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Latin for Beginners (Reference)

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PAGE

Preface
Display Problems
Pronunciation
Lessons I-LX: Words and Forms
Lessons LXI-LXXIX: Constructions

READING MATTER
INTRODUCTORY SUGGESTIONS
THE LABORS OF HERCULES
P. CORNELIUS LENTULUS: THE STORY OF A ROMAN BOY

194195
196203
204215

APPENDIXES AND VOCABULARIES


APPENDIX I. TABLES OF DECLENSIONS, CONJUGATIONS,
NUMERALS, ETC.

226260

APPENDIX II. RULES OF SYNTAX

261264
265282
283298
299331
332343

APPENDIX III. REVIEWS


SPECIAL VOCABULARIES
LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY

INDEX

344348

194

READING MATTER
INTRODUCTORY SUGGESTIONS
How to Translate. You have already had considerable practice in translating
simple Latin, and have learned that the guide to the meaning lies in the endings of

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the words. If these are neglected, no skill can make sense of the Latin. If they are
carefully noted and accurately translated, not many difficulties remain. Observe the
following suggestions:
1. Read the Latin sentence through to the end, noting endings of nouns, adjectives,
verbs, etc.
2. Read it again and see if any of the words you know are nominatives or
accusatives. This will often give you what may be called the backbone of the
sentence; that is, subject, verb, and object.
3. Look up the words you do not know, and determine their use in the sentence
from their endings.
4. If you cannot yet translate the sentence, put down the English meanings of all the
words in the same order as the Latin words. You will then generally see through
the meaning of the sentence.
5. Be careful to
a. Translate adjectives with the nouns to which they belong.
b. Translate together prepositions and the nouns which they govern.
c. Translate adverbs with the words that they modify.
d. Make sense. If you do not make sense, you have made a mistake. One mistake
will spoil a whole sentence.

6. When the sentence is correctly translated, read the Latin over again, and try to
understand it as Latin, without thinking of the English translation.
195

The Parts of a Sentence. You will now meet somewhat longer sentences than you
have had before. To assist in translating them, remember, first of all, that every
sentence conveys a meaning and either tells us something, asks a question, or gives
a command. Every sentence must have a subject and a verb, and the verb may
always have an adverb, and, if transitive, will have a direct object.
However long a sentence is, you will usually be able to recognize its subject, verb,
and object or predicate complement without any difficulty. These will give you the
leading thought, and they must never be lost sight of while making out the rest of
the sentence. The chief difficulty in translating arises from the fact that instead of a
single adjective, adverb, or noun, we often have a phrase or a clause taking the
place of one of these; for Latin, like English, has adjective, adverbial, and
substantive clauses and phrases. For example, in the sentence The idle boy does not
study, the word idle is an adjective. In The boy wasting his time does not study, the
words wasting his time form an adjective phrase modifying boy. In the sentence
The boy who wastes his time does not study, the words who wastes his time form an
adjective clause modifying boy, and the sentence is complex. These sentences
would show the same structure in Latin.
In translating, it is important to keep the parts of a phrase and the parts of a clause
together and not let them become confused with the principal sentence. To
distinguish between the subordinate clauses and the principal sentence is of the first
importance, and is not difficult if you remember that a clause regularly contains a

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word that marks it as a clause and that this word usually stands first. These words
join clauses to the words they depend on, and are called subordinate conjunctions.
They are not very numerous, and you will soon learn to recognize them. In Latin
they are the equivalents for such words as when, while, since, because, if, before,
after, though, in order that, that, etc. Form the habit of memorizing the Latin
subordinate conjunctions as you meet them, and of noting carefully the mood of the
verb in the clauses which they introduce.
196

HERCULES

197

THE LABORS OF HERCULES


Hercules, a Greek hero celebrated for his great strength, was pursued throughout
his life by the hatred of Juno. While yet an infant he strangled some serpents sent
by the goddess to destroy him. During his boyhood and youth he performed
various marvelous feats of strength, and on reaching manhood he succeeded in
delivering the Thebans from the oppression of the Miny. In a fit of madness, sent
upon him by Juno, he slew his own children; and, on consulting the Delphic oracle

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as to how he should cleanse himself from this crime, he was ordered to submit
himself for twelve years to Eurystheus, king of Tiryns, and to perform whatever
tasks were appointed him. Hercules obeyed the oracle, and during the twelve years
of his servitude accomplished twelve extraordinary feats known as the Labors of
Hercules. His death was caused, unintentionally, by his wife Deianira. Hercules
had shot with his poisoned arrows a centaur named Nessus, who had insulted
Deianira. Nessus, before he died, gave some of his blood to Deianira, and told her
it would act as a charm to secure her husbands love. Some time after, Deianira,
wishing to try the charm, soaked one of her husbands garments in the blood, not
knowing that it was poisoned. Hercules put on the robe, and, after suffering terrible
torments, died, or was carried off by his father Jupiter.
LIII. 1 THE INFANT HERCULES AND THE SERPENTS

D 2 grave supplicium smmit de mals, sed i


qu lgibus 3 derum prent, etiam post mortem
crantur. Illa vta ds 2 erat grtissima quae
hominibus misers tilissima fuerat. Omnium
autem praemirum summum erat immortlits.
Illud praemium Hercul datum est.

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Herculis pater fuit Iuppiter, mter Alcmna, et


omnium hominum validissimus fuisse dcitur.
Sed In, rgna derum, eum, adhc nfantem,
interficere studbat; nam e 4 et 5 Herculs et
Alcmna erant invs. Itaque msit dus
serpents, utramque saevissimam, quae medi
nocte domum 6 Alcmnae vnrunt. Ibi
Herculs, cum frtre su, nn in lectul sed in
sct ingent dormibat. Iam audcs serpents
HERCULES ET SERPENTES
adpropinquverant, iam sctum movbant. Tum
frter, terrre commtus, magn vce mtrem
vocvit, sed Herculs ipse, fortior quam frter, statim ingents serpents manibus
sus rapuit et interfcit.
1. This number refers to the lesson after which the selection may be read.
2. D and ds are from deus. Cf. 468.
3. lgibus, 501. 14.
4. e, to her, referring to Juno.
5. et ... et, both ... and.
6. domum, 501. 20.
LIV. HERCULES CONQUERS THE MINY

Herculs puer 1 corpus suum gravissims et difficillims labribus exercbat et


hc mod vrs 2 sus cnfirmvit. Iam adulscns Thbs 3 habitbat. Ibi Cren
qudam erat rx. Minyae, gns validissima, erant fnitim Thbns, et, quia lim
Thbns vcerant, quotanns lgts mittbant et vectgal postulbant. Herculs
autem cnstituit cvs sus hc vectgl lberre et dixit rg, D mihi exercitum

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tuum et ego hs superbs hosts superb. Hanc condicinem rx nn recsvit, et


Herculs nntis in omns partis dmsit et cpis cogit. 4 Tum tempore
opportnissim proelium cum Minys commsit. Di pugntum est, sed dnique ill
impetum Thbnrum sustinre nn poturunt et terga vertrunt fugamque
cprunt.
1. puer, from boyhood.
2. virs, from vs. Cf. 468.
3. Thbs, 501. 36. 1.
4. cogit, from cg.
HE COMMITS A CRIME AND GOES TO THE DELPHIAN ORACLE TO SEEK
EXPIATION

Post hoc proelium Cren rx, tant victri laetus, fliam suam Hercul in
mtrimnium dedit. Thbs Herculs cum uxre su di vvbat et ab omnibus
magnopere ambtur; sed post mults anns subit 1in furrem incidit et ipse su
man lbers sus interfcit. Post breve tempus 2ad snittem reductus tantum
scelus expire cupibat et cnstituit ad rculum Delphicum iter facere. Hoc autem
rculum erat omnium clrissimum. Ibi sedbat fmina quaedam quae Pthia
appellbtur. Ea cnsilium dabat is qu ad rculum venibant.
1. in furrem incidit, went mad.
2. ad snittem reductus, lit. led back to sanity. What in good English?

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HERCULES LEONEM SUPERAT

LV. HERCULES BECOMES SUBJECT TO EURYSTHEUS 1 HE STRANGLES THE


NEMEAN LION

Itaque Herculs Pthiae ttam rem dmonstrvit nec scelus suum abdidit. Ubi iam
Herculs fnem fcit, Pthia iussit eum ad urbem Tryntha 2 discdere et ibi rg
Eurysthe ss committere. Quae 3 ubi audvit, Herculs ad illam urbem statim
contendit et Eurysthe s in servittem trdidit et dxit, Quid prmum, rx, m

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facere iubs? Eurystheus, qu perterrbtur v et corpore ingent Herculis et eum


occid 4 studbat, ita respondit: Aud, Herculs! Multa mira 5 nrrantur d lene
saevissim qu hc tempore in valle Nemae omnia vstat. Iube t, virrum
omnium fortissimum, ill mnstr homins lberre. Haec verba Hercul maxim
placurunt. Properbo, inquit, et parb imperi 6 tu. Tum in silvs in quibus
le habitbat statim iter fcit. Mox feram vdit et plrs impets fcit; frstr tamen,
quod neque sagitts neque ll ali tl mnstrum vulnerre potuit. Dnique
Herculs saevum lenem sus ingentibus bracchis rapuit et faucs eius omnibus
vribus compressit. Hc mod brev tempore eum interfcit. Tum corpus lenis ad
oppidum in umers reportvit et pellem poste pr 7 veste gerbat. Omns autem
qu eam reginem incolbant, ubi fmam d morte lenis ingentis accprunt, erant
laetissim et Herculem laudbant verbs amplissims.
1. Eu-rystheus (pronounced U-risths) was king of Tryns, a Grecian city,
whose foundation goes back to prehistoric times.
2. Tryntha, the acc. case of Tryns, a Greek noun.
3. Quae, obj. of audvit. It is placed first to make a close connection with the
preceding sentence. This is called a connecting relative.
4. occd, pres. pass. infin.
5. mra, marvelous things, the adj. being used as a noun. Cf. omnia, in the next
line.
6. imperi, 501. 14.
7. pr, for, instead of.
LVI. SLAYING THE LERNEAN HYDRA

Deinde Herculs ab Eurysthe iussus est Hydram occdere. Itaque cum amc
Iol 1 contendit ad paldem Lernaeam ubi Hydra incolbat. Hoc autem mnstrum
erat serpns ingns quae novem capita habbat. Mox is mnstrum repperit et
summ 2 cum percul collum eius sinistr man rapuit et tenuit. Tum dextr man
capita novem abscdere incpit, sed frstr labrbat, quod quotins hoc fcerat
totins alia nova capita vidbat. Quod 3 ubi vdit, statuit capita ign cremre. Hc
mod oct capita dlvit, sed extrmum caput vulnerr nn potuit, quod erat
immortle. Itaque illud sub ingent sax Herculs posuit et ita victriam reportvit.
1. Iol, abl. of I-o-lus, the heros best friend.
2. Note the emphatic position of this adjective.
3. Quod ubi, when he saw this, another instance of the connecting relative. Cf.
p. 199, l. 3.
LVII. THE ARCADIAN STAG AND THE ERYMANTHIAN BOAR

201

Postquam Eurysthe mors Hydrae nuntiata est, summus terror animum eius
occupavit. Itaque iussit Herculem capere et ad s reportre cervum quendam; nam
minim cupvit tantum virum in rgn su tenre. Hie autem cervus dcbtur aurea
cornua et peds mult 1 celerirs vent 2 habre. Prmum Herculs vestgia
animlis petvit, deinde, ubi cervum ipsum vdit, omnibus vribus currere incpit.
Per plrims dis contendit nec noct cessvit. Dnique postquam per ttum

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annum cucurreratita dciturcervum iam dfessum cpit et ad Eurystheum


portvit.
Tum vr iussus est Herculs aprum quendam capere qu ill tempore agrs
Erymanthis vstbat et homins illus loc magnopere perterrbat. Herculs laet
negtium suscpit et in Arcadiam celeriter s recpit. Ibi mox aprum repperit. Ille
autem; simul atque Herculem vdit, statim quam 3 celerrim fgit et met
perterritus in fossam altam ss abdidit. Herculs tamen summ cum difficultte
eum extrxit, nec aper ll mod ss lberre potuit, et vvus ad Eurystheum
porttus est.
1. mult, 501. 27.
2. vent, 501. 34.
3. quam. What is the force of quam with a superlative?
LVIII. HERCULES CLEANS THE AUGEAN STABLES AND KILLS THE
STYMPHALIAN BIRDS

Deinde Eurystheus Hercul hunc labrem mult gravirem impervit. Augs 1


qudam, qu ill tempore rgnum lidis 2 obtinbat, tria mlia boum 3 habbat. H 4
ingent stabul continbantur. Hoc stabulum, quod per trgint anns nn prgtum
erat, Herculs intr spatium nus di prgre iussus est. llle negtium alacriter
suscpit, et prmum labre gravissim maximam fossam fdit per quam flminis
aquam d montibus ad mrum stabul dxit. Tum partem parvam mr dlvit et
aquam in stabulum immsit. Hc mod fnm operis fcit n di facillim.
Post paucs dis Herculs ad oppidum Stymphlum iter fcit; nam Eurystheus
iusserat eum avis Stymphlids occdere. Hae avs rstra ferrea habbant et
homins misers dvorbant. Ille, postquam ad locum pervnit, lacum vdit in qu
avs incolbant. Nll tamen mod Herculs avibus adpropinqure potuit; lacus
enim nn ex aqu sed lm cnstitit. 5 Dnique autem avs 6d aliqu caus
perterritae in aurs volvrunt et magna pars erum sagitts Herculis occsa est.
1. Augs, pronounced in English Aw-jas.
2. lidis, gen. case of lis, a district of Greece.
3. boum, gen. plur. of bs. For construction see 501. 11.
4. ingent stabul, abl. of means, but in our idiom we should say in a huge
stable.
5. cnstitit, from consto.
6. d aliqu caus perterritae, frightened for some reason.

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202

HERCULES ET TAURUS

LIX. HERCULES CAPTURES THE CRETAN BULL AND CARRIES HIM LIVING TO
EURYSTHEUS

Tum Eurystheus iussit Herculem portre vvum ex nsul Crt taurum quendam
saevissimum. Ille igitur nvem cnscenditnam ventus erat idneusatque statim
solvit. Postquam trduum nvigavit, incolumis nsulae adpropinquvit. Deinde,
postquam omnia parta sunt, contendit ad eam reginem quam taurus vexbat. Mox
taurum vdit ac sine ll met cornua eius corripuit. Tum ingent labre mnstrum
ad nvem trxit atque cum hc praed ex nsul discessit.
THE FLESH-EATING HORSES OF DIOMEDES

Postquam ex nsul Crt domum pervnit, Hercules ab Eurysthe in Thrciam


missus est. Ibi Diomds qudam, vir saevissimus, rgnum obtinbat et omns
fnibus sus prohibbat. Herculs iussus erat equs Diomedis rapere et ad
Eurystheum dcere. H autem equ homins miserrims dvorbant d quibus rx
supplicium smere cupibat. Herculs ubi pervnit, prmum equs rge
postulvit, sed rx es ddere recsvit. Deinde ille r commtus rgem occdit et
corpus eius equs trdidit. Itaque is qu ante mults necverat, ipse edem
supplici nectus est. Et equ, nper saevissima animlia, postquam domin su
corpus dvorvrunt, mnsut erant.
203
LX. THE BELT OF HIPPOLYTE, QUEEN OF THE AMAZONS

Gns Amzonum 1 dcitur 2 omnn ex mulieribus fuisse. Hae cum virs proelium
committere nn verbantur. Hippolyt, Amzonum rgna, balteum habuit
pulcherrimum. Hunc balteum possidre flia Eurysthe vehementer cupibat. Itaque
Eurystheus iussit Herculem impetum in Amzons facere. Ille mults cum cpis
nvem cnscendt et paucis dibus in Amzonum fns pervnit, ac balteum
postulvit. Eum trdere ipsa Hipporyt quidem cupvit; reliqus tamen

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Amazonibus 3 persudre nn potuit. Postrdi Herculs proelium commsit. Mults


hrs utrimque quam fortissim pugntum est Dnique tamen mulieres terga
vertrunt et fug saltem petirunt. Multae autem captae sunt, in qu numer erat
ipsa Hippolyt. Herculs postquam balteum accpit, omnibus captvs lberttem
dedit.
1. A fabled tribe of warlike women living in Asia Minor.
2. omnn, etc., to have consisted entirely of women.
3. Amzonibus, 501. 14.
THE DESCENT TO HADES AND THE DOG CERBERUS

Iamque nus modo duodecim


labribus relinqubtur sed inter
omns hic erat difficillimus. Iussus
est enim canem Cerberum 4 ex
Orc in lcem trahere. Ex Orc
autem nm ante reverterat.
Praetere Cerberus erat mnstrum
maxim horribile et tria capita
habbat. Herculs postquam
imperia Eurysthe accpit, statim
profectus est et in Orcum
dscendit. Ibi vr nn sine
summ pericul Cerberum
manibus rapuit et ingent cum
labre ex Orc in lcem et
adurbem Eurysthe trxit.
Sic duodecim labors ill 5 intr
duodecim anns cnfect sunt.
Dmum post longam vtam
Herculs des receptus est et
Iuppiter fli su dedit
immortlittem.

HERCULES ET CERBERUS

4. The dog Cerberus guarded the gate of Orcus, the abode of the dead.
5. ill, those famous.

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P. CORNELIUS LENTULUS: THE STORY OF A ROMAN BOY 1


LXI. PUBLIUS IS BORN NEAR POMPEII

P. Cornlius Lentulus, 2 adulscns Rmnus, amplissim famili 3 ntus est; nam


pater eius, Mrcus, erat dux pertissimus, cuius virtte 4 et cnsili multae victriae
reporttae erant; atque mater eius, llia, clrissims mairibus orta est. Nn vr
in urbe sed rr 5 Pblius ntus est, et cum mtre habitbat in vll quae in maris

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ltore et sub radcibus magn montis sita erat. Mns autem erat Vesuvius et parva
urbs Pompi oct mlia 6 passuum 7 aberat. In Itali antqu erant plrimae quidem
villae et pulchrae, sed inter hs omns nlla erat pulchrior quam villa Mrc
Iliaeque. Frns vllae mr a maris fluctibus mnibtur. Hinc mare et ltora et
nsulae long ltque cnspic 8 ac saepe nvs longae et onerriae poterant.
terg et ab utrque latere agr fercissim patbant. Undique erat magna varirum
flrum cpia et multa ingentium arborum genera quae aestte 9 umbram dfesss
agricols grtissimam adferbant. Praetere erant 1 in agrs stabulsque multa
animlium genera, nn slum equ et bovs sed etiam rrae avs. Etiam erat 10
magna piscna plna piscium; nam Rmn piscs dligenter colbant.

PUERI ROMANI
1. This story is fiction with certain historical facts in Csars career as a setting.
However, the events chronicled might have happened, and no doubt did happen
to many a Roman youth.
2. A Roman had three names, as, Pblius (given name), Cornlius (name of the
gns or clan), Lentulus (family name).
3. Abl. of source, which is akin to the abl. of separation ( 501. 32).
4. virtte, 501. 24.
5. rr, 501. 36. 1.
6. mlia, 501. 21.
7. passuum, 501. 11.
8. cnspic, infin. with poterant, 215. Consult the map of Italy for the
approximate location of the villa.
9. aestte, 501. 35.
10. How are the forms of sum translated when they precede the subject?
LXII. HIS LIFE ON THE FARM

Huius vllae Dvus, servus Mrc, est vlicus 1 et cum Lesbi uxre omnia crat.
Vlicus et uxor in cas humil, medis in agrs sit, habitant. prm lce sque ad
vesperum s 2 gravibus labribus exercent ut omn rs bene gerant. 3 Plrima enim
sunt officia Dv et Lesbiae. Vlicus servs regit n tard sint 4; mittit alis qu
agrs arent, 4 alis qu horts inrigent, 4 et opera in 5 ttum diem impnit. Lesbia
autem omnibus vestmenta parat, cibum coquit, pnem facit.
Nn long ab hrum cas et in summ colle situm surgbat domicilium
ipsus domin dominaeque amplissimum. Ibi plrs anns 6 Pblius cum

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mtre vtam flcem agbat; nam pater


eius, Mrcus, in terrs longinqus
gravia re pblicae bella gerbat nec
domum 7 revert poterat. Neque puer
quidem molestum est rr 8 vvere.
Eum multae rs dlectant. Magnopere
amat silvs, agrs, equs, bovs,
gallns, avs, reliquaque animlia.
Saepe plrs hrs 9 ad mare sedet
qu 9 melius flucts et nvs spectet.
Nec omnn sine comitibus erat, quod
Ldia, Dv flia, quae erat eiusdem
CASA ROMANA
aettis, cum e adhc infante ldbat,
inter qus cum anns amcitia
crscbat. Ldia nllum alium ducem
dligbat et Pblius ab puellae latere rr discdbat. Itaque sub clr Italiae sle
Pblius et Ldia, amc fidlissim, per camps collsque cotdi vagbantur. Modo
in silv fnitim ldebant ubi Pblius sagitts 10 celeribus avis dicibat et Ldia
corns varirum flrum coms sus rnbat; modo aquam et cibum portbant ad
Dvum servsque dfesss qu agrs colbant: modo in cas parv aut hrs lacts
in ld cnsmbant aut auxilium dabant Lesbiae, quae cibum vir et servs
parbat vel alis rs domestics agbat.
1. The vlicus was a slave who acted as overseer of a farm. He directed the
farming operations and the sale of the produce.
2. se, reflexive pron., object of exercent.
3. For the construction, see 501. 40.
4. in, for.
5. anns, 501. 21.
6. domum, 501. 20.
7. rr, 501. 36. 1.
8. hrs, cf. anns, line 17.
9. qu ... spectet, 349, 350.
10. sagittis, 501. 24.
LXIII. MARCUS LENTULUS, THE FATHER OF PUBLIUS, IS SHIPWRECKED JULIA
RECEIVES A LETTER FROM HIM

Iam Pblius 1 decem anns habbat cum M. Cornlius Lentulus, pater eius, qu
qunque anns 2 grave bellum in Asi gerbat, non sine glri domum 3
revertbtur. Namque multa secunda proelia fcerat, maxims hostium cpis
dlverat, mults urbs populo 4 Rmn inimcs cperat. Primum nntius pervnit
qu Lentul 5 missus erat 6 ut profectinem suam nntiret. Deinde plrs dis 7
reditum vir optim mter fliusque exspectbant et anims 8 sollicitis des
immortls frstr colbant. Tum dmum hs litters summo cum gaudi
accprunt:
9Mrcus

Iliae suac saltem dcit. S vals, bene est; ego vale. Ex Graeci,

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qu 10 praeter spem et opninem hodi pervn, hs litters ad t scrib. Namque


nvis nostra frcta est; ns autem 11ds est gratiaincolumes sumus. Ex Asiae 12
port nvem ln vent solvimus. Postquam 13 altum mare tenuimus 14nec iam
llae terrae apprurunt, caelum undique et undique flucts, subit magna
tempests coorta est et nvem vehementissim adflxit. Vents fluctibusque
adflctt 15 nec slem discernere nec cursum tenre potermus et omnia
praesentem mortem intentbant. Trs dis 16 et trs nocts 16 sine rms vlsque
agimur. Qurt di 17 prmum terra vsa est et violenter in saxa, quae nn long
ltore aberant, diect sumus. Tum vr maira percula timbmus; sed nauta
qudam, vir fortissimus, ex nve in flucts rts dsiluit 18ut fnem ad ltus
portret; quam rem summ labre vix effcit. Ita omns servt sumus. Grtis
igitur et honrem Neptn dbmus, qu deus ns percul ripuit. Nunc
Athns 19 sum, qu cnfg ut mihi paucs hrs ad quitem darem. 20 Quam
prmum autem aliam nvem condcam ut iter ad Italiam reliquum cnficiam et
domum 21 ad mes crs revertar. Salt nostrum Pblium amcissim et
valtdinem tuam cr dligenter. 22Kalends Mrtis.
1. was ten years old.
2. anns, 501. 21.
3. domum, 501. 20.
4. popul, dat. with inimcs, cf. 501. 16.
5. Lentul, 501. 33.
6. ut ... nntiret, 501. 40.
7. dis, cf. anns, 1. 9.
8. anims, abl. of manner. Do you see one in line 15?
9. This is the usual form for the beginning of a Latin letter. First we have the
greeting, and then the expression S vals, etc. The date of the letter is usually
given at the end, and also the place of writing, if not previously mentioned in the
letter.
10. qu, where.
11. ds est grtia, thank God, in our idiom.
12. Asia refers to the Roman province of that name in Asia Minor.
13. altum mare tenuimus, we were well out to sea.
14. nec iam, and no longer.
16. adflctt, perf. passive part. tossed about.
16. What construction?
17. di, 501. 35.
18. ut ... portret, 501. 40.
19. Athns, 501. 36. 1.
20. darem, cf. portret, l. 6.
21. Why not ad domum?
22. Kalends Mrtis, the Calends or first of March; abl. of time, giving the
date of the letter.

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LXIV. LENTULUS REACHES HOME PUBLIUS VISITS POMPEII WITH HIS


FATHER

Post paucs dis nvis M. Cornl Lentul portum Msn 1 petiit, qu portus nn
long Pompis situs est; qu in port classis Rmn pnbtur et ad pugns
nvls rnbtur. Ibi nvs omnium generum cnspic poterant. Iamque incrdibil
celeritte nvis longa qu Lentulus vehbtur ltor adpropinquvit; nam nn slum
vent sed etiam rms impellbtur. In alt puppe stbat guberntor et nn procul
aliqu mlits Rmn cum arms splendids, inter qus clrissimus erat Lentulus.
Deinde serv rms contendere cessvrunt 2; nautae vlum contrxrunt et ancors
icrunt. Lentulus statim nv gressus est et 3 ad villam suam propervit. Eum
Ilia, Pblius, ttaque familia excprunt. 4Qu complexs, quanta gaudia furunt!
208

Postrdi eius di Lentulus fli su dxit, Ven, m Pbl, mcum. Pompis iter
hodi faciam. Mter tua sudet 5 ut frcts et cibria emam. Namque plrs amcs
ad cnam vocvimus et mults rbus 6 egmus. Ea horttur ut quam prmum
proficscmur. Libenter, m pater, inquit Pblius. Tcum esse mihi semper est
grtum; nec Pompis umquam vd. Sine mor proficsc partus sum. Tum
celeriter currum cnscendrunt et ad urbis mrs vect sunt. Stabin port 7 urbem
ingress sunt. Pblius strts vis mrtur et saxa altira quae in medi disposita
erant et alts orbits qus rotae inter haec saxa fcerant. Etiam strepitum mrtur,
multitdinem, carrs, fonts, doms, taberns, forum 8 cum status, templs,
reliqusque aedificis pblics.
1. Misenum had an excellent harbor, and under the emperor Augustus became
the chief naval station of the Roman fleet. See map of Italy.
2. Why is the infinitive used with cessvrunt?
3. See Plate I, Frontispiece.
4. Observe that these words are exclamatory.
5. What construction follows sude? 501. 41.
6. rbus, 501. 32.
7. This is the abl. of the way by which motion takes place, sometimes called the
abl. of route. The construction comes under the general head of the abl. of
means. For the scene here described, see Plate II, p. 53, and notice especially the
stepping-stones for crossing the street (saxa quae in medi disposita erant).
8. The forum of Pompeii was surrounded by temples, public halls, and markets
of various sorts. Locate Pompeii on the map.
LXV. A DAY AT POMPEII

Apud forum curr dscendrunt et Lentulus dxit, Hc sunt multa tabernrum


genera, m Pbl. Ecce, trns viam est popna! 1Hoc genus tabernrum cibria
vndit. Frcts quoque ante inuam stant. Ibi cibria mea emam. Optim,
respondit Pblius. At ubi, m pater, crstula emere possumus? Namque mter
nbs impervit 2ut haec quoque parrmus. Time ut 3 ista popna vndat
crstula. Bene dcis, inquit Lentulus. At nnne vids illum fontem dextr ubi
aqua per lenis caput fluit? In ill ips loc est taberna pstris qu sine dubi
vndit crstula.

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Brev tempore 4 omnia erant parta, iamque 5qunta hra erat. Deinde Lentulus et
flius ad caupnam propervrunt, quod fam 6 et sit 7 urgbantur. Ibi sub arboris
umbr sdrunt et puer impervrunt ut sibi 8 cibum et vnum daret. Huic
imperi 9 puer celeriter pruit. Tum laet s 10 ex labre refcrunt.
Post prandium prefect sunt ut alia urbis spectcula vidrent. Ill tempore furunt
Pompis 11 multa templa, duo thetra, thermae magnumque amphithetrum, quae
omnia post paucs anns flamms atque incendis Vesuv et terrae mt dlta sunt.
Ante hanc calamittem autem homins 1nihil d monte verit sunt. In amphithetr
quidem Pblius morr cupvit ut spectcula gladitria vidret, quae in 13 illum
ipsum diem prscrpta erant et iam 15r vr incperant. Sed Lentulus dxit,
Morr, Pbl, 16vereor ut possmus. Iam decima hra est et via est longa. Tempus
sudet ut quam prmum domum revertmur. Itaque serv impervit ut equs
iungeret, et slis occs 16 ad vllam pervnrunt.
1. We say, this kind of shop; Latin, this kind of shops.
2. ut ... parrmus, 501. 41.
3. How is ut translated after a verb of fearing? How n? Cf. 501. 42.
4. tempore, 501. 35.
5. qunta hra. The Romans numbered the hours of the day consecutively from
sunrise to sunset, dividing the day, whether long or short, into twelve equal
parts.
6. fam shows a slight irregularity in that the abl. ending -e is long.
7. sitis, thirst, has -im in the acc. sing., - in the abl. sing., and no plural.
8. Observe that the reflexive pronoun sibi does not here refer to the subject of
the subordinate clause in which it stands, but to the subject of the main clause.
This so-called indirect use of the reflexive is often found in object clauses of
purpose.
9. What case? Cf. 501. 14.
10. s, cf. p. 205, l. 7, and note.
11. Pompis, 501. 36. 1.
12. nihil ... verit sunt, had no fears of the mountain.
13. in, for.
14. r vr, in fact.
15. vereor ut, 501. 42.
16. occs, 501. 35.
LXVI. LENTULUS ENGAGES A TUTOR FOR HIS SON

210

prms anns quidem Ilia ipsa flium suum docuerat, et Pblius nn slum 1pr
et Latn loqu poterat sed etiam commod legbat et scrbbat. Iam Ennium 2
alisque pots lgerat. Nunc vr Pblius 3duodecim anns habbat; itaque e
pater bonum magistrum, 4virum omn doctrn et virtte rntissimum, parvit,
5qu Graeca, msicam, alisque arts docret. 6Namque ills temporibus omns
fer gents Graec loqubantur. Cum Pbli ali puer, Lentul amcrum fli, 7
discbant. Nam saepe apud Rmns ms erat 8nn in ldum flis mittere sed

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dom per magistrum docre. Cotdi discipul cum magistr in peristl 9 Mrc
doms sedbant. Omns puer bullam auream, orginis honestae signum, in coll
gerbant, et omns tog praetext amict erant, 10quod nndum sdecim anns 11
nt sunt.
1. pr ... poterat, freely, could speak Latin well. What is the literal translation?
2. Ennium, the father of Latin poetry.
3. duodecim ... habbat, cf. p. 206, l. 8, and note.
4. virum, etc., a very well-educated and worthy man. Observe the Latin
equivalent.
5. qu ... docret, a relative clause of purpose. Cf. 349, 350.
6. In Csars time Greek was spoken more widely in the Roman world than any
other language.
7. fli, in apposition with puer.
8. nn ... mittere. This infinitive clause is the subject of erat. Cf. 216. The
same construction is repeated in the next clause, dom ... docre. The object of
docre is flis understood.
9. The peristyle was an open court surrounded by a colonnade.
10. At the age of sixteen a boy laid aside the bulla and the toga praetexta and
assumed toga virlis or manly gown.
11. anns, 501. 21. The expression nndum sdecim anns nt sunt means
literally, they were born not yet sixteen years. This is the usual expression for
age. What is the English equivalent?
SCENE IN SCHOOL AN EXERCISE IN COMPOSITION

DISCIPUL. Salv, magister.


MAGISTER. Vs quoque omns, salvte.
1Tabulsne portvistis et stils?
D. Portvimus.
M. Iam fbulam Aesp 2 discmus. Ego legam,
vs in tabuls scrbite. Et t, Pbl, d mihi
caps 3 Aesp volmen. 4 Iam audte omns:
Vulps et va.
Vulps lim fam cocta vam dpendentem
TABULA ET STILUS
vdit. Ad vam salibat, smere cnns. Frstr
di cnta, tandem rta erat et salre cessns
dxit: Illa va est acerba; acerbam vam 5nihil moror.
Omniane scrpsistis, puer?
D. Omnia, magister.
1. Tablets were thin boards of wood smeared with wax. The writing was done
with a stylus, a pointed instrument like a pencil, made of bone or metal, with a
knob at the other end. The knob was used to smooth over the wax in making
erasures and corrections.
2. Aesp, the famous Greek to whom are ascribed most of the fables current in

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the ancient world.


3. A cylindrical box for holding books and papers, shaped like a hatbox.
4. Ancient books were written on rolls made of papyrus.
5. nihil moror, I care nothing for.

211
LXVII. PUBLIUS GOES TO ROME TO FINISH HIS EDUCATION

212

Iamque Pblius, 1qundecim anns ntus, 2prms litterrum elements cnfects,


Rmam petere voluit ut schols grammaticrum et philosophrum frequentret. Et
facillim patr 3 su, qui ipse philosophiae studi tenbtur, persusit. Itaque
4omnibus rbus ad profectinem comparts, pater fliusque equs animss vect 5
ad magnam urbem profect sunt. Es proficscents Ilia ttaque familia vts
precibusque prsectae sunt. Tum per loca 6 plna et collis silvs vestts viam
ingress sunt ad Nlam, quod oppidum es hospiti modic excpit. Nlae 7 dus
hrs mort sunt, quod sl merdinus rdbat. Tum rct vi 8 circiter vgint
mlia 9 passuum 9 Capuam, 9 ad nsignem Campniae urbem, contendrunt. E 10
mult nocte dfess pervnrunt. 11Postrdi eius di, somn et cib recret,
Capu discessrunt et 13viam Appiam ingress, quae Capuam tangit et sque ad
urbem Rmam dcit, ante merdiem Sinuessam pervnrunt, quod oppidum tangit
mare. Inde prm lce proficscents Formis 13 propervrunt, ubi Cicer, rtor
clarissimus, qu forte apud vllam suam erat, es benign excpit. Hinc 14itinere
vgint qunque mlium passuum fact, Tarracnam, oppidum in saxs altissims
situm, vdrunt. Iamque nn long aberant palds magnae, quae multa mlia
passuum undique patent. Per es pedestris via est gravis et in nve vitrs
vehuntur. Itaque 15equs relicts Lentulus et Pblius nvem cnscendrunt, et, n
nocte in trnsit cnsmpt, Forum App vnrunt. Tum brev tempore Arcia es
excpit. Hoc oppidum, in colle situm, ab urbe Rom sdecim mlia passuum abest.
Inde dclivis via sque ad latum campum dcit ubi Rma stat. Quem ad locum ubi
Pblius vnit et Rmam adhc remtam, maximam ttus orbis terrrum urbem,
cnspxit, summ admrtine et gaudi adfectus est. Sine mor dscendrunt, et,
medi intervll quam celerrim supert, urbem port Capn ingress sunt.
1. qundecim, etc., cf. p. 210, l. 5, and note.
2. prms ... cnfects, abl. abs. Cf. 501. 28.
3. patr, dat. with persusit.
4. omnibus ... comparts, cf. note 2.
5. vect, perf. pass. part. of veh.
6. What is there peculiar about the gender of this word?
7. Nlae, locative case, 501. 36.2.
8. vi, cf. port, p. 208, l. 7, and note.
9. What construction?
10. E, adv. there.
11. Postrdi eius di, on the next day.
12. viam Appiam, the most famous of all Roman roads, the great highway from
Rome to Tarentum and Brundisium, with numerous branches. Locate on the
map the various towns that are mentioned in the lines that follow.

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13. Formis, Formi, one of the most beautiful spots on this coast, and a
favorite site for the villas of rich Romans.
14. itinere ... fact, abl. abs. The gen. mlium modifies itinere.
15. equs relicts. What construction? Point out a similar one in the next line.
LXVIII. PUBLIUS PUTS ON THE TOGA VIRILIS

Pblius iam ttum annum Rmae morbtur 1


multaque urbis spectcula vderat et mults sibi 2
amcs parverat. E 3 omns favbant; 4d e
omns bene sprre poterant. Cotdi Pblius
scholas philosophrum et grammaticrum tant
studi frequentbat 5ut alis clrum exemplum
praebret. Saepe erat cum patre in cri 6; quae rs
effcit 7ut summs re pblicae virs et audret et
vidret. Ubi 8sdecim anns natus est, bullam 9
auream et togam praetextam mre Rmn dposuit
atque virlem togam smpsit. Virlis autem toga erat
omnn alba, sed praetexta clvum purpureum in
margine habbat. 10Dpnere togam praetextam et
smere togam virlem erat rs grtissima puer
Rmn, quod poste vir et cvis Rmnus
habbtur.
11Hs

BULLA

rbus gests Lentulus ad uxrem suam hs litters scrpsit:

12Mrcus

213

Iliae suae saltem dcit. S vals, bene est; ego vale. Accp tus
litters. Hs nunc Rm per servum fidlissimum mitt ut d Pbli nostr quam
celerrim scis. Nam hodi e togam virlem ded. Ante lucem surrx 13 et prmum
bullam auream d coll eius remv. Hc Laribus 14 cnsecrt et sacrs facts, eum
tog virl vestv. Interim plrs amc cum multitdine optimrum cvium et
honestrum clientium pervnerant 15qu Pblium dom in forum ddcerent. Ibi in
cvittem receptus est et nmen, Pblius Cornlius Lentulus, apud cvs Rmns
ascrptum est. Omns e amcissim furunt et magna 16 de e praedcunt.
Sapientior enim aequlibus 17 est et magnum ingenium habet. 18Cr ut vales.
1. morbtur, translate as if pluperfect.
2. sibi, for himself.
3. E, why dat.?
4. d ... poterant, in English, all regarded him as a very promising youth; but
what does the Latin say?
5. ut ... praebret, 501. 43.
6. cri, a famous building near the Roman Forum.
7. ut ... audret et vidret, 501. 44.
8. sdecim, etc., cf. p. 210, l. 5, and note.
9. bullam, cf. p. 210, l. 3, and note 4.
10. These infinitive clauses are the subject of erat. Cf. 216.

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11. Hs rbus gests, i.e. the assumption of the toga virilis and attendant
ceremonies.
12. Compare the beginning of this letter with the one on page 206.
13. surrx, from surg.
14. The Lares were the spirits of the ancestors, and were worshiped as
household gods. All that the house contained was confided to their care, and
sacrifices were made to them daily.
15. qu ... ddcerent, 350.
16. magna, great things, a neuter adj. used as a noun.
17. aequlibus, 501. 34.
18. Cr ut vales, take good care of your health. How does the Latin express
this idea?
LXIX. PUBLIUS JOINS CSARS ARMY IN GAUL

214

Pblius iam adulscns postquam togam virlem smpsit, alis rbus studre incpit
et praesertim s 1 armrum s 2 dligenter exercuit. Magis magisque amvit ills
arts quae mlitrem animum dlectant. Iamque erant 3qu e cursum mlitrem
praedcerent. Nec sine caus, quod cert patris signe exemplum 4ita multum
trahbat. 5Paucs ante anns C. Ilius Caesar, ducum Rmnrum maximus, cnsul
cretus erat et hc tempore in Galli bellum grave gerbat. Atque in exercit eius
plrs adulscents mlitbant, apud qus erat amcus qudam Pbl. Ille Pblium
crbrs litters vehementer hortbtur 6ut iter in Galliam faceret. Neque Pblius
recsvit, et, mults amcs ad portam urbis prsequentibus, ad Caesaris castra
profectus est. Qurt di postquam iter ingressus est, ad Alps, monts altissims,
pervnit. Hs summ difficultte superts, tandem Gallrum in fnibus erat. Prm
autem veritus est ut 7 castrs Rmns adpropinqure posset, quod Gall, maxims
cpis cocts, Rmns obsidbant et vis omns iam clauserant. Hs rbus
commtus Pblius vestem Gallicam induit n Galls capertur, et ita per hostium
cpis incolumis ad castra pervenre potuit. Intr mntines acceptus, Caesare
benign exceptus est. Impertor fortem adulscentem amplissims verbs laudvit et
eum 8tribnum mltum crevit.
1. Abl. of means.
2. s, reflexive object of exercuit.
3. qu ... praedcerent, 501. 45.
4. ita multum trahbat, had a great influence in that direction.
5. Paucs ante anns, a few years before; in Latin, before by a few years, ante
being an adverb and anns abl. of degree of difference.
6. ut ... faceret, 501. 41.
7. ut, how translated here? See 501. 42.
8. The military tribune was a commissioned officer nearly corresponding to our
rank of colonel. The tribunes were often inexperienced men, so Csar did not
allow them much responsibility.

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IMPEDIMENTA

HOW THE ROMANS MARCHED AND CAMPED

215

Exercitus qu in hostium fnibus bellum genit mults percus circumdatus est.


1Quae percula ut vtret, Rmni summam cram adhbre solbant.
Adpropinquantes cpis hostium agmen ita dispnbant 2ut impertor ipse cum
plribus leginibus expedts 3 prmum agmen dceret. Post es cpis
impedmenta 4 ttus exercits conlocbant. 5Tum legins quae proxim
cnscrptae erant ttum agmen claudbant. Equits quoque in omns parts
dmittbantur qu loca explrrent; et centurins praemittbantur ut locum castrs
idneum dligerent. Locus habbatur idneus castrs 6qu facile dfend posset et
prope aquam esset. Qu d caus castra 7 in colle ab utrque parte ardu, fronte
lniter dclv saepe pnbantur; vel locus paldibus cnctus vel in flminis rps
situs dligbtur. Ad locum postquam exercitus pervnit, ali mlitum 8in arms
erant, ali castra mnre incipibant. Nam 9qu ttirs ab hostibus mlits essent,
nve incaut et impart opprimerentur, castra foss lt et vll alt mnibant. In
castrs portae quattuor erant ut rupti mlitum omns in parts fier posset. In
anguls castrrum erant turrs d quibus tla in hosts conicibantur. 10Tlibus in
castrs qulia dscrpsimus Pblius Caesare exceptus est.
1. Quae percula, object of vtrent. It is placed first to make a proper
connection with the preceding sentence.
2. ut ... dceret, 501. 43.
3. expedts, i.e. without baggage and ready for action.
4. impedmenta. Much of the baggage was carried in carts and on beasts of
burden, as is shown above; but, besides this, each soldier (unless expedtus)
carried a heavy pack. See also picture, p. 159.
5. The newest legions were placed in the rear, because they were the least
reliable.

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6. qu ... posset ... esset, 501. 45.


7. castra, subject of pnbantur.
8. in arms erant, stood under arms.
9. qu ... essent. When is qu used to introduce a purpose clause? See 350. I.
10. Tlibus in castrs qulia, in such a camp as. It is important to remember
the correlatives tlis ... qulis, such ... as.
LXX. THE RIVAL CENTURIONS

216

Ills in castrs erant duo centurins, 1 fortissim vir,


T. Pull et L. Vornus, qurum neuter alter virtte 2
cdere volbat. Inter es iam mults anns nfnsum
certmen gerbtur. Tum dmum fnis contrversiae
hc mod 3 factus est. Di terti postquam Pblius
pervnit, hosts, mairibus cpis cocts, cerrimum
impetum in castra fcrunt. Tum Pull, 4cum Rmn
tardirs 5 vidrentur, Cr dubits, inquit, Vorne?
Quam commodirem occsinem exspects? Hic dis
d virtte nostr idicbit. Haec 6 cum dxisset, extr
mntins prcessit et in eam hostium partem quae
cfertissima 7vidbtur inrpit. Neque Vornus
quidem tum vll 8 ss continet, sed Pullnem
subsequitur. Tum Pull plum in hosts immittit atque
num ex multitdine prcurrentem tricit. Hunc
percussum et exanimtum hosts scts prtegunt et in
Pullnem omns tla coniciunt. Eius sctum
trnsfgitur et tlum in balte dfgitur. Hic csus
vgnam vertit et dextram manum eius gladium
dcere cnantis 9 mortur. Eum ita impedtum hosts
circumsistunt.

CENTURIO

Tum vro 10e labrant Vornus, cum sit inimcus, tamen auxilium dat. Ad hunc
cnfestim 11 Pullne omnis multitd s convertit. Gladi comminus pugnat
Vornus, atque, n interfect, reliqus paulum prpellit. Sed nstns cupidius 12
nflx, 13pede s fallente, concidit.
Huic rrsus circumvent auxilium dat Pull, atque amb incolums, plribus
interfects, summ cum laude intr mntins s recipiunt. Sic inimcrum alter
alter auxilium dedit nec de erum virtte quisquam idicre potuit.
1. A centurion commanded a company of about sixty men. He was a common
soldier who had been promoted from the ranks for his courage and fighting
qualities. The centurions were the real leaders of the men in battle. There were
sixty of them in a legion. The centurion in the picture (p. 216) has in his hand a
staff with a crook at one end, the symbol of his authority.
2. virtte, 501. 30.
3. Abl. of manner.
4. cum ... vidrentur, 501. 46.
5. tardirs, too slow, a not infrequent translation of the comparative degree.

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6. Haec, obj. of dxisset. It is placed before cum to make a close connection


with the preceding sentence. What is the construction of dxisset?
7. vidbatur, inrpit. Why is the imperfect used in one case and the perfect in
the other? Cf. 190.
8. vll, abl. of means, but in English we should say within the rampart. Cf.
ingent stabul, p. 201, l. 13, and note.
9. cnantis, pres. part. agreeing with eius.
10. e labrant, indir. obj. of dat.
11. Pullne, from Pullo, abl. of separation.
12. cupidius, too eagerly.
13. pede s fallente, lit. the foot deceiving itself; in our idiom, his foot slipping.
LXXI. THE ENEMY BESIEGING THE CAMP ARE REPULSED

217

Cum iam sex hrs pugnatum esset 1 ac nn slum vrs sed etiam tla Rmns
dficerent 1, atque hosts crius instrent, 1 et vllum scindere fossamque complre
incpissent, 1 Caesar, vir re mlitris pertissimus, sus impervit ut proelium
paulisper intermitterent, 2 et, sign dat, ex castrs rumperent. 2 3Quod iuss sunt
faciunt, et subit ex omnibus ports rumpunt. Atque tam celeriter mlits
concurrrunt et tam propinqu erant hosts 4 ut spatium pla coniciend 5 nn
dartur. Itaque reiects pls 6comminus gladis pugntum est. Di et audcter
hosts restitrunt et in extrm sp saltis tantam virttem praestitrunt ut dextr
corn vehementer 7multitdine surum aciem Rmanam premerent. 8Id impertor
cum animadvertisset, Pblium adulscentem cum equitt msit qu labrantibus 9
auxilium daret. Eius impetum sustinre nn poturunt hosts 10 et omns terga
vertrunt. Es in fugam dats Pblius subsectus est sque ad flmen Rhnum,
quod ab e loc qunque mlia passuum aberat. Ibi pauc saltem sibi repperrunt.
Omnibus reliqus interfects, Pblius et equits in castra ss recprunt. D hc
calamitte fnitimae gents cum certirs factae essent, ad Caesarem lgts
msrunt et s suaque omnia ddidrunt.
1. pugntum esset, dficerent, nstrent, incpissent. These are all
subjunctives with cum. Cf. 501. 46.
2. intermitterent, rumperent. What use of the subjunctive?
3. Quod, etc., they do as ordered. The antecedent of quod is id understood,
which would be the object of faciunt.
4. ut ... dartur. Is this a clause of purpose or of result?
5. coniciend, 402.
6. comminus gladis pugntum est, a hand-to-hand conflict was waged with
swords.
7. multitdine surum, by their numbers. surum is used as a noun. What is
the literal translation of this expression?
8. Id impertor. Id is the obj. and impertor the subj. of animadvertisset.
9. labrantibus. This participle agrees with is understood, the indir. obj. of
daret; qui ... daret is a purpose clause, 501. 40.
10. hosts, subj. of poturunt.

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LXXII. PUBLIUS GOES TO GERMANY ITS GREAT FORESTS AND STRANGE


ANIMALS

218

Init aestte Caesar litters certior fbat et per explrtrs cognscbat plrs
cvitts Galliae novs rbus studre, 1 et contr populum Rmnum conirre 1
obsidsque 2inter s dare, 1 atque cum hs Germns qusdam quoque ss
coninctrs esse. 1 Hs litters nntisque commtus Caesar cnstituit quam
celerrim in Galls proficsc, 3 ut es inopnants opprimeret, et Labinum lgtum
cum dubus leginibus peditum et dubus mlibus equitum in Germns mittere. 3
4Itaque r frmentri compart castra mvit. Ab utrque 5 rs bene gesta est;
nam Caesar tam celeriter in hostium fns pervnit ut spatium 6cpis cgend nn
dartur 7; et Labinus d Germns tam grave supplicium smpsit ut nm ex e
gente in reliquum tempus Galls auxilium dare audret. 7
Hoc iter in Germniam Pblius quoque fcit et, 8cum ibi morrtur, multa
mrbilia vdit. Praesertim vr ingentem silvam mrbtur, quae tantae
magnitdinis esse dcbtur 9ut nm eam trnsre posset, nec quisquam scret aut
initium aut fnem. Qu d r plra cognverat mlite qudam qu lim captus
Germns mults anns ibi incoluit. Ille 10 d silv dcns, nfntae magnitdinis
est haec silva, inquit; nee quisquam est 11huius Germniae 12qu initium eius
sciat aut ad fnem adierit. Nscuntur illc multa tlia animlium genera qulia
reliqus in locs nn inveniuntur. Sunt bovs qu num 13 corn habent; sunt etiam
animlia quae appellantur alcs. Hae nlls crrum 14 articuls habent. Itaque, s
forte concidrunt, ss rigere nll mod possunt. Arbors habent pr 15
cublibus; ad es s applicant atque ita reclntae quitem capiunt. Tertium est
genus erum qu r appellantur. H sunt paul minrs elephants. 16 Magna vis
erum est et magna vlcits. Neque homin neque ferae parcunt. 17
1. Observe that all these infinitives are in indirect statements after certior
fbat, he was informed, and cognscbat, he learned. Cf. 501.48, 49.
2. inter s, to each other.
3. proficsc, mittere. These infinitives depend upon cnstituit.
4. Before beginning a campaign, food had to be provided. Every fifteen days
grain was distributed. Each soldier received about two pecks. This he carried in
his pack, and this constituted his food, varied occasionally by what he could find
by foraging.
5. Abl. of personal agent, 501. 33.
6. cpis cgend, 501. 37. 1.
7. dartur, audret, 501. 43. audret is not from audi.
8. cum ... morrtur, 501. 46.
9. ut ... posset, ... scret, 501. 43.
10. Ille, subj. of inquit.
11. huius Germniae, of this part of Germany.
12. qu ... scat ... adierit, 501. 45.
13. num, only one.
14. crrum, from crs.

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15. pr, for, in place of.


16. elephants, 501. 34.
17. parcunt. What case is used with this verb?
LXXIII. THE STORMING OF A CITY

219

220

Pblius plrs dis in Germni mortus 1 in Galliam rediit, et ad Caesaris castra s


contulit. Ille quia molest ferbat Galls 2 eius reginis obsids dare recsvisse et
exercitu frmentum praebre nluisse, cnstituit es 3 bellum nferre. Agrs
vstts, vcs incnss, pervnit ad oppidum validissimum quod et ntr et arte
mntum erat. Cingbtur mr vgint qunque peds 4 alt. lateribus dusitum,
praerupt fastgi ad plnitiem verggat; qurt tantum 5 latere aditus erat facilis.
Hoc oppidum oppugnre, 6cum opus esset difficillimum, tamen cnstituit Caesar.
Et castrs mnts Pbli negtium dedit ut rs 7ad oppugnandum necessris
parret.
Rmnrum autem
oppugnti est haec. 8
Prmum turrs aedificantur
quibus mlits in summum
mrum vdere possint 9;
vneae 10 funt quibus tct
mlits ad mrum succdant;
plute 11 parantur post qus
mlits tormenta 12
administrent; sunt quoque
ariets qu mrum et ports
discutiant. Hs omnibus rbus
VINEA
comparts, deinde 13agger
ab e parte ubi aditus est
facillimus exstruitur et cum
vnes ad ipsum oppidum agitur. Tum turris in aggere prmovtur; arietibus qu sub
vnes conloct erant mrus et portae discutiuntur; ballists, catapults, reliqusque
torments lapids et tla in oppidum coniciuntur. Postrm cum iam turris et agger
altitdinem mr adaequant et ariets moenia perfrgrunt, 14 sign dat mlits
inruunt et oppidum expugnant.
1. mortus. Is this part. active or passive in meaning?
2. Galls, subj. acc. of the infins. recsvisse and nluisse. The indirect
statement depends upon molest ferbat.
3. es, 501. 15.
4. peds, 501. 21.
5. tantum, adv. only.
6. cum ... esset, a clause of concession, 501. 46.
7. ad oppugnandum, a gerund expressing purpose.
8. haec, as follows.
9. possint, subjv. of purpose. Three similar constructions follow.

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10. vneae. These vneae were wooden sheds, open in front and rear, used to
protect men who were working to take a fortification. They were about eight
feet high, of like width, and double that length, covered with raw hides to
protect them from being set on fire, and moved on wheels or rollers.
11. plute, large screens or shields with small wheels attached to them. These
were used to protect besiegers while moving up to a city or while serving the
engines of war.
12. tormenta. The engines of war were chiefly the catapult for shooting great
arrows, and the ballista, for hurling large stones. They had a range of about two
thousand feet and were very effective.
13. The agger, or mound, was of chief importance in a siege. It was begun just
out of reach of the missiles of the enemy, and then gradually extended towards
the point to be attacked. At the same time its height gradually increased until on
a level with the top of the wall, or even higher. It was made of earth and timber,
and had covered galleries running through it for the use of the besiegers. Over or
beside the agger a tower was moved up to the wall, often with a battering-ram
(aries) in the lowest story. (See picture, p. 221.)
14. perfrgrunt, from perfring.
LXXIV. THE CITY IS TAKEN THE CAPTIVES ARE QUESTIONED

221

Omnibus rbus necessris


ad oppugnandum Pbli
comparts, dlbertur in
concili quod cnsilium
1oppid expugnand
ineant. 2 Tum nus 3 ex
centurinibus, vir re
mlitris pertissimus, Ego
sude, inquit, ut ab e
parte, ubi aditus sit 4
facillimus, aggerem
exstrumus 5 et turrim
prmovemus 5 atque ariete
admt simul mrum
discutere cnmur. 5 6Hoc
cnsilium cum omnibus
BALLISTA
placret, Caesar concilium
dmsit. Deinde mlits
horttus ut prirs victris memori 7 tenrent, iussit aggerem exstru, turrim et
arietem admovr. Neque oppidns 8 cnsilium dfuit. Ali ignem et omne genus
tlrum d mr in turrim conicrunt, ali ingentia saxa in vnes et arietem
dvolvrunt. Di utrimque cerrim pugntum est. N vulnert quidem pedem
rettulrunt. Tandem, 9d terti vigili, Pblius, quem Caesar ill oper 10
praefcerat, nntivit partem 11 mr ictibus arietis labefactam concidisse. Qu r
audt Caesar signum dat; mlits inruunt et magn cum caede hostium oppidum
capiunt.
1. oppid expugnand. Is this a gerund or a gerundive construction? Cf.
501. 37.

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2. ineant. 501. 50.


3. nus. subj. of inquit.
4. sit. This is a so-called subjunctive by attraction, which means that the clause
beginning with ubi stands in such close connection with the subjv. clause
beginning with ut, that its verb is attracted into the same mood.
5. All these verbs are in the same construction.
6. Hoc cnsilium, subj. of placret. For the order cf. Haec cum, etc., p. 215, l.
22, and note; Id impertor cum, p. 217, l. 8.
7. memori, abl. of means.
8. oppidns, 501. 15.
9. Between twelve and three oclock in the morning. The night was divided into
four watches.
10. oper, 501. 15.
11. partem, subj. acc. of concidisse.

Postrdi eius di, hc oppid


expugnt, 12captvrum qu
nbilissim sunt ad impertrem ante
praetrium 13 addcuntur. Ipse,
lrc aurt et paludment
purpure nsignis, captvs per
interpretem in hunc modum
interrogat: 14 Vs qu estis 15?
INTERPRES. Rogat impertor qu
stis.
CAPTV. Fli rgis sumus.

TURRES, ARIETES, VINEA

INTERPRES. Dcunt s flis esse


rgis.
IMPERTOR. Cr mihi tants iniris intulistis?
INTERPRES. Rogat cr sibi tants iniris intuleritis.
CAPTV. Iniris e nn intulimus sed pr patri bellum gessimus. Semper
voluimus Rmns esse amc, sed Rmn sine caus ns dom patrique expellere
cnt sunt.
INTERPRES. 16Negant s iniris tibi intulisse, sed pr patri bellum gessisse.
17Semper s voluisse amcs Rmns esse, sed Rmns sine caus s dom
patrique expellere cnts esse.
222

IMPERTOR.

18Manbitisne

in reliquum tempus in fid, hc rebelline condnt?

Tum vr captv mults cum lacrims irvrunt s in fid mnsrs esse, et Caesar
es incolums domum dmsit.
12. captvrum ... sunt, the noblest of the captives.
13. The generals headquarters.
14. Study carefully these direct questions, indirect questions, and indirect

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statements.
15. See Plate III, p. 148.
16. Negant, etc., they say that they have not, etc. Negant is equivalent to dcunt
nn, and the negative modifies intulisse, but not the remainder of the indirect
statement.
17. Semper, etc., that they have always, etc.
18. Manbitisne in fid, will you remain loyal?
LXXV. CIVIL WAR BREAKS OUT BETWEEN CSAR AND POMPEY THE BATTLE
OF PHARSALIA

N cnfect 1 quidem bell Gallic, 2bellum cvle inter Caesarem et Pompium


exortum est. Nam Pompius, qu summum imperium petbat, sentu persuserat ut
Caesarem re pblicae hostem 3 idicret et exercitum eius dmitt iubret. Quibus
cognits rbus Caesar exercitum suum dmittere recsvit, atque, horttus mlits ut
ducem totins victrem ab inimcrum iniris dfenderent, impervit ut s Rmam
sequerentur. Summ cum alacritte mlits prurunt, et trnsit Rubicne 4 initium
bell cvlis factum est.
Italiae urbs quidem omns fer 5rbus Caesaris favbant et eum benign
excprunt. Qu r commtus Pompius ante Caesaris adventum Rm excessit et
Brundisium 6 pervnit, inde 7paucs post dibus cum omnibus cpis ad prum
mare trnsiit. Eum Caesar cum septem leginibus et qungents equitibus sectus
est, et nsignis inter Caesaris comittum erat Pblius.
223

Plribus leviribus proelis facts, tandem cpiae adversae ad Pharslum 8 in


Thessali sitam castra posurunt. Cum Pompe exercitus esset bis tantus quantus
Caesaris, tamen erant mult qu veterns legins quae Galls et Germns
superverant vehementer timbant. Qus 9 10ante proelium commissum
Labinus 11 lgtus, qu ab Caesare nper dfcerat, ita adloctus est: 12Nlte
exstimre hunc esse exercitum veternrum mlitum. Omnibus interfu proelis 13
neque temer incognitam rem prnnti. Perexigua pars illus exercits qu Galls
supervit adhc superest. Magna pars occsa est, mult domum discessrunt, mult
sunt relict in Itali. Hae cpiae qus vidtis in 14citerire Galli nper cnscrptae
sunt. Haec 15 cum dxisset, irvit s nisi victrem in castra nn reversrum esse.
16Hoc idem Pompius et omns reliqu irvrunt, et magn sp et laetiti, scut
certam ad victriam, cpiae castrs exirunt.
Item Caesar, anim 17 ad dmicandum partus, exercitum suum dxit et septem
cohortibus 18praesidi castrs relicts cpis triplic aci nstrxit. Tum, mlitibus
studi pugnae rdentibus, tub signum dedit. Mlits prcurrrunt et pls misss
gladis strnxrunt. Neque vr virts hostibus dfuit. Nam et tla missa
sustinurunt et impetum gladirum excprunt et rdins cnservvrunt. Utrimque
di et criter pugntum est nec quisquam pedem rettulit. Tum equits Pomp
aciem Caesaris circumre cnt sunt. Quod 19 ubi Caesar animadvertit, tertiam
aciem, 20 quae ad id tempus quita fuerat, prcurrere iussit. Tum vr integrrum
impetum 21 dfess hosts sustinre nn poturunt et omns terga vertrunt. Sed
Pompius d fortns sus dsprns s in castra equ contulit, inde mox cum
paucs equitibus effgit.

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1. With n ... quidem the emphatic word stands between the two.
2. The Civil War was caused by the jealousy and rivalry between Csar and
Pompey. It resulted in the defeat and subsequent death of Pompey and the
elevation of Csar to the lordship of the Roman world.
3. hostem, predicate accusative, 501. 22.
4. The Rubicon was a small stream in northern Italy that marked the boundary
of Csars province. By crossing it with an armed force Csar declared war
upon Pompey and the existing government. Csar crossed the Rubicon early in
the year 49 B.C.
5. rbus Caesaris favbant, favored Csars side. In what case is rbus?
6. Brundisium, a famous port in southern Italy whence ships sailed for Greece
and the East. See map.
7. paucs post dibus, a few days later; literally, afterguards by a few days. Cf.
paucs ante anns, p. 213, l. 12, and note.
7. The battle of Pharsalia was fought on August 9, 48 B.C. In importance it
ranks as one of the great battles of the world.
8. Qus, obj. of adloctus est.
10. ante proelium commissum, before the beginning of the battle.
11. Labinus, Csars most faithful and skillful lieutenant in the Gallic War.
On the outbreak of the Civil War, in 49 B.C., he deserted Csar and joined
Pompey. His defection caused the greatest joy among the Pompeian party; but
he disappointed the expectations of his new friends, and never accomplished
anything of importance. He fought against his old commander in several battles
and was slain at the battle of Munda in Spain, 45 B.C.
12. Nlte exstimre, dont think.
13. proelis, 501. 15.
14. citerire Galli. This name is applied to Cisalpine Gaul, or Gaul south of
the Alps.
15. Haec, obj. of dxisset.
16. Hoc idem, obj. of irvrunt.
17. anim, 501. 30.
18. praesidi castrs, 501. 17.
19. Quod, obj. of animadvertit.
20. aciem, subj. of prcurrere.
21. impetum, obj. of sustinre.

224
LXXVI. THE TRIUMPH OF CAESAR

Pompi amcsque eius superts atque omnibus hostibus ubque victs,


Caesar impertor Rmam rediit et 1extr moenia urbis in camp Mrti
castra posuit. Tum vr amplissims honribus adfectus est. Dicttor cretus est, et
e triumphus sent est dcrtus. 2Qu di de Galls triumphum git, tanta
multitd hominum in urbem undique cnflxit 3ut omnia loca essent cnferta.
Templa patbant, rae fmbant, columnae serts rntae erant. 4Cum vr pompa
urbem intrret, quantus hominum fremitus ortus est! Prmum per portam ingress
sunt sentus et magistrts. Sect sunt tbcins, signifer, pedits laure cornt

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canents: Ecce Caesar nunc triumphat, qu subgit


Galliam, et Mlle, mlle, mlle, mlle Galls
trucdvimus. Mult praedam captrum urbium
portbant, arma, omnia bell nstrmenta. Sect sunt
equits, animss atque splendidissim rnts equs
vect, inter qus Pblius adulscns fortissimus
habbtur. Addcbantur taur, ariets, 5qu ds
immortlibus immolrentur. Ita long agmine
prgredins exercitus 6sacr vi per forum in Capitlium
perrxit.

SIGNIFER

225

Impertor ipse cum urbem


intrret, undique laet
clmre multitdinis
salttus est. Stbat in curr
aure quem quattuor alb
equ vehbant. Indtus
7tog pict, alter man
habns et lauream tenbat,
alter eburneum scptrum.
Post eum servus in curr
stns auream cornam super
caput eius tenbat. Ante
currum miserrim captv,
rgs prncipsque
supertrum gentium,
catns vnct,
prgredibantur; et vgint
quattuor lctrs 8 laureats
fascs ferents et signifer
currum Caesaris
comitbantur. Concldit
agmen multitd
captvrum, qu, in
LICTORES CUM FASCIBUS
servittem redct, 9
dmiss vult, vncts 10
bracchis, sequuntur; quibuscum veniunt longissim rdine mlits, etiam h
praedam vel insignia mlitria ferents.

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Caesar cum Capitlium ascendisset, in templ Iov Capitln sacra fcit. Simul 11
captivrum qu nbilissim erant, abduct in carcerem, 12 interfect sunt. Sacrs
facts Caesar d Capitli dscendit et in for mitibus sus honrs mlitrs dedit
esque pecniam ex bell praed distribuit.
Hs omnibus rbus cnfects, Pblius Caesarem valre 13 iussit et quam celerrim
ad vllam contendit ut patrem mtremque saltret.
15D

rbus gests P. Cornl Lentul hctenus.


1. A victorious general with his army was not allowed to enter the city until the
day of his triumph. A triumph was the greatest of all military honors.
2. Qu di, on the day that, abl. of time.
3. ut ... essent, 501. 43.
4. Cum ... intrret, 501. 46.
5. qu ... immolrentur, 501. 40.
6. The Sacred Way was a noted street running along one side of the Forum to
the base of the Capitoline Hill, on whose summit stood the magnificent temple
of Jupiter Capitolinus. This route was always followed by triumphal
processions.
7. The toga picta worn by a general in his triumph was a splendid robe of
Tyrian purple covered with golden stars. See Plate IV, p. 213.
8. The lictors were a guard of honor that attended the higher magistrates and
made a way for them through the streets. On their shoulders they carried the
fasces, a bundle of rods with an ax in the middle, symbolizing the power of the
law.
9. dmiss vult, with downcast countenance.
10. vncts, from vinci.
12. Simul, etc., At the same time those of the captives who were the noblest.
12. The prison was a gloomy dungeon on the lower slopes of the Capitoline
Hill.
13. valre iussit, bade farewell to.
14. This sentence marks the end of the story.

226

APPENDIX I
DECLENSIONS, CONJUGATIONS, NUMERALS, ETC.
NOUNS
460. Nouns are inflected in five declensions, distinguished by the final letter of the
stem and by the termination of the genitive singular.
FIRST DECLENSION-stems, Gen. Sing. -ae
SECOND DECLENSIONO-stems, Gen. Sing. -
THIRD DECLENSIONConsonant stems and I-stems, Gen. Sing. -is

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FOURTH DECLENSIONU-stems, Gen. Sing. -s


FIFTH DECLENSION-stems, Gen. Sing. -
461.

FIRST DECLENSION. -STEMS

domina, lady STEM domin- BASE dominSINGULAR


PLURAL
TERMINATIONS

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

domina
dominae
dominae
dominam
domin

-a
-ae
-ae
-am
-

TERMINATIONS

dominae
dominrum
domins
domins
domins

-ae
-rum
-s
-s
-s

a. Dea and flia have the termination -bus in the dative and ablative plural.
227

462.

SECOND DECLENSION. O-STEMS

a. MASCULINES IN -us
dominus, master STEM domino- BASE dominSINGULAR
PLURAL
TERMINATIONS

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

dominus
domin
domin
dominum
domin

-us
-
-
-um
-

TERMINATIONS

domin
dominrum
domins
domins
domins

-
-rum
-s
-s
-s

1. Nouns in -us of the second declension have the termination -e in the vocative
singular, as domine.
2. Proper names in -ius, and filius, end in - in the vocative singular, and the accent
rests on the penult, as Vergil, fl.
b. NEUTERS IN -um
plum, spear STEM plo- BASE plSINGULAR
PLURAL
TERMINATIONS

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

plum
pl
pl
plum
pl

-um
-
-
-um
-

TERMINATIONS

pla
plrum
pls
pla
pls

-a
-rum
-s
-a
-s

1. Masculines in -ius and neuters in -ium end in - in the genitive singular, not in -

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i, and the accent rests on the penult.


c. MASCULINES IN -er AND -ir
STEMS
BASES

puer, boy
pueropuer-

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

puer
puer
puer
puerum
puer

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

puer
puerrum
puers
puers
puers

228

463.

vir, man
virovirTERMINATIONS

vir
vir
vir
virum
vir

vir
virrum
virs
virs
virs

-
-rum
-s
-s
-s

-
-
-um
-

THIRD DECLENSION.

CLASSIFICATION

464.

ager, field
agroagrSINGULAR
ager
agr
agr
agrum
agr
PLURAL
agr
agrrum
agrs
agrs
agrs

I. CONSONANT
STEMS

1. Stems that add -s to the base to


form the nominative singular:
masculines and feminines only.
2. Stems that add no termination in
the nominitive singular: a.
masculines and feminines; b.
neuters.

II. I-STEMS.

Masculines, feminines, and neuters.

I. CONSONANT STEMS

1. Nouns that add -s to the base to form the nominative singular: masculines and
feminines only
prnceps, m.,
chief

mles, m.,
soldier

lapis, m., stone

prncip-

mlit-

lapid-

prnceps
prncipis
prncip

SINGULAR
mles
mlitis
mlit

BASES
OR

STEMS

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.

TERMINATIONS

lapis
lapidis
lapid

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-s
-is
-

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mlitem
mlite
PLURAL
mlits
mlitum
mlitibus
mlits
mlitibus

lapidem
lapide

-em
-e

lapids
lapidum
lapidibus
lapids
lapidibus

-s
-um
-ibus
-s
-ibus

rx, m., king

idex, m.,
judge

virts, f.,
manliness

rg-

idic-

virtt-

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

rx
rgis
rg
rgem
rge

virts
virttis
virtt
virttem
virtte

-s
-is
-
-em
-e

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

rgs
rgum
rgibus
rgs
rgibus

idex
idicis
idic
idicem
idice
PLURAL
idics
idicum
idicibus
idics
idicibus

virtts
virttum
virttibus
virtts
virttibus

-s
-um
-ibus
-s
-ibus

Acc.
Abl.

prncipem
prncipe

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

prncips
prncipum
prncipibus
prncips
prncipibus

BASES
OR

STEMS

NOTE. For consonant changes in the nominative singular, cf. 233. 3.

2. Nouns that have no termination in the nominative singular


a. MASCULINES AND FEMININES
cnsul, m.,
consul

legi, f.,
legion

rd, m.,
row

pater, m.,
father

cnsul-

legin-

rdin-

patr-

cnsul
cnsulis
cnsul
cnsulem
cnsule

SINGULAR
legi
rd
leginis
rdinis
legin
rdin
leginem
rdinem
legine
rdine

BASES
OR

STEMS

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

TERMINATIONS

pater
patris
patr
patrem
patre

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-is
-
-em
-e

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Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

cnsuls
cnsulum
cnsulibus
cnsuls
cnsulibus

Page 33 of 158

PLURAL
legins
rdins
leginum
rdinum
leginibus
rdinibus
legins
rdins
leginibus
rdinibus

patrs
patrum
patribus
patrs
patribus

-s
-um
-ibus
-s
-ibus

NOTE. For vowel and consonant changes in the nominative singular, cf. 236. 1-3.

b. NEUTERS

230

flmen, n.,
river

tempus, n.,
time

opus, n.,
work

caput, n.,
head

flmin-

tempor-

oper-

capit-

BASES
OR

STEMS

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

flmen
flminis
flmin
flmen
flmine

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

flmina
flminum
flminibus
flmina
flminibus

SINGULAR
tempus
opus
temporis
operis
temper
oper
tempus
opus
tempore
opere
PLURAL
tempora
opera
temporum
operum
temporibus
operibus
tempora
opera
temporibus
operibus

TERMINATIONS

caput
capitis -is
capit
caput
capite

-is
-

-e

capita
capitum
capitibus
capita
capitibus

-a
-um
-ibus
-a
-ibus

NOTE. For vowel and consonant changes in the nominative singular, cf. 238. 2, 3.

465.

II. I-STEMS
a. MASCULINES AND FEMININES

STEMS
BASES

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.

caeds, f.,
slaughter
caedicaedcaeds
caedis
caed
caedem

hostis, m.,
urbs, f.,
enemy
city
hostiurbihosturbSINGULAR
hostis
urbs
hostis
urbis
host
urb
hostem
urbem

clins, m.,
retainer
clienticlientTERMINATIONS

clins
clientis
client
clientem

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-s, -is, or -s
-is
-
-em (-im)

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Abl.
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

Page 34 of 158

caede

hoste

urbe

caeds
caedium
caedibus
caeds, -s
caedibus

PLURAL
hosts
urbs
hostium
urbium
hostibus
urbibus
hosts, -s
urbs, -s
hostibus
urbibus

cliente

-e (-)

clients
clientium
clientibus
clients, -s
clientibus

-s
-ium
-ibus
-s, -s
-ibus

1. Avis, cvis, fnis, ignis, nvis, have the abl. sing. in - or -e.
2. Turris has accusative turrim and ablative turr or turre.
b. NEUTERS

231

STEMS
BASES

nsigne, n.,
decoration

animal, n.,
animal

calcar, n.,
spur

nsigninsign-

animlianimlSINGULAR
animal
animlis
animl
animal
animl
PLURAL
animlia
animlium
animlibus
animlia
animlibus

calcricalcr-

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

nsigne
nsignis
nsign
nsigne
nsign

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

nsignia
nsignium
nsignibus
nsignia
nsignibus

466.

STEMS
BASES

calcar
calcris
calcr
calcar
calcr

-e or
-is
-
-e or
-

calcria
calcrium
calcribus
calcria
calcribus

-ia
-ium
-ibus
-ia
-ibus

THE FOURTH DECLENSION. U-STEMS

adventus, m., arrival


adventuadvent-

corn, n., horn


cornucorn-

SINGULAR
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

TERMINATIONS

adventus
advents
adventu ()
adventum
advent

corn
corns
corn
corn
corn

TERMINATIONS
MASC.
NEUT.

-us
-s
-u ()
-um
-

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-
-s
-
-
-

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PLURAL
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
232

advents
adventuum
adventibus
advents
adventibus

467.
STEMS
BASES

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

BASES

-ua
-uum
-ibus
-ua
-ibus

THE FIFTH DECLENSION. -STEMS

dis, m., day rs, f. thing


dirdirSINGULAR
dis
rs
di
re
di
re
diem
rem
di
r
PLURAL
dis
rs
dirum
rrum
dibus
rbus
dis
rs
dibus
rbus

468.

STEMS

-s
-uum
-ibus
-s
-ibus

cornua
cornuum
cornibus
cornua
cornibus

TERMINATIONS

-s
-
-
-em
-
-s
-rum
-bus
-s
-bus

SPECIAL PARADIGMS

deus, m., god


deo-

domus, f., house


domu-

vs, f., strength


v- and vri-

de-

dom-

v- and vr-

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

deus
de
de
deum
de

Nom.

de, d

SINGULAR
domus
doms
domu, -
domum
dom, -
PLURAL
doms

iter, n., way


iter- and
itineriter- and
itiner-

vs
vs (rare)
v (rare)
vim
v

iter
itineris
itiner
iter
itinere

vrs

itinera

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Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

derum,
deum
des, ds
des
des, ds

Page 36 of 158

domuum, -rum

vrium

itinerum

domibus
doms, -s
domibus

vribus
vrs, -s
vribus

itineribus
itinera
itineribus

a. The vocative singular of deus is like the nominative.


b. The locative of domus is dom.
233

ADJECTIVES
469.

FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS. O- AND -STEMS

a. ADJECTIVES IN -us
bonus, good STEMS bono- m. and n., bona- f. BASE bonSINGULAR
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

bonus
bon
bon
bonum
bon

bona
bonae
bonae
bonam
bon

bonum
bon
bon
bonum
bon

bon
bonrum
bons
bons
bons

PLURAL
bonae
bonrum
bons
bons
bons

bona
bonrum
bons
bona
bons

b. ADJECTIVES IN -er
lber, free STEMS lbero- m. and n., lber- f. BASE lberSINGULAR
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Nom.
Gen.

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

lber
lber
lber
lberum
lber

lbera
lberae
lberae
lberam
lber

lberum
lber
lber
lberum
lber

lber
lberrum

PLURAL
lberae
lberrum

lbera
lberrum

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lbers
lbers
lbers

Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
234

Page 37 of 158

lbers
lbers
lbers

lbers
lbera
lbers

pulcher, pretty STEMS pulchro- m. and n., pulchr- f. BASE pulchrSINGULAR


MASC.

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

pulcher
pulchr
pulchr
pulchrum
pulchr

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

pulchr
pulchrrum
pulchrs
pulchrs
pulchrs

470.

FEM.

NEUT.

pulchra
pulchrae
pulchrae
pulchram
pulchr
PLURAL
pulchrae
pulchrrum
pulchrs
pulchrs
pulchrs

pulchrum
pulchr
pulchr
pulchrum
pulchr
pulchra
pulchrrum
pulchrs
pulchra
pulchrs

THE NINE IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

alius, another STEMS alio- m. and n., ali- f. BASE aliSINGULAR


PLURAL
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

alius
alus
ali
alium
ali

alia
alus
ali
aliam
ali

aliud
alus
ali
aliud
ali

ali
alirum
alis
alis
alis

aliae
alirum
alis
alis
alis

alia
alirum
alis
alia
alis

nus, one, only STEMS no- m. and n., n- f. BASE nNom.


Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

nus
nus
n
num
n

na
nus
n
nam
n

num
nus
n
num
n

n
nrum
ns
ns
ns

nae
nrum
ns
ns
ns

na
nrum
ns
na
ns

a. For the complete list see 108.


235

471.

ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. I-STEMS

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I. THREE ENDINGS
cer, cris, cre, keen, eager
SINGULAR
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

STEM cri- BASE crPLURAL

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

cer
cris
cr
crem
cr

cris
cris
cr
crem
cr

cre
cris
cr
cre
cr

crs
crium
cribus
crs, -s
cribus

crs
crium
cribus
crs, -s
cribus

cria
crium
cribus
cria
cribus

II. TWO ENDINGS


omnis, omne, every, all
SINGULAR
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

STEM omni- BASE omnPLURAL

MASC. AND FEM.

NEUT.

MASC. AND FEM.

NEUT.

omnis
omnis
omn
omnem
omn

omne
omnis
omn
omne
omn

omns
omnium
omnibus
omns, -s
omnibus

omnia
omnium
omnibus
omnia
omnibus

III. ONE ENDING


pr, equal STEM pari- BASE parSINGULAR
PLURAL
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

MASC. AND FEM.

NEUT.

MASC. AND FEM.

NEUT.

pr
paris
par
parem
par

pr
paris
par
pr
par

pars
parium
paribus
pars, -s
paribus

paria
parium
paribus
paria
paribus

1. Observe that all i-stem adjectives have - in the ablative singular.


This sentence appears to be a footnote, but there is no
footnote tag on the page.
236

472.

PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLES

amns, loving STEM amanti- BASE amant-

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SINGULAR

PLURAL

MASC. AND FEM.

NEUT.

MASC. AND FEM.

NEUT.

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

amns
amantis
amant
amantem
amante, -

amns
amantis
amant
amns
amante, -

amants
amantium
amantibus
amants, -s
amantibus

amantia
amantium
amantibus
amantia
amantibus

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

ins, going STEM ienti-, eunti- BASE ient-, euntins


ins
eunts
euntia
euntis
euntis
euntium
euntium
eunt
eunt
euntibus
euntibus
euntem
ins
eunts, -s
euntia
eunte, -
eunte, -
euntibus
euntibus

473.

REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

POSITIVE

COMPARATIVE

SUPERLATIVE

MASC.

MASC. AND
FEM.

NEUT.

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

altus (alto-)
lber (lbero-)
pulcher
(pulchro-)
audx (audci-)
brevis (brevi-)
cer (cri-)

altior
lberior
pulchrior

altius
lberius
pulchrius

altissimus
lberrimus
pulcherrimus

-a
-a
-a

-um
-um
-um

audcior
brevior
crior

audcius
brevius
crius

audcissimus
brevissimus
cerrimus

-a
-a
-a

-um
-um
-um

474.

DECLENSION OF COMPARATIVES

altior, higher
SINGULAR
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

MASC. AND FEM.

NEUT.

MASC. AND FEM.

NEUT.

altior
altiris
altir
altirem
altire

altius
altiris
altir
altius
altire

altirs
altirum
altiribus
altirs
altiribus

altira
altirum
altiribus
altira
altiribus

pls, more
pls
plrs
plris
plrium

237

Nom.
Gen.

PLURAL

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plra
plrium

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Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
475.

Page 40 of 158

pls
plre

plribus
plrs (-s)
plribus

plribus
plra
plribus

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

POSITIVE
bonus, -a, -um, good
malus, -a, -um, bad
magnus, -a, -um, great
multus, -a, -um, much
parvus, -a, -um, small
senex, senis, old
iuvenis, -e, young
vetus, veteris, old
facilis, -e, easy
difficilis, -e, difficult
similis, -e, similar
dissimilis, -e,
dissimilar
humilis, -e, low
gracilis, -e, slender
exterus, outward

COMPARATIVE
melior, melius, better
peior, peius, worse
maior, maius, greater
, pls, more
minor, minus, smaller
senior
inior
vetustior, -ius
facilior, -ius
difficilior, -ius
similior, -ius
dissimilior, -ius

SUPERLATIVE
optimus, -a, -um, best
pessimus, -a, -um, worst
maximus, -a, -um, greatest
plrimus, -a, -um, most
minimus, -a, -um, smallest
maximus nt
minimus nt
veterrimus, -a, -um
facillimus, -a, -um
difficillimus, -a, -um
simillimus, -a, -um
dissimillimus, -a, -um

humilior, -ius
gracilior, -ius
exterior, outer,
exterior

humillimus, -a, -um


gracillimus, -a, -um
extrmus
outermost, last
extimus
nfimus
lowest
mus
postrmus
last
postumus
suprmus
highest
summus
citimus, hithermost
intimus, inmost
prmus, first
proximus, next
ultimus, furthest

nferus, below

nferior, lower

posterus, following

posterior, later

superus, above

superior, higher

[cis, citr, on this side]


[in, intr, in, within]
[prae, pr, before]
[prope, near]
[ultr, beyond]

citerior, hither
interior, inner
prior, former
propior, nearer
ulterior, further

238

476.

REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

POSITIVE
cr (crus), dearly
miser (miser), wretchedly

COMPARATIVE
crius
miserius

SUPERLATIVE
crissim
miserrim

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criter (cer), sharply


facile (facilis), easily
477.

crius
facilius

cerrim
facillim

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

POSITIVE
di, long, a long time
bene (bonus), well
male (malus), ill
magnopere, greatly
multum (multus), much
parum, little
saepe, often
478.

Page 41 of 158

COMPARATIVE
ditius
melius, better
peius, worse
magis, more
pls, more
minus, less
saepus

SUPERLATIVE
ditissim
optim, best
pessim, worst
maxim, most
plrimum, most
minim, least
saepissim

NUMERALS

The cardinal numerals are indeclinable excepting nus, duo, trs, the hundreds
above one hundred, and mlle used as a noun. The ordinals are declined like bonus,
-a, -um.

239

1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,
9,
10,
11,
12,
13,
14,
15,
16,
17,
18,
19,

CARDINALS
(How many)
nus, -a, -um,
one
duo, duae, duo
two
trs, tria
three,
quattuor
etc.
qunque
sex
septem
oct
novem
decem
ndecim
duodecim
tredecim (decem (et) trs)
quattuordecim
qundecim
sdecim
septendecim
duodvgint (octdecim)
ndvgint (novendecim)

ORDINALS
(In what order)
prmus, -a, -um
first
secundus (or alter) second
tertius
third,
qurtus
etc.
quntus
sextus
septimus
octvus
nnus
decimus
ndecimus
duodecimus
tertius decimus
qurtus decimus
quntus decimus
sextus decimus
septimus decimus
duodvcnsimus
ndvcnsimus

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20, vgint
vcnsimus
vgint nus or
vcnsimus prmus or
21,
nus et vgint, etc.
nus et vcnsimus, etc.
30, trgint
trcnsimus
40, quadrgint
quadrgnsimus
50, qunqugint
qunqugnsimus
60, sexgint
sexgnsimus
70, septugint
septugnsimus
80, octgint
octgnsimus
90, nngint
nngnsimus
100, centum
centum
101, centum (et) nus, etc.
centum (et) nus, etc.
120, centum (et) vgint
centum (et) vgint
121, centum (et) vgint nus, etc. centum (et) vgint nus, etc.
200, ducent, -ae, -a
ducent, -ae, -a
300, trecent
trecent
400, quadringent
quadringent
500, qungent
qungent
600, sescent
sescent
700, septingent
septingent
800, octingent
octingent
900, nngent
nngent
1000, mlle
mlle
479. Declension of duo, two, trs, three, and mlle, a thousand.
MASC.
N.
G.
D.
A.
A.

duo
durum
dubus
dus or
duo
dubus

FEM.

NEUT.

duae
durum
dubus
dus

duo
durum
dubus
duo

dubus

dubus

M. AND
F.
trs
trium
tribus
trs or
trs
tribus

NEUT.

SING.

PLUR.

tra
trium
tribus
tria

mlle
mlle
mlle
mlle

mlia
mlium
mlibus
mlia

tribus

mlle

mlibus

NOTE. Mlle is used in the plural as a noun with a modifying genitive, and is
occasionally so used in the nominative and accusative singular. For the declension
of nus cf. 470.
240

PRONOUNS
480.

PERSONAL

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Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

ego, I
SING.
ego
me
mihi
m
m

Page 43 of 158

t, you
SING.
t
tu
tibi
t
t

PLUR.
ns
nostrum, -tr
nbs
ns
nbs

PLUR.
vs
vestrum, -tr
vbs
vs
vbs

su, of himself, etc.


SING.
PLUR.

su
su
sibi
sibi
s, ss s, ss
s, ss s, ss

Note that su is always reflexive.


481.

DEMONSTRATIVE

Demonstratives belong to the first and second declensions, but have the pronominal
endings - us and - in the gen. and dat. sing.
ipse, self
SINGULAR
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

ipse
ipsus
ips
ipsum
ips

ipsa
ipsus
ips
ipsam
ips

ipsum
ipsus
ips
ipsum
ips

ips
ipsrum
ipss
ipss
ipss

ipsae
ipsrum
ipss
ipss
ipss

ipsa
ipsrum
ipss
ipsa
ipss

hic
huius
huic
hunc
hc

haec
huius
huic
hanc
hc

hic, this (here), he


hoc
h
huius
hrum
huic
hs
hoc
hs
hc
hs

hae
hrum
hs
hs
hs

haec
hrum
hs
haec
hs

iste
istus
ist
istum
ist

iste, this, that (of yours), he


ista
istud
ist
istus
istus
istrum
ist
ist
ists
istam
istud
ists
ist
ist
ists

istae
istrum
ists
ists
ists

ista
istrum
ists
ista
ists

illae
illrum

illa
illrum

241

Nom.
Gen.

PLURAL

ille
illus

illa
illus

ille, that (yonder), he


illud
ill
illus
illrum

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Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

ill
illum
ill

is
eius
e
eum
e

Page 44 of 158

ill
illam
ill

ill
illud
ill

ea
eius
e
eam
e

is, this, that, he


id
i, e
eius
erum
e
is, es
id
es
e
is, es

Nom.

dem

eadem

Gen.

eiusdem

eiusdem

Dat.

edem

edem

Acc.

eundem

eandem

Abl.

edem

edem

ills
ills
ills

dem, the same


idem
idem
edem
eiusdem erundem
isdem
edem
esdem
idem
esdem
isdem
edem
esdem

ills
ills
ills

ills
illa
ills

eae
erum
is, es
es
is, es

ea
erum
is, es
ea
is, es

eaedem

eadem

erundem
isdem
esdem
esdem
isdem
esdem

erundem
isdem
esdem
eadem
isdem
esdem

NOTE. In the plural of is and dem the forms with two is are preferred, the two is
being pronounced as one.

482.

RELATIVE

qu, who, which, that


SINGULAR
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
242

483.

PLURAL

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

qu
cuius
cui
quem
qu

quae
cuius
cui
quam
qu

quod
cuius
cui
quod
qu

qu
qurum
quibus
qus
quibus

quae
qurum
quibus
qus
quibus

quae
qurum
quibus
quae
quibus

INTERROGATIVE

quis, substantive, who, what


SINGULAR
Nom.
Gen.

PLURAL

MASC. AND FEM.

NEUT.

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

quis
cuius

quid
cuius

qui
qurum

quae
qurum

quae
qurum

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Page 45 of 158

cui
quem
qu

Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

cui
quid
qu

quibus
qus
quibus

quibus
qus
quibus

quibus
quae
quibus

The interrogative adjective qu, quae, quod, is declined like the relative.
484.

INDEFINITES

quis and qu, as declined above, 1 are used also as indefinites (some, any). The
other indefinites are compounds of quis and qu.
quisque, each
SUBSTANTIVE
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

ADJECTIVE

MASC. AND FEM.

NEUT.

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

quisque
cuiusque
cuique
quemque
quque

quidque
cuiusque
cuique
quidque
quque

quisque
cuiusque
cuique
quemque
quque

quaeque
cuiusque
cuique
quamque
quque

quodque
cuiusque
cuique
quodque
quque

1. qua is generally used instead of quae in the feminine nominative singular and
in the neuter nominative and accusative plural.

485.

qudam, a certain one, a certain

Observe that in the neuter singular the adjective has quoddam and the substantive
quiddam.
SINGULAR
MASC.

FEM.

Nom.

qudam

quaedam

Gen.
Dat.

cuiusdam
cuidam

cuiusdam
cuidam

Acc.

quendam

quandam

Abl.

qudam

243

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
486.

qudam
PLURAL
qudam
quaedam
qurundam qurundam
quibusdam quibusdam
qusdam
qusdam
quibusdam quibusdam

NEUT.

quoddam
quiddam (subst.)
cuiusdam
cuidam
quoddam
quiddam (subst.)
qudam
quaedam
qurundam
quibusdam
quaedam
quibusdam

quisquam, substantive, any one (at all)

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Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
487.

Page 46 of 158

MASC. AND FEM.

NEUT.

quisquam
cuiusquam
cuiquam
quemquam
ququam

quicquam (quidquam)
cuiusquam
cuiquam
quicquam (quidquam)
ququam

aliquis, substantive, some one. aliqu, adjective, some


SINGULAR
SUBSTANTIVE

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

ADJECTIVE

MASC. AND FEM.

NEUT.

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

aliquis
alicuius
alicui
aliquem
aliqu

aliquid
alicuius
alicui
aliquid
aliqu

aliqu
alicuius
alicui
aliquem
aliqu

aliqua
alicuius
alicui
aliquam
aliqu

aliquod
alicuius
alicui
aliquod
aliqu

PLURAL FOR BOTH SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE


Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

aliqu
aliqurum
aliquibus
aliqus
aliquibus

aliquae
aliqurum
aliquibus
aliqus
aliquibus

aliqua
aliqurum
aliquibus
aliqua
aliquibus

a. quis (qu), any one, any, is the least definite ( 297. b). aliquis (aliqu), some
one, some, is more definite than quis. quisquam, any one (at all), and its adjective
llus, any, occur mostly with a negative, expressed or implied, and in clauses of
comparison.
244

REGULAR VERBS
488.

FIRST CONJUGATION. -VERBS. AM

PRINCIPAL PARTS am, amre, amv, amtus


PRES. STEM am- PERF. STEM amv- PART. STEM amtACTIVE
PASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT

I love, am loving, do love, etc.


am
ammus
ams
amtis

I am loved, etc.
amor
ammur
amris, -re
ammin

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amat

Page 47 of 158

amant

amtur

amantur

IMPERFECT

I loved, was loving, did love, etc.


ambam
ambmus
ambs
ambtis
ambat
ambant

I was loved, etc.


ambar
ambmur
ambris, -re
ambmin
ambtur
ambantur
FUTURE

amb
ambis
ambit

I shall love, etc.


ambimus
ambitis
ambunt

I shall be loved, etc.


ambor
ambimur
amberis, -re
ambimin
ambitur
ambuntur
PERFECT

I have loved, loved, did love, etc.


amvi
amvimus
amvist
amvistis
amvit
amvrunt, -re

I have been (was) loved, etc.


sum
sumus
amtus, amt, es
estis
a, -um
ae, -a
est
sunt

PLUPERFECT

I had loved, etc.


amveram
amvermus
amvers
amvertis
amverat
amverant

I had been loved, etc.


eram
ermus
amtus, amt, ers
ertis
a, -um
ae, -a
erat
erant
FUTURE PERFECT

I shall have loved, etc.


amver
amverimus
amveris
amveritis
amverit
amverint
245

I shall have been loved, etc.


er
erimus
amtus, amt, eris
eritis
a, -um
ae, -a
erit
erunt
SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT

amem
ams
amet

ammus
amtis
ament

amer
amris, -re
amtur

ammur
ammin
amentur

IMPERFECT

amrem
amrs
amret

amremus
amrtis
amrent

amrer
amrris, -re
amrtur

amrmur
amrmin
amrentur

PERFECT

amverim
amveris
amverit

amverimus
amveritis
amverint

amtus, a, -um

sim
ss
sit

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amt, ae, -a

smus
stis
sint

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Page 48 of 158

PLUPERFECT

amvissem
amvisss
amvisset

amvissmus
amvisstis
amvissent

amtus, a, -um

essem
esss
esset

amt, ae, -a

essmus
esstis
essent

IMPERATIVE
PRESENT

am, love thou


amte, love ye

amre, be thou loved


ammin, be ye loved
FUTURE

amt, thou shalt love


amt, he shall love
amtte, you shall love
amant, they shall love

amtor, thou shalt be loved


amtor, he shall be loved

amantor, they shall be loved


INFINITIVE
Pres. amre, to love
amr, to be loved
Perf. amvisse, to have loved
amtus, -a, -um esse, to have been loved
Fut. amtrus, -a, -um esse, to be
[amtum r], to be about to be loved
about to love
PARTICIPLES
Pres. amns, -antis, loving
Pres.
Fut. amtrus, -a, -um, about to
Gerundive 1 amandus, -a, -um, to be
love
loved
Perf.
Perf. amtus, -a, -um, having been loved,
loved
GERUND

Nom.
Gen. amand, of loving
Dat. amand, for loving
Acc. amandum, loving
Abl. amand, by loving

SUPINE (Active Voice)


Acc. [amtum], to love
Abl. [amt], to love, in the loving

1. Sometimes called the future passive participle.

246

489.

SECOND CONJUGATION. -VERBS. MONE

PRINCIPAL PARTS mone, monre, monu, monitus


PRES. STEM mon- PERF. STEM monu- PART. STEM monitACTIVE
PASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT

I advise, etc.,

I am advised, etc.

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mone
mons
monet

Page 49 of 158

monmus
montis
monent

moneor
monris, -re
montur

monmur
monmin
monentur

IMPERFECT

I was advising, etc.,


monbam
monbmus
monbs
monbtis
monbat
monbant

I was advised, etc.


monbar
monbmur
monbris, -re
monbmin
monbtur
monbntur
FUTURE

I shall advise, etc.,


monb
monbimus
monbis
monbitis
monbit
monbunt

I shall be advised, etc.


monbor
monbimur
monberis, -re
monbimin
monbitur
monbuntur
PERFECT

I have advised, I advised, etc.


monu
monuimus
monuist
monuistis
monuit
monurunt, -re

I have been (was) advised, etc.


sum
sumus
monitus, monit, es
estis
a, -um
ae, -a
est
sunt
PLUPERFECT

I had advised, etc.,


monueram
monuermus
monuers
monuertis
monuerat
monuerant

I had been advised, etc.


monitus, a, -um

eram
eras
erat

monit, ae, -a

ermus
eratis
erant

FUTURE PERFECT

I shall have advised, etc.


monuer
monuerimus
monueris
monuertis
monuerit
monuernt
247

I shall have been advised, etc.


monitus, a, -um

er
eris
erit

monit, ae, -a

erimus
eritis
erunt

SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT

moneam
mones
moneat

monemus
monetis
moneant

monear
moneris, -re
monetur

monemur
monemin
moneantur

IMPERFECT

monrem
monrs
monret

monrmus
monrtis
monrent

monrer
monrris, -re
monrtur

monrmur
monrmin
monrentur

PERFECT

monuerim

monuerimus

sim

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smus

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monueris
monuerit

monueritis
monuerint

Page 50 of 158

monitus, a, -um

ss
sit

monit, ae, -a

stis
sint

essem
esss
esset

monit, ae, -a

essmus
esstis
essent

PLUPERFECT

monuissem
monuisss
monuisset

monuissmus
monuisstis
monuissent

monitus, a, -um
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT

mon, advise thou


monte, advise ye

monre, be thou advised


monmin, be ye advised
FUTURE

mont, thou shall advise


mont, he shall advise
montte, you shall advise
monent, they shall advise

montor, thou shalt be advised


montor, he shall be advised

monentor, they shall be advised


INFINITIVE
Pres. monre, to advise
monr, to be advised
Perf. monuisse, to have advised
monitus, -a, -um esse, to have been
advised
Fut. monitrus, -a, -um esse, to
[monitum r], to be about to be advised
be about to advise
PARTICIPLES
Pres. monns, -entis, advising
Pres.
Fut. monitrus, -a, -um, about to
Ger. monendus, -a, -um, to be advised
advise
Perf.
Perf. monitus, -a, -um, having been
advised, advised
GERUND
Nom.
SUPINE (Active Voice)
Gen. monend, of advising
Acc. [monitum], to advise
Dat. monend, for advising
Abl. [monit], to advise, in the advising
Acc. monendum, advising
Abl. monend, by advising
248

490.

THIRD CONJUGATION. -VERBS. REG

PRINCIPAL PARTS reg, regere, rex, rctus


PRES. STEM rege- PERF. STEM rx- PART. STEM rctACTIVE
PASSIVE
INDICATIVE

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PRESENT

reg
regis
regit

I rule, etc.
regimus
regitis
regunt

I am ruled, etc.
regor
regimur
regeris, -re
regimin
regitur
reguntur
IMPERFECT

I was ruling, etc.


regbam
regbmus
regbs
regbtis
regbat
regbant

I was ruled, etc.


regbar
regbmur
regbris, -re
regbmin
regbtur
regbantur
FUTURE

regam
regs
reget

I shall rule, etc.


regmus
regtis
regent

I shall be ruled, etc.


regar
regmur
regris, -re
regmin
regtur
regentur
PERFECT

rx
rxist
rxit

I have ruled, etc.


rximus
rxistis
rxrunt, -re

I have been ruled, etc.


sum
es
est

rctus, -a,
-um

rct, ae, -a

sumus
estis
sunt

PLUPERFECT

I had ruled, etc.


rxeram
rxermus
rxers
rxertis
rxerat
rxerant

I had been ruled, etc.


rctus, -a,
-um

eram
ers
erat

rct, ae, -a

ermus
ertis
erant

FUTURE PERFECT

I shall have ruled, etc.


rxer
rxerimus
rxeris
rxeritis
rxerit
rxerint
249

I shall have been ruled, etc.


er
erimus
rctus, -a,
rct, eris
eritis
-um
ae, -a
erit
erunt
SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT

regam
regs
regat

regmus
regtis
regant

regar
regris, -re
regtur

regmur
regmin
regantur

IMPERFECT

regerem
regers
regeret

regermus
regertis
regerent

regerer
regerris, -re
regertur

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regermur
regermin
regerentur

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Page 52 of 158

PERFECT

rxerim
rxeris
rxerit

rxerimus
rxeritis
rxerint

rctus, -a,
-um

sim
ss
sit

rct, ae, -a

smus
stis
sint

essem
esss
esset

rct, ae, -a

essmus
esstis
essent

PLUPERFECT

rxissem
rxisss
rxisset

rxissmus
rxisstis
rxissent

rctus, -a,
-um
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT

rege, rule thou


regite, rule ye

regere, be thou ruled


regimin, be ye ruled
FUTURE

regit, thou shalt rule


regit he shall rule
regitte, ye shall rule
regunt, they shall rule

regitor, thou shalt be ruled


regitor, he shall be ruled

reguntor, they shall be ruled


INFINITIVE
Pres. regere, to rule
reg, to be ruled
Perf. rxisse, to have ruled
rctus, -a, -um esse, to have been ruled
Fut.rctrus, -a, -um esse, to be
[rctum r], to be about to be ruled
about to rule
PARTICIPLES
Pres. regns, -entis, ruling
Pres.
Fut. rctrus, -a, -um, about to
Ger. regendus, -a, -um, to be ruled
rule
Perf.
Perf. rctus, -a, -um, having been ruled,
ruled
GERUND
Nom.
SUPINE (Active Voice)
Gen. regend, of ruling
Acc [rctum], to rule
Dat. regend, for ruling
Abl. [rct], to rule, in the ruling
Acc. regendum, ruling
Abl. regend, by ruling
250

491.

FOURTH CONJUGATION. -VERBS. AUDI

PRINCIPAL PARTS audi, audre, audv, audtus


PRES. STEM aud- PERF. STEM audv- PART. STEM audtACTIVE
PASSIVE

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Page 53 of 158

INDICATIVE
PRESENT

audi
auds
audit

I hear, etc.
audmus
audtis
audiunt

I am heard, etc.
audior
audmur
audris, -re
audmin
audtur
audiuntur
IMPERFECT

I was hearing, etc.


audibam
audibmus
audibs
audibtis
audibat
audibant

I was heard, etc.


audibar
audibmur
audibris, -re
audibmin
audibtur
audibantur
FUTURE

I shall hear, etc.


audiam
audimus
audis
auditis
audiet
audient

I shall be heard, etc.


audiar
audimur
audiris, -re
audimin
auditur
audientur
PERFECT

I have heard, etc.


audv
audvimus
audvist
audvistis
audvit
audvrunt, -re

I have been heard, etc.


sum
sumus
audtus, -a,
audt, es
estis
-um
ae, -a
est
sunt
PLUPERFECT

I had heard, etc.


audveram
audvermus
audvers
audvertis
audverat
audverant

I had been heard, etc.


eram
ermus
audtus, -a,
audt, ers
ertis
-um
ae, -a
erat
erant
FUTURE PERFECT

I shall have heard, etc.


audver
audverimus
audveris
audveritis
audverit
audverint
251

I shall have been heard, etc.


audtus, -a,
-um

er
eris
erit

audt, ae, -a

erimus
eritis
erunt

SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT

audiam
audis
audiat

audimus
auditis
audiant

audiar
audiris, -re
auditur

audimur
audimin
audiantur

IMPERFECT

audrem
audrs

audrmus
audrtis

audrer
audrris, -re

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audrmur
audrmin

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audret

audrent

Page 54 of 158

audrtur

audrentur

PERFECT

audverim
audveris
audverit

audiverimus
audiveritis
audverint

sim
audtus, -a,
ss
-um
sit

audt, ae, -a

smus
stis
sint

audt, ae, -a

essmus
esstis
essent

PLUPERFECT

audvissem
audvisss
audvisset

audvissmus
audvisstis
audvissent

essem
audtus, -a,
esss
-um
esset
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT

aud, hear thou


audte, hear ye

audre, be thou heard


audmin, be ye heard
FUTURE

audt, thou shalt hear


audt, he shall hear
audtte, ye shall hear
audiunt, they shall hear
Pres. audre, to hear
audvisse, to have heard
audtrus, -a, -um esse, to be
about to hear

audtor, thou shalt be heard


audtor, he shall be heard

audiuntor, they shall be heard


INFINITIVE
audr, to be heard
audtus, -a, -um esse, to have been heard
[audtum r, to be about to be heard

PARTICIPLES
Pres. audins, -entis, hearing
Pres.
Fut. audtrus, -a, -um, about to
Ger. audiendus, -a, -um to be heard
hear
Perf.
Perf. audtus, -a, -um, having been heard,
heard
GERUND
Nom.
SUPINE (Active Voice)
Gen. audiend, of hearing
Acc. [audtum], to hear
Dat. audiend, for hearing
Abl. [audtu], to hear, in the hearing
Acc. audiendum, hearing
Abl. audiend, by hearing
252

492.

THIRD CONJUGATION. VERBS IN -I. CAPI

PRINCIPAL PARTS capi, capere, cp, captus


PRES. STEM cape- PERF. STEM cp- PART. STEM capt-

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ACTIVE

PASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT

capi
capis
capit

capimus
capitis
capiunt

capior
caperis, -re
capitur

capimur
capimin
capiuntur

IMPERFECT

capibam
capibas
capibat

capiebamus
capibtis
capibant

capibar
capibaris, -re
capibtur

capibmur
capibmin
capiebantur

FUTURE

capiam
capis
capiet

capimus
capitis
capient

capiar
capiris, -re
capitur

capimur
capimin
capientur

PERFECT

captus, -a, -um sum, es, est, etc.

cp, cpist, cpit, etc.

PLUPERFECT

cperam, cpers, cperat, etc.

captus, -a, -um eram, ers, erat, etc.

FUTURE PERFECT

cper, cperis, cperit, etc.

captus, -a, -um er, eris, erit, etc.


SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT

capiar, -iris, -re, -itur, etc.

capiam, capis, capiat, etc.

IMPERFECT

caperem, capers, caperet, etc.

caperer, -erris, -re, -ertur, etc.


PERFECT

cperim, cperis, cperit, etc.

captus, -a, -um sim, ss, sit, etc.


PLUPERFECT

cpissem, cpisss, cpisset, etc. captus,-a, -um essem, esss, esset, etc.
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT

2d Pers. cape

capite

253

capere

capimin

FUTURE

2d Pers. capit
3rd Pers. capit

capitte
capiunt

Pres. capere
Perf. cpisse
Fut. captrus, -a, -um esse

capitor
capitor
INFINITIVE
cap
captus, -a, -um esse
[captum r]

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capiuntor

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Pres. capins, -ientis


Fut. captrus, -a, -um
Perf.
GERUND
Gen. capiend
etc.
493.

PARTICIPLES
Pres.
Ger. capiendus, -a, -um
Perf. captus, -a, -um
SUPINE (Active Voice)
Acc. [captum]
Abl. [capt]

DEPONENT VERBS

PRINCIPAL PARTS

I.
II.
III.
IV.

hortor, hortr, horttus sum, urge


vereor, verr, veritus sum, fear
sequor, sequ, sectus sum, follow
partior, partr, parttus sum, share, divide

NOTE. In addition to the passive conjugation, deponent verbs use certain forms
from the active. These are marked with a star. Deponent -i verbs of the third
conjugation are inflected like the passive of capi.

Impf.
Fut.
Perf.
Plup.
F. P.

hortor
hortris, -re
horttur
hortmur
hortmin
hortantur
hortbar
hortbor
horttus sum
horttus eram
horttus er

Pres.
Impf.
Perf.
Plup.

horter
hortrer
horttus sim
horttus essem

Pres.
Fut.

hortre
horttor

Pres.

hortr

Pres.

254

INDICATIVE
vereor
sequor
verris, -re
sequeris, -re
vertur
sequitur
vermur
sequimur
vermin
sequimin
verentur
sequuntur
verbar
sequbar
verbor
sequar
veritus sum
sectus sum
veritus eram
sectus eram
veritus er
sectus er
SUBJUNCTIVE
verear
sequar
verrer
sequerer
veritus sim
sectus sim
veritus essem
sectus essem
IMPERATIVE
verre
sequere
vertor
sequitor
INFINITIVE
verr
sequ

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partior
partris, -re
parttur
partmur
partmin
partiuntur
partibar
partiar
parttus sum
parttus eram
parttus er
partiar
partrer
parttus sim
parttus essem
partre
parttor
partr

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horttus esse
veritus esse
sectus esse
*horttrus esse *veritrus esse *sectrus esse
PARTICIPLES
Pres. *hortns
*verns
*sequns
Fut. *hortturus
*veritrus
*sectrus
Perf.
horttus
veritus
sectus
Ger.
hortandus
verendus
sequendus
GERUND
*hortand, etc.
*verend, etc. *sequend, etc.
SUPINE
*[horttus, -t] *[veritum, -t] *[sectum, -t]

Perf.
Fut.

parttus esse
*parttrus esse
*partins
*parttrus
parttus
partiendus
*partiend, etc.
*[parttum, -t]

IRREGULAR VERBS
494.

sum, am, be
PRINCIPAL PARTS sum, esse, fu, futrus
PRES. STEM es- PERF. STEM fu- PART. STEM futINDICATIVE
PRESENT
SINGULAR

sum, I am
es, thou art
est, he (she, it) is
eram, I was
ers, thou wast
erat, he was
255

er, I shall be
eris, thou wilt be
erit, he will be
fu, I have been, was
fuist, thou hast been, wast
fuit, he has been, was
fueram, I had been
fuers, thou hadst been

PLURAL

sumus, we are
estis, you are
sunt, they are
IMPERFECT
ermus, we were
ertis, you were
erant, they were
FUTURE
erimus, we shall be
eritis, you will be
erunt, they will be
PERFECT
fuimus, we have been, were
fuistis, you have been, were
furunt, fure, they have been, were
PLUPERFECT
fuermus, we had been
fuertis, you had been

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fuerat, he had been

fuerant, they had been


FUTURE PERFECT
fuer, I shall have been
fuerimus, we shall have been
fueris, thou wilt have been
fueritis, you will have been
fuerit, he will have been
fuerint, they will have been
SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
IMPERFECT
SINGULAR

sim
ss
sit
fuerim
fueris
fuerit

PLURAL

smus
stis
sint

SINGULAR

PLURAL

essem
esss
esset

PERFECT
fuerimus
fueritis
fuerint

fuissem
fuisss
fuisset

essmus
esstis
essent
PLUPERFECT
fuissmus
fuisstis
fuissent

IMPERATIVE
PRESENT

FUTURE

2d Pers. Sing. es, be thou


2d Pers. Plur. este, be ye

2d Pers. Sing. est, thou shalt be


3d Pers. Sing. est, he shall be

2d Pers. Plur. estte, ye shall be


3d Pers. Plur. sunt, they shall be
INFINITIVE
Pres. esse, to be
Perf. fuisse, to have been
Fut. futrus, -a, -um esse or fore,
to be about to be
256

495.

PARTICIPLE

futrus, -a, -um, about to be

possum, be able, can


PRINCIPAL PARTS possum, posse, potu,
INDICATIVE
SUBJUNCTIVE
SINGULAR

Pres.

Impf.
Fut.
Perf.
Plup.

possum
potes
potest
poteram
poter
potu
potueram

PLURAL

SINGULAR

PLURAL

possumus
potestis
possunt
potermus
poterimus
potuimus
potuermus

possim
posss
possit
possem

potuerim
potuissem

possmus
posstis
possint
possmus

potuerimus
potuissmus

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F. P.

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potuer

potuerimus

INFINITIVE
Pres. posse
Perf. potuisse
PARTICIPLE
Pres. potens, gen. -entis, (adjective) powerful

496.

prsum, benefit
PRINCIPAL PARTS prsum, prdesse, prfu, prfutrus
PRES. STEM prdes- PERF. STEM prfu- PART. STEM prfutINDICATIVE
SUBJUNCTIVE
SINGULAR

Pres.

Impf.
Fut.
Perf.
Plup.
F. P.

prsum
prdes
prdest
prderam
prder
prfu
prfueram
prfuer

PLURAL

prsumus
prdestis
prsunt
prdermus
prderimus
prfuimus
prfuermus
prfuerimus

SINGULAR

prsim
prss
prsit
prdessem

prfuerim
prfuissem

PLURAL

prsmus
prstis
prsint
prodessmus

prfuerimus
prfuissmus

IMPERATIVE
Pres. 2d Pers. prdes, prdeste
Fut. 2d Pers. prdest, prdestte
INFINITIVE
Pres. prdesse
Perf. prfuisse
Fut. prfutrus, -a, -um esse
FUTURE PARTICIPLE prfutrus, -a, -um
257

497.
PRINCIPAL
PARTS

vol, velle, volu, , be willing, will, wish


nl, nlle, nlu, , be unwilling, will not
ml, mlle, mlu, , be more willing, prefer

Nl and ml are compounds of vol. Nl is for ne (not) + vol, and ml for


m (from magis, more) + vol. The second person vs is from a different root.
INDICATIVE
SINGULAR

Pres.

vol
vs
vult

nl
nn vis
nn vult

ml
mvs
mvult

PLURAL

volumus

nlumus

mlumus

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Impf.
Fut.
Perf.
Plup.
F. P.

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vultis
volunt
volbam
volam, vols, etc.
volu
volueram
voluer

nn vultis
nlunt
nlbam
nlam, nls, etc.
nlu
nlueram
nluer

mvultis
mlunt
mlbam
mlam, mls, etc.
mlu
mlueram
mluer

SUBJUNCTIVE
SINGULAR

Pres.

velim
vels
velit

nlim
nls
nlit

mlim
mls
mlit

PLURAL

Impf.
Perf.
Plup.

velmus
veltis
velint
vellem
voluerim
voluissem

nlmus
nltis
nlint
nllem
nluerim
nluissem

mlmus
mltis
mlint
mllem
mluerim
mluissem

IMPERATIVE
Pres.

Fut.

Pres.
Perf.

velle
voluisse

Pres.

volns, -entis

258

498.

nl
nlte
nlt, etc.
INFINITIVE
nlle
nluisse
PARTICIPLE
nlns, -entis

mlle
mluisse

fer, bear, carry, endure


PRINCIPAL PARTS fer, ferre, tul, ltus
PRES. STEM fer- PERF. STEM tul- PART. STEM ltINDICATIVE
ACTIVE

Pres.

Impf.

fer
fers
fert
ferbam

ferimus
ferts
ferunt

PASSIVE

feror
ferris, -re
fertur
ferbar

ferimur
ferimim
feruntur

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Fut.
Perf.
Plup.
F. P.

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feram, fers, etc.


tul
tuleram
tuler

ferar, ferris, etc.


ltus, -a, -um sum
ltus, -a, -um eram
ltus, -a, -um er

SUBJUNCTIVE
Pres.
feram, fers, etc.
ferar, ferris, etc.
Impf.
ferrem
ferrer
Perf.
tulerim
ltus, -a, -um sim
Plup.
tulissem
ltus, -a, -um essem
IMPERATIVE
Pres. 2d Pers. fer
ferte
ferre
ferimin
Fut. 2d Pers. fert fertte
fertor
3d Pers. fert
ferunto
fertor
feruntor
INFINITIVE
Pres.
ferre
ferr
Perf.
tulisse
ltus, -a, -um esse
Fut.
ltrus, -a, -um esse

PARTICIPLES
Pres.
ferns, -entis
Pres.
Fut.
ltrus, -a, -um
Ger. ferendus, -a, -um
Perf.

Perf. ltus, -a, -um


259

GERUND
Gen. ferend Acc. ferendum
Dat. ferend Abl. ferend
499.

SUPINE (Active Voice)


Acc. [ltum]
Abl. [lt]

e, go
PRINCIPAL PARTS e, re, i (v), tum (n. perf. part.)
PRES. STEM - PERF. STEM - or v- PART. STEM itIMPERATIVE
INDICATIVE
SUBJUNCTIVE

Impf.

e
s
it
bam

Fut.

Perf.
Plup.

i (v)
ieram (veram)

ierim (verim)
ssem (vissem)

Pres.

mus
tis
eunt

eam

SING.

PLUR.

2d Pers.

te

2d Pers. t
3d Pers. t

tte
eunt

rem

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F. P.
Pres.
Perf.
Fut.

ier (ver)
INFINITIVE
re
sse (visse)
itrus, -a, -um esse

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PARTICIPLES
Pres. ins, gen. euntis ( 472)
Fut. itrus, -a, -um
Ger. eundum
GERUND
SUPINE
Gen. eund
Acc. [itum]
Dat. eund
Abl. [it]
Acc. eundum
Abl. eund

a. The verb e is used impersonally in the third person singular of the passive, as
tur, itum est, etc.
b. In the perfect system the forms with v are very rare.

500.

Pres.

260

Impf.
Fut.
Perf.
Plup.
F. P.
Pres.
Perf.
Fut.

f, passive of faci; be made, become, happen


PRINCIPAL PARTS f, fier, factus sum
INDICATIVE
SUBJUNCTIVE
IMPERATIVE
f

fam
2d Pers. f
fte
fs

fit
funt
fbam
fierem
fam

factus, -a, -um sum factus, -a, -um sim


factus, -a, -um eram factus, -a, -um essem
factus, -a, -um er
INFINITIVE
PARTICIPLES
fier
Perf. factus, -a, -um
factus, -a, -um esse
Ger. faciendus, -a, -um
[factum r]

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CASTRA MURO FOSSAQUE MUNIUNTUR

261

APPENDIX II
501.

RULES OF SYNTAX

NOTE. The rules of syntax are here classified and numbered consecutively. The
number of the text section in which the rule appears is given at the end of each.

Nominative Case
1. The subject of a finite verb is in the nominative and answers the question Who?
or What? 36.

Agreement
2. A finite verb must always be in the same person and number as its subject. 28.
3. A predicate noun agrees in case with the subject of the verb. 76.
4. An appositive agrees in case with the noun which it explains. 81.
5. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case. 65.
6. A predicate adjective completing a complementary infinitive agrees in gender,
number, and case with the subject of the main verb. 215. a.
7. A relative pronoun must agree with its antecedent in gender and number; but its
case is determined by the way it is used in its own clause. 224.

Prepositions
8. A noun governed by a preposition must be in the accusative or ablative case.
52.

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Genitive Case
9. The word denoting the owner or possessor of something is in the genitive and
answers the question Whose? 38.
10. The possessive genitive often stands in the predicate, especially after the forms
of sum, and is then called the predicate genitive. 409.
11. Words denoting a part are often used with the genitive of the whole, known as
the partitive genitive. 331.
12. Numerical descriptions of measure are expressed by the genitive with a
modifying adjective. 443.
262

Dative Case
13. The indirect object of a verb is in the dative. 45.
14. The dative of the indirect object is used with the intransitive verbs crd,
fave, noce, pre, persude, resist, stude, and others of like meaning.
154.
15. Some verbs compounded with ad, ante, con, d, in, inter, ob, post, prae, pr,
sub, super, admit the dative of the indirect object. Transitive compounds may take
both an accusative and a dative. 426.
16. The dative is used with adjectives to denote the object toward which the given
quality is directed. Such are, especially, those meaning near, also fit, friendly,
pleasing, like, and their opposites. 143.
17. The dative is used to denote the purpose or end for which; often with another
dative denoting the person or thing affected. 437.

Accusative Case
18. The direct object of a transitive verb is in the accusative and answers the
question Whom? or What? 37.
19. The subject of the infinitive is in the accusative. 214.
20. The place to which is expressed by ad or in with the accusative. Before names
of towns, small islands, domus, and rs the preposition is omitted. 263, 266.
21. Duration of time and extent of space are expressed by the accusative. 336.
22. Verbs of making, choosing, calling, showing, and the like, may take a
predicate accusative along with the direct object. With the passive voice the two
accusatives become nominatives. 392.

Ablative Case
23. Cause is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers the
question Because of what? 102.
24. Means is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers the
question By means of what? or With what? 103.
25. Accompaniment is denoted by the ablative with cum. This answers the question
With whom? 104.
26. The ablative with cum is used to denote the manner of an action. Cum may be

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omitted, if an adjective is used with the ablative. This answers the question How?
or In what manner? 105.
27. With comparatives and words implying comparison the ablative is used to
denote the measure of difference. 317.
263

28. The ablative of a noun or pronoun with a present or perfect participle in


agreement is used to express attendant circumstance. This is called the ablative
absolute. 381.
29. 1. Descriptions of physical characteristics are expressed by the ablative with a
modifying adjective. 444.
2. Descriptions involving neither numerical statements nor physical characteristics
may be expressed by either the genitive or the ablative with a modifying adjective.
445.
30. The ablative is used to denote in what respect something is true. 398.
31. The place from which is expressed by or ab, d, or ex with the separative
ablative. This answers the question Whence? Before names of towns, small
islands, domus, and rs the preposition is omitted. 264, 266.
32. Words expressing separation or deprivation require an ablative to complete
their meaning. This is called the ablative of separation. 180.
33. The word expressing the person from whom an action starts, when not the
subject, is put in the ablative with the preposition or ab. This is called the
ablative of the personal agent. 181.
34. The comparative degree, if quam is omitted, is followed by the separative
ablative. 309.
35. The time when or within which anything happens is expressed by the ablative
without a preposition. 275.
36. 1. The place at or in which is expressed by the ablative with in. This answers
the question Where? Before names of towns, small islands, and rs the preposition
is omitted. 265, 266.
2. Names of towns and small islands, if singular and of the first or second
declension, and the word domus express the place in which by the locative. 268.

Gerund and Gerundive


37. 1. The gerund is a verbal noun and is used only in the genitive, dative,
accusative, and ablative singular. The constructions of these cases are in general
the same as those of other nouns. 406. 1.
2. The gerundive is a verbal adjective and must be used instead of gerund + object,
excepting in the genitive and in the ablative without a preposition. Even in these
instances the gerundive construction is more usual. 406. 2.
38. The accusative of the gerund or gerundive with ad, or the genitive with caus,
is used to express purpose. 407.
264

Moods and Tenses of Verbs


39. Primary tenses are followed by primary tenses, and secondary by secondary.
358.

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40. The subjunctive is used in a dependent clause to express the purpose of the
action in the principal clause. 349.
41. A substantive clause of purpose with the subjunctive is used as object with
verbs of commanding, urging, asking, persuading, or advising, where in English
we should usually have the infinitive. 366.
42. Verbs of fearing are followed by a substantive clause of purpose introduced by
ut (that not) or n (that or lest). 372.
43. Consecutive clauses of result are introduced by ut or ut nn, and have the verb
in the subjunctive. 385.
44. Object clauses of result with ut or ut nn are found after verbs of effecting or
bringing about. 386.
45. A relative clause with the subjunctive is often used to describe an antecedent.
This is called the subjunctive of characteristic or description. 390.
46. The conjunction cum means when, since, or although. It is followed by the
subjunctive unless it means when and its clause fixes the time at which the main
action took place. 396.
47. When a direct statement becomes indirect, the principal verb is changed to the
infinitive, and its subject nominative becomes subject accusative of the infinitive.
416.
48. The accusative-with-infinitive construction in indirect statements is found after
verbs of saying, telling, knowing, thinking, and perceiving. 419.
49. A present indicative of a direct statement becomes present infinitive of the
indirect, a past indicative becomes perfect infinitive, and a future indicative
becomes future infinitive. 418.
50. In an indirect question the verb is in the subjunctive and its tense is determined
by the law for tense sequence. 432.

DOMINA

265

APPENDIX III

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REVIEWS 1
1. It is suggested that each of these reviews be assigned for a written test.

I. REVIEW OF VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR THROUGH LESSON VIII


Lesson IX

502. Give the English of the following words: 1


NOUNS
agricola
ancilla
aqua
casa
causa
cna
corna

dea
domina
fbula
fera
flia
fortna
fuga

gallna
iniria
nsula
lna
nauta
pecnia
puella

pugna
sagitta
silva
terra
tuba
via
victria

ADJECTIVES
alta
bona

clra
grta

lta
longa

magna
mala

nova
parva

pulchra
sla

VERBS
est
habitat

amat
dat

labrat
laudat

nrrat
necat

nntiat
parat

portat
pugnat

sunt
vocat

PREPOSITIONS

PRONOUNS

ADVERBS

CONJUNCTIONS

or ab
ad
cum
d
or ex
in

mea
tua
quis
cuius
cui
quem
quid

cr
deinde
nn
ubi

et
quia
quod

INTERROGATIVE
PARTICLE
-ne

1. Proper nouns and proper adjectives are not repeated in the reviews. Words
used in Cassars Gallic War are in heavy type.

266

503. Give the Latin of the following words: 1


Underline the words you do not remember. Do not look up a single word till you
have gone through the entire list. Then drill on the words you have underlined.
flight
story
new

wide
tells
money

goddess
wild beast
praises (verb)

what
way
bad

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lives (verb)
away from
who
why
forest
wreath
deep, high
dinner
famous
cottage
battle (noun)
trumpet
lady, mistress
whom
island

Page 68 of 158

calls
with
your
then, in the
next place
daughter
to whom
fortune
out from
labors (verb)
gives
small
in
and
sailor
farmer

alone
pleasing
prepares
are
to
because
arrow
my
kills
girl
fights (verb)
carries
chicken
victory
land

loves
pretty
water
great
is
announces
injury, wrong
where
not
good
maid
down from
long
cause
whose

1. The translations of words used in Csar are in italics.

504. Review Questions. How many syllables has a Latin word? How are words
divided into syllables? What is the ultima? the penult? the antepenult? When is a
syllable short? When is a syllable long? What is the law of Latin accent? Define the
subject of a sentence; the predicate; the object; the copula. What is inflection?
declension? conjugation? What is the ending of the verb in the third person
singular, and what in the plural? What does the form of a noun show? Name the
Latin cases. What case is used for the subject? the direct object? the possessor?
What relation is expressed by the dative case? Give the rule for the indirect object.
How are questions answered in Latin? What is a predicate adjective? an attributive
adjective? What is meant by agreement? Give the rule for the agreement of the
adjective. What are the three relations expressed by the ablative? What can you say
of the position of the possessive pronoun? the modifying genitive? the adjective?
What is the base? What is grammatical gender? What is the rule for gender in the
first declension? What are the general principles of Latin word order?
267

505. Fill out the following summary of the first declension:

THE FIRST OR -DECLENSION

1. Ending in the nominative singular


2. Rule for gender
a. Singular
3. Case terminations
b. Plural
4. Irregular nouns

Go on to Lesson IX

II. REVIEW OF LESSONS IX-XVII


Lesson XVIII

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506. Give the English of the following words:


NOUNS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION
agr cultra
cnstantia

cpia
dligentia

fma
fmina

galea
inopia

lacrima
lrca

patria
praeda

NOUNS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION


ager
amcus
arma (plural)
auxilium
bellum
carrus
castrum

cibus
cnsilium
domicilium
dominus
equus
flius
fluvius

frmentum
gladius
lgtus
lber
magister
mrus
numerus

oppidnus
oppidum
plum
populus
praemium
proelium
puer

sctum
servus
studium
tlum
vcus
vir

ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSONS


aeger, aegra, aegrum
alius, alia, aliud
alter, altera, alterum
armtus, -a, -um
crber, crbra, crbrum
drus, -a, -um
fnitimus, -a, -um
nfrmus, -a, -um
leginrius, -a, -um
lber, lbera, lberum
mtrus, -a, -um
meus, -a, -um
miser, misera, miserum
multus, -a, -um
268

VERBS
arat
crat
dsderat
mtrat
properat

neuter, neutra, neutrum


noster, nostra, nostrum
alter, altera, alterum
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum
slus, -a, -um
suus, -a, -um
fnitimus, -a, -um
tuus, -a, -um
llus, -a, -um
nus, -a, -um
uter, utra, utrum
validus, -a, -um
vester, vestra, vestrum

DEMONSTRATIVE
PRONOUN
is, ea, id
CONJUNCTIONS
an
-que
sed

ADVERBS
iam
qu
saepe
PREPOSITION
apud

507. Give the Latin of the following words:


sword
corselet
man
your (plural)
hasten

war
number
my
free (adj.)
children

shield (noun)
whole
it
aid (noun)
legionary

plan (noun)
people
beautiful
no (adj.)
our

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but
among
tear (noun)
village
strong
long for
and (enclitic)
often
want (noun)
which (of two)
care for
or (in a question)
whither
wagon
townsman
wretched
ripe

269

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wall
grain
weapon
one
plow (verb)
this or that
already
helmet
river
zeal
any
he
son
slave
your (singular)
she
woman
horse

weak
arms
master
(of school)
friend
neighboring
sick
lieutenant
field
report, rumor
abode
boy
his own
alone
prize (noun)
master (owner)
carefulness
plenty
troops

battle
spear
food
steadiness
fatherland
town
fort
camp
neither (of two)
much
agriculture
other
the other (of two)
hard
booty
frequent
armed

508. Review Questions. How many declensions are there? What three things must
be known about a noun before it can be declined? What three cases of neuter nouns
are always alike, and in what do they end in the plural? What two plural cases are
always alike? When is the vocative singular not like the nominative? What is a
predicate noun? With what does it agree? What is an appositive? Give the rule for
the agreement of an appositive. How can we tell whether a noun in -er is declined
like puer or like ager? Decline bonus, lber, pulcher. How can we tell whether an
adjective in -er is declined like lber or like pulcher? Why must we say nauta
bonus and not nauta bona? Name the Latin possessive pronouns. How are they
declined? With what does the possessive pronoun agree? When do we use tuus and
when vester? Why is suus called a reflexive possessive? What is the non-reflexive
possessive of the third person? When are possessives omitted? What four uses of
the ablative case are covered by the relations expressed in English by with? Give an
illustration in Latin of the ablative of manner; of the ablative of cause; of the
ablative of means; of the ablative of accompaniment. What ablative regularly has
cum? What ablative sometimes has cum? What uses of the ablative never have
cum? Name the nine pronominal adjectives, with their meanings. Decline alius,
nllus. Decline is. What does is mean as a demonstrative adjective or pronoun?
What other important use has it?
509. Fill out the following summary of the second declension:
1. Endings in the nominative
2. Rule for gender
a. Singular
b. Plural
a. The vocative singular of nouns in -us

3. Case terminations of nouns in -us


THE SECOND OR

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O-DECLENSION

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a. Singular
b. Plural

4. Case terminations of nouns in -um

5. Peculiarities of nouns in -er and -ir


6. Peculiarities of nouns in -ius and -ium
Go on to Lesson XVIII

III. REVIEW OF LESSONS XVIII-XXVI


Lesson XXVII

510. Give the English of the following words:


NOUNS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION
disciplna
frma

poena
potentia

trstitia

rgna
superbia

NOUNS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION


ldus rnmentum sacrum socius verbum
ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS
amcus
antquus
fnitimus
270

grtus
idneus
inimcus

ADVERBS
hodi
ibi
maxim

mox
nunc
nper

interfectus
rtus
laetus

molestus
perpetuus
proximus

CONJUNCTIONS

septem
superbus

PERSONAL PRONOUN

etiam
nn slum ... sed etiam

ego

VERBS
CONJ. I

vol, -re
IRREGULAR VERB

sum, esse

CONJ. II

CONJ. III

CONJ. IV

dle, -re
doce, -re
fave, -re
habe, -re
iube, -re
mone, -re
move, -re
noce, -re
pre, -re
persude, -re
sede, -re
stude, -re
vide, -re

ag, -ere
capi, -ere
crd, -ere
dc, -ere
dc, -ere
faci, -ere
fugi, -ere
iaci, -ere
mitt, -ere
rapi, -ere
reg, -ere
resist, -ere

audi, -re
mni, -re
reperi, -re
veni, -re

511. Give the Latin of the following words. In the case of verbs always give the

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first form and the present infinitive.


ancient
come
resist
see
be
fly
I
proud
word
sadness
find
rule (verb)
be eager for

271

not only ...


but also
seven
ally,
companion
pride
fortify
send
sit
also
school
hear
hurl
persuade
only

nearest
sacred rite
queen
flee
obey
lately
constant
ornament
power
make, do
injure
now
annoying
lead

move
soon
glad
punishment
believe
advise
especially,
most of all
angry
beauty
say
command
(verb)
there
slain

training
take
have
to-day
unfriendly
drive
favor (verb)
suitable
pleasing
teach
neighboring
destroy
friendly
seize

512. Review Questions. What is conjugation? Name two important differences


between conjugation in Latin and in English. What is tense? What is mood? What
are the Latin moods? When do we use the indicative mood? Name the six tenses of
the indicative. What are personal endings? Name those you have had. Inflect sum
in the three tenses you have learned. How many regular conjugations are there?
How are they distinguished? How is the present stem found? What tenses are
formed from the present stem? What is the tense sign of the imperfect? What is the
meaning of the imperfect? What is the tense sign of the future in the first two
conjugations? in the last two? Before what letters is a final long vowel of the stem
shortened? What are the three possible translations of a present, as of pugn?
Inflect ar, sede, mitt, faci, and veni, in the present, imperfect, and future
active. What forms of -i verbs of the third conjugation are like audi? what like
reg? Give the rule for the dative with adjectives. Name the special intransitive
verbs that govern the dative. What does the imperative mood express? How is the
present active imperative formed in the singular? in the plural? What three verbs
have a shortened present active imperative? Give the present active imperative of
port, dle, ag, faci, mni.
Go on to Lesson XXVII

IV. REVIEW OF LESSONS XXVII-XXXVI


Lesson XXXVII

513. Give the English of the following words:

la

NOUNS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION


cra mora porta prvincia vta
NOUNS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION

animus

bracchium

locus

nvigium

perculum

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vnum

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aurum

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deus

mnstrum

rculum

ventus

ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS


dubius
maximus
perfidus

commtus
dfessus
dexter

adversus
attentus
crus

plnus
saevus
sinister

ADVERBS
ante
celeriter
dnique

di
frstr
graviter

ita
long
semper

subit
tamen
tum

CONJUNCTIONS
autem s ubi
272

PREPOSITIONS
d per pr sine
VERBS
CONJ. I

adpropinqu
nvig
occup
postul

recs
report
serv
st

CONJ. II

super
tempt
vst
vulner

CONJ. III

discd

ger

contine
ege
prohibe
responde
tene
IRREGULAR VERB

interfici

absum

514. Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender of the nouns
and the principal parts of the verbs.
be away
wind
through
if
savage
wound (verb)
wine
delay
faithless
right
seize
quickly
before, in
behalf of
battle

moreover
greatest
oracle
danger
lay waste
gate
doubtful
opposite,
adverse
demand
finally
attentive
then, at that
time
weary

boat, ship
sail (verb)
life
save
full
refuse
heavily
monster
approach
nevertheless
place
be without,
lack
moved
gold

without
hold
suddenly
dear
always
god
hold in,
keep
afar
thus, so,
as
follows
arm (noun)
when
in vain

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before,
previously
depart,
go away
province
care, trouble
kill
reply (verb)
wing
mind, heart
left (adj.)
bear, carry
on
try
for a long

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down from or
concerning

overcome,
conquer

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restrain, keep
from

stand
bring back,
win

time

515. Give the principal parts and meaning of the following verbs:
sum
d
tene
iube
ag
mitt
mni
273

move
crd
rapi
reperi
dle
resist
audi

mone
capi
doce
reg
fave
noce
dc

pre
dc
faci
persude
sede
stude
fugi

veni
iaci
vide
absum
ege
ger
st

516. Review Questions. What are the personal endings in the passive voice? What
is the letter -r sometimes called? What are the distinguishing vowels of the four
conjugations? What forms constitute the principal parts? What are the three
different conjugation stems? How may they be found? What are the tenses of the
indicative? of the infinitive? What tense of the imperative have you learned? What
forms are built on the present stem? on the perfect stem? on the participial stem?
What are the endings of the perfect active indicative? What is the tense sign of the
pluperfect active? of the future perfect active? How is the present active infinitive
formed? the present passive infinitive? How is the present active imperative
formed? the present passive imperative? How is the perfect active infinitive
formed? the perfect passive infinitive? How is the future active infinitive formed?
What is a participle? How are participles in -us declined? Give the rule for the
agreement of the participle. How are the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect
passive indicative formed? Conjugate the verb sum in all moods and tenses as far
as you have learned it ( 494). What is meant by the separative ablative? How is
the place from which expressed in Latin? Give the rule for the ablative of
separation; for the ablative of the personal agent. How can we distinguish between
the ablative of means and the ablative of the personal agent? What is the perfect
definite? the perfect indefinite? What is the difference in meaning between the
perfect indefinite and the imperfect? What two cases in Latin may be governed by a
preposition? Name the prepositions that govern the ablative. What does the
preposition in mean when it governs the ablative? the accusative? What are the
three interrogatives used to introduce yes-and-no questions? Explain the force of
each. What words are sometimes used for yes and no? What are the different
meanings and uses of ubi?
Go on to Lesson XXXVII

V. REVIEW OF LESSONS XXXVII-XLIV


Lesson XLV

517. Give the English of the following words:

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NOUNS
FIRST DECLENSION

rpa

SECOND DECLENSION

barbar
captvus

castellum
impedmentum

THIRD DECLENSION

274

animal
arbor
avis
caeds
calamits
calcar
caput
cvis
clins

collis
cnsul
dns
dux
eques
fnis
flmen
fns
frter

hom
hosts
ignis
impertor
nsigne
iter
idex
labor
lapis

legi
mare
mter
mnsis
mles
mns
nvis
opus
rtor

rd
pater
pedes
ps
pns
prnceps
rx
sals
sanguis

soror
tempus
terror
turris
urbs
victor
virts
vs

ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS


barbarus
dexter
sinister
summus
PREPOSITIONS

ADVERBS

CONJUNCTIONS

in with the abl.


in with the acc.
trns

cotdi
numquam

nec, neque
nec ... nec, or neque ... neque

VERBS
CONJ. I

cess
confirm

oppugn
vet

CONJ. III

accipi
incipi

pet
pon

vinc
viv

518. Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender of the nouns
and the principal parts of the verbs:
forbid
rank, row
brother
force
across
savages
horseman
never
mountain
manliness,
courage
leader
put, place
time
savage,

man-of-war
judge
defeat, disaster
fire
tree
foot soldier
receive
general
highest
fountain
orator
neither ... nor
and not
left
tooth

conquer
consul
mother
retainer
citizen
head
safety
assail, storm
begin
march
decoration
bridge
bird
cease
man

redoubt, fort
sea
tower
drill (verb)
legion
terror
into, to
right (adj.)
in
stone
blood
labor (noun)
king
spur
chief

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soldier
month
city
victor
daily
live (verb)

barbarous
sister
seek
captive
hindrance,
baggage
275

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river
work (noun)
and
ship
bank

slaughter
strengthen
foot
enemy
animal
father

519. Review Questions. Give the conjugation of possum. What is an infinitive?


What three uses has the Latin infinitive that are like the English? What is the case
of the subject of the infinitive? What is meant by a complementary infinitive? In
the sentence The bad boy cannot be happy, what is the case of happy? Give the
rule. Decline qu. Give the rule for the agreement of the relative. What are the two
uses of the interrogative? Decline quis. What is the base of a noun? How is the
stem formed from the base? Are the stem and the base ever the same? How many
declensions of nouns are there? Name them. What are the two chief divisions of the
third declension? How are the consonant stems classified? Explain the formation of
lapis from the stem lapid-, mles from mlit-, rx from rg-. What nouns have istems? What peculiarities of form do i-stems have,masc., fem., and neut.? Name
the five nouns that have - and -e in the abl. Decline turris. Give the rules for
gender in the third declension. Decline mles, lapis, rx, virts, cnsul, legi,
hom, pater, flmen, opus, tempus, caput, caeds, urbs, hostis, mare, animal,
vs, iter.
520. Fill out the following scheme:
GENDER ENDINGS

Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
I. CONSONANT
STEMS

THE THIRD
DECLENSION

CASE
TERMINATIONS

II. I-STEMS

a. Masc. and
fem.
b. Neuters
a. Masc. and
fem.
b. Neuters

IRREGULAR NOUNS
Go on to Lesson XLV

VI. REVIEW OF LESSONS XLV-LII


Lesson LIII

521. Give the English of the following words:


NOUNS
FIRST DECLENSION

amcitia
hra

annus
modus

SECOND DECLENSION

rgnum
signum

tergum,
tergum vertere

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littera

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nntius
oculus

supplicium,
supplicium dare
supplicium smere d

THIRD DECLENSION

aests
corpus
hiems
lberts
lx,
prma lx
nmen

FOURTH DECLENSION

nox
pars
px
rs
sl
vx
vulnus

adventus
corn
domus
equittus
exercitus
fluctus

impetus
lacus
manus
metus
portus

FIFTH DECLENSION

acis
dis
fids,
in fidem venre

vestgium

INDECLINABLE NOUN

sps

rs,
rs gestae
rs adversae
rs pblica
rs secundae

nihil

ADJECTIVES
FIRST AND SECOND
DECLENSIONS

dnsus
invsus
mrus
pauc
prmus

THIRD DECLENSION

prstinus
pblicus
secundus
tantus
vrus

cer, cris, cre


brevis, breve
difficilis,
difficile
faclis, facile
fortis, forte

gravis, grave
incolumis,
incolume
omnis, omne
pr, pr
vlx, vlx

PRONOUNS
PERSONAL

DEMONSTRATIVE

INTENSIVE

INDEFINITE

ego
ns
su
t
vs

hic
dem
ille
iste

ipse

aliquis, aliqu
qudam
quis, qu
quisquam
quisque

ADVERBS
n ... quidem
lim

paene
quoque

satis
vr

CONJUNCTIONS

PREPOSITIONS

itaque
nisi

ante
post
propter

VERBS
CONJ. I

CONJ. II

CONJ. III

CONJ. IV

conloc
convoc

dbe
exerce

committ,
committere proelium

dsili

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crem
dmnstr
mand

277

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mane
place
sustine

dcid
ripi
sm,
smere supplicium d
trdc
vert

522. Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender of the nouns
and the principal parts of the verbs.
if not, unless
on account of
unharmed
public
commonwealth
leap down,
dismount
lead across
remain
call together
friendship
footprint, trace
each
fear (noun)
hope
therefore
behind, after
so great
equal
in truth, indeed
that (yonder)
a certain
fall down
owe, ought
measure, mode
eye
name
wave, billow
thing, matter
exploits
republic
prosperity

adversity
former, old-time
all, every
any one (at all)
this (of mine)
heavy, serious
hateful, detested
true
burn
snatch from
letter
punishment
inflict
punishment on
suffer
punishment
liberty
sun
sustain
take up, assume
hour
reign, realm
messenger
part, direction
body
harbor
faith, protection
of himself
also, too
sufficiently

burn
that (of yours)
before
you (plur.)
light
daybreak
winter
attack
line of battle
army
drill, train
join battle
house, home
midday
wonderful
brave
almost
the same
some, any
if any one
self, very
not even
easy
dense
point out,
explain
difficult
first
arrange, station
please
year

peace
back
turn the back,
retreat
night
hand, force
lake
day
commit, intrust
a few only
sharp, eager
we
turn
you (sing.)
I
signal
summer
cavalry
wound
horn, wing
country
second, favorable
short
voice
formerly, once
arrival
come under the
protection of
swift
nothing

523. Review Questions. By what declensions are Latin adjectives declined? What
can you say about the stem of adjectives of the third declension? Into what classes
are these adjectives divided? How can you tell to which of the classes an adjective
belongs? Decline cer, omnis, pr. What are the nominative endings and genders

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278

Page 79 of 158

of nouns of the fourth or u-declension? What nouns are feminine by exception?


Decline adventus, lacus, corn, domus. Give the rules for the ordinary expression
of the place to which, the place from which, the place in which. What special rules
apply to names of towns, small islands, and rs? What is the locative case? What
words have a locative case? What is the form of the locative case? Translate Galba
lives at home, Galba lives at Rome, Galba lives at Pompeii. What is the rule for
gender in the fifth or -declension? Decline dis, rs. When is the long
shortened? What can you say about the plural of the fifth declension? Decline tuba,
servus, plum, ager, puer, mles, cnsul, flmen, caeds, animal. How is the time
when expressed? Name the classes of pronouns and define each class. Decline ego,
t, is. What are the reflexives of the first and second persons? What is the reflexive
of the third person? Decline it. Translate I see myself, he sees himself, he sees him.
Decline ipse. How is ipse used? Decline dem. Decline hic, iste, ille. Explain the
use of these words. Name and translate the commoner indefinite pronouns. Decline
aliquis, quisquam, qudam, quisque.
Go on to Lesson LIII

VII. REVIEW OF LESSONS LIII-LX


Lesson LXI

524. Give the English of the following words:


NOUNS
FIRST DECLENSION

aquila
fossa

SECOND DECLENSION

aedificium
captvus
concilium

imperium
negtium

spatium
vllum

THIRD DECLENSION

agmen
celerits
cvits
clmor
cohors
difficults
explrtor

gns
ltitd
longitd
magnitd
mns
merctor
mlle

mors
mulier
multitd
mnti
nm
obses
opni

FOURTH DECLENSION

aditus
commetus
279

regi
rmor
scelus
servits
timor
valls

FIFTH DECLENSION

passus

rs frmentria

ADJECTIVES
FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS

aequus
bn
ducent

maximus
medius
minimus

plrimus
posterus
prmus

singul
superus
tardus

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duo
exterus
nferus

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opportnus
optimus
pessimus

tern
nus

reliquus
secundus

THIRD DECLENSION

alacer, alacris, alacre


audx, audx
celer, celeris, celere
citerior, citerius
difficilis, difficile
dissimilis, dissimile
facilis, facile
gracilis, gracile

humilis, humile
ingns, ingns
interior, interius
lnis, lne
maior, maius
melior, melius
minor, minus
nbilis, nbile

peior, peius
, pls
prior, prius
recns, recns
similis, simile
trs, tria
ulterior, ulterius

ADVERBS
magis
magnopere
maxim
melius
minim
multum

criter
audcter
bene
facile
fer
fortiter

optim
parum
paul
plrimum
prope
propius

CONJUNCTIONS
atque, ac
aut
aut ... aut
et ... et
nam

proxim
quam
statim
tam
undique

PREPOSITIONS

qu d caus
quam ob rem
simul atque or
simul ac

circum
contr
inter
ob
trns

VERBS
CONJ. I

cnor
hortor

CONJ. II

moror
vex

obtine
perterre

vale
vereor

CONJ. III

abd
cad
cognsc
cnsequor
contend
cupi
curr

dd
dfend
gredior
incend
incol
nsequor
occd

patior
prem
proficscor
prgredior
quaer
recipi
relinqu

revertor
sequor
statu
subsequor
suscipi
trd
trah

CONJ. III

orior
280

perveni

525. Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender of the nouns

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and the principal parts of the verbs:


on account of
nearly
keenly, sharply
thousand
two
opportune
remaining
above (adj.)
next
grain supply
pace
shout (noun)
from all sides
against
around
three
further
line of march
manor
region
fortification
eagle
almost
boldly
bravely
across
between, among
hither (adj.)
so
less
more
most
worst
difficulty
hostage
death
command,
power
captive
or
and
arrive
attempt, try
length
281

width
scout
cohort
tribe, nation
business
by a little
somewhat
crime
difficult
equal
move forward,
advance
multitude
woman
desire (verb)
give over,
surrender
kill
overtake
hasten, strive
hide
one
first
second, favorable
two hundred
former
inner
middle
low
outward
three by three
provisions
speed
ditch
wherefore or
therefore
for this reason
fear (noun)
return
inquire
set out
move out,
disembark

fear (verb)
worse
greater, larger
two by two
least (adv.)
opinion,
expectation
approach,
entrance
trader
magnitude, size
council, assembly
space, room
either ... or
rise, arise
suffer, allow
press hard
fall
surrender
set fire to
defend
possess, hold
delay (verb)
nearest (adv.)
nearer (adv.)
better (adj.)
well known, noble
mild, gentle
swift
eager
low (adj.)
slender
one by one
no one
least (adv.)
little (adv.)
learn, know
drag
undertake
run
fix, decide

leave
abandon
be strong
receive, recover
terrify, frighten
dwell
state, citizenship
valley
slavery
greatly
best of all (adv.)
better (adv.)
well (adv.)
very much
much
unlike
like (adj.)
slow
very greatly,
exceedingly
building
mind (noun)
easily
easy
recent
huge, great
bold
immediately
as soon as
for
than
best (adj.)
greatest
follow close
encourage
annoy, ravage
hide
follow
pursue
both ... and
rampart

526. Review Questions. What is meant by comparison? In what two ways may

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adjectives be compared? Compare clrus, brevis, vlx, and explain the formation
of the comparative and the superlative. What are the adverbs used in comparison?
Compare brevis by adverbs. Decline the comparative of vlx. How are adjectives
in -er compared? Compare cer, pulcher, liber. What are possible translations for
the comparative and superlative? Name the six adjectives that form the superlative
in -limus. Translate in two ways Nothing is brighter than the sun. Give the rule for
the ablative with comparatives. Compare bonus, magnus, malus, multus, parvus,
exterus, nferus, posterus, superus. Decline pls. Compare citerior, interior,
propior, ulterior. Translate That route to Italy is much shorter. Give the rule for
the expression of measure of difference. Name five words that are especially
common in this construction. How are adverbs usually formed from adjectives of
the first and second declensions? from adjectives of the third declension? Compare
the adverbs cr, lber, fortiter, audcter. What cases of adjectives are
sometimes used as adverbs? What are the adverbs from facilis? multus? prmus?
plrimus? bonus? magnus? parvus? Compare prope, saepe, magnopere. How
are numerals classified? Give the first twenty cardinals. Decline nus, duo, trs,
mlle. How are the hundreds declined? What is meant by the partitive genitive?
Give the rule for the partitive genitive. What sort of words are commonly used with
this construction? What construction is used with qudam and cardinal numbers
excepting mlle? Give the first twenty ordinals. How are they declined? How are
the distributives declined? Give the rule for the expression of duration of time and
extent of space. What is the difference between the ablative of time and the
accusative of time? What is a deponent verb? Give the synopsis of one. What form
always has a passive meaning? Conjugate am, mone, reg, capi, audi, in the
active and passive.
Go on to Lesson LXI

VIII. REVIEW OF LESSONS LXI-LXIX


Lesson LXX

527. Review the vocabularies of the first seventeen lessons. See 502, 503, 506,
507.

282

528. Review Questions. Name the tenses of the subjunctive. What time is denoted
by these tenses? What are the mood signs of the present subjunctive? How may the
imperfect subjunctive be formed? How do the perfect subjunctive and the future
perfect indicative active differ in form? How is the pluperfect subjunctive active
formed? Inflect the subjunctive active and passive of cr, dle, vinc, rapi,
mni. Inflect the subjunctive tenses of sum; of possum. What are the tenses of
the participles in the active? What in the passive? Give the active and passive
participles of am, mone, reg, capi, audi. Decline regns. What participles
do deponent verbs have? What is the difference in meaning between the perfect
participle of a deponent verb and of one not deponent? Give the participles of
vereor. How should participles usually be translated? Conjugate vol, nol, ml,
f.
What is the difference between the indicative and subjunctive in their fundamental

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ideas? How is purpose usually expressed in English? How is it expressed in Latin?


By what words is a Latin purpose clause introduced? When should qu be used?
What is meant by sequence of tenses? Name the primary tenses of the indicative
and of the subjunctive; the secondary tenses. What Latin verbs are regularly
followed by substantive clauses of purpose? What construction follows iube?
What construction follows verbs of fearing? How is consequence or result
expressed in Latin? How is a result clause introduced? What words are often found
in the principal clause foreshadowing the coming of a result clause? How may
negative purpose be distinguished from negative result? What is meant by the
subjunctive of characteristic or description? How are such clauses introduced?
Explain the ablative absolute. Why is the ablative absolute of such frequent
occurrence in Latin? Explain the predicate accusative. After what verbs are two
accusatives commonly found? What do these accusatives become when the verb is
passive?
Go on to Lesson LXX

IMPERATOR MILITES HORTATUR

283

SPECIAL VOCABULARIES
The words in heavy type are used in Csars Gallic War.

LESSON IV, 39
NOUNS
dea, goddess (deity)
Dina, Diana
fera, a wild beast (fierce)
Ltna, Latona
sagitta, arrow

VERBS
est, he (she, it) is; sunt, they
are
necat, he (she, it) kills, is
killing, does kill
CONJUNCTION 1
et, and

PRONOUNS
quis, interrog. pronoun, nom. sing., who?
cuius (pronounced co oiyo os, two syllables), interrog.
pronoun, gen. sing., whose?

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1. A conjunction is a word which connects words, parts of sentences, or


sentences.

LESSON V, 47
NOUNS
corna, wreath, garland,
crown
fbula, story (fable)
pecnia, money (pecuniary)
pugna, battle (pugnacious)
victria, victory

VERBS
dat, he (she, it) gives
nrrat, he (she, it) tells (narrate)
CONJUNCTION 1
quia or quod, because

PRONOUN
cui (pronounced co oi, one syllable), interrog. pronoun, dat. sing.,
to whom? for whom?
1. A conjunction is a word which connects words, parts of sentences, or
sentences.

LESSON VI, 56
ADJECTIVES
bona, good
grta, pleasing
magna, large, great
mala, bad, wicked
parva, small, little
pulchra, beautiful, pretty
sla, alone

NOUNS
ancilla, maidservant
Ilia, Julia

284

ADVERBS 1
cr, why
nn, not
PRONOUNS
mea, my; tua, thy, your
(possesives)
quid, interrog. pronoun, nom.
and acc. sing., what?

-ne, the question sign, an enclitic ( 16) added to the first word,
which, in a question, is usually the verb, as amat, he loves, but
amatne? does he love? est, he is; estne? is he? Of course -ne is
not used when the sentence contains quis, cr, or some other
interrogative word.
1. An adverb is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb;
as, She sings sweetly; she is very talented; she began to sing very early.

LESSON VII, 62
NOUNS
casa, -ae, f., cottage
cna, -ae, f., dinner
gallna, -ae, f., hen, chicken
nsula, ae, f., island (pen-

VERBS
habitat, he (she, it) lives, is
living, does live (inhabit)
laudat, he (she, it) praises, is
praising, does praise (laud)

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insula)
ADVERBS
de-inde, then, in the next place
ubi, where
PREPOSITION
ad, to, with acc. to express
motion toward

parat, he (she, it) prepares, is


preparing, does prepare
vocat, he (she, it) calls, is
calling, does call; invites, is
inviting, does invite
(vocation)

PRONOUN
quem, interrog. pronoun, acc. sing., whom?

LESSON VIII, 69
NOUNS
Italia, -ae, f., Italy
Sicilia, -ae, f., Sicily
tuba, -ae, f., trumpet (tube)
via, -ae, f., way, road, street
(viaduct)

ADJECTIVES
alta, high, deep (altitude)
clra, clear, bright; famous
lta, wide (latitude)
longa, long (longitude)
nova, new (novelty)

285

LESSON IX, 77
NOUNS
bellum, -, n., war (re-bel)
cnstantia, -ae, f., firmness,
constancy, steadiness
dominus, -, m., master, lord
(dominate)
equus, -, m., horse (equine)
frmentum, -, n., grain
lgtus, -, m., lieutenant,
ambassador (legate)
Mrcus, -, m., Marcus, Mark

mrus, -, m., wall (mural)


oppidnus, -, m., townsman
oppidum, -, n., town
plum, -, n., spear (pile driver)
servus, -, m., slave, servant
Sextus, -, m., Sextus
VERBS
crat, he (she, it) cares for,
with acc.
properat, he (she, it) hastens

LESSON X, 82
NOUNS
amcus, -, m., friend
(amicable)
Germnia, -ae, f., Germany
patria, -ae, f., fatherland

populus, -, m., people


Rhnus, -, m., the Rhine
vcus, -, m., village

LESSON XI, 86
NOUNS

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arma, armrum, n., plur.,


arms, especially defensive
weapons
fma, -ae, f., rumor;
reputation, fame

galea, -ae, f., helmet


praeda, -ae, f., booty, spoils
(predatory)
tlum, -, n., weapon of offense,
spear

ADJECTIVES
drus, -a, -um, hard, rough;
unfeeling, cruel; severe,
toilsome (durable)

Rmnus, -a, -um, Roman. As


a noun, Rmnus, -, m., a
Roman

LESSON XII, 90
NOUNS
flius, fl, m., son (filial)
fluvius, fluv, m., river (fluent)
gladius, glad, m., sword
(gladiator)
praesidium, praesid, n.,
garrison, guard, protection
proelium, proel, n., battle

ADJECTIVES
fnitimus, -a, -um, bordering
upon, neighboring, near to.
As a noun, fnitim, -rum,
m., plur., neighbors
Germnus, -a, -um, German.
As a noun, Germnus, -,
m., a German
multus, -a, -um, much; plur.,
many

ADVERB
saepe, often
286

LESSON XIII, 95
NOUNS
ager, agr, m., field (acre)
cpia, -ae, f., plenty,
abundance (copious); plur.,
troops, forces
Cornlius, Cornl, m.,
Cornelius
lrca, -ae, f., coat of mail,
corselet

praemium, praem, n., reward,


prize (premium)
puer, puer, m., boy (puerile)
Rma, -ae, f., Rome
sctum, -, n., shield
(escutcheon)
vir, vir, m., man, hero (virile)

ADJECTIVES
leginrius, -a, -um, 1
legionary, belonging to the
legion. As a noun, leginri,
-rum, m., plur., legionary
soldiers
lber, lbera, lberum, free
(liberty) As a noun. lber, rum, m., plur., children (lit.
the freeborn)

pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum,


pretty, beautiful
PREPOSITION
apud, among, with acc.
CONJUNCTION
sed, but

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1. The genitive singular masculine of adjectives in -ius ends in -i and the


vocative in -ie; not in -, as in nouns.

LESSON XIV, 99
NOUNS
auxilium, auxil, n., help, aid
(auxiliary)
castrum, -, n., fort (castle);
plur., camp (lit. forts)
cibus, -, m., food

cnsilium, cnsil, n., plan


(counsel)
dligentia, -ae, f., diligence,
industry
magister, magistr, m., master,
teacher 1

ADJECTIVES
aeger, aegra, aegrum, sick
crber, crbra, crbrum,
frequent

miser, misera, miserum,


wretched, unfortunate
(miser)

1. Observe that dominus, as distinguished from magister, means master in the


sense of owner.

LESSON XV, 107


ADJECTIVES
armtus, -a, -um, armed
nfrmus, -a, -um, week, feeble
(infirm)
validus, -a, -um, strong, sturdy

NOUNS
carrus, -, m., cart, wagon
inopia, -ae, f., want, lack; the
opposite of cpia
studium, stud, n., zeal,
eagerness (study)

287

ADVERB
iam, already, now

VERB
mtrat, he (she, it) hastens.
Cf. properat

-que, conjunction, and; an enclitic (cf. 16) and always added to


the second of two words to be connected, as arma tlaque, arms
and weapons.

LESSON XVII, 117


NOUNS
agr cultra, -ae, f.,
agriculture
domicilum, domcil, n.,
dwelling place (domicile)
abode
fmina, -ae, f., woman (female)

Gallia, -ae, f., Gaul


Gallus, -i, m., a Gaul
lacrima, -ae, f., tear
numerus, -, m., number
(numeral)

ADJECTIVE
mtrus, -a, -um, ripe, mature

ADVERB
qu, whither

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VERBS
arat, he (she, it) plows (arable)
dsderat, he (she, it) misses,
longs for (desire), with acc.

CONJUNCTION
an, or, introducing the second
half of a double question, as
Is he a Roman or a Gaul,
Estne Romanus an Gallus?

LESSON XVIII, 124


NOUNS
ldus, -, m.,school
socius, soc, m., companion,
ally (social)

ADJECTIVES
rtus, -a, -um, angry, furious
(irate)
laetus, -a, -um, happy, glad
(social)
ADVERBS
nunc, now, the present moment
nper, lately, recently, of the
immediate past

hodi, to-day
ibi, there, in that place
mox, presently, soon, of the
immediate future

LESSON XX, 136


NOUNS
frma, -ae, f., form, beauty
poena, -ae, f., punishment,
penalty
potentia, -ae, f., power (potent)

regna, -ae, f., queen (regal)


superbia, -ae, f., pride,
haughtiness
trstta, -ae, f., sadness,
sorrow

ADJECTIVES
septem, indeclinable, seven
superbus, -a, -um, proud,
haughty (superb)

CONJUNCTIONS
nn slum ... sed etiam, not
only ... but also

288

LESSON XXI, 140


NOUNS
sacrum, -, n., sacrifice,
offering, rite
verbum, -, n., word (verb)
VERBS
sede, -re, sit (sediment)
vol, -re, fly (volatile)

ADJECTIVES
interfectus, -a, -um, slain
molestus, -a, -um,
troublesome, annoying
(molest)
perpetuus, -a, -um, perpetual,
continuous

ego, personal pronoun, I (egotism). Always emphatic in the


nominative.

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LESSON XXII, 146


NOUNS
disciplna, -ae, f., training,
culture, discipline
rnmentum, -, n., ornament,
jewel

Gius, G, m., Caius, a


Roman first name
Tiberius, Tiber, m., Tiberius,
a Roman first name

VERB
doce, -re, teach (doctrine)

ADVERB
maxim, most of all, especially

ADJECTIVE
antquus, -qua, -quum, old, ancient (antique)

LESSON XXVII, 168


NOUNS
la, -ae, f., wing
deus, -, m., god (deity) 1
monstrum, -, n., omen,
prodigy; monster
rculum, -, n., oracle

ADJECTIVES
commtus, -a, -um, moved,
excited
maximus, -a, -um, greatest
(maximum)
saevus, -a, -um, fierce, savage

VERB
vst, -re, lay waste,
devastate

ADVERBS
ita, thus, in this way, as follows
tum, then, at that time

1. For the declension of deus, see 468

LESSON XXVIII, 171


VERBS
responde, -re, respond, reply
serv, -re, save, preserve
ADJECTIVE
crus, -a, -um, dear (cherish)

CONJUNCTION
autem, but, moreover, now.
Usually
stands second, never first
NOUN
vta, -ae, f., life (vital)

289

LESSON XXIX, 176


VERB
super, -re, conquer,
overcome (insuperable)

ADVERBS
semper, always
tamen, yet, nevertheless

NOUNS
cra, -ae, f., care, trouble
locus, -, m., place, spot
(location). Locus is neuter in

PREPOSITIONS
d, with abl., down from;
concerning
per, with acc., through

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the plural and is declined loca, rum, etc.


perculum, -, n., danger, peril

CONJUNCTION
si, if

LESSON XXX, 182


VERBS
absum, abesse, irreg., be away,
be absent, be distant, with
separative abl.
adpropinqu, -re, draw near,
approach (propinquity), with
dative 1
contine, -re, hold together,
hem in, keep (contain)

discd, -ere, depart, go


away, leave, with
separative abl.
ege, -re, lack, need, be
without, with separative
abl.
interfici, -ere, kill
prohibe, -re, restrain,
keep from (prohibit)
vulner, -re, wound
(vulnerable)

NOUNS
prvincia, -ae, f., province
vnum, -, n., wine

ADJECTIVE
dfessus, -a, -um, weary,
worn out
ADVERB
long, far, by far, far away

1. This verb governs the dative because the idea of nearness to is stronger than
that of motion to. If the latter idea were the stronger, the word would be used
with ad and the accusative.

LESSON XXXI, 188


NOUNS
aurum, -, n., gold (oriole)
mora, -ae, f., delay
nvigium, nvig, n., boat,
ship
ventus, -, m., wind (ventilate)
VERB
nvig, -re, sail (navigate)

ADJECTIVES
attentus, -a, -um, attentive,
careful
dubius, -a, -um, doubtful
(dubious)
perfidus, -a, -um, faithless,
treacherous (perfidy)
ADVERB
ante, before, previously

PREPOSITION
sine, with abl., without
290

LESSON XXXII, 193


NOUNS
animus, -, m., mind, heart;

ADJECTIVES
adversus, -a, -um, opposite;

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spirit, feeling (animate)


bracchium, bracch, n.,
forearm, arm
porta, -ae, f., gate (portal)

adverse, contrary
plnus, -a, -um, full (plenty)

PREPOSITION
pr, with abl., before; in behalf
of; instead of

ADVERB
di, for a long time, long

LESSON XXXIV, 200


ADVERBS
celeriter, quickly (celerity)
dnique, finally

graviter, heavily, severely


(gravity)
subit, suddenly

VERB
report, -re, -v, bring back, restore; win, gain (report)

LESSON XXXVI, 211


dexter, dextra, dextrum, right
(dextrous)

sinister, sinistra, sinistrum,


left
frstr, adv., in vain (frustrate)

ger, gerere, gess, gestus, bear, carry on; wear; bellum gerere,
to wage war
occup, occupre, occupv, occuptus, seize, take possession of
(occupy)
postul, postulre, postulv, postultus, demand (ex-postulate)
recs, recsre, recsv, recstus, refuse
st, stre, stet, status, stand
tempt, temptre, temptv, tempttus, try, tempt, test; attempt
tene, tenre, tenu, , keep, hold (tenacious)
The word ubi, which we have used so much in the sense of where
in asking a question, has two other uses equally important:
1. ubi = when, as a relative conjunction denoting time; as,
Ubi mnstrum audvrunt, fgrunt, when they heard the
monster, they fled
2. ubi = where, as a relative conjunction denoting place; as,
Vide oppidum ubi Galba habitat, I see the town where Galba
lives
Ubi is called a relative conjunction because it is equivalent to a
relative pronoun. When in the first sentence is equivalent to at the
time at which; and in the second, where is equivalent to the place
in which.
291

LESSON XXXVII, 217

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neque or nec, conj., neither,


nor, and ... not; neque ...
neque, neither ... nor

castellum, -, n., redoubt, fort


(castle)
cotdi, adv., daily

cess, cessre, cessv, cesstus, cease, with the infin.


incipi, incipere, incp, inceptus, begin (incipient), with the
infin.
oppugn, oppugnre, oppugnv, oppugntus, storm, assail
pet, petere, petivi or peti, pettus, aim at, assail, storm, attack;
seek, ask (petition)
pn, pnere, posu, positus, place, put (position); castra
pnere, to pitch camp
possum, posse, potu, , be able, can (potent), with the infin.
vet, vetre, vetu, vetitus, forbid (veto), vith the infin.; opposite
of iube, command
vinc, vincere, vc, victus, conquer (in-vincible)
vv, vvere, vx, , live, be alive (re-vive)

LESSON XXXIX, 234


barbarus, -a, -um, strange,
foreign, barbarous. As a
noun, barbar, -rum, m.,
plur., savages, barbarians
dux, ducis, m., leader (duke).
Cf. the verb dc
eques, equitis, m., horseman,
cavalryman (equestrian)
idex, idicis, m., judge
lapis, lapidis, m., stone
(lapidary)
mles, mlitis, m., soldier
(militia)

pedes, peditis, m., foot soldier


(pedestrian)
ps, pedis, 1 m., foot (pedal)
prnceps, prncipis, m., chief
(principal)
rx, rgis, m., king (regal)
summus, -a, -um, highest,
greatest (summit)
virts, virttis, f., manliness,
courage (virtue)

1. Observe that e is long in the nom. sing, and short in the other cases.

LESSON XL, 237


Caesar, -aris, m., Csar
captvus, -, m., captive,
prisoner
cnsul, -is, m., consul
frter, frtris, m., brother
(fraternity)
hom, hominis, m., man,
human being
impedmentum, -, n.,
hindrance (impediment);
plur. impedmenta, -rum,

impertor, impertris, m.,


commander in chief, general
(emperor)
legi, leginis, f., legion
mter, mtris, f., mother
(maternal)
rd, rdinis, m., row, rank
(order)
pater, patris, m., father
(paternal)
sals, saltis, f., safety

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(salutary)
soror, sorris, f., sister
(sorority)

baggage

LESSON XLI, 239


calamits, calamittis, f., loss,
disaster, defeat (calamity)
caput, capitis, n., head
(capital)
flmen, flminis, n., river
(flume)
labor, labris, m., labor, toil
opus, operis, n., work, task

rtor, rtris, m., orator


rpa, -ae, f., bank (of a stream)
tempus, temporis, n., time
(temporal)
terror, terrris, m., terror,
fear
victor, victris, m., victor

accipi, accipere, accp, acceptus, receive, accept


cnfirm, cnfrmre, cnfrmv, cnfrmtus, strengthen,
establish, encourage (confirm)

LESSON XLIII, 245


animal, animlis (-ium 1), n.,
animal
avis, avis (-ium), f., bird
(aviation)
caeds, caeds (-ium), f.,
slaughter
calcar, calcris (-ium), n., spur
cvis, cvis (-ium), m. and f.,
citizen (civic)
clins, clientis (-ium), m.,
retainer, dependent (client)
fnis, fnis (-ium), m., end, limit
(final); plur., country,
territory
hostis, hostis (-ium), m. and f.,
enemy in war (hostile).
Distinguish from inimcus,
which means a personal
enemy

ignis, ignis (-ium), m., fire


(ignite)
nsigne, nsignis (-ium), n.
decoration, badge (ensign)
mare, maris (-ium 2), n., sea
(marine)
nvis, nvis (-ium), f., ship
(naval);
nvis longa, man-of-war
turris, turris (-ium), f., tower
(turret)
urbs, urbis (-ium), f., city
(suburb). An urbs is larger
than an oppidum.

1. The genitive plural ending -ium is written to mark the i-stems.


2. The genitive plural of mare is not in use.

LESSON XLIV, 249


arbor, arboris, f., tree (arbor)
collis, collis (-ium), m., hill

mns, montis (-ium), m.,


mountain;

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dns, dentis (-ium), m., tooth


(dentist)
fns, fontis (-ium), m..
fountain, spring; source
iter, itineris, n., march,
journey, route (itinerary)
mnsis, mnsis (-ium), m.,
month
moenia, -ium, n., plur., walls,
fortifications. Cf. mrus

summus mns, top of the


mountain
numquam, adv., never
pns, pontis, m., bridge
(pontoon)
sanguis, sanguinis, m., blood
(sanguinary)
summus, -a, -um, highest,
greatest (summit)
trns, prep, with acc., across
(transatlantic)
vs (vs), gen. plur. virium, f.
strength, force, violence
(vim)

293

LESSON XLV, 258


omnis, omne, every, all
(omnibus)
pr, gen. paris, equal (par)
pauc, -ae, -a, few, only a few
(paucity)
secundus, -a, -um, second;
favorable, opposite of
adversus
signum, -, n., signal, sign,
standard
vlx, gen. vlcis, swift
(velocity)

cer, cris, cre, sharp, keen,


eager (acrid)
brevis, breve, short, brief
difficilis, difficile, difficult
facilis, facile, facile, easy
fortis, forte, brave (fortitude)
gravis, grave, heavy, severe,
serious (grave)

conloc, conlocre, conlocv, conloctus, arrange, station, place


(collocation)
dmnstr, dmnstrre, dmnstrv, dmnstrtus, point
out, explain (demonstrate)
mand, mandre, mandv, mandtus, commit, intrust
(mandate)

LESSON XLVI, 261


adventus, -s, m., approach,
arrival (advent)
ante, prep, with acc., before
(ante-date)
corn, -s, n., horn, wing of an
army (cornucopia);
dextr corn, on the right
wing;
sinistr corn, on the left
wing

impetus, -s, m., attack


(impetus); impetum facere
in, with acc., to make an
attack on
lacus, -s, dat. and abl. plur.
lacubus, m., lake
manus, -s, f., hand; band,
force (manual)
portus, -s, m., harbor (port)
post, prep, with acc., behind,

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equittus, -s, m., cavalry


exercitus, -s, m., army

after (post-mortem)

crem, cremre, cremv, cremtus, burn (cremate)


exerce, exercre, exercu, exercitus, practice, drill, train
(exercise)

LESSON XLVII, 270


Athnae, -rum, f., plur., Athens
Corinthus, -, f., Corinth
domus, -s, locative dom, f.,
house, home (dome). Cf.
domicilium
Genva, -ae, f., Geneva
Pompii, -rum, m., plur.,
Pompeii, a city in Campania.
See map

propter, prep. with acc., on


account of, because of
rs, rris, in the plur. only nom.
and acc. rra, n., country
(rustic)
tergum, terg, n., back;
terg, behind, in the rear
vulnus, vulneris, n., wound
(vulnerable)

294

committ, committere, comms, commissus, intrust, commit;


proelium committere, join battle
convoc, convocre, convocv, convoctus, call together,
summon (convoke)
time, timre, timu, , fear; be afraid (timid)
vert, vertere, vert, versus, turn, change (convert); terga
vertere, to turn the backs, hence to retreat

LESSON XLVIII, 276


acis, -, f., line of battle
aests, aesttis, f., summer
annus, -, m., year (annual)
dis, di, m., day (diary)
fids, fide, no plur., f., faith,
trust; promise, word;
protection; in fidem venre,
to come under the protection
fluctus, -s, m. wave, billow
(fluctuate)
hiems, hiemis, f., winter
hra, -ae, f., hour

lx, lcis, f., light (lucid);


prma lux, daybreak
merdis, acc. -em, abl. -, no
plur., m., midday (meridian)
nox, noctis (-ium), f., night
(nocturnal)
prmus, -a, -um, first (prime)
rs, re, f., thing, matter (real);
rs gestae, deeds, exploits (lit.
things performed); rs
adversae, adversity; rs
secundae, prosperity
sps, spe, f., hope

LESSON XLIX, 283


amcitia, -ae, f., friendship
(amicable)
itaque, conj., and so, therefore,
accordingly

nntius, nnt, m., messenger.


Cf. nnti
px, pcis, f., peace (pacify)
rgnum, -, n., reign,

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littera, -ae, f., a letter of the


alphabet;
plur., a letter, an epistle
metus, mets, m., fear
nihil, indeclinable, n., nothing
(nihilist)

Page 96 of 158

sovereignty, kingdom
supplicum, supplic, n.,
punishment;
supplicum smere d, with
abl., inflict punishment on;
supplicum dare, suffer
punishment. Cf. poena

place, placre, placu, placitus, be pleasing to, please, with


dative. Cf. 154
sm, smere, smps, smptus, take up, assume
sustine, sustinre, sustinu, sustentus, sustain
295

LESSON L, 288
corpus, corporis, n., body
(corporal)
dnsus, -a, -um, dense
dem, eadem, idem,
demonstrative pronoun, the
same (identity)
ipse, ipsa, ipsum, intensive
pronoun, self; even, very
mrus, -a, -um, wonderful,
marvelous (miracle)

lim, adv., formerly, once upon


a time
pars, partis (-ium), f., part,
region, direction
quoque, adv., also. Stands after
the word which it emphasizes
sl, slis, m., sun (solar)
vrus, -a, -um, true, real
(verity)

dbe, dbre, dbu, dbitus, owe, ought (debt)


ripi, ripere, ripu, reptus, snatch from

LESSON LI, 294


hic, haec, hoc, demonstrative
pronoun, this (of mine); he,
she, it
ille, illa, illud, demonstrative
pronoun that (yonder); he,
she, it
invsus, -a, -um, hateful,
detested, with dative Cf.
143
iste, ista, istud, demonstrative
pronoun, that (of yours); he,
she, it
lberts, -tis, f., liberty
modus, -, m., measure;
manner, way, mode

nmen, nminis, n., name


(nominate)
oculus, -, m., eye (oculist)
prstinus, -a, -um, former, oldtime (pristine)
pblicus, -a, -um, public,
belonging to the state; rs
pblica, re pblicae, f., the
commonwealth, the state, the
republic
vestgium, vestg, n.,
footprint, track; trace,
vestige
vx, vcis, f., voice

LESSON LII, 298

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incolumis, -e, unharmed


n ... quidem, adv., not even.
The emphatic word stands
between n and quidem
nisi, conj., unless, if ... not
paene, adv., almost (peninsula)

satis, adv., enough, sufficiently


(satisfaction)
tantus, -a, -um, so great
vr, adv., truly, indeed, in
fact. As a conj. but, however,
usually stands second, never
first.

dcid, dcidere, dcid, , fall down (deciduous)


dsili, dsilre, dsilu, dsultus, leap down, dismount
mane, manre, mns, mnsrus, remain
trdc, trdcere, trdx, trductus, lead across
296

LESSON LIII, 306


aquila, -ae, f., eagle (aquiline)
audx, gen. audcis, adj., bold,
audacious
celer, celeris, celere, swift,
quick (celerity). Cf. vlx
explratr, -ris, m., scout, spy
(explorer)
ingns, gen. ingentis, adj.,
huge, vast
medius, -a, -um, middle,
middle part of (medium)

mns, mentis (-ium), f., mind


(mental). Cf. animus
opportnus, -a, -um,
opportune
quam, adv., than. With the
superlative quam gives the
force of as possible, as quam
audcissim vir, men as
bold as possible
recens, gen. recentis, adj.,
recent
tam, adv., so. Always with an
adjective or adverb, while ita
is generally used with a verb

quaer, quaerere, quaesv, quaestus, ask, inquire, seek


(question). Cf. pet

LESSON LIV, 310


alacer, alacris, alacre, eager,
spirited, excited (alacrity)
celerits, -tis, f., speed
(celerity)
clmor, clmris, m., shout,
clamor
lnis, lne, mild, gentle
(lenient)
mulier, mulieris, f., woman
multitd, multitdinis, f.,
multitude
nm, dat. nmin, acc.
nminem (gen. nllus, abl.
nll, from nllus), no plur.,

nbilis, nbile, well known,


noble
noct, adv. (an old abl.), by
night (nocturnal)
statim, adv., immediately, at
once
subit, adv., suddenly
tardus, -a, -um, slow (tardy)

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m. and f., no one


cupi, cupere, cupv, cuptus, desire, wish (cupidity)

LESSON LV, 314


aedificium, aedific, n.,
building, dwelling (edifice)
imperium, imper, n.,
command, chief power;
empire
mors, mortis (-ium), f., death
(mortal)

reliquus, -a, -um, remaining,


rest of. As a noun, m. and n.
plur., the rest (relic)
scelus, sceleris, n., crime
servits, -tis, f., slavery
(servitude)
valls, vallis (-ium), f., valley

abd, abdere, abdid, abditus, hide


contend, contendere, contend, contentus, strain, struggle;
hasten (contend)
occd, occdere, occd, occsus, cut down, kill. Cf. nec,
interfici
perterre, perterrre, perterru, perterritus, terrify, frighten
recipi, recipere, recp, receptus, receive, recover; s recipere,
betake ones self, withdraw, retreat
trd, trdere, trdid, trditus, give over, surrender, deliver
(traitor)
297

LESSON LVI, 318


aditus, -s, m., approach,
access; entrance
cvits, cvittis, f., citizenship;
body of citizens, state (city)
inter, prep, with acc., between,
among (interstate commerce)

nam, conj., for


obses, obsidis, m. and f.,
hostage
paul, adv. (abl. n. of paulus),
by a little, somewhat

incol, incolere, incolu, , transitive, inhabit; intransitive,


dwell. Cf.
habit, vv
relinqu, relinquere, relqu, relictus, leave, abandon
(relinquish)
statu, statuere, statu, stattus, fix, decide (statute), usually with
infin.

LESSON LVII, 326


aequus, -a, -um, even, level;
equal
cohors, cohortis (-ium), f.,
cohort, a tenth part of a
legion, about 360 men

gns, gentis (-ium), f., race,


tribe, nation (Gentile)
negtium, negt, n., business,
affair, matter (negotiate)
regi, -nis, f., region, district

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curr, currere, cucurr,


cursus, run (course)
difficults, -tis, f., difficulty
fossa, -ae, f., ditch (fosse)

rmor, rmris, m., rumor,


report. Cf. fma
simul atque, conj., as soon as

suscipi, suscipere, suscp, susceptus, undertake


trah, trahere, trx, trctus, drag, draw (ex-tract)
vale, valre, valu, valitrus, be strong; plrimum valre, to be
most powerful, have great influence (value). Cf. validus

LESSON LVIII, 332


commetus, -s, m.. provisions
ltitd, -inis, f., width
(latitude)
longitd, -inis, f., length
(longitude)
magnitd, -inis, f., size,
magnitude

merctor, merctris, m.,


trader, merchant
mnti, -nis, f., fortification
(munition)
spatium, spat, n., room, space,
distance; time

cognsc, cognscere, cognv, cognitus, learn; in the perfect


tenses, know (re-cognize)
cg, cgere, cog, coctus, collect; compel (cogent)
dfend, dfendere, dfend, dfnsus, defend
incend, incendere, incend, incnsus, set fire to, burn
(incendiary). Cf. crem
obtine, obtinre, obtinu, obtentus, possess, occupy, hold
(obtain)
perveni, pervenre, pervn, perventus, come through, arrive

298

LESSON LIX, 337


agmen, agminis, n., line of
march, column; prmum
agmen, the van; novissimum
agmen, the rear
atque, ac, conj., and; atque is
used before vowels and
consonants, ac before
consonants only. Cf. et and que
concilium, concil, n., council,
assembly

Helvti, -rum, m., the


Helvetii, a Gallic tribe
passus, passs, m., a pace, five
Roman feet; mlle passuum,
a thousand (of) paces, a
Roman mile
qu d caus, for this reason,
for what reason
vllum, -, n., earth-works,
rampart

cad, cadere, cecid, csrus, fall (decadence)


dd, ddere, ddid, dditus, surrender, give up; with a reflexive
pronoun, surrender ones self, submit, with the dative of the
indirect object
prem, premere, press, pressus, press hard, harass
vex, vexre, vexv, vextus, annoy, ravage (vex)

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LESSON LX, 341


aut, conj., or; aut ... aut,
either ... or
caus, abl. of causa, for the
sake of, because of. Always
stands after the gen. which
modifies it
fer, adv., nearly, almost

opni, -nis, f., opinion,


supposition, expectation
rs frmentria, re
frmentriae, f. (lit. the
grain affair), grain supply
timor, -ris, m., fear. Cf. time
undique, adv., from all sides

cnor, cnr, cntus sum, attempt, try


gredior, gred, gressus sum, move out, disembark;
prgredior, move forward, advance (egress, progress)
moror, morr, mortus sum, delay
orior, orir, ortus sum, arise, spring; begin; be born (from)
(origin)
proficscor, proficsc, profectus sum, set out
revertor, revert, reversus sum, return (revert). The forms of this
verb are usually active, and not deponent, in the perfect system.
Perf. act., revert
sequor, sequ, sectus sum, follow (sequence). Note the following
compounds of sequor and the force of the different prefixes:
cnsequor (follow with), overtake; nsequor (follow against),
pursue; subsequor (follow under), follow close after
299

LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
Translations inclosed within parentheses are not to be used as such; they are
inserted to show etymological meanings.
The parentheses are shown in square brackets [ ], as
in the original.
A B C D E F G H I L M N O P Q R S T U V
A
or ab, prep. with abl. from,
by, off. Translated on in
dextr corn, on the right
wing; fronte, on the
front or in front; dextr,
on the right; latere, on
the side; etc.
ab-d, -ere, -did, -ditus, hide,
conceal
ab-dc, -ere, -dx, -ductus,
lead off, lead away

altitd, -inis, f. [altus, high],


height
altus, -a, -um, adj. high, tall,
deep
Amzons, -um, f. plur.
Amazons, a fabled tribe of
warlike women
amb, -ae, -, adj. (decl. like
duo), both
amc, adv. [amcus, friendly],
superl. amcissim, in a

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abs-cd, -ere, -cd,-csus [ab


(s), off, + caed, cut], cut
off
ab-sum, -esse, fu, futrus,
be away, be absent, be
distant, be off; with or ab
and abl., 501.32
ac, conj., see atque
ac-cipi, -ere, -cp, -ceptus
[ad, to, + capi, take],
receive, accept
cer, cris, cre, adj. sharp;
figuratively, keen, active,
eager ( 471)
acerbus, -a, -um, adj. bitter,
sour
acis, -, f. [cer, sharp], edge;
line of battle
criter, adv. [cer, sharp],
compared crius,
cerrim, sharply, fiercely
ad, prep. with acc. to, towards,
near. With the gerund or
gerundive, to, for
ad-aequ, -re, -v, -tus,
make equal, make level
with
ad-dc, -ere, -dx, -ductus,
lead to; move, induce
ad-e, -re, -i, -itus, go to,
approach, draw near, visit,
with acc. ( 413)
ad-fer, ad-ferre, at-tul, adltus, bring, convey;
report, announce; render,
give ( 426)
ad-fici, -ere, -fc, -fectus [ad,
to, + faci, do], affect, visit
adflcttus, -a, -um, adj. [part.
of adflct, shatter],
shattered
ad-flg, -ere, -flx, -flctus,
dash upon, strike upon;
harass, distress
ad-hibe, -re, -u, -itus [ad,
to, + habe, hold], apply,
employ, use
ad-hc, adv. hitherto, as yet,
thus far

Page 101 of 158

friendly manner
amici, -re, , -ictus [am-,
about, + iaci, throw],
throw around, wrap about,
clothe
amcitia, -ae, f. [amcus,
friend], friendship
amcus, -a, -um, adj. [am,
love], friendly. As a noun,
amcus, -, m. friend
-mitt, -ere, -ms, -missus,
send away; lose
am, -re, -v, -tus, love,
like, be fond of ( 488)
amphithetrum, -, n.
amphitheater
amplus, -a, -um, adj. large,
ample; honorable, noble
an, conj. or, introducing the
second part of a double
question
ancilla, -ae, f. maidservant
ancora, -ae, f. anchor
Andromeda, -ae, f.
Andromeda, daughter of
Cepheus and wife of
Perseus
angulus, -, m. angle, corner
anim-advert, -ere, -t, -sus
[animus, mind, + advert,
turn to], turn the mind to,
notice
animal, -lis, n. [anima,
breath], animal ( 465. b)
animsus, -a, -um, adj. spirited
animus, -, m. [anima, breath],
mind, heart; spirit,
courage, feeling; in this
sense often plural
annus, -i, m. year
ante, prep, with acc. before
ante, adv. [ante], before,
formerly
antquus, -a, -um, adj. [ante,
before], former, ancient,
old
aper, apr, m. wild boar
Apoll, -inis, m. Apollo, son of
Jupiter and Latona, brother

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300

aditus, -s, m. [ade,


approach], approach,
access; entrance. Cf.
adventus
ad-lig, -re, -v, -tus, bind
to, fasten
ad-loquor, -loqu, -loctus
sum, dep. verb [ad, to, +
loquor, speak], speak to,
address, with acc.
ad-ministr, -re, -v, -tus,
manage, direct
admrti, -nis, f. [admror,
wonder at], admiration,
astonishment
ad-move, -re, -mv, -mtus,
move to; apply, employ
ad-propinqu, -re, -v, tus, come near, approach,
with dat.
ad-sum, -esse, -fu, -futres, be
present; assist; with dat.,
426
adulscns, -entis, m. and f.
[part. of adolsc, grow], a
youth, young man, young
person
adventus, -s, m. [ad, to, +
veni, come], approach,
arrival ( 466)
adversus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of
advert, turn to], turned
towards, facing; contrary,
adverse.
rs adversae, adversity
aedificium, aedific, n.
[aedific, build], building,
edifice
aedific, -re, -vi, -tus
[aeds, house, + faci,
make], build
aeger, aegra, aegrum, adj. sick,
feeble
aequlis, -e, adj. equal, like. As
a noun, aequlis, -is, m. or
f. one of the same age
aequus, -a, -um, adj. even,
level; equal
Aespus, -, m. sop, a writer

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of Diana
ap-pre, -re, -u, [ad +
pre, appear], appear
ap-pell, -re, -v, -tus, call
by name, name. Cf.
nmin, voc
Appius, -a, -um, adj. Appian
ap-plic, -re, -v, -tus,
apply, direct, turn
apud, prep, with acc. among;
at, at the house of
aqua, -ae, f. water
aquila, -ae, f. eagle
ra, -ae, f. altar
arbitror, -r, -tus sum, think,
suppose ( 420. c). Cf.
exstim, put
arbor, -oris, f. tree ( 247. 1. a)
Arcadia, -ae, f. Arcadia, a
district in southern Greece
rde, -re, rs, rsrus, be
on fire, blaze, burn
arduus, -a, -um, adj. steep
Arcia, -ae, f. Aricia, a town on
the Appian Way, near
Rome
aris, -etis, m. battering-ram (p.
221)
arma, -rum, n. plur. arms,
weapons. Cf. tlum
armtus, -a, -um, adj. [arm,
arm], armed, equipped
ar, -re, -v, -tus, plow, till
ars, artis, f. art, skill
articulus, -, m. joint
ascrb, -ere, -scrps, -scrptus
[ad, in addition, + scrb,
write], enroll, enlist
sia, -ae, f. Asia, i.e. Asia
Minor
at, conj. but. Cf. autem, sed
Athnae, -rum, f. plur. Athens
Atls, -antis, m. Atlas, a Titan
who was said to hold up
the sky
at-que, ac, conj. and, and also,
and what is more. atque
may be used before either
vowels or consonants, ac

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of fables
aests, -tis, f. summer, init
aestte, at the beginning of
summer
aets, -tis, f. age
Aethiopia, -ae, f. Ethiopia, a
country in Africa
frica, -ae, f. Africa
fricnus, -a, -um, adj. of
Africa. A name given to
Scipio for his victories in
Africa
ager, agr, m. field, farm, land
( 462. c)
agger, -eris, m. mound
agmen, -inis, n. [ag, drive], an
army on the march,
column.
prmum agmen, the van
ag, -ere, g, ctus, drive,
lead; do, perform.
vtam agere, pass life
agricola, -ae, m. [ager, field, +
col, cultivate], farmer
agr cultra, -ae, f. agriculture
la, -ae, f. wing
alacer, -cris, -cre, adj. active,
eager. Cf. cer
alacrits, -tis, f. [alacer,
active], eagerness, alacrity
alacriter, adv. [alacer, active],
comp alacrius,
alacerrim, actively,
eagerly
albus, -a, -um, adj., white
alcs, -is, f. elk
Alcmna, -ae, f. Alcmena, the
mother of Hercules
aliquis (-qu), -qua, -quid (quod), indef. pron. some
one, some ( 487)
alius, -a, -ud (gen. -us, dat. -),
adj. another, other.
alius ... alius, one ... another.
ali ... ali, some ... others
( 110)
Alps, -ium, f. plur. the Alps
alter, -era, -erum (gen. -us,
dat. -), adj. the one, the

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before consonants only


attentus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of
attend, direct (the mind)
toward], attentive, intent
on, careful
at-tonitus, -a, -um, adj.
thunderstruck, astounded
audcia, -ae, f. [audx, bold],
boldness, audacity
audcter, adv. [audx, bold],
compared audcius,
audcissim, boldly
audx, -cis, adj. bold, daring
aude, -re, ausus sum, dare
audi, -re, -v or -, -tus,
hear, listen to ( 420.d;
491)
Augs, -ae, m. Augeas, a
king whose stables
Hercules cleaned
aura, -ae, f. air, breeze
aurtus, -a, -um, adj. [aurum,
gold], adorned with gold
aureus, -a, -um, adj. [aurum,
gold], golden
aurum, -, n. gold
aut, conj. or.
aut ... aut, either ... or
autem, conj., usually second,
never first, in the clause,
but, moreover, however,
now. Cf. at, sed
auxilium, auxil, n. help, aid,
assistance; plur.
auxiliaries
-vert, -ere, -t, -sus, turn
away, turn aside
avis, -is, f. bird ( 243. 1)

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other (of two).


alter ... alter, the one ... the
other ( 110)
B
ballista, -ae, f. ballista, an
engine for hurling missiles
(p. 220)
balteus, -, m. belt, sword belt
barbarus, -, m. barbarian,
savage
bellum, -, n. war.
bellum nferre, with dat.
make war upon
bene, adv. [for bon, from
bonus], compared melius,
optim, well
benign, adv. [benignus, kind],
compared benignius,
benignissim, kindly
benignus, -a, -um, adj. goodnatured, kind, often used
with dat.
bn, -ae, -a, distributive
numeral adj. two each, two
at a time ( 334)

bis, adv. twice


bonus, -a, -um, adj. compared
melior, optimus, good,
kind ( 469. a)
bs, bovis (gen. plur. boum or
bovum, dat. and abl. plur.
bbus or bbus), m. and f.
ox, cow
bracchium, bracch, n. arm
brevis, -e, adj. short
Brundisium, -, n. Brundisium,
a seaport in southern Italy.
See map
bulla, -ae, f. bulla, a locket
made of small concave
plates of gold fastened by
a spring (p. 212)

C
C. abbreviation for Gius, Eng.
Caius
cad, -ere, cecid, csrus,
fall
caeds, -is, f. [caed, cut], (a
cutting down), slaughter,
carnage ( 465. a)
caelum, -, n. sky, heavens
Caesar, -aris, m. Csar, the
famous general, statesman,
and writer
calamits, -tis, f. loss,
calamity, defeat, disaster
calcar, -ris, n. spur ( 465. b)
Campnia, -ae, f. Campania.,
a district of central Italy.
See map
Campnus, -a, -um, adj. of
Campania
campus, -, m. plain, field, esp.

com-prim, -ere, -press, pressus [com-, together, +


prem, press], press
together, grasp, seize
con-cid, -ere, -cid,
[com-, intensive, + cad,
fall], fall down
concilium, concil, n. meeting,
council
con-cld, -ere, -cls, -clsus
[com-, intensive, +
claud, close], shut up,
close; end, finish
con-curr, -ere, -curr, cursus [com-, together, +
curr, run], run together;
rally, gather
condici, -nis, f. [com-,
together, + dic, talk],
agreement, condition,

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303

the Campus Martius, along the


Tiber just outside the walls
of Rome
canis, -is, m. and f. dog
can, -ere, cecin, , sing
cant, -re, -vi, -tus [can,
sing], sing
Capnus, -a, -um, adj. of
Capena, esp. the Porta
Capena, the gate at Rome
leading to the Appian Way
capi, -ere, cp, captus, take,
seize, capture ( 492)
Capitlnus, -a, -um, adj.
belonging to the Capitol,
Capitoline
Capitlium, Capitl, n.
[caput, head], the Capitol,
the hill at Rome on which
stood the temple of Jupiter
Capitolinus and the citadel
capsa, -ae, f. box for books
captvus, -, m. [capi, take],
captive
Capua, -ae, f. Capua, a large
city of Campania. See map
caput, -itis, n. head ( 464.
2. b)
carcer, -eris, m. prison, jail
carrus, -, m. cart, wagon
crus, -a, -um, adj. dear;
precious
casa, -ae, f. hut, cottage
castellum, -, n. [dim. of
castrum, fort], redoubt,
fort
castrum, -, n. fort. Usually in
the plural, castra, -rum,
a military camp.
castra pnere, to pitch camp
csus, -us, m. [cad, fall],
chance; misfortune, loss
catapulta, -ae, f. catapult, an
engine for hurling stones
catna, -ae, f. chain
caupna, -ae, f. inn
causa, -ae, f. cause, reason,
qu d caus, for this
reason

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terms
con-dn, -re, -v, -tus,
pardon
con-dc, -ere, -dx, -ductus,
hire
cn-fer, -ferre, -tul, -ltus,
bring together.
s cnferre, betake ones self
cn-fertus, -a, -um, adj.
crowded, thick
cnfestim, adv. immediately
cn-fici, -ere, -fc, -fectus
[com-, completely, + faci,
do], make, complete,
accomplish, finish
cn-frm, -re, -v, -tus,
make firm, establish,
strengthen, affirm, assert
cn-flu, -ere, -flx, ,
flow together
cn-fugi, -ere, -fg, fugitrus, flee for refuge,
flee
con-ici, -ere, -ic, -iectus
[com-, intensive, + iaci,
throw], hurl
con-iung, -ere, -inx, inctus [com-, together, +
iung, join], join together,
unite
con-ir, -re, -v, -tus
[com-, together, + ir,
swear], unite by oath,
conspire
con-loc, -re, -v, -tus
[com-, together, + loc,
place], arrange, place,
station
conloquium, conloqu, n.
[com-, together, + loquor,
speak], conversation,
conference
cnor, -r, -tus sum, dep.
verb, endeavor, attempt,
try
cn-scend, -ere, -scend, scnsus [com-, intensive, +
scand, climb], climb up,
ascend.

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cd, -ere, cess, cessrus, give


way, retire
celer, -eris, -ere, adj. swift, fleet
celerits, -tis, f. [celer, swift],
swiftness, speed
celeriter, adv. [celer, swift],
compared celerius,
celerrim, swiftly
cna, -ae, f. dinner
centum, indecl. numeral adj.
hundred
centuri, -nis, m. centurion,
captain
Cpheus (dissyl.), -e (acc.
Cphea), m. Cepheus, a
king of Ethiopia and father
of Andromeda
Cerberus, -, m. Cerberus, the
fabled three-headed dog
that guarded the entrance
to Hades
certmen, -inis, n. [cert,
struggle], struggle, contest,
rivalry
cert, adv. [certus, sure],
compared certius,
certissim, surely,
certainly
certus, -a, -um, adj. fixed,
certain, sure.
aliquem certirem facere
(to make some one more
certain), to inform some
one
cervus, -, m. stag, deer
cess, -re, -v, -tus, delay,
cease
cibria, -rum, n. plur. food,
provisions
cibus, -, m. food, victuals
Cimbr, -rum, m. plur. the
Cimbri
Cimbricus, -a, -um, adj.
Cimbrian
cnctus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of
cing, surround], girt,
surrounded
cing, -ere, cnx, cnctus, gird,
surround

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nvem cnscendere,
embark, go on board
cn-scrb, -ere, -scrps, scrptus [com-, together,
+ scrb, write], (write
together), enroll, enlist
cn-secr, -re, -v, -tus
[com-, intensive, + sacr,
consecrate], consecrate,
devote
cn-sequor, -sequ, -sectus
sum, dep. verb [com-,
intensive, + sequor,
follow], pursue; overtake;
win
cn-serv, -re, -v, -tus
[com-, intensive, + serv,
save], preserve, save
cnsilium, cnsil, n. plan,
purpose, design; wisdom
cn-sist, -ere, -stit, -stitus
[com-, intensive, + sist,
cause to stand], stand
firmly, halt, take ones
stand
cn-spici, -ere, -spx, spectus [com-, intensive,
+ spici, spy], look at
attentively, perceive, see
cnstantia, -ae, f. firmness,
steadiness, perseverance
cn-stitu, -ere, -u, -tus
[com-, intensive, + statu,
set], establish, determine,
resolve
cn-st, -re, -stit, -sttrus
[com-, together, + st,
stand], agree; be certain ;
consist of
cnsul, -ulis, m. consul ( 464.
2. a)
cn-sm, -ere, -smps, smptus [com-, intensive,
+ sum, take], consume,
use up
con-tend, -ere, -d, -tus,
strain; hasten; fight,
contend, struggle
con-tine, -re, -u, -tentus

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circiter, adv. about


circum, prep, with acc. around
circum-d, -dare, -ded, datus, place around,
surround, inclose
circum-e, -re, -i, -itus, go
around
circum-sist, -ere,
circumstet, , stand
around, surround
circum-veni, -re, -vn, ventus (come around),
surround
citerior, -ius, adj. in comp.,
superl. citimus, hither,
nearer ( 475)
cvlis, -e, adj. [cvis], civil
cvis, -is, m. and f. citizen
( 243. 1)
cvits, -tis, f. [cvis, citizen],
(body of citizens), state;
citizenship
clmor, -ris, m. shout, cry
clrus, -a, -um, adj. clear;
famous, renowned; bright,
shining
classis, -is, f. fleet
claud, -ere, -s, -sus, shut,
close
clavus, -, m. stripe
clins, -entis, m. dependent,
retainer, client ( 465. a)
Cocles, -itis, m. (blind in one
eye), Cocles, the surname
of Horatius
co-gnsc, -ere, -gnv, gntus, learn, know,
understand. Cf. sci
( 420. b)
cg, -ere, cog, coctus [co
(m)-, together, + ag,
drive], (drive together),
collect; compel, drive
cohors, cohortis, f. cohort, the
tenth part of a legion,
about 360 men
collis, -is, m. hill, in summ
colle, on top of the hill
( 247. 2. a)

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[com-, together, + tene, hold],


hold together, hem in,
contain; restrain
contr, prep, with acc. against,
contrary to
con-trah, -ere, -trx, -trctus
[com-, together, + trah,
draw], draw together; of
sails, shorten, furl
contrversia, -ae, f. dispute,
quarrel
con-veni, -re, -vn, -ventus
[com-, together, + veni,
come], come together,
meet, assemble
con-vert, -ere, -vert, -versus
[com-, intensive, + vert,
turn], turn
con-voc, -re, -v, -tus
[com-, together, + voc,
call], call together
co-orior, -r, -ortus sum, dep.
verb [com-, intensive, +
orior, rise], rise, break
forth
cpia, -ae, f. [com-, intensive, +
ops, wealth], abundance,
wealth, plenty. Plur.
cpiae, -rum, troops
coqu, -ere, cox, coctus, cook
Corinthus, -, f. Corinth, the
famous city on the Isthmus
of Corinth
Cornlia, -ae, f. Cornelia,
daughter of Scipio and
mother of the Gracchi
Cornlius, Cornl, m.
Cornelius, a Roman name
corn, -s, n. horn; wing of an
army, dextr corn, on
the right wing ( 466)
corna, -ae, f. garland, wreath;
crown
corntus, -a, -um, adj.
crowned
corpus, -oris, n. body
cor-ripi, -ere, -u, -reptus
[com-, intensive, + rapi,
seize], seize, grasp

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304

collum, -, n. neck
col, -ere, colu, cultus,
cultivate, till; honor,
worship; devote ones self
to
columna, -ae, f. column, pillar
com- (col-, con-, cor-, co-), a
prefix, together, with, or
intensifying the meaning
of the root word
coma, -ae, f. hair
comes, -itis, m. and f. [com-,
together, + e, go],
companion, comrade
comittus, -s, m. [comitor,
accompany], escort,
company
comitor, -r, -tus sum, dep.
verb [comes, companion],
accompany
com-metus, -s, m. supplies
com-minus, adv. [com-,
together, + manus, hand],
hand to hand
com-mitt, -ere, -ms, missus, join together;
commit, intrust.
proelium committere, join
battle.
s committere with dat, trust
ones self to
commod, adv. [commodus,
fit], compared
commodius,
commodissim,
conveniently, fitly
commodus, -a, -um, adj.
suitable, fit
com-mtus, -a, -um, adj. [part.
of commove, move],
aroused, moved
com-par, -re, -v, -tus
[com-, intensive, + par,
prepare], prepare;
provide, get
com-ple, -re, -plv, -pltus
[com-, intensive, + ple,
fill], fill up
complexus, -s, m. embrace

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cotdinus, -a, -um, adj. daily


cotdi, adv. daily
crber, -bra, -brum, adj. thick,
crowded, numerous,
frequent
crd, -ere, -dd, -ditus, trust,
believe, with dat.
( 501.14)
crem, -re, -v, -tus, burn
cre, -re, -v, -tus, make;
elect, appoint
Cren, -ontis, m. Creon, a king
of Corinth
crsc, -ere, crv, crtus, rise,
grow, increase
Crta, -ae, f. Crete, a large
island in the
Mediterranean
Crtaeus, -a, -um, adj. Cretan
crs, crris, n. leg
crstulum, -, n. pastry, cake
cuble, -is, n. bed
cultra, -ae, f. culture,
cultivation
cum, conj. with the indic. or
subjv. when; since;
although ( 501.46)
cum, prep, with abl. with
( 209)
cupid, adv. [cupidus,
desirous], compared
cupidius, cupidissim,
eagerly
cupidits, -tis, f. [cupidus,
desirous], desire, longing
cupi, -ere, -v or -i, -tus,
desire, wish. Cf. vol
cr, adv. why, wherefore
cra, -ae, f. care, pains;
anxiety
cria, -ae, f. senate house
cr, -re, -v, -tus [cra,
care], care for, attend to,
look after
curr, -ere, cucurr, cursus,
run
currus, -s, m. chariot
cursus, -s, m. course
custdi, -re, -v, -tus

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[custs, guard], guard, watch


D
Daedalus, -, m. Ddalus, the
supposed inventor of the
first flying machine
Dvus, -, m. Davus, name of a
slave
d, prep, with abl. down from,
from; concerning, about,
for ( 209).
qu d caus, for this
reason, wherefore
dea, -ae, f. goddess ( 461. a)
dbe, -re, -u, -itus [d,
from, + habe, hold], owe,
ought, should
decem, indecl. numeral adj. ten
d-cern, -ere, -crv, -crtus
[d, from, + cern,
separate], decide, decree
d-cid, -ere, -cid, [d,
down, + cad, fall], fall
down
decimus, -a, -um, numeral adj.
tenth
dclvis, -e, adj. sloping
downward
d-d, -ere, -did, -ditus, give
up, surrender, s ddere,
surrender ones self
d-dc, -ere, -dx, -ductus
[d, down, + dc, lead],
lead down, escort
d-fend, -ere, -d, -fnsus,
ward off, repel, defend
d-fer, -ferre, -tul, -ltus
[d, down, + fer, bring],
bring down; report,
announce ( 426)
d-fessus, -a, -um, adj. tired
out, weary
d-fici, -ere, -fc, -fectus [d,
from, + faci, make], fail,
be wanting; revolt from
d-fg, -ere, -fx, -fxus [d,
down, + fg, fasten],
fasten, fix
d-ici, -ere, -ic, -iectus [d,

dc, -ere, dx, dictus (imv.


dc), say, speak, tell.
Usually introduces indirect
discourse ( 420. a)
dicttor, -ris, m. [dict,
dictate], dictator, a chief
magistrate with unlimited
power
dis, -i or di, m., sometimes f.
in sing., day ( 467)
dif-fer, -ferre, distul, dltus
[dis-, apart, + fer, carry],
carry apart; differ.
differre inter s, differ from
each other
dif-ficilis, -e, adj. [dis-, not, +
facilis, easy], hard,
difficult ( 307)
difficults, -tis, f. [difficilis,
hard], difficulty
dligenter, adv. [dligns,
careful], compared
dligentius,
dligentissim,
industriously, diligently
dligentia, -ae, f. [dligns,
careful], industry,
diligence
d-mic, -re, -v, -tus, fight,
struggle
d-mitt, -ere, -ms, -missus
[d-, off, + mitt, send],
send away, dismiss,
disband.
dmittere animum in, direct
ones mind to, apply ones
self to
Diomds, -is, m. D-o-mds,
a name
dis-, d-, a prefix expressing
separation, off, apart, in
different directions. Often
negatives the meaning
dis-cd, -ere, -cess, -cessus
[dis-, apart, + cd, go],
depart from, leave,

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307

down, + iaci, hurl], hurl down;


bring down, kill
de-inde, adv. (from thence),
then, in the next place
dlect, -re, -v, -tus,
delight
dle, -re, -v, -tus, blot out,
destroy
dlber, -re, -v, -tus,
weigh, deliberate, ponder
d-lig, -ere, -lg, -lctus [d,
from, + leg, gather],
choose, select
Delphicus, -a, -um, adj.
Delphic
dmissus, -a, -um [part. of
dmitt, send down],
downcast, humble
d-mnstr, -re, -v, -tus
[d, out, + mnstr, point],
point out, show
dmum, adv. at last, not till
then.
tum dmum, then at last
dnique, adv. at last, finally. Cf.
postrm
dns, dentis, m. tooth ( 247.
2. a)
dnsus, -a, -um, adj. dense,
thick
d-pende, -re, ,
[d, down, + pende,
hang], hang from, hang
down
d-plr, -re, -v, -tus [d,
intensive, + plr, wail],
bewail, deplore
d-pn, -ere, -posu, -positus
[d, down, + pn, put],
put down
d-scend, -ere, -d, -scnsus
[d, down, + scand,
climb], climb down,
descend
d-scrb, -ere, -scrps, scrptus [d, down, +
scrb, write], write down
dsder, -re, -v, -tus, long
for

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withdraw, go away
dis-cern, -ere, -crv, -crtus
[dis-, apart, + cern, sift],
separate; distinguish
disciplna, -ae, f. instruction,
training, discipline
discipulus, -, m. [disc, learn],
pupil, disciple
disc, -ere, didic, , learn
dis-cuti, -ere, -cuss, -cussus
[dis-, apart, + quati,
shake], shatter, dash to
pieces
dis-pn, -ere, -posu, -positus
[dis-, apart, + pn, put],
put here and there,
arrange, station
dis-similis, -e, adj. [dis-, apart,
+ similis, like], unlike,
dissimilar ( 307)
dis-tribu, -ere, -u, -tus,
divide, distribute
di, adv., compared ditius,
ditissim, for a long
time, long ( 477)
d, dare, ded, datus, give.
in fugam dare, put to flight.
alicui negtium dare,
employ some one
doce, -re, -u, -tus, teach,
show
doctrna, -ae, f. [doctor,
teacher], teaching,
learning, wisdom
dolor, -ris, m. pain, sorrow
domesticus, -a, -um, adj.
[domus, house], of the
house, domestic
domicilium, domicil, n.
dwelling; house, abode.
Cf. domus
domina, -ae, f. mistress (of the
house), lady ( 461)
dominus, -, m. master (of the
house), owner, ruler
( 462)
domus, -s, f. house, home.
dom, locative, at home
( 468)

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d-sili, -re, -u, -sultus [d,


down, + sali, leap], leap
down
d-spr, -re, -v, -tus [d,
away from, + spr, hope],
despair
d-spici, -ere, -spxi, -spectus
[d, down], look down
upon, despise
d-sum, -esse, -fu, -futrus
[d, away from, + sum,
be], be wanting, lack, with
dat. ( 426)
deus, -, m. god ( 468)
d-volv, -ere, -volv, -voltus
[d, down, + volv, roll],
roll down
d-vor, -re, -v, -tus [d,
down, + vor, swallow],
devour
dexter, -tra, -trum (-tera, terum), adj. to the right,
right.
dextr corn, on the right
wing
Dina, -ae, f. Diana, goddess
of the moon and twin sister
of Apollo

dormi, -re, -v, -tus, sleep


drac, -nis, m. serpent,
dragon
dubit, -re, -v, -tus,
hesitate
dubius, -a, -um, adj. [duo,
two], (moving two ways),
doubtful, dubious
du-cent, -ae, -a, numeral adj.
two hundred
dc, -ere, dx, ductus (imv.
dc), lead, conduct
dum, conj. while, as long as
duo, duae, duo, numeral adj.
two ( 479)
duo-decim, indecl. numeral
adj. twelve
drus, -a, -um, adj. hard,
tough; harsh, pitiless,
bitter
dux, ducis, m. and f. [cf. dc,
lead], leader, commander

E
or ex, prep, with abl. out of,
from, off, of ( 209)
eburneus, -a, -um, adj. of ivory
ecce, adv. see! behold! there!
here!
-dc, -ere, -dx, -ductus [,
out, + dc, lead], lead
out, draw out
ef-fici, -ere, -fc, -fectus [ex,
thoroughly, + faci, do],
work out; make, cause
ef-fugi, -ere, -fg, -fugitrus
[ex, from, + fugi, flee],
escape
ege, -re, -u, , be in need
of, lack, with abl.
( 501.32)
ego, pers. pron. I; plur. ns, we
( 480)

Etrsc, -rum, m. the


Etruscans, the people of
Etruria. See map of Italy
Eurpa, -ae, f. Europe
Eurystheus, -, m. Eurystheus,
a king of Tiryns, a city in
southern Greece
-vd, -ere, -vs, -vsus [,
out, + vd, go], go forth,
escape
ex, see
exanimtus, -a, -um [part. of
exanim, put out of breath
(anima)], adj. out of
breath, tired; lifeless
ex-cipi, -ere, -cp, -ceptus
[ex, out, + capi, take],
welcome, receive
exemplum, -, n. example,

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309

-gredior, -, gressus sum,


dep. verb [, out of, +
gradior, go], go out, go
forth.
nv gred, disembark
-ici, -ere, -ic, -iectus [,
forth, + iaci, hurl], hurl
forth, expel
elementum, -, n., in plur. first
principles, rudiments
elephantus, -, m. elephant
lis, lidis, f. Elis, a district of
southern Greece
em, -ere, m, mptus, buy,
purchase
enim, conj., never standing
first, for, in fact, indeed.
Cf. nam
Ennius, Enn, m. Ennius, the
father of Roman poetry,
born 239 B.C.
e, re, i (v), itrus, go
( 499)
e, adv. to that place, thither
prus, -, f. Epirus, a district
in the north of Greece
eques, -itis, m. [equus, horse],
horseman, cavalryman
equittus, -s, m. [equit,
ride], cavalry
equus, -, m. horse
-rig, -ere, -rx, -rctus [,
out, + reg, make
straight], raise up
-ripi, -ere, -u, -reptus [,
out of, + rapi, seize],
seize, rescue
-rump, -ere, -rp, -ruptus
[, forth, + rump, break],
burst forth
rupti, -nis, f. sally
Erymanthius, -a, -um, adj.
Erymanthian, of
Erymanthus, a district in
southern Greece
et, conj. and, also.
et ... et, both ... and. Cf.
atque, ac, -que
etiam, adv. (rarely conj.) [et,

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model
ex-e,-re,-i,-itrus [ex, out, +
e, go], go out, go forth
( 413)
ex-erce, -re, -u, -itus [ex,
out, + arce, shut], (shut
out), employ, train,
exercise, use
exercitus, -us, m. [exerce,
train], army
ex-stim, -re, -v, -tus [ex,
out, + aestim, reckon],
estimate; think, judge
( 420. c). Cf. arbitror,
put
ex-orior, -r, -ortus sum, dep.
verb [ex, forth, + orior,
rise], come forth, rise
expedtus, -a, -um, adj. without
baggage
ex-pell, -ere, -pul, -pulsus
[ex, out, + pell, drive],
drive out
ex-pi, -re, -v, -tus [ex,
intensive, + po, atone for],
make amends for, atone for
explrtor, -ris, m. [explr,
investigate], spy, scout
explr, -re, -v, -tus,
examine, explore
ex-pugn, -re, -v, -tus [ex,
out, + pugn, fight], take
by storm, capture
exsilium, exsil, n. [exsul,
exile], banishment, exile
ex-spect, -re, -v, -tus [ex,
out, + spect, look],
expect, wait
ex-stru, -ere, -strx, strctus [ex, out, + stru,
build], build up, erect
exterus, -a, -um, adj.,
compared exterior,
extrmus or extimus,
outside, outer ( 312)
extr, prep, with acc. beyond,
outside of
ex-trah, -ere, -trx, -trctus
[ex, out, + trah, drag],

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also, + iam, now], yet, still;


also, besides. Cf. quoque.
nn slum ... sed etiam, not
only ... but also

drag out, pull forth


extrmus, -a, -um, adj., superl.
of exterus, utmost, farthest
( 312)
F

310

fbula, -ae, f. story, tale, fable


facile, adv. [facilis, easy],
compared facilius,
facillim, easily ( 322)
facilis, -e, adj. [cf. faci, make],
easy, without difficulty
( 307)
faci, -ere, fc, factus (imv.
fac), make, do; cause,
bring about.
impetum facere in, make an
attack upon.
proelium facere, fight a
battle.
iter facere, make a march or
journey.
aliquem certirem facere,
inform some one.
facere verba pr, speak in
behalf of.
Passive f, fier, factus sum,
be done, happen.
certior fier, be informed
fall, -ere, fefell, falsus, trip,
betray, deceive
fma, -ae, f. report, rumor;
renown, fame, reputation
fams, -is (abl. fam), f. hunger
familia, -ae, f. servants, slaves;
household, family
fascs, -ium (plur. of fascis), f.
fasces (p. 225)
fastgium, fastg, n. top;
slope, descent
ftum, -, n. fate, destiny
faucs, -ium, f. plur. jaws,
throat
fave, -re, fv, fautrus, be
favorable to, favor, with
dat. ( 501.14)
flx, -cis, adj. happy, lucky
fmina, -ae, f. woman. Cf.
mulier

f, fier, factus sum, used as


passive of faci. See faci
( 500)
flamma, -ae, f. fire, flame
fls, flris, m. flower
fluctus, -s, m. [of. flu, flow],
flood, wave, billow
flmen, -inis, n. [cf. flu,
flow], river ( 464. 2. b)
flu, -ere, flx, fluxus, flow
fluvius, fluv, m. [cf. flu,
flow], river
fodi, -ere, fd, fossus, dig
fns, fontis, m. fountain ( 247.
2. a)
frma, -ae, f. form, shape,
appearance; beauty
Formiae, -rum, f. Formiae, a
town of Latium on the
Appian Way. See map
forte, adv. [abl. of fors,
chance], by chance
fortis, -e, adj. strong; fearless,
brave
fortiter, adv. [fortis, strong],
compared fortius,
fortissim, strongly;
bravely
fortna, -ae, f. [fors, chance],
chance, fate, fortune
forum, -, n. market place, esp.
the Forum Rmnum,
where the life of Rome
centered
Forum App, Forum of Appius,
a town in Latium on the
Appian Way
fossa, -ae, f. [cf. fodi, dig],
ditch
fragor, -ris, m. [cf. frang,
break], crash, noise
frang, -ere, frg, frctus,
break

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fera, -ae, f. [ferus, wild], wild


beast
ferx, -cis, adj. fertile
fer, adv. about, nearly, almost
fer, ferre, tul, ltus, bear.
graviter or molest ferre, be
annoyed ( 498)
ferreus, -a, -um, adj. [ferrum,
iron], made of iron
fidlis, -e, adj. [fids, trust],
faithful, true
fids, fide or fid, trust, faith;
promise, word; protection.
in fidem venre, come under
the protection.
in fid manre, remain loyal
flia, -ae (dat. and abl. plur.
flibus), f. daughter
( 461. a)
flius, fl (voc. sing, fl), m.
son
fnis, -is, m. boundary, limit,
end; in plur. territory,
country ( 243. 1)
fnitimus, -a, -um, adj. [fnis,
boundary], adjoining,
neighboring. Plur. fnitim,
-rum, m. neighbors

frter, -tris, m. brother


fremitus, -s, m. loud noise
frequent, -re, -v, -tus,
attend
frtus, -a, -um, adj. supported,
trusting. Usually with abl.
of means
frns, frontis, f. front, fronte,
in front
frctus, -s, m. fruit
frmentrius, -a, -um, adj.
pertaining to grain.
rs frmentria, grain
supplies
frmentum, -, n. grain
frstr, adv. in vain, vainly
fuga, -ae, f. [cf. fugi, flee],
flight.
in fugam dare, put to flight
fugi, -ere, fg, fugitrus,
flee, run; avoid, shun
fm, -are, , , smoke
fnis, -is, m. rope
furor, -ris, m. [fur, rage],
madness.
in furrem incdere, go mad

311

G
Gius, G, m. Gaius, a Roman
name, abbreviated C.,
English form Caius
Galba, -ae, m. Galba, a Roman
name
galea, -ae, f. helmet
Gallia, -ae, f. Gaul, the country
comprising what is now
Holland, Belgium,
Switzerland, and France
Gallicus, -a, -um, adj. Gallic
gallna, -ae, f. hen, chicken
Gallus, -, m. a Gaul
gaudium, gaud, n. joy
Genva, -ae, f. Geneva, a city
in Switzerland
gns, gentis, f. [cf. gign,

gladitrius, -a, -um, adj.


gladiatorial
gladius, glad, m. sword
glria, -ae, f. glory, fame
Gracchus, -, m. Gracchus,
name of a famous Roman
family
gracilis, -e, adj. slender ( 307)
Graeca, -rum, n. plur. Greek
writings, Greek literature
Graec, adv. in Greek
Graecia, -ae, f. Greece
grammaticus, -, m.
grammarian
grtia, -ae, f. thanks, gratitude
grtus, -a, -um, adj.
acceptable, pleasing.

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Often with dat. ( 501.16)


gravis, -, adj. heavy;
disagreeable; serious,
dangerous; earnest,
weighty
graviter, adv. [gravis, heavy],
compared gravius,
gravissim, heavily;
greatly, seriously.
graviter ferre, bear ill, take
to heart
guberntor, -ris, m.
[gubern, pilot], pilot

beget], race, family; people,


nation, tribe
genus, -eris, n. kind, variety
Germnia, -ae, f. Germany
Germnus, -, m. a German
ger, -ere, gess, gestus, carry,
wear; wage.
bellum gerere, wage war.
rs gestae, exploits.
bene gerere, carry on
successfully

312

ho-di, adv. [modified form of


hc di, on this day], today
hom, -inis, m. and f. (human
being), man, person
honestus, -a, -um, adv. [honor,
honor], respected,
honorable
honor, -ris, m. honor
hra, -ae, f. hour
Hortius, Hort, m.
Horatius, a Roman name
horribilis, -e, adj. terrible,
horrible
hortor, -ri, -tus sum, dep.
verb, urge, incite, exhort,
encourage ( 493)
hortus, -, m. garden
hospitium, hospit, n.
[hospes, host], hospitality
hostis, -is, m. and f. enemy, foe
( 465. a)
humilis, -e, adj. low, humble
( 307)
Hydra, -ae, f. the Hydra, a
mythical water snake slain
by Hercules

habna, -ae, f. halter, rein.


habe, -re, -u, -itus, have,
hold; regard, consider,
deem
habit, -re, -v, -tus [cf.
habe, have], dwell, abide,
inhabit. Cf. incol, vv
hc-tenus, adv. thus far
Helvti, -rum, m. the
Helvetii, a Gallic tribe
Herculs, -is, m. Hercules, son
of Jupiter and Alcmena,
and god of strength
Hesperids, -um, f. the
Hesperides, daughters of
Hesperus, who kept the
garden of the golden
apples
hic, haec, hoc, demonstrative
adj. and pron. this (of
mine); as pers. pron. he,
she, it ( 481)
hc, adv. here
hiems, -emis, f. winter
hnc, adv. [hc, here], from
here, hence
Hippolyt, -s, f. Hippolyte,
queen of the Amazons
I
iaci, -ere, ic, iactus, throw,
hurl
iam, adv. now, already.

in-gredior, -gred, -gressus


sum [in, in, + gradior,
walk], advance, enter

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nec iam, and no longer


Iniculum, -, n. the Janiculum,
one of the hills of Rome
inua, -ae, f. door
ibi, adv. there, in that place
carus, -, m. Icarus, the son of
Ddalus
ictus, -s, m. [cf. c, strike],
blow
dem, eadem, idem,
demonstrative pron. [is +
dem], same ( 481)
idneus, -a, -um, adj. suitable,
fit
igitur, conj., seldom the first
word, therefore, then. Cf.
itaque
ignis, -is, m. fire ( 243.1;
247.2.a; 465.1)
igntus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not,
+ (g)notus, known],
unknown, strange
ille, illa, illud, demonstrative
adj. and pron. that
(yonder); as pers. pron. he,
she, it ( 481)
illc, adv. [cf. ille], yonder,
there
im-mitt, -ere, -ms, -missus
[in, against, + mitt,
send], send against; let in
immol, -re, -v, -tus [in,
upon, + mola, meal],
sprinkle with sacrificial
meal; offer, sacrifice
im-mortlis, -e, adj. [in-, not, +
mortalis, mortal],
immortal
im-mortlits, -tis, f.
[immortlis, immortal],
immortality
im-partus, -a, -um, adj. [in-,
not, + partus, prepared],
unprepared
impedmentum, -, n.
[impedi, hinder],
hindrance; in plur.
baggage
impedtus, -a, -um, adj. [part.

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inimcus, -a, -um, adj. [in-, not,


+ amcus, friendly],
hostile. As a noun,
inimcus, -, m. enemy, foe.
Cf. hostis
initium, init, entrance,
beginning
initus, -a, -um, part. of ine.
init aestte, at the
beginning of summer
iniria, -ae, f. [in, against, +
is, law], injustice, wrong,
injury.
alicui iniris nferre, inflict
wrongs upon some one
inopia, -ae, f. [inops, needy],
want, need, lack
in-opnns, -antis, adj. [in-,
not, + opnns, thinking],
not expecting, taken by
surprise
inquit, said he, said she.
Regularly inserted in a
direct quotation
in-rig, -re, -v, -tus,
irrigate, water
in-rump, -ere, -rp, -ruptus
[in, into, + rump, break],
burst in, break in
in-ru, -ere, -ru, [in, in, +
ru, rush], rush in
n-sequor, -sequ, -sectus
sum, dep. verb [in, on, +
sequor, follow], follow on,
pursue
n-signe, -is, n. badge,
decoration ( 465. b)
nsignis, -e, adj. remarkable,
noted
nstns, -antis, adj. [part. of
nsto, be at hand], present,
immediate
n-st, -re, -stit, -statrus [in,
upon, + st, stand], stand
upon; be at hand; pursue,
press on
nstrmentum, -, n. instrument
n-stru, -ere, -strx, strctus [in, on, + stru,

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313

of impedi, hinder], hindered,


burdened
im-pell, -ere, -pul, -pulsus
[in, against, + pell,
strike], strike against;
impel, drive, propel
impertor, -ris, m. [imper,
command], general
imperium, imper, n. [imper,
command], command,
order; realm, empire;
power, authority
imper, -re, -v, -tus,
command, order. Usually
with dat. and an object
clause of purpose
( 501.41). With acc.
object, levy, impose
impetus, -s, m. attack,
impetum facere in, make
an attack upon
im-pn, -ere, -posui, -positus
[in, upon, + pn, place],
place upon; impose, assign
in, prep, with acc. into, to,
against, at, upon, towards;
with abl. in, on.
in reliquum tempus, for the
future
in-, inseparable prefix. With
nouns and adjectives often
with a negative force, like
English un-, inin-cautus, -a, -um, adj. [in-,
not, + cautus, careful], off
ones guard
incendium, incend, n. flame,
fire. Cf. ignis, flamma
in-cend, -ere, -d, -cnsus, set
fire to, burn
in-cid, -ere, -cid, , [in,
in, on, + cad, fall], fall in,
fall on; happen.
in furrem incidere, go mad
in-cipi, -ere, -cpi, -ceptus
[in, on, + capi, take],
begin
in-cognitus, -a, -um, adj. [in-,
not, + cognitus, known],

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build], draw up
nsula, -ae, f. island
integer, -gra, -grum,
untouched, whole; fresh,
new
intelleg, -ere, -lx, -lctus
[inter, between, +leg,
choose], perceive,
understand ( 420. d)
intent, -re, -v, -tus, aim;
threaten
inter, prep. with acc. between,
among; during, while
( 340)
interfectus, -a, -um, adj. [part.
of inter-fici, kill], slain,
dead
inter-fici, -ere, -fc, -fectus
[inter, between, + faci,
make], put out of the way,
kill. Cf. nec, occd,
trucd
interim, adv. meanwhile
interior, -ius, adj. interior,
inner ( 315)
inter-mitt, -ere, -ms, missus, leave off, suspend
interpres, -etis, m. and f.
interpreter
inter-rog, -re, -v, -tus,
question
inter-sum, -esse, -fu, -futrus
[inter, between, +sum,
be], be present, take part
in, with dat. ( 501.15)
inter-vllum, -, n. interval,
distance
intr, adv. and prep. with acc.
within, in
intr, -re, -vi, -tus, go into,
enter
in-veni, -re, -vn, -ventus
[in, upon, +veni, come],
find
invsus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of
invide, envy], hated,
detested
Iolus, -, m. I-o-lus, a friend
of Hercules

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unknown
in-col, -ere, -u, , [in, in,
+ col, dwell], inhabit; live
incolumis, -e, adj. sound, safe,
uninjured, imharmed
in-crdibilis, -e, adj. [in-, not, +
crdibilis, to be believed],
incredible
inde, from that place, thence
indu, -ere, -u, -tus, put on
indtus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of
indu, put on], clothed
in-e, -re, -i, -itus [in, into, +
e, go], go into; enter
upon, begin, with acc.
( 413)
n-fns, -fantis, adj. [in-, not, +
*fns, speaking], not
speaking. As a noun, m.
and f. infant
n-flx, -cis, adj. [in-, not, +
flx, happy], unhappy,
unlucky
nfnsus, -a, -um, adj. hostile
n-fer, nferre, intul,
inltus [in, against, +
fer, bear], bring against
or upon, inflict, with acc.
and dat. ( 501.15).
bellum nferre, with dat.,
make war upon
nferus, -a, -um, adj. low,
below ( 312).
n-fntus, -a, -um, adj. [in-,
not, + fntus, bounded],
boundless, endless
n-frmus, -a, -um, adj. [in-,
not, + frmus, strong],
weak, infirm
ingenium, ingeni, n. talent,
ability
ingns, -entis, adj. vast, huge,
enormous, large. Cf.
magnus

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ipse, -a, -um, intensive pron.


that very, this very; self,
himself, herself, itself,
( 481)
ra, -ae, f. wrath, anger
rtus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of
rscor, be angry],
angered, enraged
is, ea, id, demonstrative adj.
and pron. this, that; he,
she, it ( 481)
iste, -a, -ud, demonstrative adj.
and pron. that (of yours),
he, she, it ( 481)
ita, adv. so, thus. Cf. sc and
tam
Italia, -ae, f. Italy
ita-que, conj. and so, therefore
item, adv. also
iter, itineris, n. journey, march,
route; way, passage
( 247.1.a; 468).
iter dare, give a right of
way, allow to pass.
iter facere, march (see p.
159)
iube, -re, iuss, iussus,
order, command. Usually
with the infin. and subj.
acc. ( 213)
idex, -icis, m. and f. judge
( 464. 1)
idic, -re, -v, -tus [idex,
judge], judge, decide
( 420. c)
Ilia, -ae, Julia, a Roman name
Ilius, Il, m. Julius, a Roman
name
iung, -re, inx, inctus,
join; yoke, harness
In, -nis, f. Juno, the queen
of the gods and wife of
Jupiter
Iuppiter, Iovis, m. Jupiter, the
supreme god
ir, -re, -v, -tus, swear,
take an oath
iussus, -a, -um, part. of iube,
ordered

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315

L., abbreviation for Lcius


labefactus, -a, -um, adj. [part.
of labefaci, cause to
shake], shaken, weakened,
ready to fall
Labinus, -, m. La-bi-enus,
one of Csars lieutenants
labor, -ris, m. labor, toil
labr, -re, -v, -tus [labor,
labor], labor; suffer, be
hard pressed
lacrima, -ae, f. tear
lacus, -s (dat. and abl. plur.
lacubus), m. lake
laet, adv. [laetus, glad],
compared laetius,
laetissim, gladly
laetitia, -ae, f. [laetus, glad],
joy
laetus, -a, -um, adj. glad, joyful
lapis, -idis, m. stone
( 247.2.a; 464.1)
Lr, Laris, m.; plur. Lars, um (rarely -ium), the
Lares or household, gods
lt, adv. [ltus, wide],
compared ltius, ltissim,
widely
Latin, adv. in Latin.
Latn loqu, to speak Latin
ltitd, -inis, f. [ltus, wide],
width
Ltna, -ae, f. Latona, mother
of Apollo and Diana
latus, -a, -um, adj. wide
ltus, -eris, n. side, flank.
ab utrque latere, on each
side
laud, -re, -v, -tus [laus,
praise], praise
laurea, -ae, f. laurel
lauretus, -a, -um, adj.
crowned with laurel
laus, laudis, f. praise
lectulus, -, m. couch, bed
lgtus, -, m. ambassador;
lieutenant

Lentulus, -i, m. Lentulus, a


Roman family name
le, -nis, m. lion
Lernaeus, -a, -um, adj.
Lernean, of Lerna, in
southern Greece
Lesbia, -ae, f. Lesbia, a girls
name
levis, -e, adj. light
lx, lgis, f. measure, law
libenter, adv. [libns, willing],
compared libentius,
libentissim, willingly,
gladly
lber, -era, -erum, adj. free
( 469. b)
lber, -rum, m. [lber, free],
children
lber, -re, -v, -tus [lber,
free], set free, release,
liberate
lberts, -tis, f. [lber, free],
freedom, liberty
lctor, -ris, m. lictor (p. 225)
lmus, -, m. mud
littera, -ae, f. a letter of the
alphabet; in plur. a letter,
epistle
ltus, -oris, n. seashore, beach
locus, -, m. (plur. loc and
loca, m. and n.), place,
spot
long, adv. [longus, long],
comp. longius,
longissim, a long way
off; by far
longinquus, -a, -um, adj.
[longus, long], distant,
remote
longitd, -inis, f. [longus,
long], length
longus, -a, -um, adj. long
loquor, loqui, loctus sum,
dep. verb, talk, speak
lrca, -ae, f. [lrum, thong],
coat of mail, corselet
ld, -ere, ls, lsus, play

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ldus, -, m. play; school, the


elementary grades. Cf.
schola
lna, -ae, f. moon
lx, lcis, f. (no gen. plur.),
light.
prma lx, daybreak
L dia, -ae, f. Lydia, a girls
name

legi, -nis, f. [cf. leg,


gather], (body of soldiers),
legion, about 3600 men
( 464. 2. a)
leginrius, -a, -um, adj.
legionary. Plur. leginari,
-rum, m. the soldiers of
the legion
leg, -ere, lg, lctus, read
lnis, -e, adj. gentle, smooth,
mild
lniter, adv. [lnis, gentle],
compared lnius,
lnissim, gently
M

316

M., abbreviation for Mrcus


magicus, -a, -um, adj. magic
magis, adv. in comp. degree
[magnus, great], more, in
a higher degree ( 323)
magister, -tr, m. master,
commander; teacher
magistrtus, -s, m. [magister,
master], magistracy;
magistrate
magnitd, -inis, f. [magnus,
great], greatness, size
magnopere, adv. [abl. of
magnum opus], compared
magis, maxim, greatly,
exceedingly ( 323)
magnus, -a, -um, adj.,
compared maior,
maximus, great, large;
strong, loud ( 311)
maior, maius, -ris, adj., comp.
of magnus, greater, larger
( 311)
mairs, -um, m. plur. of
maior, ancestors
ml, mlle, mlu,
[magis, more, + vol,
wish], wish more, prefer
( 497)
malus, -a, -um, adj., compared
peior, pessimus, bad, evil
( 311)
mand, -re, -v, -tus

mles, -itis, m. soldier


( 464. 1)
mlitris, -e, adj. [mles,
soldier], military.
rs mlitris, science of war
mlit, -re, -v, -tus [mles,
soldier], serve as a soldier
mlle, plur. mlia, -ium,
numeral adj. and subst.
thousand ( 479)
minim, adv. in superl. degree,
compared parum, minus,
minim, least, very little;
by no means ( 323)
minimus, -a, -um, adj. in
superl. degree, compared
parvus, minor, minimus,
least, smallest ( 311)
minor, minus, -ris, adj. in
comp. degree, compared
parvus, minor, minimus,
smaller, less ( 311)
Mns, -is, m. Minos, a king
of Crete
minus, adv. in comp. degree,
compared parum, minus,
minim, less ( 323)
Minyae, -rum, m. the Minyae,
a people of Greece
mrbilis, -e, adj. [mror,
wonder at], wonderful,
marvelous
mror, -r, -tus sum, dep.

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[manus, hand, + d, put], (put


in hand), intrust; order,
command
mane, -re, mns,
mnsrus, stay, remain,
abide
Mnlius, Mnl, m. Manlius, a
Roman name
mnsutus, -a, -um, adj. [part.
of mnsusc, tame],
tamed
manus, -s, f. hand; force,
band
Mrcus, -, m. Marcus, Mark, a
Roman first name
mare, -is, n. (no gen. plur.),
sea.
mare tenre, be out to sea
marg, -inis, m. edge, border
martus, -, m. husband
Marius, Mar, m. Marius, a
Roman name, esp. C.
Marius, the general
Mrtius, -a, -um, adj. of Mars,
esp. the Campus Martius
mter, -tris, f. mother
mtrimnium, mtrimn, n.
marriage.
in mtrimnium dcere,
marry
mtr, -re, -v, -tus,
hasten. Cf. contend,
proper
mtrus, -a, -um, adj. ripe,
mature
maxim, adv. in superl. degree
[maximus, greatest],
compared magnopere,
magis, maxim,
especially, very much
( 323)
maximus, -a, -um, adj., superl.
of magnus, greatest,
extreme ( 311)
medius, -a, -um, adj. middle
part; middle, intervening
melior, -ius, -ris, adj., comp.
of bonus, better ( 311)
melius, adv. in comp. degree,

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verb [mrus, wonderful],


wonder, marvel, admire
mrus, -a, -um, adj. wonderful
Msnum, -, Misenum, a
promontory and harbor on
the coast of Campania. See
map
miser, -era, -erum, adj.
wretched, unhappy,
miserable
missus, -a, -um, part. of mitt,
sent
mitt, -ere, ms, missus, send
modicus, -a, -um [modus,
measure], modest,
ordinary
modo, adv. [abl. of modus,
measure, with shortened
o], only, merely, just now.
modo ... modo, now ... now,
sometimes ... sometimes
modus, -, m. measure;
manner, way; kind
moenia, -ium, n. plur. [cf.
mni, fortify], walls,
ramparts
molest, adv. [molestus,
troublesome], compared
molestius, molestissim,
annoyingly.
molest ferre, to be annoyed
molestus, -a, -um,
troublesome, annoying,
unpleasant ( 501.16)
mone, -re, -u, -itus, remind,
advise, warn ( 489)
mns, montis, m. mountain
( 247. 2. a)
mnstrum, -, n. monster
mora, -ae, f. delay
moror, -r, -tus sum, dep.
verb [mora, delay], delay,
linger; impede
mors, mortis, f. [cf. morior,
die], death
ms, mris, m. custom, habit
mtus, -s, m. [cf. move,
move], motion, movement.
terrae mtus, earthquake

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compared bene, melius,


optim, better ( 323)
memoria, -ae, f. [memor,
mindful], memory.
memori tenre, remember
mns, mentis, f. mind. Cf.
animus
mnsis, -is, m. month
( 247. 2. a)
merctor, -ris, m. [mercor,
trade], trader, merchant
merdinus, -a, -um, adj.
[merdis, noon], of
midday
merdis, (acc. -em, abl. ), m. [medius, mid, +
dis, day], noon
metus, -s, m. fear, dread
meus, -a, -um, possessive adj.
and pron. my, mine ( 98)

move, -re, mv, mtus,


move
mox, adv. soon, presently
mulier, -eris, f. woman
multitd, -inis, f. [multus,
much], multitude
multum (mult), adv. [multus,
much], compared pls,
plrimum, much ( 477)
multus, -a, -um, adj.,
compared pls, plrimus,
much; plur. many ( 311)
mni, -re, -v or -i, -tus,
fortify, defend
mnti, -nis, f. [mni,
fortify], defense,
fortification
mrus, -, m. wall. Cf. moenia
msica, -ae, f. music

318

nam, conj. for. Cf. enim


nam-que, conj., a strengthened
nam, introducing a reason
or explanation, for, and in
fact; seeing that
nrr, -re, -v, -tus, tell,
relate
nscor, nsc, ntus sum, dep.
verb, be born, spring from
ntra, -ae, f. nature
ntus, part. of nscor
nauta, -ae, m. [for nvita, from
nvis, ship], sailor
nvlis, -e, adj. [nvis, ship],
naval
nvigium, nvig, n. ship, boat
nvig, -re, -v, -tus [nvis,
ship, + ag, drive], sail,
cruise
nvis, -is (abl. - or -e), f. ship
( 243. 1).
nvem cnscendere, embark,
go on board.
nvem solvere, set sail.
nvis longa, man-of-war
n, conj. and adv. in order that
not, that (with verbs of

Niob, -s, f. Niobe, the queen


of Thebes whose children
were destroyed by Apollo
and Diana
nisi, conj. [n, not, + s, if], if
not, unless, except
nbilis, -e, adj. well known;
noble
noce, -re, -u, -itrus [cf.
nec, kill], hurt, injure,
with dat. ( 501.14)
noct, abl. used as adv. [cf.
nox, night], at night, by
night
Nla, -ae, f. Nola, a town in
central Campania. See
map
nl, nlle, nlu, [ne,
not, + vol, wish], not to
wish, be unwilling ( 497)
nmen, -inis, n. [cf. nsc,
know], (means of
knowing), name
nmin, -re, -v, -tus
[nmen, name], name,
call. Cf. appell, voc
nn, adv. [n, not, + num,

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fearing), lest; not.


n ... quidem, not even
-ne, interrog. adv., enclitic (see
16, 210). Cf. nnne and
num
nec or neque, conj. [n, not, +
que, and], and not, nor.
nec ... nec or neque ...
neque, neither ... nor
necessrius, -a, -um, adj.
needful, necessary
nec, -re, -v, -tus [cf. nex,
death], kill. Cf. interfici,
occd, trucd
neg, -re, -v, -tus, deny,
say not ( 420. a)
negtium, negt, n. [nec, not,
+ tium, ease], business,
affair, matter.
alicui negtium dare, to
employ some one
Nemaeus, -a, -um, adj.
Nemean, of Nemea, in
southern Greece
nm, dat. nmin (gen.
nllus, abl. nll,
supplied from nllus), m.
and f. [n, not, + hom,
man], (not a man), no one,
nobody
Neptnus, -, m. Neptune, god
of the sea, brother of
Jupiter
neque, see nec
neuter, -tra, -trum (gen. trus, dat. -tr), adj.
neither (of two) ( 108)
n-ve, conj. adv. and not, and
that not, and lest
nihil, n. indecl. [n, not, +
hlum, a whit], nothing.
nihil posse, to have no power
nihilum, -, n., see nihil

one], not.
nn slum ... sed etiam, not
only ... but also
nn-dum, adv. not yet
nn-ne, interrog. adv.
suggesting an affirmative
answer, not? ( 210). Cf. ne and num
ns, pers. pron. we (see ego)
( 480)
noster, -tra, -trum, possessive
adj. and pron. our, ours.
Plur. nostr, -rum, m. our
men ( 98)
novem, indecl. numeral adj.
nine
novus, -a, -um, adj. new.
novae rs, a revolution
nox, noctis, f. night, mult
nocte, late at night
nllus, -a, -um (gen. -us, dat. ) adj. [n, not, + llus,
any], not any, none, no
( 108)
num, interrog. adv. suggesting a
negative answer ( 210).
Cf. -ne and nnne. In indir.
questions, whether
numerus, -, m. number
numquam, adv. [n, not, +
umquam, ever], never
nunc, adv. now. Cf. iam
nnti, -re, -v, -tus
[nntius, messenger],
report, announce ( 420. a)
nntius, nnt, m. messenger
nper, adv. recently, lately, just
now
nympha, -ae, f. nymph

319

O
ob, prep. with acc. on account
of. In compounds it often
means in front of, against,
or it is intensive.

opni, -nis, f. [opnor,


suppose], opinion,
supposition, expectation
oppidnus, -, m. [oppidum,

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quam ob rem, for this


reason ( 340)
obses, -idis, m. and f. hostage
ob-side,-re,-sd, -sessus [ob,
against, + sede, sit],
besiege
obtine, -re, -u, -tentus [ob,
against, + tene, hold],
possess, occupy, hold
occsi, -nis, f. favorable
opportunity, favorable
moment
occsus, -s, m. going down,
setting
occd, -ere, -cd, -csus [ob,
down, + caed, strike],
strike down; cut down, kill.
Cf. interfici, nec
occup, -re, -v, -tus [ob,
completely, + capi, take],
seize, take possession of,
occupy. Cf. rapio
oc-curr, -ere, -curr, -cursus
[ob, against + curr, run],
run towards; meet, with
dat. ( 426)
ceanus, -, m. the ocean
oct, indecl. numeral adj. eight
oculus, -, m. eye
officium, offic, n. duty
lim, adv. formerly, once upon
a time
men, -inis, n. sign, token,
omen
-mitt, -ere, -ms, -missus
[ob, over, past, + mitt,
send], let go, omit.
consilium omittere, give up
a plan
omnn, adv. [omnis, all],
altogether, wholly, entirely
omnis, -e, adj. all, every. Cf.
ttus
onerria, -ae, f. [onus, load],
with nvis expressed or
understood, merchant
vessel, transport
onus, -eris, n. load, burden

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town], townsman
oppidum, -, n. town,
stronghold
opportnus, -a, -um, adj.
suitable, opportune,
favorable
op-prim, -ere, -press, pressus [ob, against, +
prem, press], (press
against), crush; surprise
oppugnti, -nis, f. storming,
assault
oppugn, -re, -v, -tus [ob,
against, + pugn fight],
fight against, assault,
storm, assail
optim, adv. in superl. degree,
compared bene, melius,
optim, very well, best of
all ( 323)
optimus, -a, -um, adj. in
superl. degree, compared
bonus, melior, optimus,
best, most excellent
( 311)
opus, -eris, n. work, labor, task
( 464. 2. b)
rculum, -, n. [r, speak],
oracle
rtor, -ris, m. [r, speak],
orator
orbis, -is, m. ring, circle.
orbis terrrum, the earth,
world
orbita, -ae, f. [orbis, wheel],
rut
Orcus, -, m. Orcus, the lower
world
rd, -inis, m. row, order, rank
( 247. 2. a)
orgo, -inis, f. [orior, rise],
source, origin
orior, -r, ortus sum, dep.
verb, arise, rise, begin;
spring, be born
rnmentum, -, n. [rn, fit
out], ornament, jewel
rntus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of
rn, fit out] fitted out;

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adorned
rn, -re, -v, -tus, fit out,
adorn
P
P., abbreviation for Pblius
paene, adv. nearly, almost
paldmentum, -, n. military
cloak
pals, -dis, f. swamp, marsh
pnis, -is, m. bread
pr, paris, adj. equal
( 471. III)
partus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of
par, prepare], prepared,
ready
parc, -ere, peperc (pars),
parsrus, spare, with dat.
( 501.14)
pre, -re, -u, , obey,
with dat. ( 501 .14)
par, -re, -v, -tus, prepare
for, prepare; provide,
procure
pars, partis, f. part, share;
side, direction
parum, adv., compared minus,
minim, too little, not
enough ( 323)
parvus, -a, -um, adj.,
compared minor,
minimus, small, little
( 311)
passus, -s, m. step, pace.
mlle passuum, thousand
paces, mile ( 331. b)
pate, -re, patu, , lie
open, be open; stretch,
extend
pater, -tris, m. father ( 464.
2. a)
patior, -, passus sum, dep.
verb, bear, suffer, allow,
permit
patria, -ae, f. [cf. pater,
father], fatherland, (ones)
country
paucus, -a, -um, adj. (generally
plur.), few, only a few

(posterus), -a, -um, adj.,


compared posterior,
postrmus or postumus,
following, next ( 312)
postquam, conj. after, as soon
as
postrm, adv. [abl. of
postrmus, last], at last,
finally. Cf. dmum,
dnique ( 322)
postrdi, adv. [poster, next,
+ di, day], on the next day
postul, -re, -v, -tus, ask,
demand, require. Cf. pet,
quaer, rog
potentia, -ae, f. [potns, able],
might, power, force
prae-be, -re, -u, -itus [prae,
forth, + habe, hold],
offer, give
praeda, -ae, f. booty, spoil,
plunder
prae-dc, -ere, -dx, -dictus
[prae, before, + dc, tell],
foretell, predict
prae-fici, -ere, -fc, -fectus
[prae, before, + faci,
make], place in command,
with acc. and dat.
( 501.15)
prae-mitt, -ere, -ms, missus [prae, forward, +
mitt, send], send forward
praemium, praem, n. reward,
prize
praeruptus, -a, -um [part. of
prae-rump, break off],
broken off, steep
praesns, -entis, adj. present,
immediate
praesertim, adv. especially,
chiefly
praesidium, praesidi, n.
guard, garrison, protection

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paulisper, adv. for a little while


paul, adv. by a little, little
paulum adv. a little, somewhat
px, pcis, f. (no gen. plur.),
peace
pecnia, -ae, f. [pecus, cattle],
money
pedes, -itis, m. [ps, foot], foot
soldier
pedester, -tris, -tre, adj. [ps,
foot], on foot; by land
peior, peius, -ris, adj. in
comp. degree, compared
malus, peior, pessimus,
worse ( 311)
pellis, -is, f. skin, hide
penna, -ae, f. feather
per, prep. with acc. through, by
means of, on account of. In
composition it often has the
force of thoroughly,
completely, very ( 340)
percussus, -a, -um, adj. [part.
of percuti, strike
through], pierced
per-dc, -ere, -dx, -ductus
[per, through, + dc,
lead], lead through.
fossam perdcere, to
construct a ditch
per-exiguus, -a, -um, adj. [per,
very, + exiguus, small],
very small, very short
perfidus, -a, -um, adj. faithless,
treacherous, false
per-fring, -ere, -frg, frctus [per, through,
frang, break], shatter
perg, -ere, perrx, perrctus
[per, through, + reg,
conduct], go on, proceed,
hasten
perculum, -, n. trial, test;
danger
perist lum, -, n. peristyle, an
open court with columns
around it
pertus, -a, -um, adj. skillful
perpetuus, -a, -um, adj.

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prae-st, -re, -stit, -stitus


[prae, before, + sto,
stand], (stand before),
excel, surpass, with dat.
( 501.15); show, exhibit
prae-sum, -esse, -fu, -futrus
[prae, before, + sum, be],
be over, be in command of,
with dat. ( 501.15)
praeter, prep, with acc. beyond,
contrary to ( 340)
praetere, adv. [praeter,
besides, + e, this], in
addition, besides,
moreover
praetextus, -a, -um, adj.
bordered, edged
praetrium, praetr, n.
prtorium
prandium, prand, n. luncheon
prem, -ere, press, pressus,
press hard, compress;
crowd, drive, harass
(prex, precis), f. prayer
prm, adv. [prmus, first], at
first, in the beginning
( 322)
prmum, adv. [prmus, first],
first.
quam primum, as soon as
possible
prmus, -a, -um, adj. in superl.
degree, compared prior,
prmus, first ( 315)
prnceps, -cipis, m. [prmus,
first, + capi, take], (taking
the first place), chief,
leader ( 464. 1)
prior, prius, -ris, adj. in
comp. degree, superl.,
prmus, former ( 315)
prstinus, -a, -um, adj. former,
previous
pr, prep, with abl. before; for,
for the sake of, in behalf of;
instead of, as ( 209). In
composition, forth,
forward
pr-cd, -ere, -cuss, -

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321

perpetual
Perseus, -e, Perseus, a Greek
hero, son of Jupiter and
Dana
persna, -ae, f. part, character,
person
per-sude, -re, -sus, susus [per, thoroughly, +
sude, persuade],
persuade, advise, with dat.
( 501.14), often with an
object clause of purpose
( 501.41)
per-terre, -re, -u, -itus [per,
thoroughly, + terre,
frighten], thoroughly
terrify, alarm
per-veni, -re, -vn, -ventus
[per, through, + veni,
come], arrive, reach, come
to
ps, pedis, m. foot.
pedem referre, retreat
( 247. 2. a)
pessimus, -a, -um, adj. in
superl. degree, compared
malus, peior, pessimus,
worst ( 311)
pet, -ere, -v or -i, -tus,
strive for, seek, beg, ask;
make for, travel to. Cf.
postul, quaer, rog

Pharslus, -, f. Pharsalus or
Pharsalia, a town in
Thessaly, near which
Cassar defeated Pompey, 48
B.C.
philosophia, -ae, f. philosophy
philosophus, -, m. philosopher
pictus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of
ping, paint], colored,
variegated
plum, -, n. spear, javelin
( 462. b)
piscna, -ae, f. [piscis, fish], fish
pond
piscis, -is, m. fish
pstor, -ris, m. baker

place. -re, -u, -itus, please,

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cessrus [pr, forward, +


cd, go], go forward,
proceed
procul, adv. far, afar off
pr-curr, -ere, -curr (cucurr), -cur-sus [pr,
forward, + curr, run],
run forward
proelium, proeli, n. battle,
combat.
proelium committere, join
battle.
proelium facere, fight a
battle
profecti, -nis, f. departure
proficscor, -, -fectus sum,
dep. verb, set out, march.
Cf. gredior, exe
pr-gredior, -, -gressus sum,
dep. verb [pr, forth, +
gradior, go], go forth,
proceed, advance. Cf.
perg, prcd
prgressus, see prgredior
prohibe, -re, -u, -itus [pr,
forth, away from, + habe,
hold], keep away from,
hinder, prevent
pr-move, -re, -mv, mtus [pr, forward, +
move, move], move
forward, advance
pr-nnti, -re, -v, -tus
[pr, forth, + nnti,
announce], proclaim,
declare
prope, adv., compared
propius, proxi-m,
nearly. Prep, with acc.
near
pr-pell, -ere, -pul, -pulsus
[pr, forth, + pell, drive],
drive forth; move, impel
proper, -re, -v, -tus
[properus, quick], go
quickly, hasten. Cf.
contend, matur
propinquus, -a, -um, adj.
[prope, near], near,

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be pleasing,
with dat. ( 501.14)
plnitis, -, f. [plnus, level],
plain
plnus, -a, -um, adj. level, flat
plnus, -a, -um, full
plrimum, adv. in superl.
degree, compared
multum, pls, plrimum,
very much.
plrimum valre, be most
influential ( 322)
plrimus, -a, -um, adj. in
superl. degree, compared
multus, pls, plrimus,
most, very many ( 311)
pls, plris, adj. in comp.
degree, compared multus,
pls, plrimus; sing. n. as
substantive, more; plur.
more, several ( 311)
pluteus, -, m. shield, parapet
poena, -ae, f. punishment,
penalty
pota, -ae, m. poet
pompa, -ae, f. procession
Pompi, -rum, m. Pompeii, a
city of Campania. See map
Pompius, Pomp, m.
Pompey, a Roman name
pmum, -, n. apple
pn, -ere, posu, positus, put,
place.
castra pnere, pitch camp
pns, pontis, m. bridge ( 247.
2. a)
popna, -ae, f. restaurant
populus, -, m. people
Porsena, -ae, m. Porsena, king
of Etruria, a district of
Italy. See map
porta, -ae, f. gate, door
port, -re, -v, -tus, bear,
carry
portus, -s, m. [cf. porta,
gate], harbor
posside, -re, -sd, -sessus,
have, own, possess
possum, posse, potu, ,

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neighboring
propior, -ius, -ris, adj. in
comp. degree, superl.,
proximus, nearer ( 315)
propius, adv. in comp. degree,
compared prope, propius,
proxim, nearer ( 323)
propter, prep. with acc. on
account of, because of
( 340)
pr-scrb, -ere, -scrps, scriptus [pr, forth, +
scrib, write], proclaim,
publish. Cf. prnnti
pr-sequor, -sequ, -sectus
sum, dep. verb [pr, forth,
+ sequor, follow], escort,
attend
pr-sum, prdesse, prfu,
prfutrus [pr, for, +
sum, be], be useful,
benefit, with dat. ( 496;
501.15)
pr-teg, -ere, -tx=i], -tctus
[pr, in front, + teg,
cover], cover in front,
protect
prvincia, -ae, f. territory,
province
proxim, adv. in superl. degree,
compared prope, propius,
proxim, nearest, next;
last, most recently ( 323)
proximus, -a, -um, adj. in
superl. degree, compared
propior, proximus,
nearest, next ( 315)
pblicus, -a, -um, adj.
[populus,people], of the
people, public, res
pblica, the
commonwealth
puella, -ae, f. [diminutive of
puer, boy], girl, maiden
puer, -eri, m. boy; slave
( 462. c)
pugna, -ae, f -fight, battle. Cf.
proelium
pugn, -re, -v, -tus

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irreg. verb [potis, able, + sum,


I am], be able, can ( 495).
nihil posse, have no power
post, prep, with acc. after,
behind ( 340)
poste, adv. [post, after, + e,
this], afterwards

[pugna, battle], fight. Cf.


contend, dmic
pulcher, -chra, -chrum, adj.
beautiful, pretty ( 469.b;
304)
Pull, -nis, m. Pullo, a
centurion
puls, -re, -v, -tus, strike,
beat
puppis, -is (acc. -im, abl. -), f.
stern of a ship, deck
pr, adv. [prus, pure],
comp. prius, purely
prg, -re, -v, -tus,
cleanse, clean
purpureus, -a, -um, adj.
purple, dark red
put, -re, -v, -tus, reckon,
think ( 420,c). Cf.
arbitror, exstim
P thia, -ae, f. Pythia, the
inspired priestess of
Apollo at Delphi
Q

qu d caus, for this reason,


wherefore
qu r, therefore, for this
reason
quaer, -ere, -sv, -stus, seek,
ask, inquire. Cf. pet,
postul, rog
qulis, -e, interrog. pronom. adj.
of what sort, what kind of.
talis ... qualis, such ... as
quam, adv. how; after a
comparative, than ; with a
superlative, translated as ...
as possible, quam
prmum, as soon as
possible
quantus, -a, -um, adj. [quam,
how], how great, how
much, tantus ... quantus,
as great as
qurtus, -a, -um, numeral adj.
[quattuor, four], fourth
quattuor, indecl. numeral adj.
four

qundecim, indecl. numeral


adj. fifteen
qungent, -ae, -a, numeral adj.
five hundred
qunque, indecl. numeral adj.
five
quntus, -a, -um, numeral adj.
fifth
quis (qu), quae, quid (quod),
interrog. pron. and adj.
who? what? which?
( 483).
quis (qu), qua (quae), quid
(quod), indef. pron. and
adj., used after s, nisi, n,
num, any one, anything,
some one, something, any,
some ( 484).
quisquam, quicquam or
quidquam (no fem. or
plur.), indef. pron. any one
(at all), anything (at all)
( 486).
quisque, quaeque, quidque

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324

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(quodque), indef. pron. and


adj. each, each one, every
( 484).
qu, interrog. and rel. adv.
whither, where
qu, conj. in order to, that,
with comp. degree ( 350).
quod, conj. because, in that.
Cf. quia
quoque, conj., following an
emphatic word, also, too.
Cf. etiam
quot-anns, adv. [quot, how
many + annus, year],
every year, yearly
quotins, interrog. and rel. adv.
how often? as often as

quattuor-decim, indecl.
numeral adj. fourteen
-que, conj., enclitic, and ( 16).
Cf. ac, atque, et
qu, quae, quod, rel. pron. and
adj. who, which, what, that
( 482)
quia, conj. because. Cf. quod
qudam, quaedam, quiddam
(quoddam), indef. pron.
and adj. a certain one, a
certain, a ( 485).
quidem, adv. to be sure,
certainly, indeed, n ...
quidem, not even
quis, -tis, f. rest, repose
quitus, -a, -um, adj. quiet,
restful
R
rdx, -cis, f. root; foot
rapi, -ere, -u, -tus, seize,
snatch
rr, adv. [rrus, rare], rarely
rrus, -a, -um, adj. rare
re- or red-, an inseparable
prefix, again, back, anew,
in return
rebelli, -nis, f. renewal of
war, rebellion
recns, -entis, adj. recent
re-cipi, -ere, -cp, -ceptus
[re-, back, + capi, take],
take back, receive.
s recipere, withdraw,
retreat
re-clntus, -a, -um, part. of
recln, leaning back
re-cretus, -a, -um, part. of
recre, refreshed
rctus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of
reg, keep straight],
straight, direct
re-cs, -re, -v, -tus,
refuse
red-ctus, -a, -um, part. of
redig, reduced, subdued
red-e, -re, -i, -itus [red-,

re-peri, -re, repper,


repertus, find
re-port, -re, -v, -tus [re-,
back, + port, carry],
carry back, bring back,
win, gain
rs, re, f. thing, business,
matter, deed, event,
circumstance ( 467).
quam ob rem, for this
reason.
rs adversae, adversity.
rs frmentria, grain
supplies.
rs gestae, exploits.
rs militris, science of war.
rs pblica, the
commonwealth.
rs secundae, prosperity
re-scind, -ere, -scid, -scissus
[re-, back, + scind, cut],
cut off, cut down
re-sist, -ere, -stit, [re-,
back, + sist, cause to
stand], oppose, resist, with
dat. ( 501.14)
re-sponde, -re, -spond, spnsus [re-, in return, +

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back, + e, go], go back, return


( 413). Cf. revert
reditus, -s, m. [cf. rede,
return], return, going back
re-dc, -ere, -dx, -ductus
[re-, back, + dc, lead],
lead back
re-fer, -ferre, rettul, -ltus
[re-, back, + fer, bear],
bear back; report.
pedem referre, withdraw,
retreat
re-fici, -ere, -fc, -fectus [re, again, + faci, make],
make again, repair.
s reficere, refresh ones self
rgna, -ae, f. [rx, king],
queen
regi, -nis, f. region, district
rgnum, -, n. sovereignty;
kingdom
reg, -ere, rx, rctus [cf. rx,
king], govern, rule ( 490)
re-ici, -ere, -ic, -iectus [re-,
back, + iaci, hurl], hurl
back; throw away
re-linqu, -ere, -lqu, -lictus
[re-, behind, + linqu,
leave], leave behind, leave,
abandon
reliquus, -a, -um, adj. [cf.
relinqu, leave], left over,
remaining. As a noun,
plur. the rest
remtus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of
re-move, remove],
remote, distant
re-move, -re, -mv, -motus
[re-, back, + move,
move], remove
rmus, -, m. oar

sponde, promise], answer,


reply ( 420. a)
re-vert, -ere, -, , or dep.
verb re-vertor, -, -sus
sum [re-, back, + vert,
turn], turn back, return.
Usually active in the perf.
system
re-vinci, -re, -vnx, -vnctus
[re-, back, + vinci, bind],
fasten
rx, rgis, m. [cf. reg, rule],
king
Rhnus, -, m. the Rhine, a
river of Germany
rpa, -ae, f. bank
rog, -re, -v, -tus, ask. Cf.
pet, postul, quaer
Rma, -ae, f. Rome. See map
Rmnus, -a, -um, adj.
[Rma, Rome], Roman,
follows its noun. As a
noun, m. and f. a Roman
rosa, -ae, f. rose
rstrum, -, n. beak of a ship.
In plur., the rostra, the
speakers stand in the
Roman Forum
rota, -ae, f. wheel
Rubic, -nis, m. the Rubicon,
a river in northern Italy.
See map
rmor, -ris, m. report, rumor
rrsus, adv. [for reversus,
turned back], again, in
turn
rs, rris (locative abl. rr,
no gen., dat., or abl. plur.),
n. the country ( 501.
36. 1). Cf. ager, patria,
terra
S

Sabnus, -a, -um, adj. Sabine.


As a noun, m. and f. a
Sabine. The Sabines were
an ancient people of
central Italy. See map
sacrum, -, n. [sacer,

somnus, -, m. sleep
soror, -ris, f. sister
spatium, spat, n. space,
distance; time; opportunity
spectculum, -, n. [spect,
look at], show, spectacle

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326

consecrated], something
consecrated, sacrifice;
usually in plur., religious
rites
saepe, adv., compared saepius,
saepissim, often,
frequently
saevus, -a, -um, adj. cruel,
savage
sagitta, -ae, f. arrow
sali, -re, -u, saltus, jump
sals, -tis, f. safety; health.
saltem dcere, send
greetings
salt, -re, -v, -tus [sals,
health], greet, salute
salv, imv. of salve, hail,
greetings
sanguis, -inis, m. blood
( 247. 2. a]
snits, -tis, f. [snus, sound],
health, sanity
sapins, -entis, adj. [part. of
sapi, be wise], wise,
sensible
satis, adv. and indecl. noun,
enough, sufficient,
sufficiently
saxum, -, n. rock, stone
scelus, -eris, n. crime, sin
scptrum, -, n. scepter
schola, -ae, f. school, the higher
grades. Cf. ldus
scientia, -ae, f. [scins,
knowing], skill, knowledge,
science
scind, -ere, scid, scissus, cut,
tear
sci, -re, -v, -tus, know
( 420. b). Cf. cognsc
scrb, -ere, scrps, scrptus,
write
sctum, -, n. shield, buckler
s, see su
scum = s + cum
secundus, -a, -um, adj.
[sequor, follow], following,
next, second; favorable,
successful.

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spect, -re, -v, -tus, look at,


witness
spr, -re, -v, -tus [sps,
hope], hope, expect
( 420. c)
sps, spe, f. hope ( 273. 2)
splendid, adv. [splendidus],
compared splendidius,
splendidissim, splendidly,
handsomely
splendidus, -a, -um, adj.
brilliant, gorgeous,
splendid
Stabinus, -a, -um, Stabian
stabulum, -, n. [cf. st, stand],
standing place, stable, stall
statim, adv. [cf. st, stand], on
the spot, at once, instantly
statua, -ae, f. [sist, place, set],
statue
statu, -ere, -u, -tus [status,
station], decide, determine
stilus, -, m. iron pencil, style
(p. 210)
st, -re, stet, status, stand
strtus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of
stern, spread], paved (of
streets)
strepitus, -s, m. [strep, make
a noise], noise, din
string, -ere, strnx, strictus,
bind tight; draw, unsheathe
stude, -re, -u, , give
attention to, be eager, with
dat. ( 501.14)
studium, stud, n. [cf. stude,
be eager for], eagerness,
desire, zeal, devotion
stultus, -a, -um, adj. foolish,
stupid
Stymphlis, -idis, adj. f.
Stymphalian, of
Stymphalus, a lake in
southern Greece
Stymphlus, -, m.
Stymphalus, a district of
southern Greece with a
town, mountain, and lake,
all of the same name

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rs secundae, prosperity
sed, conj. but, on the contrary.
nn slum ... sed etiam, not
only ... but also
sdecim, indecl. numeral adj.
sixteen
sede, -re, sd, sessus, sit
semper, adv. always, forever
sentus, -s, m. [cf. senex,
old], council of elders,
senate
senti, -re, sns, snsus, feel,
know, perceive ( 420. d).
Cf. intelleg, vide
septem, indecl. numeral adj.
seven
septimus, -a, -um, numeral adj.
seventh
sequor, -, sectus sum, dep.
verb, follow ( 493)
serpns, -entis, f. [serp,
crawl], serpent, snake
sertae, -rum, f. plur. wreaths,
garlands
servits, -tis, f. [servus,
slave], slavery, servitude
serv, -re, -v, -tus, save,
rescue, keep
servus, -, m. slave
ss, emphatic for s
sex, indecl. numeral adj. six
Sextus, -, m. Sextus, a Roman
first name
s, conj. if
sc, adv. thus, in this way. Cf.
ita, tam
Sicilia, -ae, f. Sicily. See map
sc-ut, just as, as if
signifer, -er, m. [signum,
standard, + fer, bear],
standard bearer (p. 224)
signum, -, n. ensign, standard;
signal
silva, -ae, f. wood, forest
similis, -e, adj., compared
similior, simillimus, like,
similar ( 307)
simul, adv. at the same time
simul ac or simul atque, conj.

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sude, -re, -s, -sus, advise,


recommend, with subjv. of
purpose ( 501.41)
sub, prep, with acc. and abl.
under, below, up to; at or
to the foot of
sub-ig, -ere, -g, -ctus [sub,
under, + ag, drive],
subdue, reduce
subit, adv. [subitus, sudden],
suddenly
sub-sequor, -, -sectus sum,
dep. verb [sub, below, +
sequor, follow], follow
close after, follow up
suc-cd, -ere, -cess, -cessus
[sub, below, + cd, go],
follow, succeed
su, reflexive pron. of himself
(herself, itself, themselves)
( 480).
scum = s + cum.
ss, emphatic form of s
sum, esse, fu, futrus, irreg.
verb, be; exist ( 494)
summus, -a, -um, adj. in
superl. degree, compared
superus, superior,
suprmus or summus
( 312), supreme, highest;
best, greatest.
in summ colle, on the top of
the hill
sm, -ere, smps, smptus,
take up; assume, put on.
smere supplicium d,
inflict punishment on
super, prep. with acc. and abl.
over, above
superbia, -ae, f. [superbus,
proud], pride, arrogance
superbus, -a, -um, adj. proud,
haughty
superior, comp. of superus
super, -re, -v, -tus
[superus, above], go over;
subdue, overcome;
surpass, excel
super-sum, -esse, -fu, , be

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over, survive, with dat.


( 501.15)
superus, -a, -um, adj.,
compared superior,
suprmus or summus,
above, upper ( 312)
supplicium, supplic, n.
[supplex, kneeling in
entreaty], punishment,
torture.
supplicium smere d,
inflict punishment on.
supplicium dare, suffer
punishment
surg, -ere, surrx,
[sub, from below, + reg,
straighten], rise
sus-cipi, -ere, -cp, -ceptus
[sub, under, + capi,
take], undertake, assume,
begin
suspicor, -r, -tus sum, dep.
verb, suspect, surmise,
suppose
sus-tine, -re, -tinu, -tentus
[sub, under, + tene,
hold], hold up, bear,
sustain, withstand
suus, -a, -um, reflexive
possessive adj. and pron.,
his, her, hers, its, their,
theirs ( 98)

as soon as
sine, prep. with abl. without
( 209)
singul, -ae, -a, distributive
numeral adj. one at a time,
single ( 334)
sinister, -tra, -trum, adj. left
Sinuessa, -ae, f. Sinuessa, a
town in Campania. See
map
sitis, -is (acc. -im, abl. -, no
plur.), f. thirst
situs, -a, -um, adj. [part. of
sin, set], situated, placed,
lying
socius, soc, m. comrade, ally
sl, slis (no gen. plur.), m. sun
sole, -re, solitus sum, semidep. verb, be wont, be
accustomed
sollicitus, -a, -um, adj.
disturbed, anxious
slum, adv. [slus, alone],
alone, only.
nn slum ... sed etiam, not
only ... but also
slus, -a, -um (gen. -us, dat. ), adj. alone, only ( 108)
solv, -ere, solv, soltus,
loosen, unbind.
nvem solvere, set sail

328

T
T., abbreviation of Titus
taberna, -ae, f. shop, stall
tabula, -ae, f. tablet for writing
tlis, -e, adj. such.
tlis ... qulis, such ... as
tam, adv. so, such. Cf. ita, sc
tamen, adv. yet, however,
nevertheless
tandem, adv. at length, finally
tang, -ere, tetig, tctus,
touch
tantum, adv. [tantus], only
tantus, -a, -um, adj. so great,
such.
tantus ... quantus, as large

time, -re, -u, , fear, be


afraid of. Cf. vereor
timor, -ris, m. [cf. time,
fear], fear, dread, alarm.
Cf. metus
Tryns, Trynthis, f. Tiryns,
an ancient town in
southern Greece, where
Hercules served
Eurystheus
toga, -ae, f. [cf. teg, cover],
toga
tormentum, -, n. engine of
war
totins, adv. so often, so many

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as
tardus, -a, -um, adj. slow, late;
lazy
Tarpia, -ae, f. Tarpeia
(pronounced Tar-pya),
the maiden who opened the
citadel to the Sabines
Tarquinius, Tarquin,
Tarquin, a Roman king.
With the surname
Superbus, Tarquin the
Proud
Tarracna, -ae, f. Tarracina, a
town in Latium. See map
taurus, -, m. bull
tctus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of
teg, cover], covered,
protected
tlum, -, n. weapon
temer, adv. rashly, heedlessly
tempests, -tis, f. [tempus,
time] storm, tempest
templum, -, n. temple, shrine
tempto, -re, -v, -tus, try,
test; make trial of, attempt
tempus, -oris, n. time ( 464.
2. b). in reliquum tempus,
for the future
tene, -re, tenu, , hold,
keep
tergum, -, n. back, terg, on
the rear, tergum vertere,
retreat, flee
tern, -ae, -a, distributive
numeral adj. three each, by
threes ( 334)
terra, -ae, f. earth, ground,
land.
orbis terrrum, the whole
world
terror, -ris, m. [cf. terre,
frighten], dread, alarm,
terror
tertius, -a, -um, numeral adj.
third
Teutons, -um, m. the Teutons
thetrum, -, n. theater
Thbae, -rum, f. Thebes, a
city of Greece

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times
ttus, -a, -um, (gen. -us, dat. ), adj. all, the whole,
entire ( 108)
tr-d, -ere, -did, -ditus
[trns, across, + d,
deliver], give up, hand
over, surrender, betray
tr-dc, -ere, -dx, -ductus
[trns, across, + dc,
lead], lead across
trah, -ere, trx, trctus,
draw, pull, drag.
multum trahere, protract,
prolong much
tr-ici, -ere, -ic, -iectus
[trns, across, + iaci,
hurl], throw across;
transfix
tr-n, -re, -v, -tus [trns,
across, + n, swim], swim
across
trns, prep. with acc. across,
over ( 340)
trns-e, -re, -i, -itus [trns,
across, + e, go], go
across, cross ( 413)
trns-fg, -ere, -fx, -fxus
[trns, through, + fg,
drive], transfix
trnsitus, (acc. -um, abl.
-), m. [cf. trnse, cross
over], passage across
trs, tria, numeral adj. three
( 479)
trduum, trdu, n. [trs, three,
+ dis, days], three days
time, three days
trgint, indecl. numeral adj.
thirty
triplex, -icis, adj. threefold,
triple
trstis, -e, adj. sad; severe,
terrible
trstitia, -ae, f. [trstis, sad],
sadness, sorrow
triumph, -re, -v, -tus
[triumphus, triumph],
celebrate a triumph

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Thbn, -rum, m. Thebans,


the people of Thebes
thermae, -rum, f. plur. baths
Thessalia, -ae, f. Thessaly, a
district of northern Greece
Thrcia, -ae, f. Thrace, a
district north of Greece
Tiberius, Tiber, m. Tiberius,
a Roman first name
tbcen, -nis, m. [cf. tbia,
pipe], piper, flute player

triumphus, -, m. triumphal
procession, triumph.
triumphum agere, celebrate
a triumph
trucd, -re, -v, -tus, cut to
pieces, slaughter. Cf.
interfici, nec, occd
t, tu (plur. vs), pers. pron.
thou, you ( 480)
tuba, -ae, f. trumpet
Tullia, -ae, f. Tullia, a Roman
name
tum, adv. then, at that time
turris, -is, f. tower ( 465. 2)
ttus, -a, -um, adj. safe
tuus, -a, -um, possessive adj.
and pron. your, yours
( 98)
U

ubi, rel. and interrog. adv.


where, when
llus, -a, -um (gen. -us, dat. ), adj. any ( 108)
ulterior, -ius, -ris, adj. in
comp. degree, superl.
ultimus, farther, more
remote ( 315)
ultimus, -a, -um, adj. in superl.
degree (see ulterior),
farthest ( 315)
umbra, -ae, f. shade
umerus, -, m. shoulder
umquam, adv. ever, at any
time
n, adv. [nus, one], in the
same place, at the same
time
ndecimus, -a, -um, numeral
adj. [nus, one, +
decimus, tenth], eleventh
undique, adv. from every
quarter, on all sides,
everywhere
nus, -a, -um (gen. -us, dat. ), numeral adj. one; alone
( 108)

urbs, -is, f. city ( 465. a)


urge, -re, urs, , press
upon, crowd, hem in
rus, -, m. wild ox, urus
sque, adv. all the way, even
sus, -s, m. use, advantage
ut, conj. with the subjv. that, in
order that, that not (with
verbs of fearing), so that,
to ( 350. 1)
uter, -tra, -trum (gen. -us, dat.
-), interrog. pron. which of
two? which? ( 108)
uterque, utraque, utrumque,
indef. pron. each of two,
each, both.
ab utrque parte, on both
sides
tilis, -e, adj. [tor, use], useful
utrimque, adv. [uterque, each
of two], on each side, on
either hand
va, -ae, f. grape, bunch of
grapes
uxor, -ris, f. wife

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V
vgna, -ae, sheath, scabbard
vagor, -r, -tus sum, dep.
verb, wander
vale, -re, -u, -itrus, be
powerful, be well; in the
imperative as a greeting,
farewell.
plrimum valre, have the
most power
valtd, -inis, f. [vale, be
well], health
validus, -a, -um, adj. [cf.
vale, be strong], strong,
able, well
valls, -is, f. valley
vllum, -, n. rampart,
earthworks
varius, -a, -um, adj. brightcolored
vst, -re, -v, -tus [vstus,
empty], (make empty),
devastate, lay waste
vectgal, -lis, n. tax, tribute
vehementer, adv. [vehemns,
eager], compared
vehementius,
vehementissim, eagerly,
vehemently
veh, -ere, vex, vectus,
convey, carry. In the
passive often in the sense
of ride, sail
vel, conj. or.
vel ... vel, either ... or. Cf.
aut
vlcits, -tis, f. [vlx, swift],
swiftness
vlx, -cis, adj. swift, fleet
vlum, -, n. sail
vnd, -ere, vndid, vnditus,
sell
veni, -re, vn, ventus, come,
go
ventus, -, m. wind
verbum, -, n. word.
verba facere pr, speak in
behalf of

veternus, -a, -um, adj. old,


veteran
vet, -re, -u, -itus, forbid,
prohibit
vex, -re, -v, -tus, trouble,
annoy
via, -ae, f. way, road, street;
way, manner. Cf. iter
vitor, -ris, m. [via], traveler
victor, -ris, m. [vinc,
conquer], conqueror,
victor. In apposition, with
adj. force victorious
victria, -ae, f. [victor, victor],
victory
vcus, -, m. village
vide, -re, vd, vsus, see,
perceive. Pass. be seen;
seem ( 420. d)
vigilia, -ae, f. [vigil awake],
watch.
d tertia vigilia, about the
third watch
vgint, indecl. numeral adj.
twenty
vlicus, -, m. [vlla, farm],
steward, overseer of a farm
vlla, -ae, f. farm, villa
vinci, -re, vnx, vnctus,
bind, tie, fetter
vinc, -ere, vc, victus,
conquer, defeat, overcome.
Cf. subig, super
vnea, -ae, f. shed (p. 219)
vnum, -, n. wine
violenter, adv. [violentus,
violent], compared
violentius, violentissim,
violently, furiously
vir, vir, m. man, husband; hero
( 462. c)
virlis, -e, adj. [vir, man], manly
virts, -tis, f. [vir, man],
manliness; courage, valor;
virtue ( 464. 1)
vs, (vs), f. strength, power,
might, violence ( 468)

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vereor, -r, -itus sum, dep.


verb, fear; reverence,
respect ( 493). Cf. time
Vergilius, Vergil, m. Vergil,
the poet
verg, -ere, , , turn,
lie
vr, adv. [vrus, true], in
truth, surely; conj. but,
however.
tum vr, then you may be
sure, introducing the
climax of a story
vert, -ere, -t, -sus, turn,
change.
tergum vertere, retreat, flee
vrus, -a, -um, true, actual
vesper, -er, m. evening
vester, -tra, -trum, possessive
adj. and pron. your, yours
( 98)
vestgium, vestg, n. [cf.
vestg, track], footstep,
track, trace
vestmentum, -, n. [vestis,
clothing], garment
vesti, -re, -v, -tus [vestis,
clothing], clothe, dress
vestis, -is, f. clothing, attire,
garment, robe
vesttus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of
vesti, clothe], clothed
Vesuvius, Vesuvi, m.
Vesuvius, the volcano near
Pompeii. See map

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vta, -ae, f. [cf. vv, live], life,


vtam agere, spend or
pass life
vto, -re, -v, -tus, shun,
avoid
vv, -ere, vx, , live. Cf.
habit, incol
vvus, -a, -um, adj. [cf. vv,
live], alive, living
vix, adv. scarcely, hardly
voc, -re, -v, -tus, call,
summon, invite. Cf.
appell, nmin
vol, -re, -v, -trus, fly
vol, velle, volu, , irreg.
verb, will, be willing; wish
( 497). Cf. cupio
volmen, -inis, n. roll, book
Vornus, -, m. Vorenus, a
centurion
vs, pers. pron.; you (see t)
( 480)
vtum, -, n. [neut. part. of
vove, vow], vow, pledge,
prayer
vx, vcis, f. [cf. voc, call],
voice, cry; word
vulner, -re, -v, -tus
[vulnus, wound], wound,
hurt
vulnus, -eris, n. wound, injury
vulps, -s, f. fox

EQUES ROMANUS

332

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332

ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY
This vocabulary contains only the words used in the English-Latin exercises. For
details not given here, reference may be made to the Latin-English vocabulary. The
figures 1, 2, 3, 4, after verbs indicate the conjugation.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W
Y Z
A
a, an, commonly not translated
able (be), possum, posse, potu,
( 495)
abode, domicilium, domicil,
n.
about (adv.), circiter
about (prep.), d, with abl.
about to, expressed by fut. act.
part.
abundance, cpia, -ae, f.
across, trns, with acc.
active, cer, cris, cre
advance, prgredior, 3
advantage, sus, -s, m.
advise, mone, 2
after (conj.), postquam; often
expressed by the perf. part.
after (prep.), post, with acc.
against, in, contr, with acc.
aid, auxilium, auxil, n.
all, omnis, -e; ttus, -a, -um
( 108)
allow, patior, 3
ally, socius, soc, m.
almost, paene; fer
alone, nus, -a, -um; slus, -a, um ( 108)
already, iam
also, quoque
always, semper
ambassador, lgtus, -, m.
among, apud, with acc.
ancient, antquus, -a, -um
and, et; atque (ac); -que
and so, itaque
Andromeda, Andromeda, -ae, f.
angry, rtus, -a, um
animal, animal, -lis, n.

announce, nnti, 1
annoying, molestus, -a, -um
another, alius, -a, -ud ( 109)
any, llus, -a, -um ( 108)
any one, anything, quisquam,
quicquam or quidquam
( 486)
appearance, frma, -ae, f.
appoint, cre, 1
approach, adpropinqu, 1, with
dat.
are, used as auxiliary, not
translated; as a copula,
sum ( 494)
arise, orior, 4
arm, bracchium, bracch, n.
armed, armtus, -a, -um
arms, arma, -rum, n. plur.
army, exercitus, -s, m.
around, circum, with acc.
arrival, adventus, -us, m.
arrow, sagitta, -ae, f.
art of war, rs mlitris
as possible, expressed by quam
and superl..
pet,
3; quaer, 3; rog, 1
ask,
assail, oppugn, 1
at, in, with acc. or abl.; with
names of towns, locative
case or abl. without a
preposition ( 268); time
when, abl.
at once, statim
at the beginning of summer,
init aestte
Athens, Athnae, -rum, f.
attack, impetus, -us, m.
attempt, cnor, 1; tempt, 1

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away from, or ab, with abl.


B
bad, malus, -a, -um
baggage, impedmenta, -rum,
n. plur.
bank, rpa, -ae, f.
barbarians, barbar, -rum, m.
plur.
battle, proelium, proel, n.;
pugna, -ae. f.
be, sum ( 494)
be absent, be far, absum
( 494)
be afraid, time, 2; vereor, 2
be away, absum ( 494)
be in command of, praesum,
with dat. ( 494, 426)
be informed, certior f
be off, be distant, absum
( 494)
be without, ege, with abl.
( 180)
beast (wild), fera, -ae, f.
beautiful, pulcher, -chra, chrum
because, quia; quod
because of, propter, with acc.;
or abl. of cause
before, heretofore (adv.), ante
before (prep.), ante, with acc.;
pr, with abl.
begin, incipi, 3
believe, crd, 3, with dat.
( 153)
belong to, predicate genitive
( 409)
best, optimus, superl. of bonus
betray, trd, 3
better, melior, comp. of bonus
between, inter, with acc.

billow, fluctus, -us, m.


bird, avis, -is, f. ( 243. 1)
blood, sanguis, -inis, m.
body, corpus, -oris. n.
bold, audx, -cis; fortis, -e
boldly, audcter; fortiter
boldness, audcia, -ae, f.
booty, praeda, -ae, f.
both, each (of two), uterque,
utraque, utrumque
both ... and, et ... et
boy, puer, -er, m.
brave, fortis, -e
bravely, fortiter
bridge, pns, pontis, m.
bright, clrus, -a, -um
bring back, report, 1

bring upon, nfer, -ferre, tul, -ltus,


with acc. and dat. ( 426)
brother, frter, -tris, m.
building, aedificium, aedific.
n.
burn, crem, 1; incend, 3
business, negtium, negt, n.
but, however, autem, sed
by, , ab, with abl.; denoting
means, abl. alone;
sometimes implied in a
participle
by night, noct

C
Csar, Caesar, -aris, m.
calamity, calamits, -tis, f.
call, voc, 1; appell, 1;
nmin, 1
call together, convoc, 1

citizen, cvis, -is, m. and f.


( 243. 1)
city, urbs, urbis, f.
clear, clrus, -a, -um
cohort, cohors, -rtis, f.

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camp, castra, -rum, n. plur.


can, could, possum, posse,
potu, ( 495)
capture, capi, 3; occup, 1
care, cra, -ae, f.
care for, cr, 1
careful, attentus, -a, -um
carefulness, dligentia, -ae, f.
carry, fer, ferre, tul, ltus
( 498); port, 1
carry on, ger, 3
cart, carrus, -, m.
cause, causa, -ae, f.
cavalry, equittus, -s, m.
cease, cess, 1
Cepheus, Cpheus, -, m.
certain (a), qudam, quaedam,
quoddam (quiddam)
( 485)
chicken, gallna, -ae, f.
chief, prnceps, -cipis, m.
children, lber, -rum, m. plur.
choose, dlig, 3
choose, elect, cre, 1

come, veni, 4
command, imper, 1, with dat.
( 45); iube, 2; praesum,
with dat. ( 426)
commit, committ, 3
commonwealth, rs pblica,
re pblicae
concerning, d, with abl.
conquer, super, 1; vinc, 3
construct (a ditch), perdc, 3
consul, cnsul, -ulis, m.
contrary to, contr, with acc.
Corinth, Corinthus, -, f.
Cornelia, Cornlia, -ae, f.
Cornelius, Cornlius, Cornli,
m.
corselet, lrca, -ae, f.
cottage, casa, -ae, f.
country, as distinguished from
the city, rs, rris, n.; as
territory, fns, -ium, m.,
plur. of fnis
courage, virts, -tis, f.
crime, scelus, -eris, n.
cross, trnse, 4 ( 499)
crown, corna, -ae, f.
D

daily, cotdi
danger, perculum, -, n.
daughter, flia, -ae, f. ( 67)
day, dis, -, m.
daybreak, prma lx
dear, crus, -a, -um
death, mors, mortis, f.
deed, rs, re, f.
deep, altus, -a, -um
defeat, calamits, -tis, f.
defend, dfend, 3
delay (Noun), mora, -ae, f.
delay (verb), moror, 1
demand, postul, 1
dense, dnsus, -a, -um
depart, discd, 3; exe, 4;
proficscor, 3
dependent, clins, -entis, m.
design, cnsilium, consil n.
desire, cupi, 3
destroy, dle, 2

Diana, Dina, -ae, f.


differ, differ, differre, distul,
dltus ( 498)
different, dissimilis, -e
difficult, difficilis, -e
difficulty, difficults, -tis, f.
diligence, dligentia, -ae, f.
dinner, cna, -ae, f.
disaster, calamits, -tis, f.
distant (be), absum, -esse, fu,
futrus ( 494)
ditch, fossa, -ae, f.
do, ag, 3; faci, 3; when used
as auxiliary, not translated
down from, d, with abl.
drag, trah, 3
drive, ag, 3
dwell, habit, 1; incol, 3; vv,
3
dwelling, aedificium, aedific,
n.

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335
E

each, quisque, quaeque,


quidque (quodque) ( 484)
each of two, uterque, utraque,
utrumque
each other, inter with acc. of a
reflexive
eager, cer, cris, cre; alacer,
alacris, alacre
eager (be), stude, 2
eagerness, studium, stud, n.
eagle, aquila, -ae, f.
easily, facile
easy, facilis, -e

either ... or, aut ... aut


empire, imperium, imper, n.
employ, negtium d
encourage, hortor, 1
enemy, hostis, -is, m. and f.;
inimcus, -, m.
enough, satis
entire, ttus, -a, -um ( 108)
expectation, opni, -nis, f.
eye, oculus, -, m.

F
faithless, perfidus, -a, -um
famous, clrus, -a, -um
far, long
farmer, agricola, -ae, m.
farther, ulterior, -ius
father, pater, patris, m.
fatherland, patria, -ae, f.
favor, fave, 2
favorable, idneus, -a,-um;
secundus, -a, -um
fear, metus, -s, m.; timor, ris, m.
fear, be afraid, time, 2
few, pauc, -ae, -a
field, ager, agr, m.
fifteen, qundecim
fight, contend, 3; pugn, 1
find, reperi, 4
finish, cnfici, 3
fire, ignis, -is, m. ( 243. 1)
firmness, cnstantia, -ae, f.
first, prmus, -a, -um
flee, fugi, 3
flight, fuga, -ae, f.
fly, vol, 1
foe, see enemy
follow close after, subsequor, 3
food, cibus, -, m.
foot, ps, pedis, m.

foot-soldier, pedes, -itis, m.


for (conj.), enim, nam
for (prep.), sign of dat.; d, pr,
with abl.; to express
purpose, ad, with
gerundive; implied in acc.
of time and of extent of
space
for a long time, di
forbid, vet, 1
forces, cpiae, -rum, f., plur. of
cpia
forest, silva, -ae, f.
fort, castellum, -, n.; castrum, , n.
fortification, mniti, -nis, f.
fortify, mni, 4
fortune, fortna, -ae, f.
fourth, qurtus, -a, -um
free, lber, -era, -erum
free, liberate, lber, 1
frequent, crber, -bra, -brum
friend, amcus, -, m.
friendly (adj.), amcus, -a, -um
friendly (adv.), amc
friendship, amcitia, -ae, f.
frighten, perterre, 2
from, or ab, d, , ex, with
abl. Often expressed by the
separative ablative without
a prep.

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from each other, inter, with


acc. of a reflexive pron.
full, plnus, -a, -um
G
336

Galba, Galba, -ae, m.


garland, corna, -ae, f.
garrison, praesidium, praesid,
n.
gate, porta, -ae, f.
Gaul, Gallia, -ae, f.
Gaul (a), Gallus, -, m.
general, impertor, -ris, m.
Geneva, Genva, -ae, f.
gentle, lnis, -e
German, Germnus, -a, -um
Germans (the), Germn, rum, m. plur.
Germany, Germnia, -ae, f.
get (dinner), par, 1
girl, puella, -ae, f.

give, d, dare, ded, datus


give over, surrender, dd, 3;
trd, 3
give up, omitt, 3
go, e, 4 ( 499)
go forth, prgredior, 3
god, deus, -, m. ( 468)
goddess, dea, -ae, f. ( 67)
gold, aurum, -, n.
good, bonus, -a, -um
grain, frmentum, -, n.
grain supply, rs frmentria
great, ingns, -entis; magnus, a, -um
greatest, maximus, -a, -um;
summus, -a, -um
guard, praesidium, praesid, n.
H

hand, manus, -s, f.


happy, laetus, -a, -um
harbor, portus, -s, m.
hasten, contend, 3; mtr, 1;
proper, 1
hateful, invsus, -a, -um
haughty, superbus, -a, -um
have, habe, 2
have no power, nihil possum
he, is; hic; iste; ille; or not
expressed
head, caput, -itis, n.
hear, audi
heart, animus, -, m.
heavy, gravis, -e
Helvetii (the), Helvti, -rum,
m. plur.
hem in, contine, 2
hen, gallna, -ae, f.
her, eius; huius; istus; illus;
reflexive, suus, -a, -um
( 116)
hide, abd, 3

high, altus, -a, -um


highest, summus, -a, -um
hill, collis, -is, m.
himself, su. See self
hindrance, impedmentum, -,
n.
his, eius; huius; istus; illus;
reflexive, suus, -a, -um
( 116)
hither, citerior, -ius ( 315)
hold, tene, 2
home, domus, -s, f. ( 468).
at home, dom ( 267)
hope (Noun), sps, spe, f.
hope (verb), spr, 1
horse, equus, -, m.
horseman, eques, -itis, m.
hostage, obses, -idis, m. and f.
hostile, inimcus, -a, -um
hour, hra, -ae, f.
house, domicilium, domicil,
n.; domus, -s, f. ( 468)
hurl, iaci, 3

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337

I, ego ( 280); or not expressed


if, s. if not, nisi
ill, aeger, -gra, -grum
immediately, statim
in (of place), in, with abl.; (of
time or of specification)
abl. without prep.
in order that, ut, with subjv.;
in order that not, lest, n,
with subjv.
in vain, frstr
industry, dligentia, -ae, f.
inflict injuries upon, iniris
nfer with dat. ( 426)
inflict punishment on,
supplicium sm de
inform some one, aliquem
certirem faci

injure, noce, 2, with dat.


( 153)
injury, iniria, -ae, f.
into, in, with acc.
intrust, committ, 3; mand, 1
invite, voc, 1
is, used as auxiliary, not
translated; as a copula,
sum ( 494)
island, nsula, -ae, f.
it, is; hie; iste; ille; or not
expressed
Italy, Italia, -ae, f.
its, eius; huius; istus; illus;
reflexive, suus, -a, -um
( 116)
itself, su. See self

J
join battle, proelium committ
journey, iter, itineris, n. ( 468)
judge (Noun), idex, -icis, m.

judge (verb), idic, 1


Julia, Ilia, -ae, f.
just now, nper
K

keep, contine, 2; prohibeo, 2;


tene, 2
keep on doing something,
expressed by the impf.
indic.
kill, interfici, 3; nec, 1 ;
occd, 3

king, rx, rgis, m.


kingdom, rgnum, -, n.
know, cognsc, 3, in perf.;
sci, 4

L
labor (Noun), labor, -ris, m.
labor (verb), labr, 1
lack (Noun), inopia, -ae, f.
lack (verb), ege, 2, with abl.
( 180)
lady, domina, -ae, f.
lake, lacus, -s, m. ( 260. 2)
land, terra, -ae, f.
language, lingua, -ae, f.
large, ingns, -entis ; magnus, a, -um

left, sinister, -tra, -trum


legion, legi, -nis, f.
legionaries, leginri, -rum,
m. plur.
length, longitd, -inis, f.
lest, n, with subjv.
letter (of the alphabet), littera, ae, f; (an epistle) litterae, rum, f. plur.
lieutenant, lgtus, -, m.
light, lx, lcis, f.

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larger, maior, maius


lately, nper
Latona, Ltna, -ae, f.
law, lx, lgis, f.
lay waste, vst, 1
lead, dco, 3
leader, dux, ducis, m. and f.
learn, know, cognsc, 3
leave, depart from, discd, 3
leave behind, abandon,
relinqu, 3

like (adj.), similis, -e


like, love, am, 1
line of battle, acis, aci, f.
little, parvus, -a, -um
live, habit, 1; incol, 3; vv, 3
long, longus, -a, -um
long, for a long time, di
long for, dsder, 1
look after, cr, 1
love, am, 1

338
M

maid, maid servant, ancilla, ae,f.


make, faci, 3
make war upon, bellum nfer
with dat. ( 426)
man, hom, -inis, m. and f.; vir,
vir, m.
man-of-war, nvis longa
many, mult, -ae, -a, plur. of
multus
march, iter, itineris, n. ( 468)
Mark, Mrcus, -, m.
marriage, mtrimnium,
mtrimn, n.
master, dominus, -, m.;
magster, -tr, m.
matter, negtium, negt, n.;
rs, re, f.
means, by means of, the abl.
messenger, nntius, nnt, m.
midnight, media nox
mile, mlle passuum ( 331. b)
miles, mlia passuum
mind, animus, -, m.; mns,
mentis, f.

mine, meus, -a, -um


mistress, domina, -ae, f.
money, pecnia, -ae, f.
monster, mnstrum, -, n.
month, mnsis, -is, m.
moon, lna, -ae, f.
more (adj.), pls, plris
( 313); or a comparative.
Adverb, magis
most (adj.), plrimus, -a, -um;
superl. degree. Adverb,
maxim; plrimum
mother, mter, mtris, f.
mountain, mns, montis, m.
move, move, 2
moved, commtus, -a, -um
much (by), mult
multitude, multitd, -inis. f.
my, meus, -a, -um
myself, m, reflexive. See self

N
name, nmen, -inis, n.
nation, gns, gentis, f.
near, propinquus, -a, -um
nearest, proximus, -a, -um
nearly, fer
neighbor, fnitimus, -, in.
neighboring, finitimus, -a, -

night, nox, noctis, f.


nine, novem
no, minim; or repeat verb with
a negative ( 210)
no, none, nllus, -a, -um
( 109)
no one, nm, nllus

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nor, neque or nec


not, nn
not even, n ... quidem
not only ... but also, nn
slum ... sed etiam
nothing, nihil or nihilum, -, n.
now, nunc
number, numerus, -, m.

um
neither, neque or nec;
neither ... nor, neque
(nec) ... neque (nec)
never, numquam
nevertheless, tamen
new, novus, -a, -um
next day, postrdi eius di
next to, proximus, -a, -um
O

339

obey, pre, 2, with dat. ( 153)


of, sign of gen.;
d, with abl.;
out of, or ex, with abl.
often, saepe
on (of place), in, with abl.;
(of time) abl. without prep.
on account of, propter, with
acc.; or abl. of cause.
on all sides, undique
once (upon a time), lim
one, nus, -a, -um ( 108)
one ... another, alius ... alius
( 110)
only (adv.), slum; tantum

opportune, opportunus, -a, -um


opposite, adversus, -a, -um
oracle, rculum, -, n.
orator, rtor, -ris, m.
order, imper, 1; iube, 2
ornament, rnmentum, -, n.
other, alius, -a, -ud ( 109)
others (the), reliqu, -rum, m.
plur.
ought, dbe, 2
our, noster, -tra, -trum
ourselves, ns, as reflexive
object. See self
overcome, super, 1 ; vinc, 3
own (his, her, its, their), suus,
-a, -um
P

part, pars, partis, f.


peace, px, pcis, f.
people, populus, -, m.
Perseus, Perseus, -, m.
persuade, persude, 2, with
dat. ( 153)
pitch camp, castra pn
place (Noun), locus, -, m.
place, arrange, conloc, 1
place, put, pn, 3
place in command, praefici,
3, with acc. and dat.
( 426)
plan (a), cnsilium, cnsil, n.
please, place, 2, with dat.
( 154)
pleasing, grtus, -a, -um
plow, ar, 1
Pompeii, Pompi, -rum, m.

possible (as), expressed by


quam and superl.
powerful (be), vale, 2
praise, laud, 1
prefer, ml, mlle, mlu,
( 497)
prepare for, par, 1, with acc.
press hard, prem, 3
protection, fids, fide, f.
province, prvincia, -ae, f.
public, pblicus, -a, -um
Publius, Pblius, Pbl, m.
punishment, poena, -ae, f.;
supplicium, supplic, n.
purpose, for the purpose of,
ut, qu, or qu, with subjv.;
ad, with gerund or
gerundive; caus,
following the genitive of a

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plur.

gerund or gerundive
pursue, nsequor, 3
Q

queen, rgna, -ae, f.


quickly, celeriter

quite, expressed by the comp.


degree
R
rest (the), reliqu, -rum, m.
plur.
restrain, contine, 2
retainer, clins, -entis, m.
retreat, pedem refer; terga
vert
return, rede, 4; revertor, 3
revolution, rs novae
Rhine, Rhnus, -, m.
right, dexter, -tra, -trum
river, flmen, -inis, n.; fluvius,
fluv, m.
road, via, -ae, f.
Roman, Rmnus, -a, -um
Rome, Rma, -ae, f.
row, rd, -inis, m.
rule, reg, 3
rumor, fma, -ae, f.; rmor, ris, m.
run, curr, 3

rampart, vllum, -, n.
rear, novissimum agmen
reason, causa, -ae, f.
receive, accipi, 3; excipi, 3
recent, recns, -entis
recently, nper
redoubt, castellum, -, n.
refuse, recs, 1
remain, mane, 2
remaining, reliquus, -a, -um
reply, responde, 2
report (Noun), fama, -ae, f.;
rmor, -ris, m.
report (verb), adfer; dfer;
refer ( 498)
republic, rs pblica
require, postul, 1
resist, resist, 3, with dat.
( 154)

340

S
sacrifice, sacrum, -, n.
safety, sals, -tis, f.
sail, nvig, 1
sailor, nauta, -ae, m.
sake, for the sake of, caus,
following a gen.
same, dem, eadem, idem
( 287)
savages, barbar, -rum, m.
plur.
save, serv, 1
say, dc, 3
school, ldus, -, m.; schola, ae, f.
scout, explrtor, -ris, m.
sea, mare, -is, n.
second, secundus, -a, -um

small, parvus, -a, -um


snatch, rapi, 3
so, ita; sc; tam
so great, tantus, -a, -um
so that, ut; so that not, ut nn
soldier, mles, -itis, m.
some, often not expressed; quis
(qu), qua (quae), quid
(quod); aliqu, aliqua,
aliquod
some one, quis; aliquis ( 487)
some ... others, ali ... ali
( 110)
something, quid; aliquid
( 487)
son, flius, fl, m.
soon, mox

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see, vide, 2
seek, pet, 3
seem, videor, 2, passive of
vide
seize, occup, 1; rapi, 3
self, ipse, -a, -um ( 286); su
( 281)
send, mitt, 3
set fire to, incend, 3
set out, proficscor, 3
seven, septem
Sextus, Sextus, -, m.
she, ea; haec; ista; illa ( 115);
or not expressed
ship, nvis, -is, f. ( 243. 1)
short, brevis, -e
shout, clmor, -ris, m.
show, dmnstr, 1
Sicily, Sicilia, -ae, f.
sick, aeger, -gra, -grum
side, latus, -eris, n.
siege, obsidi, -nis, f.
since, cum, with subjv. ( 396);
the abl. abs. ( 381)
sing, can, 3; cant, 1
sister, soror, -ris, f.
sit, sede, 2
size, magnitd, -inis, f.
skillful, pertus, -a, -um
slave, servus, -, m.
slavery, servitis, -tis, f.
slow, tardus, -a, -um

space, spatium, spat, n.


spear, plum, -, n.
spirited, cer, cris, cre;
alacer, alacris, alacre
spring, fns, fontis, m.
spur, calcar, -ris, n.
stand, st, 1
state, cvits, -tis, f.
station, conloc, 1
steadiness, cnstantia, -ae, f.
stone, lapis, -idis, m.
storm, oppugn, 1
story, fbula, -ae, f.
street, via, -ae, f.
strength, vs, (vs), f.
strong, fortis, -e; validus, -a, um
sturdy, validus, -a, -um
such, tlis, -e
suddenly, subit
suffer punishment, supplicium
d
sufficiently, satis
suitable, idneus, -a, -um
summer, aests, -tis, f.
sun, sl, slis, m.
supplies, commetus, -s, m.
surrender, trd, 3
suspect, suspicor, 1
swift, celer, -eris, -ere; vlx, cis
sword, gladius, glad, m.
T

take, capture, capi, 3


take part in, intersum, -esse, fu, -futrus, with dat.
( 426)
take possession of, occup, 1
tall, altus, -a, -um
task, opus, operis, n.
teach, doce, 2
teacher, magister, -tr, m.
tear (Noun), lacrima, -ae, f.
tell, dc, 3; nrr, 1
ten, decem
terrified, perterritus, -a, -um
terrify, perterre, 2
than, quam

think, arbitror, 1; exstim, 1;


put, 1
third, tertius, -a, -um
this, hic, haec, hoc; is, ea, id
though, cum. with subjv.
( 396)
thousand, mlle ( 479)
three, trs, tria ( 479)
through, per, with acc.
thy, tuus, -a, -um
time, tempus, -oris, n.
to, sign of dat.; ad, in, with
acc.; expressing purpose,
ut, qu, with subjv.; ad,
with gerund or gerundive

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that (conj. after verbs of saying


and the like), not
expressed
that (pron.), is; iste; ille
that, in order that, in purpose
clauses, ut; after verbs of
fearing, n ( 349, 366,
372)
that not, lest, in purpose
clauses, n; after verbs of
fearing, ut ( 349, 366,
372)
the, not expressed
their, gen. plur. of is; reflexive,
suus, -a, -um ( 116)
their own, suus, -a, -um
( 116)
then, at that time, tum
then, in the next place, deinde,
tum
there, as expletive, not
expressed
there, in that place, ibi
therefore, itaque
they, i; h; ist; ill; or not
expressed

to each other, inter, with acc.


of a reflexive pron.
to-day, hodi
tooth, dns, dentis, m.
top of, summus, -a, -um
tower, turris, -is, f. ( 243. 2)
town, oppidum, -, n.
townsman, oppidnus, -, m.
trace, vestgium, vestg, n.
trader, merctor, -ris, m.
train, exerce, 2
tree, arbor, -oris, f.
tribe, gns, gentis, f.
troops, cpiae, -rum, f. plur.
true, vrus, -a, -um
trumpet, tuba, -ae, f.
try, cnor, 1; tempt, 1
twelve, duodecim
two, duo, duae, duo ( 479)

342

U
under, sub, with acc. or abl.
undertake, suscipi, 3
unharmed, incolumis, -e
unless, nisi

unlike, dissimilis, -e
unwilling (be), nl, nlle,
nlu, ( 497)
up to, sub, with acc.
us, ns, acc. plur. of ego
V

very, superl. degree; maxim;


ipse, -a, -um ( 285)
victor, victor, -ris, m.
victory, victria, -ae, f.
village, vcus, -, m.

violence, vs, (vs), f.


violently, vehementer
voice, vx, vcis, f.

W
wage, ger, 3
wagon, carrus. -, m.
wall, mrus, -, m.
want, inopia, -ae, f.
war, bellum, -, n.

wicked, malus, -a, -um


wide, ltus, -a, -um
width, ltitd, -inis, f.
wild beast, fera, -ae, f.
willing (be), vol, velle, volu,

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watch, vigilia, -ae, f.


water, aqua, -ae, f.
wave, fluctus, -s, m.
way, iter, itineris, n. ( 468);
via, -ae, f.
way, manner, modus, -, m.
we, ns, plur. of ego; or not
expressed
weak, nfrmus, -a, -um
weapons, arma, -rum, n. plur.;
tla, -rum, n. plur.
wear, ger, 3
weary, dfessus, -a, -um
what, quis (qu), quae, quid
(quod) ( 483)
when, ubi; cum ( 396); often
expressed by a participle
where, ubi
which, qu, quae, quod ( 482);
which of two, uter, utra,
utrum ( 108)
while, expressed by a participle
whither, qu
who (rel.), qu, quae ( 482);
(interrog.) quis ( 483)
whole, ttus, -a, -um ( 108)
whose, cuius; qurum, qurum,
qurum, gen. of qu, quae,
quod, rel.; or of quis, quid,
interrog.
why, cr

( 497)
win (a victory), report, 1
wind, ventus, -, m.
wine, vnum, -, n.
wing, corn, -s, n.
winter, hiems, -emis, f.
wisdom, cnsilium, consil, n.
wish, cupi, 3; vol, velle,
volu, ( 497);
wish not, nl, nlle, nlu,
( 497)
with, cum, with abl.; sometimes
abl. alone
withdraw, s recipere
without, sine, with abl.
woman, fmina, -ae, f.; mulier,
-eris, f.
wonderful, mrus, -a, -um
word, verbum, -, n.
work, labor, -ris, m.; opus, eris, n.
worse, peior, peius, comp. of
malus
worst, pessimus, -a, -um,
superl. of malus
wound (Noun), vulnus, -eris, n.
wound (verb), vulner, 1
wreath, corna, -ae, f.
wretched, miser, -era, -erum
wrong, iniria, -ae, f.

343

Y
you, sing. t; plur. vs ( 480);
or not expressed
your, sing. tuus, -a, -um; plur.
vester, -tra, -trum ( 98. b)

year, annus, -, m.
yes, cert; ita; vr; or, more
usually, repeat the verb
( 210)
yonder (that), ille, -a, -ud
Z
zeal, studium, stud, n.
344

INDEX

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The numbers in all cases refer to sections.


-declension of nouns, 57, 461
-verbs, conjugation of, 488
ablative case, 48, 50
absolute, 381
after a comparative, 309
of accompaniment, 104
of agent, 181
of cause, 102
of description, 444, 445
of manner, 105
of means or instrument, 103
of measure of difference, 317
of place from which, 179
of place where, 265
of separation, 180
of specification, 398
of time, 275
accent, 14-16
accompaniment
abl. of, 104
accusative case, 33
as subject of the infinitive,
214
object, 37
of duration and extent, 336
of place to which, 263, 266
predicate, 392
with prepositions, 340

adjectives, 54, 55
agreement, 65
comparison
regular, 301
by adverbs, 302
irregular, 307, 311, 312,
315
declension of comparatives,
303
of first and second
declensions, 83, 93, 469
of third declension, 250-257,
471
with the dative, 143
adverbs, 319
comparison, 320, 323
formation
regular, 320, 321
irregular, 322, 323
agent
expressed by the abl. with
or ab, 181
agreement
of adjectives, 65, 215. a
of appositives, 81
of predicate nouns, 76
of relative pronouns, 224
of verbs, 28
aliquis, 487
alius, 108, 110, 470
alphabet, 1-3
alter, 108, 110
antepenult, 9. 3
accent of, 15
apposition, 80, 81
article
not used in Latin, 22. a

base, 58
cardinal numerals, 327-329,
478
case, 32. 2
causal clauses with cum, 395,
396
cause,

complementary infinitive, 215


compound verbs
with the dative, 425, 426
concessive clauses with cum,
395, 396
conjugation stems, 184

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expressed by the abl., 102


characteristic
subjv. of, 389, 390
comparative
declension of, 303
comparison
abl. of, 309
degrees of, 300
of adjectives, 300-315
irregular, 311-315, 473,
475
of adverbs
regular, 320-476
irregular, 323, 477
positive wanting, 315
six adjectives in -lis, 307

conjugations
the four regular, 126, 488491
irregular, 494-500
consonants, 2
copula, 21
cum
conjunction, 395
cum
preposition, 209

dative case, 43
of indirect object, 44, 45
of purpose, or end for which,
437
with adjectives, 143
with compound verbs, 426
with special verbs, 153
dea
declension of, 67
declension, 23, 32
degree of difference
expressed by the abl., 317
demonstrative adjectives and
pronouns, 112-115,
290-292, 481
deponent verbs, 338, 339, 493
descriptive ablative and
genitive, 441-445

descriptive relative clause


with the subjv., 389, 390
deus
declension of, 468
difference, measure of, 316,
317
diphthongs, 6
direct statements, 414
distributive numerals, 327. 3,
334
dom
locative, 267
domus
declension of, 468
duo
declension of, 479
duration of time, expressed by
the acc., 336

-declension of nouns, 272,


273, 467
-verbs, conjugation of, 489
-verbs, conjugation of, 490
ego
declension of, 280, 480

enclitics, 16
e
conjugation of, 499
extent of space
expressed by the acc., 336

fearing
subjv. after verbs of, 370-372
fer
conjugation of, 498

first conjugation, 488


first or -declension, 57, 461
fourth conjugation, 491
fourth or u-declension, 259,

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346

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fifth or -declension, 272, 273,


467
flia
declension of, 67
flius
declension of, 87-89
finite verb
defined, 173
f
conjugation of, 500

260, 466
from
how expressed, 178-181
future participle
formation of, 374. c
future perfect
formation of
active, 187. 3
passive, 202
future tense
formation of, 137, 156

gender
in English and in Latin, 60
in the first declension, 61
in the second declension, 72
in the third declension, 247
in the fourth declension, 260
in the fifth declension, 272
general observations on
declension, 74

genitive case
English equivalents of, 33
of description, 443, 445
of nouns in -ius and -ium, 87
partitive, 331
possessive, 38, 409
gerund
a verbal noun, 402, 403
gerundive
a verbal adjective, 404
with ad to express purpose,
407

hic
declension and use of, 290,
291

how to read Latin, 17

inflection
defined, 23
instrument
abl. of, 100. b, 103
intensive pronoun
ipse, declension and use of,
285, 286, 481
interrogative pronouns and
adjectives, 225-227,
483
intransitive verbs,
defined, 20. a
with the dative, 153
i-verbs of the third conj., 492
ipse
declension and use of, 285,
481
irregular adjectives, 108

consonant, 3
i-stems of nouns, 231, 241-244
-verbs
conjugation of, 491
dem
declension of, 287, 481
ins
declension of, 472
ille
declension and use of, 290293, 481
imperative
formation of, 161, 175
irregular, 161. 2
in commands, 161
imperfect indicative,
formation and use of,

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133, 134, 165. 1


imperfect subjunctive, 354
indefinite pronouns and
adjectives, 296, 297,
484-487
independent clauses, 219
indirect object, 44, 45
indirect questions, 430-432
indirect statements, 414-419
infinitive
as object, 213
as subject, 216
complementary, 215
definition of, 173
does not express purpose,
352
formation of, 126, 174, 205,
206
in indirect statements, 415410
used as in English, 213-216

irregular comparison
of adjectives, 307 311, 312
of adverbs, 323
irregular nouns, 67, 246, 468
irregular verbs, 494-500
is
declension and use of, 113116
iste
declension and use of, 290,
292, 481
iter
declension of, 468

Latin word order, 68

locative case, 267

magis and maxim


comparison by, 302
ml
conjugation of, 4.97
manner
abl. of, 105
means
abl. of, 103

measure of difference
abl. of, 316, 317
mlle,
declension of, 479
construction with, 331. a,b
moods, defined, 121

-ne, enclitic
in questions, 210
n, conj., that not, lest
with negative clauses of
purpose, 350.II
with verbs of fearing, 370
nine irregular adjectives, 108110
nl
conjugation of, 497
nominative case, 35, 36
nnne
in questions, 210

ns
declension of, 280, 480
Nouns, 19. 2
first declension, 57, 461
second declension, 71-74,8792,462
third declension, 230-247,
463-465
fourth declension, 259, 260,
466
fifth declension, 272, 273,
467
num, in questions, 210
number, 24

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numerals, 327-334, 478, 479

347

o-declension of nouns, 71-74,


87-92, 462
object, 20
direct, 37
indirect, 44, 45

order of words, 68
ordinal numerals, 327. 2, 478

participial stem, 201. 2


participles, defined, 203
agreement of, 204
formation,
of present, 374. b
of perfect, 201
of future, 374. c,d
of deponent verbs, 375
tenses of, 376
translated by a clause, 377
partitive genitive, 330, 331
passive voice
defined, 163
formation of, 164, 202
penult, 9. 3
accent of, 15
perfect indicative
formation,
in the active, 185, 186
in the passive, 202
meaning of, 190
definite, 190
indefinite, 190
distinguished from the
imperfect, 190
perfect infinitive
active, 195
passive, 205
perfect passive participle, 201
perfect stem, 185
perfect subjunctive
active, 361
passive, 362
person, 122
personal endings
active, 122
passive, 164
personal pronouns, 280, 480
place
where, whither, whence,

pluperfect subjunctive
active, 361
passive, 363
pls
declension of, 313
possessive pronouns, 97, 98
possum
conjugation of, 495
predicate
defined, 19
predicate adjective
defined, 55
predicate noun, 75, 76
prepositions
with the abl., 209
with the acc., 340
present indicative, 128, 130,
147
present stem, 126. a
present subjunctive, 344
primary tenses, 356
principal parts, 183
pronouns
classification of, 278
defined, 19. 2. a
demonstrative, 481
indefinite, 297, 484-487
intensive, 285, 286, 481
interrogative, 483
personal, 480
possessive, 97, 98
reflexive, 281
relative, 220, 221
pronunciation, 4-7
prsum
conjugation of, 496
purpose
dative of, 436, 437
expressed by the gerund or
gerundive with ad, 407

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Latin for Beginners (Reference)

263-265
names of towns and domus
and rs, 266-268
pluperfect indicative
active, 187. 2
passive, 202

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not expressed by the


infinitive, 352
subjunctive of, 348-350,
365-367

quality
gen. or abl. of, 441-445
quam
with a comparative, 308
quantity, 11-13
questions
direct, 210
indirect, 430-432
qu
declension and use of,
220,221, 482

qudam
declension of, 485
quis
declension and use of, 225227, 483
quisquam
declension of, 486
quisque
declension of, 484

reflexive pronouns, 281


relative clauses of
characteristic or
description, 389, 390
relative clauses of purpose,
348, 349
relative pronouns, 220, 221

result clauses, 384-387


reviews, 502-528
rs
constructions of, 266

subjunctive constructions
characteristic or description,
389, 390
indirect questions, 430-432
purpose, 349, 366, 372
result, 385, 386
time, cause, or concession,
with cum, 395, 396
subjunctive ideas, 346
subjunctive tenses, 342, 343
subordinate clauses, 219
su
declension of, 281, 480
sum
conjugation of, 494
suus
use of, 98. c, 116
syllables, 8
division of, 9
quantity of, 13

distinguished from ipse,


285. a
second conjugation, 489
second or o-declension, 71-93,
462
sentences
simple, complex, compound,
219
separation
abl. of, 180
separative ablative, 178-181
sequence of tenses, 356-358
space
extent of, expressed by the
acc., 336
specification
abl. of, 398
stems
of nouns, 230

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348

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of verbs, 184
subject
defined, 19. 2
of the infinitive, 213, 214
subjunctive
formation of the present, 344
of the imperfect, 354
of the perfect, 361, 362
of the pluperfect, 361. c, 363

syntax
rules of, 501

temporal clauses with cum,


395, 396
tense
defined, 120
tense signs
imperfect, 133
future, 137, 156
pluperfect active, 187. 2
future perfect active, 187. 3
tenses
primary and secondary, 356
sequence of, 357, 358
third conjugation, 490, 492
third declension of nouns
classes, 231, 463
consonant stems, 232-238,
464
gender, 247
i-stems, 241-244, 465
irregular nouns, 246

time
abl. of, 275
time
acc. of, 336
towns
rules for names of, 266, 267,
268
transitive verb, 20. a
trs
declension of, 479
t
declension of, 280, 480
tuus
compared with vester, 98. b

u-declension of nouns, 259,


260, 466

ultima, 9. 3

verbs
agreement of, 28
conjugation of, 126, 488-491
deponent, 338, 339, 493
irregular, 494-500
personal endings of, 122, 164
principal parts of, 183
vester
compared with tuus, 98. b
vs
declension of, 468
vocabularies
English-Latin, pp. 332-343

vocative case, 56. a


of nouns in -us of the second
declension, 73. b
of proper nouns in -ius and
of flius, 88
voice
defined, 163
vol
conjugation of, 497
vs
declension of, 280, 480
vowels
sounds of, 5, 6

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Latin for Beginners (Reference)

Latin-English, pp. 299-331


special, pp. 283-298

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quantity of, 12

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