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Design Consideration of Dual Axial Flux Motor

for Electric Vehicle Applications


aravindcv@ieee.org

AbstractVehicle dynamic depends on the power rating as


it tallies the required initial acceleration and overall
performance. If the vehicle motor operational characteristics
provides high torque at constant power, the power rating of
the machine can be reduced. Besides, extended constant
power range can also recover more kinetic energy during
regenerative braking. Therefore, a motor with extended
constant power and torque is advantageous for EV and HEV
traction application. However, in order to obtain high torque
at constant power range, the motors must be specially
designed. Thus an Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM)
with dual magnetic circuit is introduced as application
specific motor for battery operated electric vehicle. Finite
element analysis is carried out for the proposed structure. For
the designed value of 1 kW machine it is able to produce 2.5
Nm torque at 150 rpm with a regeneration capability of close
to 300V.

I. INTRODUCTION
For the past few decades, greenhouse gas emission has been
the most crucial problem as they lead to many unpredictable
disasters. In the next 50 years, it is expected that the global
population will increase from 6 billion to 10 billion and the
vehicles they own will increase form 700 million to 2.5
billion [1-2]. One of the most vibrant issues on greenhouse
gas emissions reflects directly on emission gases produced by
gasoline vehicles. Besides, the ever rising concerns on natural
resources has also accelerated the development of automobile
which saves fuel by maximizing energy conservation such as
Electric-Gasoline Hybrid Vehicle and Battery operated
Electric Vehicle (BEV) [3]. Typically for BEV drive train
application, the electric motors deployed should have the
capabilities of high torque at constant power which promotes
towards a highly efficient system which determines the
driving range and performance. A large number of motor
types and technologies were considered, developed and
employed in the past decades. However the choice is limited
by the availability of motor, the electronic control
technologies together with the traction requirements. [1-5].
Currently, Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) Permanent
Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM) have been widely
selected by international automakers such as Toyota, Nissan
and Tesla which they believe the best motor to satisfy BEV
characteristic. Besides, IPM-PMSM have also gained fame
through reliability based on market test for the past few years
[6-11]. However, IPM-PMSM motors are much expensive,
difficult to maintain and often demands high energy source to
produce the desired output which limits the driving range.

Recently, Axial flux Machine (AFM) are being considered


for EV propulsion system as they are capable of producing
much high torque compared to Radial Flux machines in the
same volume. It is also noted that AFM usually are being
developed in less complicated coil design which makes them
easy to maintain and reliable which indirectly promotes
towards a cheaper alternative to automakers. Likewise radial
system, to maximize the flux density, AFM is also widely
considered to be designed and developed with dual flux
system. As such, Dual Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Motor
have been simulated and the results were been discussed. To
obtain the required extended constant power range on EV, a
multi-gear transmission is used in combination with a motor
with a narrow constant power range. An example of a motor
technology with limited constant power range is the radial
permanent magnet motor. However, the multi-gear
transmission complicates the structure and lowers the
efficiency of the propulsion system. Furthermore the
machines suffer from a difficulty in flux weakening control
at the constant power high speed region. Separation of the airgap flux due to the permanent magnet flux and field winding
flux through the dual flux makes it more attractive.
The major requirements of such traction motor drives invokes
[6-8].
1.
2.
3.
4.

High torque density and power density


Extended constant power range
Fast response torque
Low noise and high reliability

Typical torque power speed characteristics required for


traction motor is as shown in Figure.1.
1.4
1.2

Torque [Per unit]

, Taylors University, Malaysia

Constant
Torque

Constant Power

Reduced Power

Power

0.8
0.6

Torque

0.4
0.2
Base Speed

Critical Speed

3
2
Speed [Per unit]

Figure 1. Torque Power Characteristics of the EV [6]

II. AXIAL MAGNETIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


2.1

Design Concepts

The basic principle in the magnetic circuit of the machine


is as shown in the Figure 2. The torque production occurs at
the air-gap surface of the permanent magnet and the electromagnetic flow caused due to the current flow in the coil. The
torque density depends on the magnetic force available in the
airgap. This is influenced by the way the magnetic circuit is
established. The magnetic flux flow in such type of machine
can be through the radial flux or through the axial flux. The
choice of axial or radial type of flux flow depends on the
applications requirement. For instance in case of electric
vehicle the diameter of the machine could be bigger and the
length has to be shortening because of the space weight and
transmissions limits. The choice of bigger diameter tends to
have better performance due to the flywheel effect of that of
the conventional machines. With the choice on the radial flux
flow it takes longer flux path and if the flux flow is shorten
and somehow the yoke flux could be better utilized the
utilization factor in the axial is better than that of the radial
configurations. Axial derive a lower weight and higher
utilization factor. Ideally the short magnetic flux brings more
torque density with respect to the amount of electrical and
magnetic loading in the circuit.
Stator

PM

Coil

= 0 0

where : effective stack length, 0 : is the ratio of air-gap


diameter to the outer diameter 0 , f: frequency of rotation,
p is the number of magnetic poles.
The peak value of the air gap phase EMF for the radial flux
machine is as in Eq. (3).

= (1 0 2 )0 2

Airgap

PM

Rotor Motion
Flux Flow
Figure 2. Magnetic Flow Concept

Tradeoff between Radial and Axial Flux flow

Figure. 3 and Figure 4 shows the radial and the axial


configurations topology.
The output power (P) for any electrical machine is expressed
as in Eq. (1).

(3)

Rotor

Figure 3. Slotted Radial Configuration

(4)

Axial Flux Flow Configurations

(1)

where : efficiency, : number of phases T : Torque exerted


by the machine is the torque constant.

Stator

1
0
0
1 +
2

With reference to the above equations, it is notable that the


stack length of Radial Flux machine is relatively silent on the
motor torque performance. However the stack length is
difficult to reduce as practically it is needed to accommodate
the coils of the stator. This entire situation has promoted axial
motor design as better alternative as the stack length can be
reduced which will promote better efficiency with its reduced
volume.
2.3


= ()() =
0

(2)

where is the EMF factor that includes the distribution and


winding factor, 0 is the ratio of inner diameter to that of
the outer diameter 0 . The peak phase current for the radial
flux machine is as in Eq. (4).

Rotor

2.2

The peak value of the air gap phase EMF for the radial flux
machine is as in Eq. (2).

Stator
Coil

Airgap

(a) external rotor


(b) internal rotor
Figure 4. Slotted Axial Configuration

In the radial machines, the concept of dual axis flow or the


double rotor and double stator concept brings challenging
aspects in the fabrication though at the simulation these
machines perform very well [6]. It derives drawback in the
unbalancing of the flux flow and also invokes much of
vibration and noise in reluctance machine design and failed
redundancy in synchronous machines. In the axial topology
this is not challenged as the flux flow is in axial direction and
also the diameter of the stator rotors involved in the torque
production of the same surface level. Now introducing the
dual axial flux flow is possible with three possible structures
as in Figure. 5. Figure 5 (a) and (b) are used already tested
in some of the commercial applications [12-14].

(6)

/2

= 2

/2

End Plate

TABLE II. REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION OF MOTOR


Parameter

Stator

End Plate

(a) Single Stator Double Rotor

Requirement

Type

Dual Axial Flux Topology

Motor volume

Do 129mm x Di 50.8mm x
L 43mm

Cogging torque

< 2 % of Peak torque

Operational
temperature
Drive electronics

80 C
Six pulse PWM drives

= 0.5 (02 2 )

Stator 1
Rotor

(7)

The torque output of the motor which is the product of


electrical loading and magnetic loading. The maximum
electromagnetic force is given as in Eq. (8)
=

Stator 2


= 0.5 (02 2 )

(8)

From the above the number of turns per slot required to


produce the can be calculated as in Eq. (9).
=
(b) Single Rotor Double Stator
Figure 5. Axial Flow Configurations

III. DESIGN METHODOLOGY

The magnetic circuit details determining the number of


poles and slots are worked out. The performance coefficient
and magnet operating point is found for the magnetic circuit.
The size, shape and energy product of the magnet are
determined for the magnetic loading. Once the magnetic
loading is calculated to carry maximum flux in the given
magnetic circuit, the electrical loading is worked out. The
current required to generate the required motor output torque
is then determined. Given the desired back-EMF at rated
speed, the number of conductors for generating the backEMF is calculated. The phase inductance and winding
resistance are computed from the winding information. The
torque relation to the sizing of the motor [15-16] is given as
in Eq.(6)- (7).

(9)

The slot current is calculated using the Eq. (10)


=

3.1 Sizing of the Machine


The design approach starts with basic motor geometrical
constraints and performance requirement of the motor for the
required application. The volume for stator assembly and
rotor assembly is apportioned from the given overall
dimensional specification of the motor. The motor stack
length and air gap diameter are fixed as per the interface
requirement. Once the motor volume is fixed, the magnetic
loading for the torque production is calculated.

0.5 (02 2 )

0.5 (02 2 )

(10)

The phase current is given as in Eq. (11).


=

(11)

The current density is given as in Eq. (12)


=

(12)

From the above the turns per slot and the maximum current
density of the machine designed is computed for the specified
sizing of the machine based on the initial design on capability
of the machine which is later used in the simulation study of
the machine using the FEA tool.
3.2 Magnetic Circuit Analysis
The windings are of the two stators are connected in series
therefore the factor of 2 is required in the calculations. With
two stators each having slots per phase, the phase
resistance and the phase inductance can be calculated
as in Eq. (13)- Eq. (14).
= 2 ( + )

(13)

= 2 ( + + )

(14)

g/2

electrical network. The developed model is based on the


detailing as shown in Table III.

Stator 1
Rs1

2Rg

Airgap 1

2Rg

End Plate
r/2

Rm

2Rm

r/2

2Rm

Magnet

Stator 1

Airgap 2

Stator 2

Rm

2Rg

2Rg
Rs2

g/2

Stator 2

End Plate

Rg :Air gap reluctance Rm :Magnetic reluctance Rs1 :Stator 1 reluctance


Rs2 :Stator 2 reluctance g :Airgap Flux R :Remnant Flux

Figure 6. Magnetic Circuit for the proposed structure


From the Figure 6 invokes two magnetic circuits the effective
magnetic permeance ( ) is given as in Eq. (15).

th Magnet Section
120

(15)

130 mm

= + 2

Figure 7 Double Stator Double Rotor

where net permeance due to the magnetic structure and


permeance of the magnetic path.
By the principle in flux division the air gap flux ( ) is related
to the magnetic flux as in Eq. (16).

= (

Back Iron

(16)
(a). Rotor Magnet Design

Coil Base

The flux in the air-gap ( ) is as shown in Eq. (17).

= (

(17)

1
1+

2 )

Based on the above equations the magnetic circuits it is


inferred that the flux in the airgap is increased due to the
proposed dual surface that reduced the air-gap into half
compared to that of the conventional structure. In this paper
it is proposed to have a double stator double rotor
configuration (as in Figure 5(c)) wherein the system could act
in tandem or in separate about the common axis.
IV. PRELIMINARY DESIGN
Based on the design equations and the magnetic circuit a
design approach to the proposed structure is as shown in
Figure 7.
Figure 8(a) shows the rotor surface design and the quarter
section of magnet placing is shown. Figure 8(b) shows the
coil surface base and the coil groupings.
Figure 8(c) shows the assembled sandwiched model of the
stator and the rotor. Figure 8(d) brings the sandwiched
configuration with end capping on both the sides. End turns
are taken from the coil leads for connecting to the external

A1
B1 C1
B2
C3
A2
A3
B3 C2

(b) Coil Placements

1/4th Magnet
(up side)
Double Sided Coil
1/4th Magnet
(bottom side)

(c) Sandwiched magnet and coil

(a)

(b)

(d) End Casing with the machine casings


Figure 8. Structural Configuration of the proposed machine
TABLE III. DESIGN PARAMETERS USED

Parameters
Rated Speed
Rated Power
Number of phases
Number of magnets
Number of armature core
Magnet type
Motor overall diameter
Motor axial diameter
Number of turns/ phase
Type of winding
Total amp-turns
Conductor Material
Core Material

Term/Values
150 rpm
1 kW
3
12 X 4 sets
9
N40
500 mm
50 mm
1000
Concentrated
12000 A-t
Copper alloy
M22 Steel

V. FINITE ELEMENT DESIGN AND ANALYSIS


Preliminary designed motor is modeled in finite element
based electromagnetic software for flux density analysis in
the airgap, magnetic core and magnet rotor return ring. The
material properties are assigned to the stator, airgap and rotor
parts in the model. Figure 10 shows boundary setting,
meshing and the magnetic flux flow directions for the
proposed machine. Static 2D and transient motion solver is
used to solve the model [4].The permanent magnet in the
rotor assembly is assigned with NdFeB material. The
flowchart for the FEA analysis is as shown in Figure 9. The
model with only permanent magnet excitation is solved in
static 2D solver. Figure 10 shows the FEA results from the
numerical tool.
Start

Structure
parameters

Structure Modeling

Changes

(c)
Figure 10. Finite Element Analysis
(a) Boundary Element (b) Meshing (c) Magnetic Flux
Density
VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4

3
2

Phase B

Phase A

Phase C

1
0
-1
-2
-3

-40

20

40

60
80 100 120
Rotational Angle [Deg.]

140

160

180

Figure 11 Flux Linkage in the coils


Figure 11 above proves that the simulated design is
acceptable as the static analysis produced a smooth waveform
with not short circuit in between phases.
0.240

Development of Mesh
0.232

Element Calculation
Material or
current

Declaration of material and


configuration

0.224

Magnetic Analysis

0.216

Result
0.208

No

Acceptable?
Yes
End

0.200
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

Rotational Angle [Deg.]

Figure 9. Flow chart used in the FEA

Figure 12 Inductance Characteristics

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[2]

[3]

1
[4]

0
[5]

-1
[6]

-2
[7]

-3
60

80

100

120 140 160 180 200


Rotational Angle [Deg.]

220

240
[8]

Figure 13 Static Torque Characteristics with 2A current


running at 150 rpm
Figure 13 is the result obtained through dynamic analysis
via Ansys Simulation Tool. With inot voltage of 330 Vac and
constant current of 2A phase, the simulated model able to
produce approximately 2.5Nm of torque. However this
proposed design is still a raw idea which can be optimized
further to achieve much higher torque.

[9]

The proposed design was also been further simulated under


dynamic condition to evaluate the regenerative properties. As
what expected in the static analysis at 100 degree the
regenerative voltage of 330V was captured, also at 60 degree
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[11]

[10]

[12]
[13]

VII. CONCLUSIONS
The design variations in the axial flux flow pertaining to the
use in EV is presented. A dual axial flux flow through double
rotor (exterior rotor) and sandwiched stator is presented. The
magnetic circuit analysis is done and the designed machine is
modelled, designed and simulated using the standard FEA
tool and the preliminary result on the torque is presented.
Suggestion on the improvement on the design is presented.
500
100 rpm

300

Voltage V [V]

150 rpm

50 rpm

200
100

[17]

[18]

0
-100

[19]
[20]

-200
-300
-400
20

40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180


Rotor position [Degree]

Figure 14 Regenerative voltage capability of the proposed


structure

[15]

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-500 0

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