are lower than critical point. and calculate the inside wall temperature. W/m2 thermal resistance.5  10 7. If temperature and pressure are higher than critical point. 2.666 T. they use h = Q/A.16 0. Z.825 1. In fact.7. this method also has a little problem. Our research is taken for the temperature ranging from 29 to 55 °C. W heat flux. heat transfer coefficient is just calculated by the experiment results directly.73 7. there exists temperature difference of these 6 thermal couples.674 4. The author uses the average of the 6 thermal couples as the outside wall temperature.4  12 7. Super critical phase is a kind of uniform single phase. simple and safe. this method is accurate. 2.7 630 7. Literature [18] has used a similar method to determine in-tube evaporation heat transfer of carbon dioxide. Besides.16 1.4. Fluid type(R744) Condition Density (kg/m3) Viscosity (105 kg=ms) Heat difussion rate (108 m2 =s) Liquid Gas Super critical 5 MPa. x = 0 5 MPa. 2.983 .3 156. There are 6 thermal couples to measure the outside wall temperature of the inside tube (R744 tube).75 0. Besides. As a result. °C Greek symbols q density. kg/ms Subscripts i enthalpy m mean max maximal min minimum couples into the tube may influence the flow field. the fluid is ordinary. Super critical carbon dioxide flows in a tube in tube counter flow heat exchanger.4. there is also another method to find the heat transfer coefficient [11]. a different method to measure heat transfer coefficient is used.1 8  10 8  10 7. there is nearly no assumption on calculating the results. First is that there is no phase change for super critical fluid. for example. kg/m3 k heat conductivity. cold water is used to cool the hot R744.8 Table 2 Thermal properties comparable table of R744. there is a tube in tube counter flow heat exchanger where hot R744 flows inside the tube and cold water flows outside the tube. for thermal couples only need to be put at the inlet/outlet of cold water and carbon dioxide. the fluid change its phase from liquid to two-phase and finally to gas. as a result.31 0. This method has some advantages. Third.79 1.5  8. it is easy to do the experiment.4  12 7. Researcher Heat exchanger type Temperature range (°C) Pressure range (MPa) Inside tube diameter (mm) Yoon [8] Son [9] Liao [10] Liao [11] Huai [12] Pettersen [15] Dang [16] Lv [17] Tube in tube Water cold Tube in tube Water cold Electric heating pipe Tube in tube Water cold Multi-port mini channels Multi-port mini channels Tube in tube Water cold Tube in tube Water cold 30  65 20  90 20  110 20  110 22  53 15  70 30  70 30  65 7.8 7. The diameter of the tube is 7. 40 °C 827. In this paper. while pressure is 8. it may be not very accurate to regard the outside wall temperature as constant. The author try to keep the out wall temperature of the inside tube as uniform as possible. for it use the average of the 6 thermal couples as the outside wall temperature. when absorbing heat. K/W Reynold number temperature. In this method. W/m K l viscosity. Thermal couples do not need to be inserted into the inside tube. However.7.4  8.774 3.5 mm. 6 3. where it is cooled by water. we called it method of thermal resistance. we have modified thermal resistance method which is different from literature [18]. Finally. in this paper.871 1. Ding. There are mainly 2 significant characters for the super critical fluid. At a certain pressure. J/kg °C heat transfer coefficient. thus. thus.242 5.LMTD. it may not be accurate to use one dimension heat transfer equation to calculate the inside wall temperature after getting the outside wall temperature. 9 and 10 MPa. 2. The Reynold number is about 2  105. 1.5 8  10. Theoretical analysis of super critical carbon dioxide heat transfer 2.

If the tube diameter (d) and flow rate (u) are constant. P is pressure. heat transfer coefficient is the function of six parameters. h = f (k. Re ¼ ul t .7 °C) is nearly 9 times bigger than specific heat at 20 °C. specific heat at 64 °C (pseudo-critical point) is only 30% times bigger than specific heat at 40 °C.5 0 40 45 50 55 60 65 T/oC 70 75 80 85 (c) P=15MPa Fig. At 15 MPa.5 conductivity Cp viscosity 2 1. specific heat. The variation trend of thermal physical properties with temperature and pressure (R744). then the heat transfer coefficient is only the function of thermal properties. the value of density at 30 °C is calculated by q30  C =qpc . viscosity.5 1 0.t. while its density is as heavy as liquid. Z. and T is temperature. take the change tendency of specific heat for example. which can be only determined by temperature and pressure. T.5 1 0. In the region where thermal properties change slowly (like 3 density 2. density. we can do some theoretical analysis about the heat transfer coefficient. specific heat are thermal properties. viscosity. thermal properties are also changed. If we identify the Re number and Pr number. specific heat at 35 °C (pseudo-critical point is 34. Second. Ding.5 conductivity Cp viscosity 2 1. which leads to the change of heat transfer coefficient. Now. (2) to determine the heat transfer coefficient.cp. u. which are thermal conductivity. PrÞ ¼ ðP. as can be seen in Table 2. For example. density.l. in Fig. When temperature and pressure change.667 T. Pr ¼ tqcp k ¼ t hl . 1. As can be seen in Fig.5 0 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 T/oC (a) P=8MPa 3 density 2. When pressure is 8 MPa. flow rate and inside tube diameter. Thus. Thermal conductivity. then we can use Eq.d). The variation trends of thermal property comes gentler with the increase of pressure.q. thermal properties change quiet violently with temperature and pressure. x-axis is temperature and y-axis means dimensionless thermal properties. Li / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 92 (2016) 665–674 is as sparse as gas. lÞ ð2Þ We take the diameter of the inside tube as characteristic length (l = d). 1. According to convection heat transfer theory [19]. 1(a).5 0 20 25 30 35 40 45 T/oC 50 55 60 65 70 (b) P=10MPa 3 density 2.5 1 0.5 conductivity Cp viscosity 2 1. 90 . Nu ¼ k a ð1Þ Nu ¼ f ðRe. especially temperature.

With the increase of temperature. On dealing with the heat transfer rate. 2. so it’s difficult to determine the inside fluid’s temperature. gradient of the curve is higher than the region far away from pseudo-critical point. It is a tube in tube counter flow heat exchanger.c  iout. Besides. ‘‘cp’’ means constant-pressure specific heat. the less R results to stronger heat exchange capacity. R2.668 T. we let hot water flows in the inside tube. (4). even can be higher than 10 MPa.w DT w 1 R1 ¼ . Q c ¼ mc ðiin. we can calculate the total thermal resistance R. Tb ¼ T in þ T out 2 ð10Þ Tin means carbon dioxide inlet temperature of the test section (out wall temperature). Experiment results Heat transfer rate Q can be obtained by water side and carbon dioxide side. Apparently. (8). thus. the . heat transfer coefficient decrease. This is the condition 2. at a certain temperature difference. It consisted of a high pressure carbon dioxide pump. thermal couples. In other words. test section. the inside super critical carbon dioxide pressure is particularly high. hot carbon dioxide flows in the inside tube. (7)) [20] to calculate hot water side heat transfer coefficient.c Þ ð8Þ In Eq. and ‘‘c’’ means carbon dioxide. it can release carbon dioxide in case the pressure is higher than 12 MPa. one difference pressure sensor (to measure the pressure loss when the fluid flows through the test section). pre-heater. hot carbon dioxide flows in the inside tube and cold water flows in the outside tube. as is shown in Fig. They are calculated by Eq. heat transfer coefficient changes with temperature. Z. we can use thermal couples to determine the out wall tube temperature. The average heat transfer coefficient h for the test section can be calculated by Eqs. most of the relative heat balance is less than 15%. Li / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 92 (2016) 665–674 ordinary single phase fluid). the heat transfer coefficient also changes slowly. There are 3 thermal resistance need to be considered when heat transfers from hot carbon dioxide to cold water. Effects of temperature The scheme of experiment equipment is showed in Fig. However. we need to get the inside tube convection thermal resistance R1. They are inside tube convection thermal resistance R1. Coriolis Mass Flow meter. so we can believe that heat is all transferred from hot carbon dioxide to the cold water.1. In condition 1. At a certain pressure and mass flow rate. we can dry the inside tube and let carbon dioxide flows inside. in the region near the pseudo-critical point. 3 shows the scheme of the test section. 5. Ding. then we can use Gnielinski correlation (Eq. we keep the inlet temperature and flow speed of cold water constant. where Qmax mean the max of Qc and Qw. R means total thermal resistance. we can use the out wall temperature to replace the fluid’s bulk mean temperature. the heat transfer coefficient also changes quite a lot. after that. hi Ai 1 do R2 ¼ ln . see Eq. R is the sum of R1. (10) is used as the properties evaluated bulk mean temperature. then the total heat exchange capacity can be calculated by Newton cooling law (Eq. we call it condition 1. conduction through tube wall thermal resistance R2 and outside convection thermal resistance R3. and cold water flows outside tube. besides. we can use Eq. As can be seen in Fig. U¼ Dt m R ð3Þ Fig. As the inside tube carbon dioxide flow is turbulent. the outside wall temperature of the inside tube is equals to the inside wall temperature which is equals to the fluid’s temperature. R¼ DT 1 . therefore. (3)). If we identify the temperature difference as the Logarithmic mean heat transfer temperature difference (LMTD). Heat needs to transfer from the inside hot carbon dioxide to the outside cold water. 1/R can be seen as the total heat transfer coefficient. so its boundary layer’s thickness is thinner than laminar flow. we can calculate total thermal resistance Rcondition 1 by Eq. (4) to calculate the heat transfer coefficient of carbon dioxide. R3. Introduction of thermal resistance method In a counter flow heat exchanger. higher pressure may be dangerous). Finally. in the region thermal properties change violently (like super critical carbon dioxide). 4. h first increase. in the region near the pseudo-critical point. with temperature increase. Q w ¼ mw cp. subscript ‘‘w’’ means water. 3(b). then the thermal resistance of R’ is constant in both condition. thus the data is considered as believable. (11) and (12). There is heat insulated material outside the test section. as a result. P¼ Q max  Q min Q max ð9Þ Tb in Eq. a flow meter. and calculate inside water convection thermal resistance by Eq. 3. 2pkl di 1 R3 ¼ ho Ao 1 do 1 R0 ¼ ln þ 2pkl di pho do l LMTD ¼ Dt max  Dtmin ln DDttmax min ð4Þ ð5Þ ð6Þ Then. h gets its max. Tout means outlet temperature. In condition 1 and 2. 4. In fact. The heat balance can be calculated by equation 9. The detail of the R744’s inlet/outlet temperature of our experiment is shown in appendix Tables 1 and 2. (6). We use water side heat transfer rate Qw to calculate. some spring safety valves (which can also be called pressure valve. (8). when temperature is higher than pseudo point. (1). Nuf ¼ ðf =8ÞðRe  1000Þ Prf pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 1 þ 12:7 f =8 ðPrf2=3  1Þ ð7Þ Second. Rc ¼ R  R0 ¼ Q pdi lhi ð11Þ hi ¼ 1 ðR  R0 Þpdi l ð12Þ 4. In other word. we use R in condition 2 minus R’ in condition 1 to get the carbon dioxide side thermal resistance. so there is no heat flux through the wall of the inside tube. two pressure sensors (one sensors to measure inlet fluid pressure and the other for outlet). It can be also seen from Fig. and it is cold by water outside the tube. ‘‘i’’ means enthalpy. relative heat balance error needs to be less than 15%. the tube is surrounded by heat insulated material. no heat loss from the test section. First. and use the out wall temperature to calculate the heat transfer coefficient. Experiment equipment and procedure 5.

40. When temperature is less than pseudo-critical point. we can also regard such fluid as constant property fluid. heat transfer coefficient gets its max at pseudo-critical point. peak comes more steeper when pressure comes lower. heat transfer decreased. Variation of heat transfer coefficient.4 °C heat transfer coefficient gets its max. at 35. 1. 6 shows heat transfer coefficient changes with temperature and pressure. At 8 MPa. Z. on a certain pressure. at 9 MPa. fluid’s properties are just like gas. Variation of thermal properties. 6 that. 2. Li / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 92 (2016) 665–674 669 Fig. besides temperature. Considering the measure error. 2. it’s heat transfer coefficient is 9286 W/m2 K. 10 MPa. at pseudo-critical point specific heat gets its max. For super critical fluid. so the variation tendency of heat transfer coefficient and thermal properties are roughly analogous. more region closer to the pseudo-point. It can also be seen from Figs. The difference of super critical fluid and single phase fluids appears in three aspects. 5. When temperature is higher than pseudo critical point fluid’s properties are just like liquid. In other words. there is no obvious peak appears. the curve’s peak at 8 MPa is far more steeper than peak at 10 MPa. the pressure is 8 MPa.259 W/m2 K. physical dimension and mass flow rate determine the heat transfer coefficient. heat trasfer coefficient’s peak value is 13. at pseudo critical point. Effects of pressure Fig. . the fluid has high viscosity and density. when mass flow rate is 220 kg/h.2. with the increase of pressure. The scheme of experiment equipment. the heat transfer coefficient severely changeable region is also the region where thermal property change rapidly. for example.T. In fact.1 °C. we can conclude from Fig. 7 and 6 when the pressure is high. Ordinary single phase fluid’s thermal properties changes slowly with temperature. Thermal properties. 3. The variation tendency of the specific heat and heat transfer coefficient is just the same. There is no phase change for super critical fluid. at a certain pressure. In fact. when temperature is considerably higher or lower than pseudo-point. so we can regard such fluid as constant property fluid. the curve’s peak is gentle. We can see from Fig. 5. h’s peak value is 16516 W/m2 K. Ding. the more violent change of heat transfer coefficient. pressure also makes a great difference for heat transfer coefficient.

7 shows the specific heat’s variation tendency with temperature and pressure. 5. heat transfer changes with temperature. 16000 2 14000 1. 4.0 T/oC Fig. 8 MPa. There are four results in .0 38.670 T.5 x/xpc h(W/m2K) 18000 Density/Density_pc k/k_pc Viscosity/viscosity_pc Cp/Cp_pc h/h_max 12000 1 10000 0. The variation of specific heat and heat transfer coefficient shows the same tendency. 9 (pressure is 9 MPa). 5. we choose a typical condition.0 0 0.0 48. 5. experiment results also shows the same tendency. In theory.4. Ding.3 1.2 1. 3. Effects of mass flow rate There are 3 curves in Fig.9 1 1.3. Fig. 0. Test section.8 33. its pressure is 8 MPa and mass flow rate is 220 kg/h. Li / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 92 (2016) 665–674 Fig.0 43. mass flow rate is 220 kg/h.4 T/Tpc Fig. Comparison of the variation trends between Cp and h. Z.5 8000 6000 28. They represent the experiment results of heat transfer coefficient at different mass flow rates. increasing mass flow rate will enhance heat transfer. The comparison of different empirical formula and our experiment results In order to compare. 8 (pressure is 8 MPa) and also 3 curves in Fig.1 1.

10.14 K calculated by Eq. (13). The uncertainty of heat transfer capacity (U) can be obtained by Eq. It can be seen that D–B empirical equation leads to the lowest result. ð14Þ Fig. then Z means Rco2. (13). The uncertainty of physical properties x1  x2 can be calculated by Eq. Heat transfer coefficient changes with mass flow rate when pressure is 8 MPa. 8. Yoon’s empirical equation. We can use uncertainty analysis to know measurement error. (15). which is also 0. (33 °C–36 °C) heat transfer coefficient’s peak value is 25% less than Gnielinski equation. Li / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 92 (2016) 665–674 671 5. they are heat transfer capacity Q (J/s). Z ¼ x1  x2 sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi  2  2     DZ @lnZ @lnZ Dx1 2 Dx2 2 ¼ Dx1 þ Dx2 ¼ þ Z @x1 @x2 x1  x2 x1  x2 40 ð13Þ 8MPa 10MPa 35 9MPa In Eq. Ding.14 K. Mass flow rate is 220 kg/h. There are mainly two reasons lead to error. which is 0. The first is the systematic error. If x1 means Rtotal and x2 means R’. The uncertainty of LMTD can be obtained by Eq. here. Cp(kJ/kg/K) 30 25 20 15 DT max  DT min   ln DDTTmax min sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi  2  2 Df @ ln f @ ln f ¼ DT þ DT f @ DT max @ DT min vffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi !2 !2 u DT DT u DT DT DT min DT max t ¼  þ þ DT max  DT min ln DDTTmax DT max  DT min ln DDTTmax min min f ¼ LMTD ¼ 10 5 0 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 T/oC Fig. experiment results are less than Yoon’s result but around 30% higher than Gnielinski equation. when temperature is higher than 33 °C and less than 36 °C. (14). Fig. if x means temperature. Specific heat changes with temperature and pressure. 7. When temperature is higher than 36 °C. which is caused by experiment method and the second is measurement error which is caused mainly by the accuracy of the measurement instruments. when temperature is near the pseudo critical point. in other word. then Z means temperature difference. However. and Dt means the uncertainty of temperature difference. where DT means temperature difference. heat transfer coefficient changes with pressure. 6. ð15Þ .T. LMTD (K) and thermal resistance (Ks/J). (13). There are mainly 3 indirect measured physical properties when we calculate h. Dittus–Boleter equation. U ¼ cp mDT DU ¼ U sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi  2  2    2 @ ln U @ ln U Dm 2 Dt Dm þ Dt ¼ þ m @m @t DT Fig. Gnielinski equation and our experiment results. DT mean the measurement error of temperature difference. while Yoon’s equation gets the highest result. It is important to know whether this experiment method is accurate. Z.5. Uncertain analysis Errors always consist in any experiment.

It is easy to explain such phenomenon. It may not fit for super critical carbon dioxide. temperature is 35. Physical properties LMTD (K) Heat transfer capacity (J/s) Rtotal (Ks/J) Rco2 (Ks/J) Test section length (m) Inside tube diameter (mm) Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K) Uncertainty 0. Table 3a Uncertainty of heat transfer coefficient at the region far away from pseudo critical point. 10. it is measured by vernier caliper.672 T. when pressure is 8 MPa. In the region near the peseudo-critical point.0 T/oC Fig.03% 0.75% 0. thus. whose accuracy is 0. which is 3 m (inside tube is 3 m.51% 2.941) software to calculate thermal properties. a little measurement uncertainty of temperature can lead to large uncertainty of heat transfer coefficient. L is the total length of the test section. Heat transfer coefficient changes with mass flow rate when pressure is 9 MPa. uncertainty can be lower than 10%.0 1 p di Rco2 l R¼ 5.58% 2.39% 2.27% 7. a new correlation between heat transfer coefficients and Reynolds number and Prandtl number is developed. there are differences between these equations and our experiment results. they are used to calculate the heat transfer of ordinary fluid like water or Freon in single phase. Physical properties LMTD (K) Heat transfer capacity (J/s) Rtotal (Ks/J) Rco2 (Ks/J) Test section length (m) Inside tube diameter (mm) Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K) Uncertainty 0. 220 kg/h. in the region away from the peseudo-critical point. Comparison of different empirical formula and my experiment results 8 MPa. (17). Ding. A new correlation for super critical carbon dioxide ð16Þ As for Dittus–Boleter equation and Gnielinski equation.50 mm. Li / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 92 (2016) 665–674 Fig. Supposing that R’ and Rtotal has the same uncertainty.0 46. different condition (different temperature and pressure) leads to different heat transfer coefficient. it’s accuracy is 0.27% 22. Where Re and Pr is defined in Eq.53% 7. 60000 h¼ Experiment 50000 Dittus-Boleter h/Wm2K 40000 Gnielinski Dh ¼ h Yoon 30000 20000 31.0 41.6.93% 0. however.4 °C. 9. In order to solve this problem. uncertainty can be as high as 15–20%. We use the EES (version 9. d is the diameter of the inside tube. as is mentioned above. Finally. then the uncertainty of Rco2 can be calculated by Eq. In fact. we can obtain the total uncertainty of heat transfer coefficient by Eq. physical properties and heat transfer coefficient change violently with temperature and pressure.75% Table 3b The max uncertainty of heat transfer coefficient. 10000 0 26. (1). The uncertainty of thermal resistance can be obtained by Eq. Z.03% 0. (16) DT m Usffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi  2  2  2  2 DR @ ln R @ ln R Df DU ¼ Df þ DU ¼ þ R @f @U f U ð17Þ sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi  2    2ffi DRco2 2 Ddi Dl þ þ l di Rco2 Table 3 is the result of uncertainty for each physical properties.1 cm. which is 7.93% .9 m).02 mm.90% 2. (13). and the results of the EES software is based on reference [21–23]. in the region near the peseudo-critical point.96% 22. outside cold water tube is 2.0 36.

[10] S. Fujima.R.9 32.9 45. X.8 43. Japan. Int. we can’t regarded such fluid as ordinary single phase fluid.0 38. Zhao. Liao. J.8 54.7 50. Experimental investigation of convection heat transfer of CO2 at super-critical pressures in vertical mini-tubes and in porous media. Li.X.4 33. [13] P.9 37. (3) Heat tranfer coefficient changes with temperature and pressure. et al. thus.6 43. J.6 35. In fact.3 57. Conclusions (1) The variation of heat transfer and thermal property have the same trends. An experimental investigation of convection heat transfer to supercritical carbon dioxide in miniature tubes. et al.6 35. the application range of Re and Pr is also shown. 220 kg/h 8 MPa.1 40. 51138005).0 48. Huai.7 46.9 29. Zhao. T. Z. Comparison of a R744 cascade refrigeration system with R404A and R22 conventional systems for supermarkets. Koyama.3 34.org/10.8 45.5 50. Son. [3] G.9 42. [11] S. Park. 26 (8) (2003) 857–864. 2012. [4] A.H.2 42. Z. K. when the pressure is high.6 33.4 40. [6] Y. 2013.3 61. 685–694. Int.8 34.2 54. Tu.9 48.2 36. Y.9 37.4 40. . with increase of temperature. Jeong. Heat Transfer 24 (3) (2011) 257–265. 140 kg/h 10Mpa 220 kg/h Inlet (°C) Outlet (°C) Inlet (°C) Outlet (°C) Inlet (°C) Outlet (°C) Inlet (°C) Outlet (°C) 56.S.2 57. [5] X.9 36.0 45. Li.3 36. the heat transfer coefficient also change quite a lot.6 65. http://dx. 180 kg/h 9 MPa.5 30. However. It may not fit for super critical carbon dioxide. J.1 43.H.3 39.7 40. Ventilation and Air Conditioning. Antunes.1 43.0 48.8 49.4 38.1 31. Retrofit of air conditioning system in data center using separate heat pipe system.9 35. A.1 34.3 35. however.7 52. Ahearne.2 32. Appl.3 41. Eng. heat transfer coefficient curve’s peak value is higher when pressure is higher.doi. in this equation. there are differences between these equations and our experiment results.7 33.0 40.6 33.6 54. Xu.0 39. Zhao. Panel on Energy Research and Development. Xi’an.7 37. Thermal properties change with temperature and pressure. et al.4 36.4 40.9 38.7 28. Acknowledgments This paper is supported by National Science Foundation of China (51376097.. J. An experimental study on heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of carbon dioxide during gas cooling process in a horizontal tube. Ser.2 44. [9] C. Yoon. [12] X. Tian. pressure is 8 MPa. In order to solve this problem.3 29. (2) In super critical region.H. J.L. Z. 24 (8) (2004) 1255–1270.8 29.0 35. A new.5 37.3 35. S.8 30.D. Balzhiser. in: Proceedings of the 3rd International Forum on Heat Transfer. as a result. heat transfer coefficient gets its max at pseudo-critical point.2 34.1 33. As for pressure.9 34.5 36.7 38.6 41. Li.9 45. (18). An experimental study on heat transfer coefficients of a CO2-filled thermosyphon.8 34.2 34. in the region far away from the psuedo-critical point.6 34.2 35.2 35. A feasibility study of CO2-based Rankine cycle powered by solar energy.W.H. Li / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 92 (2016) 665–674 Nu ¼ 0:028332Re0:837992 Pr0:078006 5 5 1:2  10 6 Re 6 4:97  10 .6 30. [7] S.9 47. Table A1 The results of R744’s inlet and outlet temperature.J.0 35. An experimental study of flow and heat transfer of supercritical carbon dioxide in multi-port mini channels under cooling condition. ð18Þ 1:80 6 Pr 6 13:16 Liner regression is used to find the correlation.0 46.0 33.S.7 36.5 34. the curve’s peak at 8 MPa is far more steeper than peak at 10 MPa. peak comes more steeper when pressure comes lower.1 25.1 37. which is Eq.2 33. Pettersen. At a certain pressure. China.5 36.5 53.0 30.6 30.S.1 36. 60 (12) (2005) 3337–3345. Z. Eng.8 43.3 48.W.. 16 (1) (1993) 4–12.5 50. Refrig.0 31.2 57. Holdren.0 34. 9 MPa. Exp.1 55. J.1 53.8 49. [8] S. [2] X.9 28. no. efficient and environmentally benign system for car air-conditioning.7 47.0 43.3 42.1 35.9 52. on dealing with the super critical region’s convection heat transfer problem.0 35.673 T. heat transfer coefficient first increase then decrease.8 34. (4) As for Dittus–Boleter equation and Gnielinski equation. pp.7 34.0 35.8 35.0 37. J. Yamaguchi. 180 kg/h 8 MPa. Heat Mass Transfer 45 (25) (2002) 5025–5034. 29 (4) (2006) 539–546. E.1 37. Liao. H.9 42.6 34. Entransy-dissipation-based thermal resistance analysis and energy saving design of data center cooling system.8 39.7 35.3 36.0 39.8 52.7 39.5 38.2 36.H.1007/978-3-642-39581-9_67. Int. Kim. 41 (2012) 30–35. curve’s peak is gentle. November 13–15.9 Conflict of interest None declared. Tong. R. Ding.8 37.6 34.4 35.8 32. Washington DC.8 33. a new correlation of heat transfer coefficients based on our experiment results is developed. Sci.8 37.3 34.1 34.X. 6.3 39. Int.3 35. there are 49% of the data whose results difference calculated by empirical correlation and experiment data is less than 5%.3 36.J.0 47. In the region where thermal properties change slowly (like ordinary single phase fluid).8 48.0 39.P. the heat transfer coefficient also change slowly.J. References [1] J. Eng.4 27.P.9 42.2 32. 220 kg/h 9 MPa. Liu. Presidents Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST). Hwang.3 39. S. Zheng.5 50.6 34.6 43. Zhang.7 40.9 Table A2 The results of R744’s inlet and outlet temperature.3 34.6 38.. B 48 (3) (2005) 540– 547.8 36.3 44.3 51. 140 kg/h Inlet (°C) Outlet (°C) Inlet (°C) Outlet (°C) Inlet (°C) Outlet (°C) 56. T. Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics during the in-tube cooling process of carbon dioxide in the supercritical region..7 58.4 38. Z. Report to the president on federal energy research and development for the challenges of the twenty-first century. Appendix A The detail results of R744’s inlet and outlet temperature (see Tables A1 and A2).2 53. R.1 32.4 38.7 42.3 34.5 40. Appl. T. which leads to the change of heat transfer coefficient. Bandarra Filho.7 57.8 37.1 33.5 56. in the region thermal properties change violently (like super critical carbon dioxide). Measurements of heat transfer coefficients from supercritical carbon dioxide flowing in horizontal mini/micro channels. J. Lorentzen.8 39. heat transfer changes violently with temperature. JSME Int. Qian.P. da Silva. Chem.3 26.9 49. IFHT 2012–027.7 34.2 37. Refrig. J. Refrig. et al. H.6 52. Jiang. Nagasaki.9 51.M. The equation fits well with our experiment results.0 35.M. J. 1997. Therm. There are 91% of all the data whose results difference calculated by empirical correlation and experiment data is less than 15%. pressure is 9 and 10 MPa.3 34. they are used to calculate the heat transfer of ordinary fluid like water or Freon in single phase. Y. in: Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Heating.9 36. Therm. Heat Transfer 124 (3) (2002) 413–420. we can regarded it as single phase fluid.6 45. Lv. 8 MPa.

J. J.. He. Phys. Kim.A. in: International Conference of Refrigeration. Dewitt. et al. In-tube cooling heat transfer of supercritical carbon dioxide.P. John Wiley & Sons. A computational study of convection heat transfer to CO2 at supercritical pressures in a vertical mini tube. The viscosity of carbon dioxide. W. pp.. Dang. The transport properties of carbon dioxide. [22] A. Tianjing University. V. in: Lorentzen 4th IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference on National working fluids.674 T. Eng.X. Ding. Ref.P. [15] J. Fenghour. Li / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 92 (2016) 665–674 [14] S.B. 27 (7) (2004) 736– 747. seventh ed. pp. Data 25 (6) (1996) 1509–1596. Olchowy. Experimental measurement. [17] J. 2011. Span. E. Incropera.S. Xu. in: ASME 2004 2nd International Conference on Microchannels and Minichannels. Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer. [18] N. Lv. Ref. 434. M. [20] V. [21] V. 2000. pp. Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of supercritical carbon dioxide in microchannel tubes under cooling. Wagner. 1–8. Y. Chem. D. A new equation of state for carbon dioxide covering the fluid region from the triple-point temperature to 1100 K at pressures up to 800 MPa. 2005 (in Chinese). 16 (2) (1976) 359–368. Gnielinski. Part 1. Ref. New equations for heat and mass-transfer in turbulent pipe and channel flow. P. Chem. A study of in-tube evaporation heat transfer of carbon dioxide. Hihara. Payne. Study of performance of cycle and heat transfer of CO2 trans-critical cycle (PhD thesis).J. J.. W. Tianjin. W. pp. Vesovic. Int. Z. et al. et al.A. Chem. Petterse. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. . Phys. 2003. 297– 304. Sawant. Vesovic. Jiang. G.. Data 19 (3) (1990) 763–808. Refrig. Int. Wakeham.A. [16] C. Phys. 99–106. Purdue University Press. 2004. W. [23] R. [19] F. Data 27 (1) (1998) 31–44. J. Wakeham. Chem.