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aravindcv@ieee.org

it tallies the required initial acceleration and overall

performance. If the vehicle motor operational characteristics

provides high torque at constant power, the power rating of

the machine can be reduced. Besides, extended constant

power range can also recover more kinetic energy during

regenerative braking. Therefore, a motor with extended

constant power and torque is advantageous for EV and HEV

traction application. However, in order to obtain high torque

at constant power range, the motors must be specially

designed. Thus an Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM)

with dual magnetic circuit is introduced as application

specific motor for battery operated electric vehicle. Finite

element analysis is carried out for the proposed structure. For

the designed value of 1 kW machine it is able to produce 2.5

Nm torque at 150 rpm with a regeneration capability of close

to 300V.

I. INTRODUCTION

For the past few decades, greenhouse gas emission has been

the most crucial problem as they lead to many unpredictable

disasters. In the next 50 years, it is expected that the global

population will increase from 6 billion to 10 billion and the

vehicles they own will increase form 700 million to 2.5

billion [1-2]. One of the most vibrant issues on greenhouse

gas emissions reflects directly on emission gases produced by

gasoline vehicles. Besides, the ever rising concerns on natural

resources has also accelerated the development of automobile

which saves fuel by maximizing energy conservation such as

Electric-Gasoline Hybrid Vehicle and Battery operated

Electric Vehicle (BEV) [3]. Typically for BEV drive train

application, the electric motors deployed should have the

capabilities of high torque at constant power which promotes

towards a highly efficient system which determines the

driving range and performance. A large number of motor

types and technologies were considered, developed and

employed in the past decades. However the choice is limited

by the availability of motor, the electronic control

technologies together with the traction requirements. [1-5].

Currently, Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) Permanent

Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM) have been widely

selected by international automakers such as Toyota, Nissan

and Tesla which they believe the best motor to satisfy BEV

characteristic. Besides, IPM-PMSM have also gained fame

through reliability based on market test for the past few years

[6-11]. However, IPM-PMSM motors are much expensive,

difficult to maintain and often demands high energy source to

produce the desired output which limits the driving range.

for EV propulsion system as they are capable of producing

much high torque compared to Radial Flux machines in the

same volume. It is also noted that AFM usually are being

developed in less complicated coil design which makes them

easy to maintain and reliable which indirectly promotes

towards a cheaper alternative to automakers. Likewise radial

system, to maximize the flux density, AFM is also widely

considered to be designed and developed with dual flux

system. As such, Dual Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Motor

have been simulated and the results were been discussed. To

obtain the required extended constant power range on EV, a

multi-gear transmission is used in combination with a motor

with a narrow constant power range. An example of a motor

technology with limited constant power range is the radial

permanent magnet motor. However, the multi-gear

transmission complicates the structure and lowers the

efficiency of the propulsion system. Furthermore the

machines suffer from a difficulty in flux weakening control

at the constant power high speed region. Separation of the airgap flux due to the permanent magnet flux and field winding

flux through the dual flux makes it more attractive.

The major requirements of such traction motor drives invokes

[6-8].

1.

2.

3.

4.

Extended constant power range

Fast response torque

Low noise and high reliability

traction motor is as shown in Figure.1.

1.4

1.2

Constant

Torque

Constant Power

Reduced Power

Power

0.8

0.6

Torque

0.4

0.2

Base Speed

Critical Speed

3

2

Speed [Per unit]

2.1

Design Concepts

is as shown in the Figure 2. The torque production occurs at

the air-gap surface of the permanent magnet and the electromagnetic flow caused due to the current flow in the coil. The

torque density depends on the magnetic force available in the

airgap. This is influenced by the way the magnetic circuit is

established. The magnetic flux flow in such type of machine

can be through the radial flux or through the axial flux. The

choice of axial or radial type of flux flow depends on the

applications requirement. For instance in case of electric

vehicle the diameter of the machine could be bigger and the

length has to be shortening because of the space weight and

transmissions limits. The choice of bigger diameter tends to

have better performance due to the flywheel effect of that of

the conventional machines. With the choice on the radial flux

flow it takes longer flux path and if the flux flow is shorten

and somehow the yoke flux could be better utilized the

utilization factor in the axial is better than that of the radial

configurations. Axial derive a lower weight and higher

utilization factor. Ideally the short magnetic flux brings more

torque density with respect to the amount of electrical and

magnetic loading in the circuit.

Stator

PM

Coil

= 0 0

diameter to the outer diameter 0 , f: frequency of rotation,

p is the number of magnetic poles.

The peak value of the air gap phase EMF for the radial flux

machine is as in Eq. (3).

= (1 0 2 )0 2

Airgap

PM

Rotor Motion

Flux Flow

Figure 2. Magnetic Flow Concept

configurations topology.

The output power (P) for any electrical machine is expressed

as in Eq. (1).

(3)

Rotor

(4)

(1)

by the machine is the torque constant.

Stator

1

0

0

1 +

2

stack length of Radial Flux machine is relatively silent on the

motor torque performance. However the stack length is

difficult to reduce as practically it is needed to accommodate

the coils of the stator. This entire situation has promoted axial

motor design as better alternative as the stack length can be

reduced which will promote better efficiency with its reduced

volume.

2.3

= ()() =

0

(2)

winding factor, 0 is the ratio of inner diameter to that of

the outer diameter 0 . The peak phase current for the radial

flux machine is as in Eq. (4).

Rotor

2.2

The peak value of the air gap phase EMF for the radial flux

machine is as in Eq. (2).

Stator

Coil

Airgap

(b) internal rotor

Figure 4. Slotted Axial Configuration

double rotor and double stator concept brings challenging

aspects in the fabrication though at the simulation these

machines perform very well [6]. It derives drawback in the

unbalancing of the flux flow and also invokes much of

vibration and noise in reluctance machine design and failed

redundancy in synchronous machines. In the axial topology

this is not challenged as the flux flow is in axial direction and

also the diameter of the stator rotors involved in the torque

production of the same surface level. Now introducing the

dual axial flux flow is possible with three possible structures

as in Figure. 5. Figure 5 (a) and (b) are used already tested

in some of the commercial applications [12-14].

(6)

/2

= 2

/2

End Plate

Parameter

Stator

End Plate

Requirement

Type

Motor volume

Do 129mm x Di 50.8mm x

L 43mm

Cogging torque

Operational

temperature

Drive electronics

80 C

Six pulse PWM drives

= 0.5 (02 2 )

Stator 1

Rotor

(7)

electrical loading and magnetic loading. The maximum

electromagnetic force is given as in Eq. (8)

=

Stator 2

= 0.5 (02 2 )

(8)

produce the can be calculated as in Eq. (9).

=

(b) Single Rotor Double Stator

Figure 5. Axial Flow Configurations

poles and slots are worked out. The performance coefficient

and magnet operating point is found for the magnetic circuit.

The size, shape and energy product of the magnet are

determined for the magnetic loading. Once the magnetic

loading is calculated to carry maximum flux in the given

magnetic circuit, the electrical loading is worked out. The

current required to generate the required motor output torque

is then determined. Given the desired back-EMF at rated

speed, the number of conductors for generating the backEMF is calculated. The phase inductance and winding

resistance are computed from the winding information. The

torque relation to the sizing of the motor [15-16] is given as

in Eq.(6)- (7).

(9)

=

The design approach starts with basic motor geometrical

constraints and performance requirement of the motor for the

required application. The volume for stator assembly and

rotor assembly is apportioned from the given overall

dimensional specification of the motor. The motor stack

length and air gap diameter are fixed as per the interface

requirement. Once the motor volume is fixed, the magnetic

loading for the torque production is calculated.

0.5 (02 2 )

0.5 (02 2 )

(10)

=

(11)

=

(12)

From the above the turns per slot and the maximum current

density of the machine designed is computed for the specified

sizing of the machine based on the initial design on capability

of the machine which is later used in the simulation study of

the machine using the FEA tool.

3.2 Magnetic Circuit Analysis

The windings are of the two stators are connected in series

therefore the factor of 2 is required in the calculations. With

two stators each having slots per phase, the phase

resistance and the phase inductance can be calculated

as in Eq. (13)- Eq. (14).

= 2 ( + )

(13)

= 2 ( + + )

(14)

g/2

detailing as shown in Table III.

Stator 1

Rs1

2Rg

Airgap 1

2Rg

End Plate

r/2

Rm

2Rm

r/2

2Rm

Magnet

Stator 1

Airgap 2

Stator 2

Rm

2Rg

2Rg

Rs2

g/2

Stator 2

End Plate

Rs2 :Stator 2 reluctance g :Airgap Flux R :Remnant Flux

From the Figure 6 invokes two magnetic circuits the effective

magnetic permeance ( ) is given as in Eq. (15).

th Magnet Section

120

(15)

130 mm

= + 2

permeance of the magnetic path.

By the principle in flux division the air gap flux ( ) is related

to the magnetic flux as in Eq. (16).

= (

Back Iron

(16)

(a). Rotor Magnet Design

Coil Base

= (

(17)

1

1+

2 )

inferred that the flux in the airgap is increased due to the

proposed dual surface that reduced the air-gap into half

compared to that of the conventional structure. In this paper

it is proposed to have a double stator double rotor

configuration (as in Figure 5(c)) wherein the system could act

in tandem or in separate about the common axis.

IV. PRELIMINARY DESIGN

Based on the design equations and the magnetic circuit a

design approach to the proposed structure is as shown in

Figure 7.

Figure 8(a) shows the rotor surface design and the quarter

section of magnet placing is shown. Figure 8(b) shows the

coil surface base and the coil groupings.

Figure 8(c) shows the assembled sandwiched model of the

stator and the rotor. Figure 8(d) brings the sandwiched

configuration with end capping on both the sides. End turns

are taken from the coil leads for connecting to the external

A1

B1 C1

B2

C3

A2

A3

B3 C2

1/4th Magnet

(up side)

Double Sided Coil

1/4th Magnet

(bottom side)

(a)

(b)

Figure 8. Structural Configuration of the proposed machine

TABLE III. DESIGN PARAMETERS USED

Parameters

Rated Speed

Rated Power

Number of phases

Number of magnets

Number of armature core

Magnet type

Motor overall diameter

Motor axial diameter

Number of turns/ phase

Type of winding

Total amp-turns

Conductor Material

Core Material

Term/Values

150 rpm

1 kW

3

12 X 4 sets

9

N40

500 mm

50 mm

1000

Concentrated

12000 A-t

Copper alloy

M22 Steel

Preliminary designed motor is modeled in finite element

based electromagnetic software for flux density analysis in

the airgap, magnetic core and magnet rotor return ring. The

material properties are assigned to the stator, airgap and rotor

parts in the model. Figure 10 shows boundary setting,

meshing and the magnetic flux flow directions for the

proposed machine. Static 2D and transient motion solver is

used to solve the model [4].The permanent magnet in the

rotor assembly is assigned with NdFeB material. The

flowchart for the FEA analysis is as shown in Figure 9. The

model with only permanent magnet excitation is solved in

static 2D solver. Figure 10 shows the FEA results from the

numerical tool.

Start

Structure

parameters

Structure Modeling

Changes

(c)

Figure 10. Finite Element Analysis

(a) Boundary Element (b) Meshing (c) Magnetic Flux

Density

VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4

3

2

Phase B

Phase A

Phase C

1

0

-1

-2

-3

-40

20

40

60

80 100 120

Rotational Angle [Deg.]

140

160

180

Figure 11 above proves that the simulated design is

acceptable as the static analysis produced a smooth waveform

with not short circuit in between phases.

0.240

Development of Mesh

0.232

Element Calculation

Material or

current

configuration

0.224

Magnetic Analysis

0.216

Result

0.208

No

Acceptable?

Yes

End

0.200

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

1

[4]

0

[5]

-1

[6]

-2

[7]

-3

60

80

100

Rotational Angle [Deg.]

220

240

[8]

running at 150 rpm

Figure 13 is the result obtained through dynamic analysis

via Ansys Simulation Tool. With inot voltage of 330 Vac and

constant current of 2A phase, the simulated model able to

produce approximately 2.5Nm of torque. However this

proposed design is still a raw idea which can be optimized

further to achieve much higher torque.

[9]

dynamic condition to evaluate the regenerative properties. As

what expected in the static analysis at 100 degree the

regenerative voltage of 330V was captured, also at 60 degree

of rotational angle 0V was captured.

[11]

[10]

[12]

[13]

VII. CONCLUSIONS

The design variations in the axial flux flow pertaining to the

use in EV is presented. A dual axial flux flow through double

rotor (exterior rotor) and sandwiched stator is presented. The

magnetic circuit analysis is done and the designed machine is

modelled, designed and simulated using the standard FEA

tool and the preliminary result on the torque is presented.

Suggestion on the improvement on the design is presented.

500

100 rpm

300

Voltage V [V]

150 rpm

50 rpm

200

100

[17]

[18]

0

-100

[19]

[20]

-200

-300

-400

20

Rotor position [Degree]

structure

[15]

[16]

400

-500 0

[14]

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