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SUPPORTED AND CANTILEVER BEAMS

1.1 INTRODUCTION

In this laboratory activity, students will be exposed to the apparatus and

the procedures to carry out experiment on beams - Part 2 to determine the

deflection of the simply supported and cantilever beams.

1.2 OBJECTIVE

The objective of the experiment is:

To establish the relationship between deflection and applied load

for simply supported beam and cantilever beams, hence determine the

elastic modulus of the specimen from the deflection data.

1.3 LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of the laboratory activities, students would be able to:

Identify and use the correct apparatus/tools to carry out experiment on beams;

Work in a group to undertake the task; and

Collect and analyze the data correctly and produce the technical report.

The deflection of a beam depends on its length, its cross-sectional shape,

the material, where the deflecting force is applied, and how the beam is

supported.

The deflection is measured from the original neutral surface of the beam

to the neutral surface of the deformed beam. The configuration assumed

by the deformed neutral surface is known as the elastic curve of the beam

The maximum deflection of a simply supported beam loaded with a load W at the middle of the

span is given by;

Rewriting,

Numerous methods are available for determination of beam deflections. Some of these methods

such as Integration Method and Macaulays Method have been introduced in the previous course,

ECS238 Basic Solid Mechanics. Another common method that can be used to solve for

deflection at any point on a structure is the method of virtual work or sometimes referred to as

the Unit Load Method.

In this experiment, the group is required to compare the deflection of various types of beams

under loads with those obtained from theory.

3.1 APPARATUS

a) Simply Support Beam

i. A support frame

ii. A simply supported beam

iii. A load hanger a dial gauge with 0.01 mm accuracy to measuring deflection

iv. Beam specimen with constant depth and width throughout its length

v. A caliper to measure the depth and width of the beam specimen

vi. A meter ruler or tape measure to measure the span of the beam

vii. A set of weights

b) Cantilever Beam

i. A support frame

ii. A fixed support with clamping facility

iii. A load hanger a dial gauge with 0.01 mm accuracy to measuring deflection

iv. Beam specimen with constant depth and width throughout its length

v. A caliper to measure the depth and width of the beam specimen

vi. A meter ruler or tape measure to measure the span of the beam

vii. A set of weights

3.2 PROCEDURES

a) Simply Support Beam

i. Width and depth of specimen being measured and the readings was recorded.

ii. Beam specimen for simply supported beam was set up.

iii. The load hanger was fixed at the desired distance from the beam.

iv. The dial gauge on the top of the load ganger was placed and the resulting deflection was

measured.

v. The dial gauge was set to zero.

vi. Suitable load was place on the load hanger.

vii. The resulting dial gauge reading was recorded

viii. The load on the hanger was increased.

ix. Step v and vii was repeated for a few load increments.

x. The test being repeated to obtain another set of readings.

b) Cantilever Beam

i. The width and depth of specimen being measured and the readings was recorded.

ii. The beam specimen was placed between the sandwich plates and the clamping screws were

tightened.

iii. The load cell locking screws was unlocked and the dial gauge was pushed away from the

vertical shaft.

iv. The locking screws at the shaft was adjusted so that both of the screws were pressed the shaft

and the shaft was vertical.

v. The load hanger was fixed at the desired distance from the beam.

vi. The dial gauge on the top of the load hanger was placed and the resulting deflection was

recorded.

vii. The dial gauge was set to zero.

viii. A suitable load was placed on the load hanger.

ix. The resulting dial gauge reading was recorded.

x. The load on the load hanger was increased.

xi. Step vii until x was repeated for a few more load increments.

xii. The above test was repeated to obtain another set of readings.

3.3 Results

a) Simply Support Beam

Span of tested beam, L = 86.2mm

Width of beam specimen, b = 25mm

Depth of beam specimen, d = 0.6mm

Moment of inertia of beam specimen, (bd3/12) = 0.45mm4

Dial gauge reading, 1 div = 0.01 mm

Table 1 : Deflection Results for Simply Supported Beam

Applied Load

(N)

N

5

10

15

20

25

b) Cantilever Beam

Experimental Deflection

div

118

318

518

728

848

mm

1.18

3.18

5.18

7.28

8.48

Theoretical

Deflection

mm

2.70

5.39

8.09

10.78

13.48

Width of beam specimen, b = 25mm

Depth of beam specimen, d = 0.6mm

Moment of inertia of beam specimen, (bd3/12) =0.45 mm4

Dial gauge reading, 1 div = 0.01 mm

Table 1 : Deflection Results for Cantilever Beam

Applied Load

(N)

N

5

10

15

20

25

Experimental Deflection

div

294

613

948

1300

1659

mm

2.94

6.13

9.48

1.30

1.659

Theoretical

Deflection

mm

3.41

6.82

10.23

13.64

17.06

4.1 Analysis

4.2 Discussion and Conclusion

Based on the experiment conducted, the error deflected at the result is not same with the

theoretical. We can conclude that the percentage of the error made in this experiment is due to

human error and parallax error. The percentage of error for simply supported beam is -58.91%

while for cantilever beam is -6.96%. The percentage of error we can calculate using equation :-

The error made is because of the human error. This occurs when the force that we apply to the

load on the hanger is not same. Next is parallax error. This error occurs when the observers eye

is not squarely aligned with the pointer and scale. The reading may be to high or low.

Conclusion

From the experiment we conducted, we have obtained percentage error of 6.96% for cantilever

beam and up to 58.91% for simply supported beam. Then value of E that we got from experiment

is significantly different from the actual E (55000MPa). E for simply supported beam is

59282.77MPa while for cantilever beam is 87179.70MPa. We can conclude that E affect the

deflection of beam.

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