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Human Resource Management (HRM) is a management function that helps mangers recruit,
select, train and develops members for an organization. Obviously, HRM is concern with the
peoples dimension in organizations.
Human resource management refers to a set of programmes; functions and activities
designed and carried out in order to maximize both employees as well as organizational
effectiveness. It is the process of binding people and organizations together so that the objectives
of each are achieved.
HRM involves the application of management function and principles. The functions and
principles are applied to acquisitioning, developing, maintaining, and remunerating employees in
Human resource management means employing people, developing their resources,
utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with job and organizational
requirements. HR is the most significant factor of production every human being is born with
tremendous potential. HR refers to the knowledge, skills, and beliefs of an organizations
workplace. Enhance their skills, abilities; knowledge in accordance with the changing
requirements of groups, organization and society is the essence of HRD.
Human Resource Development (HRD) is a continuous process to ensure the development
of employee dynamism, effectiveness, competencies and motivation in a systematic and planned
HRD includes potential development, fast achievement, skill development, ability to
reach out, systems development, understanding of subordinates goals, greater commitment
existing and creating climate, developing integration etc. One of the important mechanisms of
HRD is training and development.


Human resource management is the recruitment, selection, development, utilization of and
accommodation of human resources by organizations. The human resource of an organization
consists of all individuals regardless of their role, who are engaged in any of the organizations

According to Flippo:
Human resource management is the planning, organizing, directing and controlling of
the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance and reproduction of
human resources to the end that individual, organizational and societal objectives are

According to Milkovich and Boudrean:

Human resource management is a series of integrated decisions that form the
employment relationship, their quality contributes to the ability of the organizations and the
employees to achieve their objectives.
Human resource management is a management function that helps managers plan,
recruit, select, train, develop, remunerate and maintain members of an organization. It is
concerned with the peoples dimension in organizations.
Human resource managements is known by different names, such as personnel
management, manpower management, staff management and knowledge management etc.


Literature on Human resources management is fairly rich in terms of academic theories.
Success of Henry Ford and his Ford Motors in early twentieth century gave rise to the term
'Fordism' consisting of the theory that high corporate profitability can be achieved by high wages
to the employees. Even before Ford, Fredrick Winslow Taylor had propagated the 'scientific
management theory' or 'Taylorism' wherein scientific studies of processes were believed to lead
to optimum human resource utilization.
These 'modernistic' theories suffered from one grave drawback - they treated human
beings as homogeneous, ignoring the individual differences in them. Later academic theories,
often referred to as 'post-modernism' attempted to correct this folly by admitting that human
beings are complex and solutions to their problems cannot be obtained by simple thumb rules. In
recent times, the academic theory has given place to practical applications and HRM experts
today specialize in resolving individual problems of the organization in a step-by-step pattern.
This means focusing on one of the several human resource management processes
enumerated above, beginning from recruitment and ending with performance appraisal. These
days, one of their greatest challenges is managing the process of collective bargaining, or the
'contract' between employee and the organization in a way that ensures commitment of the
individual towards organizational goals. Another focus of modern HRM practices is to provide
the employees a clear understanding of these organizational goals.


The scope of HRM is indeed vast. All major activities in the working life of a worker
from the time of his or her entry into an organization until he or she leaves come under the
purview of HRM. Specifically the activities included are HR planning, job analysis and design,
recruitment and selection, orientation and placement, training and development, performance
appraisal and job evaluation, employee and executive remuneration, motivation and
communication, welfare, safety and health, industrial relations (IR) and the like. For the sake of
convenience, we can categories, we can categorise all these functions into seven sections,


1. Human resource management is a part of management discipline.
2. Human resource management is a process, just like management process.
3. Human resource management is a continuous process and not a one-stop action.
4. Human resource management is concerned with people in the organization, both present
and potential.
5. Human resource management is directed towards achievement of organizational
objectives by providing tools and techniques of managing people in the organization
6. Human resource management is relevant to all functional areas of a business
organization, such as, production, marketing, finance, research and development, etc.


Objectives are pre-determined goals to which individual or group activity in an
organization is directed. Objectives of personnel management are flounced by organizational
objectives and individual and social goals. Institutions are instituted to attain certain specific
objectives. The objectives of the economic institutions are mostly to earn profits, and of the
educational institutions are mostly impact education and or conduct research so on and forth.
However, the fundamental objectives of any organization are survival, Organizations are not just
satisfied with this goal. Further the goal of most of the organizations is growth and or profits.
Institutions procure and manage various resources including human to attain the specific
objectives. Thus, human resource are managed to divert and utilize their resources towards and
for the accomplishment of organizational objectives.
The other objectives of human resource management are to meet the needs, aspirations,
values and dignity of individual employees and having due concern for the socio-economic
problems of the community and the country.