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SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP


Applications
15/16 September 2003, Brussels

Techno-Economic Evaluation of
Sewage Sludge Gasification
Sharon McCahey
University of Ulster

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

www.ulster.ac.uk

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications

Aim: to assess the commercial viability of


CHP plant based on the gasification of
sewage sludge sources.
Sewage Sludge Sources
~ European database
Techno-Economic Evaluation
~ simulation of overall plant performance

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

www.ulster.ac.uk

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications

Sewage Sludge Sources


A database of sludge characteristics, treatment,
quantities, utilisation and costs created.
Information was collected by country and region by
each of the partners.
Used to create a decision making database

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

www.ulster.ac.uk

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications


Sludge Production by Country
Sludge Production (x103 tds)

(Recent Figures:1998-2000)

2000
1600
1200
800
400
0

y aly K ce in ds ria en nd rk al ce m nd rg
n
a It U an pa an st ed la ma tug ee giu la ou
m
Fr S erl Au Sw Fin en Por Gr Bel Ire mb
er
e
D
G
th
x
e
u
N
L
e
h
T

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

www.ulster.ac.uk

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications

Sludge Production (x103 tds)

Estimated Sludge Production by 2010

2000
1600
1200
800
400
0
ly
tI a

ce
n
a
Fr

in
a
p

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

rt
o
P

al
g
u

ec
e
r

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Be

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i
lg
Lu

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xe

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o

www.ulster.ac.uk

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications

Sewage Treatment Works (STW) are classified by


size according to Population Equivalent (PE). This is
how the information was collected.
However, sludge produced from each size
- Varies by country and region
- Also there is variation within each size
classification: >500,000
PE
500,000 200,000 PE

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

www.ulster.ac.uk

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications


The largest STW is classified as >500,000 PE. Here are some of the
average quantities produced across Europe.

Tonnes Dry Solid ('000s TDS)

Annual Sludge Production by >500,000 PE STW


50
40
30
20
10
0
Portugal

The Netherlands

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

France

Spain

www.ulster.ac.uk

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications


Considering the 500,000 PE STWs within the regions of
Germany
Region

Number

Sludge
Produced
(TDS)

Approx.
Average

Berlin

65,400

22,000

Bremen

18,500

9,000

Hamburg

41,500

42,000

Hesse

27,700

28,000

North-Rhine
Westphalia

13

1,900,000

146,000

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

www.ulster.ac.uk

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications


Sewage Sludge Composition (1)
Ni
France
Ireland
Denmark
Berlin
Austria
Spain
UK

Cr
Zn
Cu
Pb
0

200

400

600

800

1000

mg/kg of dry solids

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

www.ulster.ac.uk

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications


Sewage Sludge Composition (2)
Cal Val MJ/kg

France
Ireland
Denmark
Berlin
Austria
Spain
UK

Hg

Cd

10

12

14

16

(%db)

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

www.ulster.ac.uk

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications


Sewage Sludge Composition (UK)
Cr
Zn
Cu
Pb
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

mg/kg of dry solids

Cl
S
H
C
Water
Ash
Cal Val MJ/kg
Ni
Hg
Cd
N
Org Mat
Dry Sol
0

20

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

40

(%db)

60

80

100

www.ulster.ac.uk

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications

Samples

Sewage Sludge Composition: variability in solids content

20

40

60

80

100

Dry Solids (% )

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

www.ulster.ac.uk

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications


Landfill

Agriculture Incineration

Other

Sewage
Sludge
Disposal

Spain

18391

460086

46851

5504

Austria

98700

44800

147600

102100

(TDS)

Portugal

90373

44000

12627

5934

1170

1896

188853

577668

233289

111090

Denmark

13305

77115

32853

109463

Ireland

14944

3363

16177

The Netherlands

68000

110000

200000

23000

101047

56294

1053000

234000

13000

France

67305

606695

255001

Finland

14540

23820

121150

Greece

90000

6000

Luxembourg
UK

Sweden
Italy

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

45937

www.ulster.ac.uk

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications

Techno-Economic Analysis
Aim: to perform a techno-economic assessment of sewage
sludge gasification for CHP applications
3 gasification technologies: fixed bed
fluidised bed
spouted bed
CHP unit: engine, generator, heat recovery, control, exhaust
100% sewage sludge, 20% coal, 50% wood

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

www.ulster.ac.uk

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications

ECLIPSE process flow simulator


Process Flow Diagram
Databases: chemical, cost, utility
Technical Data
Mass & Energy Balance
Economic Evaluation
- capital costs, fuel costs, electricity selling price
- sensitivity analyses e.g.scale or conditions

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

www.ulster.ac.uk

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications


Fixed Bed Gasifier CHP System

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications


Fluidised Bed Gasifier CHP System

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications


Spouted Bed Gasifier CHP System

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications


Feedstock Composition

Sludge
Carbon

Coal

Wood

54.26

84.00

46.07

8.67

5.70

6.32

Oxygen

32.43

6.06

47.61

Nitrogen

4.65

1.50

0.01

Sulphur

0.96

2.60

0.00

Hydrogen

Chlorine
LHV (MJ/kg)

0.14
20.42

34.35

18.91

25

6.30

8.53

18.78

6.20

1.78

Prox. Anal. (wt %ar)


Moisture
Ash

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

www.ulster.ac.uk

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications


Technical Performance 100% sewage sludge
Spouted Bed

Fluidised Bed Fixed Bed

Thermal input (kJ/s)

5740

5740

5740

Engine output, (kW)

1050

1130

950

Fan (kW)

42

45

37

Solid separation (kW)

20

20

20

Conveyer (kW)

30

30

30

Total (KW)

92

95

87

958

1035

863

Thermal output (KWth)

2517

2787

2453

Efficiency (electric), % (LHV)

16.69

18.03

15.04

Efficiency (CHP), % (LHV)

60.53

66.58

57.77

Capital Cost (1000s Euro)

2647

2697

2585

Net power output (KWe)

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

www.ulster.ac.uk

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications


Technical Performance 80% sewage, 20% coal
Spouted Bed

Fluidised Bed Fixed Bed

Thermal input (kJ/s)

6464

6464

6464

Engine output, (kW)

1305

1348

1214

Fan (kW)

42

45

37

Solid separation (kW)

20

20

20

Conveyer (kW)

30

30

30

Total (KW)

92

95

87

Net power output (KWe)

1305

1348

1214

Thermal output (KWth)

3013

3150

2947

Efficiency (electric), % (LHV)

20.19

20.85

18.78

Efficiency (CHP), % (LHV)

66.80

69.59

64.37

Capital Cost (1000s Euro)

2858

2914

2792

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

www.ulster.ac.uk

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications


Technical Performance 50% sewage, 50% wood
Spouted Bed

Fluidised Bed Fixed Bed

Thermal input (kJ/s)

6026

6026

6026

Engine output, (kW)

1179

1247

1079

Fan (kW)

34

39

34

Solid separation (kW)

20

20

20

Conveyer (kW)

30

30

30

Total (KW)

84

89

84

Net power output (KWe)

1179

1247

1079

Thermal output (KWth)

2532

2744

2550

Efficiency (electric), % (LHV)

19.56

20.69

17.90

Efficiency (CHP), % (LHV)

61.58

66.23

60.22

Capital Cost (1000s Euro)

2726

2778

2663

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

www.ulster.ac.uk

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications

Economic Evaluation
- Some factors considered
Sewage: availability, transport, gate fee, ash disposal
Drying: full drying integration, transportation of wet or dry?
Size: >500,000 PE STW
Sludge produced in each

less than 100 in Europe


10,000-50,000 TDS/year

1MWe SSgasf CHP plant

16,000 TDS/year

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

www.ulster.ac.uk

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications


Electricity Selling Price: Plant size limited cost analysis

BEESP (C/kWh)

8.00
7.50
7.00
6.50
6.00
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

Plant size (kWe)


Spouted Bed

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

Fixed Bed

Fluidised Bed

www.ulster.ac.uk

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications


Electricity Selling Price: Co-utilisation limited cost analysis

7.00
BEESP (c/kWh)

6.80
6.60
6.40
6.20
6.00
5.80
5.60
Spouted Bed
100% sludge

Fixed Bed
80%sludge/20%coal

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

Fluidised Bed
50%sludge/50%wood

www.ulster.ac.uk

SEWAGE

Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge for CHP Applications


Electricity Selling Price: 1MWe Fluidised Bed CHP
STW drying, no transportation
BEESP
Heat sold back to STW

6.06
3.36

Integrated drying, no transportation

BEESP (c/kWh)
ash disposal
7.44
4.74
30+

(150E/t)

Required fee/ cost avoidance to reduce BEESP?


163 E/t

5FP Contract No. ENK5-CT2000-00050

2.73

www.ulster.ac.uk