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BA 12 N pre-test Page 1

Chapter 1. 1================================= ======== Which of these statements

about the field of organizational behavior is FALSE? A: Organizational behavior
scholars study individual, team and structural characteristics that influence b
ehavior within organizations. B: Leadership, communication and other organizatio
nal behavior topics were not discussed by scholars until the 1940s. C: Organizat
ional behavior emerged as a distinct field around the 1940s. D: The field of OB
has adopted concepts and theories from other fields of inquiry. E: OB scholars s
tudy what people think, feel and do in and around organizations. Which of these
statements about the field of organizational behavior is TRUE? A: Organizational
behavior emerged as a distinct field during the 1980s. B: The origins of some o
rganizational behavior concepts date back to Plato and other Greek philosophers.
C: Information technology has almost no effect on organizational behavior. D: T
he field of organizational behavior relies exclusively on ideas generated within
the field by organizational behavior scholars. E: The origins of organizational
behavior are traced mainly to the field of economics. In the field of organizat
ional behavior, organizations are best described as: A: legal entities that must
abide by government regulations and pay taxes. B: physical structures with obse
rvable capital equipment. C: social entities with a publicly stated set of forma
l goals. D: groups of people who work interdependently towards some purpose. E:
any social entity with profit-centered motives and objectives. According to the
author Organizational Behavior, organizational behavior knowledge: A: should nev
er be used to influence the behavior of other people. B: should be used mostly b
y managers and senior executives. C: should never replace your commonsense knowl
edge about how organizations work. D: is relevant to everyone who works in organ
ization E: both A and B. Organizational behavior knowledge: A: originates mainly fro
m models developed in chemistry and other natural sciences. B: accurately predic
ts how anyone will behave in any situation. C: is more appropriate for people wh
o work in computer science than in marketing. E: does none of the above. D: help
s us to understand, predict and influence the behaviors of others in organizatio
nal settings. Globalization occurs when an organization: A: extends its activiti
es to other parts of the world. B: serves diverse customers within the firms home
country D: does all of the above. C: has a diverse workforce within the firms ho
me country. E: does only B and C. Workforce diversity: A: includes the entry of youn
ger people in the workforce. C: is increasing in the United States. 9. A: D: B:
E: C: 10. A: B: C: D: E: 11. A: B: C: D: E: 12. A: B: C: D: E: 13. A: B: C: D: E
: 14. A: B: C: D: E: 15. A: B: C: D: Parental status, work style, relation and i
ncome are: secondary categories of workforce diversity. never discussed in organ
izational behavior. primary categories of workforce diversity. a result of globa
lization. necessary contingencies in all organizational behavior theories. Which
of the following statements is FALSE? Employment relationships are shifting tow
ards the idea that companies must provide employees a high degree of job securit
y, possibly even a job for life. Generation-X employees bring somewhat different
values and needs to the workplace than those of baby boomers. The workforce is
becoming more diverse. Successful firms increasingly rely on values rather than
direct supervision to guide employee decisions and behavior. Work/life balance i
s becoming a must have condition in the employment relationship. Employability ref
ers to an emerging employment relationship in which: employees must continuously
learn skills that will keep them employed. companies replace employees with cas
ual workers. companies must continually provide new opportunities for employees
to get promoted to higher-paying jobs within the organization. people have their
own businesses rather than working as employees for someone else. companies are
expected to offer employees a job for life. Employability requires: adult citiz
ens of a country to seek employment whether or not they want to be in the workfo
rce. companies to guarantee lifetime employment to employees who perform well. c
ompanies to develop a long-term career path for most employees. employees to per
form a variety of work activities over time. employees to come to work even thou
gh the employer has no work for them. Contingent work is any job in which: the s
ize of the employees paycheck is contingent on the number of units produced. the
likelihood of long-term employment with the organization depends on the employees

job performance. the individual does not have an explicit or implicit contract
for long-term employment. the minimum hours of work can vary in a non-systematic
way, such as on-call part-time employment. both C and D. Which of the following would
NOT be a contingent worker? A full-time, permanent employee whose future promot
ions are contingent on good performance in the current job. An information syste
ms professional contracted for a fixed time by the organization to implement a n
ew computer network. Maintenance people who work for a maintenance service compa
ny and are assigned to a specific client. A nurse who is employed part-time by a
hospital and works on-call that is, works only when called in. A salesperson hire
d by a department store only for the four weeks around Christmas. Free agents ar
e contingent workers who: usually want permanent employment and have the high de
mand skills to get that type of work. lack skills and would rather stay out of t
he labor force if they were independently wealthy. possess values skills and do
not seek permanent employment. lack experience and are unwilling or unable to ab
ide by the confined work schedules.

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D: C: E: 17. A: B: C: D: E: 18. A: B: C: D: E: 19. A: D: 20. A: B: C: D: E: 21.
A: B: D: C: E: 22. A: C: E: 23. A: D: 24. A: D: 25. A: B: C: D: E: 26. A: are a
type of contingent worker. are less common today than two decades ago. lack any
career expectations and aspirations. Virtual work: is more common in Canada than
in the United States. occurs when job applicants are asked to pretend they are
performing the job in the interview setting in order to determine their ability
to perform that work. tends to improve an employees social involvement in the org
anization. can occur when employees work temporarily in a clients office. is none
of the above. What effect does teleworking have in the workplace? Teleworking t
ends to improve the teleworkers work/life balance. Teleworking forces corporate l
eaders to evaluate employees more for their work results rather than their face t
ime. Under some circumstances, teleworking increases the teleworkers productivity.
Teleworking increases the risk that employees feel socially isolated form each
other. Teleworking has all of the above effects. Cross-functional groups that op
erate across space, time and organizational boundaries are most commonly called:
functional teams. B: virtual teams. C: multicultural teams. contingent teams. E
: non-existent teams. Stable, long-lasting beliefs about what is important in a
variety of situations are: called intellectual capital. the foundations of the o
pen systems anchor. the main reason why virtual teams fail. rarely studied in th
e field of organizational behavior called values.. Values have become more impor
tant in organizational behavior because of: increased globalization. increased p
ressure on organizations to engage in ethical practices. all of the above. direc
t supervision is expensive and incompatible to todays workforce. none of the abov
e. The topic of ethics is most closely associated with: workplace values. B: the
scientific method. workforce diversity. D: the open systems anchor. the conting
ency approach to organizational behavior. Corporate social responsibility is mos
t closely related to which of these organizational behavior trends? Workforce di
versity. B: Employment relationships C: Virtual work Globalization. E: Workplace
values and ethics Stakeholders include: shareholders B: employees C: suppliers
governments E: all of the above Employees, suppliers and governments: are organi
zational stakeholders. are rarely considered in organizational behavior theories
. represent the three levels of analysis in organizational behavior. are exclude
d from the open systems anchor. are all of the above. The triple bottom line phi
losophy says that: companies should pay three times more attention to profits th
an to employee wellbeing. 27. Which of the following concepts are closely associ
ated with corporate social responsibility? A: knowledge management B: triple bot
tom line C: stakeholders D: all of the above E: both B and C 28. Which of these stat
ements about corporate social responsibility (CSR) is FALSE? A: Most companies n
ow publicly report on their CSR practices. B: CSR emphasizes the economic, socia
l, and environmental spheres of sustainability. C: Most Canadians expect compani
es to engage in CSR. D: CSR is closely related to the topics of values and ethic
s. E: An organizations perceived level of CSR influences whether people apply for
work with that organization. 29. Which of the following is NOT a conceptual anc
hor in organizational behavior? A: Contingency anchor B: Open systems anchor C:
Economic anchor D: Multidisciplinary anchor E: Multiple levels of analysis ancho
r 30. Which of the following does NOT represent a belief that anchors organizati
onal behavior? A: OB should view organizations as closed systems. B: OB should a
ssume that the effectiveness of an action usually depends on the situation. C: O
B should draw on knowledge from other disciplines. D: OB should rely on the syst
ematic research methods to generate knowledge. E: OB topics can be studied from
multiple levels of analysis. 31. Which of the following statements about the fie
ld of organizational behavior is FALSE? A: OB is the study of what people think,
feel and do in and around organizations. B: OB emerged as a distinct field of i
nquiry in the 1940s. C: OB is a self-contained discipline, independent of other
disciplines. D: OB theories are usually tested using the scientific method. E: M
any OB theories are contingency-oriented. 32. Which of these statements is consi
stent with the five anchors of organizational behavior? A: Organizational behavi
or theories must apply universally to every situation. B: Organizations are like
machines that operate independently of their external environment. C: Each OB t

opic relates to only one level of analysis. D: The field of organizational behav
ior should rely on other disciplines for some of its theory development. E: None
of these statements is consistent with the OB anchors. 33. Which discipline has
provided organizational behavior with much of its theoretical foundation for te
am dynamics, organizational power and organizational socialization? A: Sociology
B: Psychology C: Economics D: Industrial engineering E: Political science 34. W
hich of the following is identified as an emerging field from which organization
al behavior is acquiring new knowledge? A: Industrial engineering B: Information
systems C: Anthropology D: Economics E: Psychology 35. To collect and analyze i
nformation systematically, organizational behavior researchers rely on: A: the s
cientific method. B: closed systems theory. C: grounded theory. D: all of the ab
ove. E: both A and C. 36. Grounded theory is most closely associated with which anch
or of organizational behavior? A: Contingency anchor B: Open systems anchor

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B: C: D: E: the main goal of all companies is to satisfy the needs of three grou
ps: employees, shareholders, and suppliers. business success increases by having
three times more contingent workers than permanent employees. companies should
pay attention to local, national, and global customers. companies should try to
support the economic, social, and environmental spheres of sustainability. C: E:
Multidisciplinary anchor D: research anchor Multiple levels of analysis anchor
37. Organizational behavior scholars use which of the following to discover know
ledge? A: They use the scientific method. B: They systematically collect data C:
They use grounded theory to examine qualitative data. D: They do all of the abo
ve. E: They do none of the above. 38. The contingency anchor of organizational b
ehavior states that: A: we should have a second OB theory to explain the situati
on in case our first choice doesnt work. B: OB theories must view organizations a
s systems that need to adapt to their environments. C: there is usually one best
way to resolve organizational problems. D: a particular action may have differe
nt consequences in different situations. E: all of the above. 39. According to t
he multiple levels of analysis anchor: A: organizational behavior is mainly the
study of how all levels of the organizational hierarchy interact with the extern
al environment. B: OB topics typically relate to the individual, team and organi
zational levels of analysis. C: there are eight levels of analysis that scholars
should recognize when conducting OB research. D: organizational events can be s
tudied from only one level of analysis. E: Our understanding of organizational b
ehavior increases with the level of mathematical analysis applied to create the
models. 40. Which organizational behavior anchor discusses inputs, outputs and f
eedback? A: Contingency anchor B:Open systems anchor C:Multidisciplinary anchor
D: Systematic research anchor E: None of the above 41. Organizational behavior v
iews organizations as: A: non-systems. B: a single unitary subsystem. C: open sy
stems. D: closed systems. E: none of the above. 42. The open systems anchor of o
rganizational behavior states that: A: organizations affect and are affected by
their external environments. B: organizations can operate efficiently by ignorin
g changes in the external environment. C: people are the only important organiza
tional input. D: organizations basically have only one working part. E: all of t
he above. 43. Which of the following is included in the systems model of organiz
ations? A: Inputs B: Subsystems C: Outputs D: Feedback from the environment E: A
ll of the above 44. ACME Software Ltd has developed a training program to make e
mployees more aware of how their job performance affects customers and other emp
loyees within the organization. This training program relates most closely
47. Intellectual capital refers to: A: how much money an organization spends on
training and development. B: the stock of knowledge that resides in an organizat
ion. C: the percentage of information available that is actually used productive
ly by the organization. D: the total cost of computers and other intelligent machi
nes in the organization. E: the cost of hiring a typical employee. 48. Intellect
ual capital consists of: A: knowledge that employees possess and generate. B: th
e knowledge captured in an organizations systems and structures. C: the value tha
t customers provide to the organization. D: all of the above. E: A and B only. 49. A
computer maintenance company wants to capture the knowledge that employees carry
around in their heads by creating a database where employees document their solu
tions to unusual maintenance problems. This practice tries to: A: transform inte
llectual capital into knowledge management. B: transfer human capital into struc
tural capital . C: prevent relationship capital from interfering with human capi
tal. D: reduce the amount of human capital. E: transfer structural capital into
relationship capital. 50. Companies manage knowledge by: A: extracting information
and ideas from the external environment and through experimentation. B: ensurin
g that knowledge is shared throughout the organization. C: ensuring that employe
es effectively use the knowledge available to them. D: all of the above. E: doin
g only B and C. 51. Which of the following is a form of knowledge acquisition? A: Hi
ring job applicants. B: Research and development. C: Information sessions where

employees describe to colleagues unique incidents involving customers. D: All of

the above. E: A and B only. 52. Which of the following is an example of knowledge a
cquisition? A: Surveying employees about their attitudes towards recent corporat
e changes. B: Developing a training program for employees to learn the latest so
ftware for their jobs. C: Encouraging employees to share their knowledge with cd
o-workers. D: Hiring people who bring valuable knowledge that is not available f
rom current employees. E: All of the above are examples of knowledge acquisition
. 53. An organizations absorptive capacity refers to: A. its ability to hire more
people without moving to new offices. B. its level of current knowledge so it c
an bring in new knowledge from the environment.

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with which of the following concepts? Contingency anchor B:Grounded theory C:Ope
n systems anchor D: Virtual teams E:Network organizations 45. Which of the follo
wing relates to the conceptual anchor that organizations are open systems? A: Th
e organization adjusts its services to satisfy changing consumer demand. B: The
organization finds a substitute resource in anticipation of a future shortage of
the resource previously used to manufacture the product. C: Production and sale
s employees coordinate their work activities to provide a more efficient work pr
ocess. D: The organization changes its products to suit customer needs. E: All o
f the above. 46. Knowledge management is an extension of: A: traditional account
ing methods of measuring corporate assets. B: the open systems anchor of organiz
ational behavior . C: microeconomic principles of supply and demand. D: the effi
ciency model of industrial engineering. E: none of the above. A: C. its ethical
standards in the local community. D. its diversity along the primary dimension.
E.its ability to conduct business through virtual work. 54. A technology company
wants to move into the field of wireless communications. Unfortunately, few of
its employees know enough about the basic technology to acquire emerging knowled
ge about that field or to launch a separate business unit to enter that market.
With respect to learning about wireless technology knowledge, this organization
has: A. too much virtual work. B. high intellectual capital. C. high human capit
al but low relationship capital. D. too much of an open system. E. low absorptiv
e capacity.. 55. As part of the knowledge management process, experimentation ma
inly affects: A: measuring intellectual capital B: knowledge acquisition C: orga
nizational memory D: knowledge sharing E: unlearning
56. Eastern University performs a daily computer search through newspaper articl
es to identify any articles about the university or its faculty members. Univers
ity administrators use this information to receive feedback about how the public
reacts to university activities. In knowledge management, searching for newspap
er articles and other external writing about the organization is mainly a form o
f: A: knowledge acquisition B: communities of practice C: organizational unlearn
ing D: knowledge sharing E: documentation 57. Twice each year, a major car parts
manufacturer brings together production and engineering specialists from its ei
ght divisions to discuss ideas, solutions and concerns. This helps to minimize t
he silos of knowledge problem that exists in many organizations. This practice is
primarily an example of: A: relationship capital B: experimentation C:knowledge
sharing D: documentation E: organizational unlearning 58. How do communities of
practice relate to knowledge management? A: Communities of practice tend to weak
en the knowledge management process. B: Communities of practice is the phrase that
describes the entire knowledge management process. C: Communities of practice m
ainly improve knowledge use. D: Communities of practice represent one of the thr
ee elements of intellectual capital. E: Communities of practice mainly improve k
nowledge sharing. 59. Organization leaders typically create or encourage communi
ties of practice to: A: share knowledge. B: design a product or service. C: wast
e time. D: test new information technology. E: influence potential competitors t
o stay out of the companys market. 60. Organizational memory is best described as
: A: the total terabytes of hard disk space available on computers throughout an
organization. B: the ability of senior executives to recall important informati
on about the companys products, services and employees. C: the storage and preser
vation of intellectual capital within
C: D: E: 6. A:
size, shape and weight. aptitudes, abilities, and competencies. agreeableness, l
ocus of control, and ethical sensitivity. Ability includes which of these? Aptit
udes and learned skills B: Natural aptitude and intensity C: Persistence and dir
ection D: Intensity and learned capabilities E: Direction and intensity 7. Aptit
udes, skills, and competencies all fall under which of the following concepts? A
: Motivation B: Personality C: Values D: Ethics E: Ability 8. Which of the follo
wing refers to the fact that motivation is goal-directed, not random? A: Persist

ence B: Direction C: Intensity D: Aptitude E: Competencies 9. ______ is the amou

nt of effort allocated to the goal. A: Persistence B: Direction C: Intensity D:
Aptitude E: Competencies 10. All technical employees at a paper mill take a cour
se on how to operate a new paper-rolling machine. This course will improve job p
erformance mainly by altering employee: A: aptitudes B: role perceptions C: moti
vation D: organizational citizenship E: learned capabilities 11. Which of the fo
llowing ensures that job incumbents have appropriate aptitudes to perform the jo
b? A: Hire applicants with appropriate aptitudes. B: Train employees so they dev
elop appropriate aptitudes. C: Motivate employees to have appropriate aptitudes.
D: Provide resources that allow employees to perform their jobs. E: All of the
above. 12. Competencies include: A: a persons aptitudes. B: a persons learned abil
ities. C: a persons skills. D: all of the above. E: none of the above. 13. Custom
er orientation, social skills, and need for achievement are examples of: A: apti
tudes B: competencies

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an organization. D: the ability of employees throughout the organization to reca
ll important information about the companys products and services. E: the extent
to which potential customers are able to recall specific products and services p
rovided by an organization. 61. Organizations should unlearn: A: in many situation
s involving organizational change . B: whenever new knowledge is brought into th
e organization. C: whenever the organization shifts from communities of practice
to experimentation in the knowledge acquisition process. D: all of the above. E
: none of the above. CHAPTER 2=============================== 1. All of these fa
ctors directly influence an employee s voluntary behavior and performance EXCEPT
: A: motivation. B: role perceptions. C: situational factors. D: moral intensity
. E: ability. 2. Which of the following identifies the four factors that directl
y influence individual behavior and performance? A: Utilitarianism B: MARS model
C: Schwartzs model D: Hollands model E: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 3. Which of th
ese factors directly influences an employee s voluntary behavior and performance
? A: Motivation B:Role perceptions C: Uncertainty avoidance D: All of the above
E: Only A and B 4. _______ represents the forces within a person that affect the dir
ection, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior. A: Motivation B: Perso
nality C: Values D: Ethics E: Ability 5. Motivation affects a persons ______ of v
oluntary behavior. A: direction, intensity, and persistence. B: antecedents, con
sequences and reinforcers. 18. You have just hired several new employees who are
motivated, able to perform their jobs, and have adequate resources. However, th
ey arent sure what tasks are included in their job. According to the MARS model,
these new employees will likely: A: emphasize the utilitarianism principle in th
eir decision making. B: have lower job performance due to poor role perceptions
. C: have high job performance because they are motivated and able to perform th
e work. D: have above average organizational citizenship. E: have a high degree
of differentiation according to Hollands classification of occupations. 19. To re
duce the amount of non-recyclable waste that employees throw out each day, a maj
or telephone company removed containers for non-recyclable rubbish from each off
ice and workstation. This altered employee behavior mainly by: A: increasing emp
loyee motivation to be less wasteful. B: helping employees to learn how to be le
ss wasteful. C: altering situational factors so that employees have more difficu
lty practicing wasteful behavior. D: increasing aptitudes that make employees wa
steful. E: increasing organizational citizenship so that employees will be less
wasteful. 20. Travel Happy Ltd. gives simple accounts to newly hired employees,
and then adds more challenging accounts as employees master the simple tasks. Th
is practice mainly: A: improves role perceptions. B: increases C: role perceptio
ns D: situational factors E: none of the above 14. Ida Corp. gives simple accoun
ts to newly hired employees, then adds more challenging accounts as employees ma
ster the simple tasks. This practice mainly: A: improves role perceptions. B: in
creases personjob matching. C:reduces employee motivation. D:provides more resou
rces to accomplish the assigned task. E: improves employee aptitudes. 15. Accord
ing to the MARS model of individual behavior, which of the following is NOT a ro
le perception problem? A: The employee lacks the proper tools to perform the job
. B: The employee knows two different ways to perform a particular task, but unk
nowingly chooses the method that the organization does not want its employees to
use. C:The employee doesnt realize that a particular task is part of his or her
job. D:The employee places more emphasis on the quantity of work whereas the org
anization wants more emphasis placed on the quality of work. E: The employee bel
ieves that the company wants him or her to spend more time with clients, whereas
the company really wants client requests processed more quickly. 16. Competenci
es relate most closely to which element in the MARS model of behavior and perfor
mance? A: Motivation B: Situational factors C: Role perceptions D: Ability E: Co
mpetencies are not related at all to any element of the MARS model 17. The MARS
model explicitly identifies which of the following factors? A: Money B: Recreati
onal activities C: Neuroticism D: Situational factors E: All of the above
27. Organizational citizenship refers to: A: the employees right to vote for the
company president. B: employee behaviors that extend beyond normal job duties. C

: the organizations obligations to society. E: both C and D. D: the organizations atta

chment to a particular country rather than being a global entity. 28. Employee b
ehaviors that extend beyond normal job duties: A: should be discouraged by organ
izational leaders. B: are usually performed by people with low conscientiousness
. C: are the most important characteristics of people with an external locus of
control D: are common in small businesses but never occur in large firms. E: are
called organizational citizenship. 29. Sabotage, threatening harm, and insultin
g others represent: A: three forms of counterproductive work behaviors B: the mo
st common forms of organizational citizenship. C: three dimensions of Schwartzs v
alues model. D: evidence of people with an introverted personality. E: behaviors
that are no longer found in organizations. 30. Which of the following is consid
ered a counterproductive work behavior? A: Insulting others B: Theft C: Delibera
ting performing work incorrectly so the organization suffers a loss.

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person-job matching. C: reduces employee motivation. E: improves employee aptitu
des. D: provides more resources to accomplish the assigned task. 21. Which of th
ese refers to a person s beliefs about what behaviors are appropriate or necessa
ry, in a particular situation? A: Natural aptitudes B: Role perceptions C:Compet
encies D: Locus of control E: Situational factors 22. Companies can improve empl
oyee performance through situational factors by: A: asking employees about the t
hings that motivate them. B: testing employee skills and knowledge before they a
re hired. C: providing training so employees learn the required competencies. D:
redesigning the job so employees are only given tasks within their capabilities
. E: asking employees to identify problems they experience with time and resourc
es, then removing those obstacles to job performance. 23. Which of the following
is NOT a work-related behavior? A: Competencies B:Absenteeism C:joining the org
anization D:Showing up for work at scheduled times E:Performing required tasks 2
4. Which of the following refers to goal-directed activities under the individua
ls control that support organizational objectives? A: Competencies B: Task perfor
mance C: Aptitudes D: Direction E: Motivation 25. Which of the following would b
e considered a work-related behavior? A: Completing required job duties above th
e minimum performance standard. B: Showing up for work at scheduled times. C: Ac
cepting the organizations offer of employment. D: Helping a co-worker even though
it isnt part of your job. E: All of the above. 26. Which of the following statem
ents about task performance is FALSE? A: Employees are evaluated against a perfo
rmance standard. B: Task performance refers to goal-directed activities under th
e individuals control. C: Employees are almost always evaluated on just one perfo
rmance dimension. D: Employees are expected to perform their work above a minimu
m acceptable level. E: Each performance dimension requires specific skills and k
nowledge. D: All of the above E: Only B and C 31. People with high stress, perceptio
ns of organizational injustice, and act politically are more likely to: A: have
an internal locus of control. B: engage in counterproductive work behaviors. C:
stay with the organization. D: have high collectivism. E: have high congruence i
n Hollands vocational choice model. 32. According to research, the main reason wh
y people quit their jobs is that: A: they lack the ability to stay employed. B:
they are dissatisfied with the job or work context. C:other firms use powerful i
ncentives to lure employees from their current jobs. D: they see their co-worker
s being laid off, so they also want to leave. E: they have the wrong attitude ab
out loyalty to one employer. 33. Generous sick leave policies are known to: A: i
ncrease employee lateness B: improve organizational citizenship C: increase abse
nteeism D: increase voluntary turnover E: both C and D 34. Which of the following st
atements about values is FALSE? A: Values help define what is right or wrong and
good or bad in the world. B: Values are arranged into a hierarchy of preference
s. C: The values that dominate a persons preferences differ across cultures. D: V
alues guide our decisions and actions. E: A persons hierarchy of values typically
changes a few times each year. 35. Beliefs about what is good or bad, right or
wrong are called: A: organizational citizenship. B: values. C: collectivism. D:
moral intensity. E: extroversion. 36. Which of the following is LEAST connected
to the topic of values? A: organizational culture. B: moral intensity. C: collec
tivism. D: ethical sensitivity. E: neuroticism. 37. All of the following are dom
ains in Schwartzs values model EXCEPT: A: Tradition. B: Power. C: Conscientiousne
ss D: Conformity. E: Stimulation. 38. Schwartzs values model includes all of the
following EXCEPT: A: Universalism. B: Hedonism. C:Security. D: Utilitarianism. E
: Self-direction. 39. Schwartzs model organizes ____ into ______. A: personality
traits, six dimensions. B: values, a hierarchy. C: needs, three statistical form
ulas D: values, ten dimensions. E: emotions, a time line. 49. Employees from cul
tures with a high power distance are more likely to: A: use their existing power
to gain more power. B: encourage consensus-oriented decision making. C: avoid p
eople in positions of power. D: readily accept the high status of other people i
n the organization. E: give their power to others as a sign of friendship. 50. P
eople with a high ______ value assertiveness,
40. The chief executive of a start-up high-technology company recently made seve

ral public announcements about the companys values. She emphasized that, although
the company is less than one year old, its employees already have adopted a str
ong set of values around sharing, freedom and achievement. However, you personal
ly know two employees at the company who say that employees dont really have a co
mmon set of values, and they are certainly not unanimous about the three values
stated by

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the CEO. The CEO is likely describing the companys: espoused values. B: ethical v
alues. C: professional values. D: organizational values. E: enacted values. 41.
The main reason why a persons values do not influence his or her behavior is that
: A: the values are too specific. B: values never affect behavior under any circ
umstances. C: values affect a persons ability but not his or her motivation to ac
t. D: values usually conflict with each other, making it difficult to determine
which value to apply. E: values tend to be too abstract to see the connection to
specific situations. 42. Employees are more likely to apply their personal valu
es to their behavior when: A: someone keeps them mindful of those values . B: th
ose values conflict with the organizations values. C: the values are abstract. D:
all of the above occur. E: none of the above occur. 43. Incongruence between a
companys dominant values and an employees values is known to: A: increase employee
stress. B: increase the employees probability of quitting. C: increase the chanc
e that the employees decisions will differ from the organizations preferences. D:
do all of the above. E: have no effect on employee behavior or decision making.
44. Espoused-enacted values congruence occurs when: A: an employee and his or he
r spouse have similar values. B: an organizations values are consistent with the
dominant values of the culture in which it operates. C: an employees personal val
ues are similar to the values of other employees on the same team. D: an employe
es personal values are consistent with the organizations values. E: None of the ab
ove represent espoused-enacted values congruence. 45. People who value their ind
ependence and personal uniqueness have: A: high individualism B: low collectivis
m. C: high power distance. D: low uncertainty avoidance. E: both A and B. 46. Which
of the following statements about cross-cultural values is TRUE? A: People with
a high achievement-orientation emphasize relationships and the well-being of oth
ers. B: People with high individualism can have any level (high or low) of colle
ctivism. C: People with high power distance value independence and personal uniq
ueness D: People with low uncertainty avoidance must also have high power distan
ce. E: People in almost all cultures have high uncertainty avoidance. 47. Which
of the following values represents people who value duty to groups to which they
belong, and to group harmony? A: High individualism. B: High uncertainty avoida
nce. C: Low uncertainty avoidance. D: High nurturing orientation. E: High collec
tivism. 48. People with high collectivism: A: accept unequal distribution of pow
er B: also have low individualism. C: value harmonious relationships in the grou
ps to which they belong. D: value thrift, savings, and persistence. E:have both B
and C. A: competitiveness, and materialism. A: individualism B: collectivism C: po
wer distance D: uncertainty avoidance E: achievement orientation 51. Which of th
e following countries generally has high achievement orientation values? A: Cana
da B: Russia C:Japan D: Sweden E: The Netherlands 52. Motowa is a new employee w
ho comes from a culture that values respect for people in higher positions and v
alues the wellbeing of others more than goal achievement. Motowas culture would h
ave: A: a high power distance and nurturing orientation. B: high collectivism an
d short-term orientation. C: low uncertainty avoidance and high individualism. D
: low power distance and strong nurturing orientation. E: none of the above. 53.
Canadians tend to have: A: a high collectivism value orientation. B: a high nur
turing-orientation value. C: a low individualistic value orientation. D: a high
individualistic value orientation. E: both B and C. 54. In the section on cross-cult
ural values, the author warns that: A: the cross-cultural data presented are bas
ed on a very small sample (less than 10 people in each country studied). B: the
definitions of most values have changed over the past decade, so most cross-cult
ural information has little meaning anymore C: several cultures dont have any val
ues. D: diverse societies such as Canada have a wide range of values even though
the information presented assumes that everyone in the country has similar valu
es. E: all of the above. 55. Ethics is most closely related to: A: values. B: lo
cus of control. C: the MyersBriggs type Indicator. D: personality. E: ability. 5
6. Which of the following represents values that determine whether actions are r
ight or wrong and outcomes are good or bad? A: Conscientiousness C: Moral intens
ity E: Ethics B: Sensing D: Self-monitoring 57. Which of the following is NOT id
entified in the textbook as an ethical principle? A: Utilitarianism. B: Distribu

tive justice. C: Moral intensity. D: Individual rights. E: None of the above are
identified as an ethical principle. 58. One problem with the utilitarian princi
ple of ethics is that: A: not all utilitarian rights are protected by law. B: it
is impossible to determine what factors should be relevant when distributing re
wards. C: it is difficult to predict the trickle down benefits to the least well o
ff in society. D: it judges morality by the results but not by the means to atta
ining those results. E: the utilitarian principle has never been accepted by eth
ics experts as an ethical principle. 59. Ethical conduct should consider whether
: A: the outcomes will provide the greatest good for the greatest number. C: peo
ple affected by the behavior believe that it is fair. B: the behavior violates a
ny government laws. D: all of the above. E: only A and B.

BA 12 N pre-test Page 8
60. When assessing the ethics of a decision, you should: A: rely mainly on the u
tilitarianism principle. B: consider its implications against all three principl
es described in the textbook. C:rely mainly on your level of collectivism. D:avo
id considering the decisions moral intensity until after the decision has been ma
de. E: apply any one but NEVER more than one of the three ethics principles to ev
aluate the decision. 61. Which of the following is an ethical principle stating
that people have entitlements allowing let them act in a certain way? A: Utilita
rianism. B: Individual rights C:Moral intensity. D: Distributive justice. E: Eth
ical sensitivity. 62. The main limitation of the individual rights principle is
that: A: it really isnt an ethical principle at all. B: some individual rights co
nflict with other individual rights. C:it pays attention to whether consequences
are ethical, but not to whether the means to those consequences are ethic. D:it
is almost impossible to evaluate the benefits or costs of decisions when many s
takeholders are affected. E: it can degenerate into unjust favouritism 63. Senio
r executives at CyberForm must make a decision that will affect many people and
where the decision may produce good or bad consequences for those affected. This
decision: A: has a high degree of ethical sensitivity. B: is one in which decis
ion makers should rely only on the utilitarianism rule of ethics. C:has a low de
gree of ethical sensitivity. D:has a high degree of moral intensity. E: requires
a low duty to care. 64. Moral intensity is higher when: A: the issue produces g
ood decisions but not bad decisions. B: the decision has little or no effect on
other people. C:the decision maker is neutral and far removed from the issue or
its consequences. D:all of the above exist. E: none of the above exist. 65. Peop
le who have high ethical sensitivity: A: are always more ethical than people wit
h a moderate or low level of ethical sensitivity. B: tend to have higher empathy
.  C:tend to have more information about the specific situation. D:are all of t
he above. E: are only B and C. 66. The ability to recognize the presence and determi
ne the relative importance of an ethical issue is known as: A: neuroticism. B: m
oral intensity C: ethical sensitivity. D:utilitarianism. E: uncertainty avoidanc
e 67. Which of the following statements about personality traits is FALSE? A: An
individuals personality is relatively stable from one year to the next. B: Perso
nality traits cause people to behave in almost exactly the same way in all situa
tions. C:The most common view is that personality is shaped by both heredity and
environment. D:An individuals personality is identified by his or her behaviors.
E: An individuals personality cannot be observed. 68. The relatively stable patt
ern of behaviors and 69. An individuals personality: A: changes several times thr
oughout the year. B: is formed only from childhood socialization and the environ
ment. C: is less evident in situations where social norms, reward systems, and o
ther conditions constrain behavior. D: is all of the above. E: is only B and C. 70.
One ongoing dispute among psychologists is whether personality: A: is formed com
pletely from genetic code or partly influenced by socialization and environmenta
l conditions. B: is stable over several years or changes in a few times each yea
r. C:is evident in all situations or is less constrained in some situations. D:i
s evident through a persons behaviors or is only evident through blood tests. E:
really exists or is just a myth. 71. The Big Five personality dimensions represent
: A: all of the personality traits found in an ideal job applicant. B: the aggre
gated clusters representing most known personality traits. C:the personality tra
its caused by the environment rather than heredity. D:all of the above. E: only B
and C. 72. The Big Five personality dimensions are identified by the acronym: A: MBT
IA B: CANOE C: VALUE D: MARSE E: HAPPY 73. Which of the following is a Big Five pe
rsonality dimension? A: Extroversion B: Openness to experience C: Locus of contr
ol D: All of the above E: Only A and B 74. All of these are "Big Five" personality d
imensions EXCEPT: A: openness to experience. B: agreeableness. locus of control.
D: emotional stability. E: extroversion. 75. Being good-natured, empathetic, ca
ring, and courteous are characteristic of people with which personality trait? A
: Openness to experience B: Agreeableness C: Locus of control D: Emotional stabi
lity E: Extroversion 76. Conscientiousness is one dimension of: A: the MARS mode
l. B: Schwartzs values model. C: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator D: all of the above.
E: none of the above. 77. Neuroticism is explicitly identified in: A: the MARS

model. B: Schwartzs values model. C: Big Five personality dimensions. D: Hollands th

eory of vocational choice. E: both A and C. 78. Most employees in the social service
s department of a provincial government have frequent interaction with people wh
o are unemployed or face personal problems. Which of the following personality c
haracteristics is best suited to employees working in these jobs? A: High neurot
icism B: External locus of control. C: High introversion. D: High agreeableness.
E: Both B and D. 79. Which Big Five personality dimension is most valuable for predic
ting job performance? C:

BA 12 N pre-test Page 9
consistent internal states that explain a person s behavioral tendencies refers
to A: personality. B: values. C: motivation. D: locus of control. E: job satisfa
ction. A: C: E: Extroversion B: Openness to experience Conscientiousness D: Neur
oticism None of the Big Five traits predict job performance to any extent 80. ____
____ characterizes people with high levels of anxiety, hostility, depression, an
d self-consciousness. A: Extroversion B: Openness to experience C: Conscientious
ness D: Neuroticism E: Agreeableness 81. All of these are "Big Five" personality
dimensions EXCEPT: A: openness to experience. B: agreeableness. C: locus of con
trol. D: emotional stability. E: extroversion. E: 93. A: C: D: 94. A: D: 95. A:
D: 96. A: C: D: E: 97. A: B: C: D: E: 98. A: B: C: D: E: 99. A: B: C: D: people
are happiest when their personality has low distinctiveness in Hollands six types
. Social, enterprising, and conventional represent three categories of: Schwartzs
values model. B: the MARS model. Hollands model of occupational choice. the Big F
ive personality dimensions. E: the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. All of the follow
ing are identified by John Holland as personality and work environment types EXC
EPT: enterprising. B: investigative. C: collectivist. social. E: conventional. W
hich of the following are identified by John Holland as personality and work env
ironment types? Realistic. B: Artistic. C: Conventional. Enterprising. E: All of
the above Which of the following predicts that people in a specific profession
would have similar traits and interests? MARS model B: Schwartzs values model Sel
f-monitoring personality theory Hollands theory of occupational choice Big Five per
sonality theory Hollands theory of occupational choice states that: there are six
categories that represent characteristics of both the work environment and the
personality traits and interests of people working in those environments. few pe
ople fall squarely into only one career type. employee performance, satisfaction
and career longevity increase with the congruence between personality and the w
ork environment of that career. a persons occupational choice is an expression of
his or her personality. all of the above According to Hollands theory of occupat
ional choice, consistency refers to: the extent that an individuals personality is
aligned with similar rather than dissimilar work environments. the persons tenden
cy to stay with one career over a lifetime. the extent to which an individuals va
lues change frequently or are relatively stable. a persons tendency to climb the
corporate hierarchy at a fixed rather than an uneven pace. how often a person mo
ves to different companies for occupational development. Hollands occupational ch
oice theory states that: people tend to have the opposite careers to their paren
ts. career success depends on the degree of fit between the person and his or he
r work environment. career success is defined by the number of steps the individ
ual achieves up the organizational hierarchy. people in successful careers exper
ience more occasions of reality shock than do people in less successful careers.
82. ________ characterizes people who are quiet, shy, and cautious. A: Introvers
ion B: Openness to experience C: Conscientiousness D: Neuroticism E: Agreeablene
ss 83. Jungs psychological types are measured in: A: the Big Five personality types
. B: the locus of control scale. C: any instrument that also measures neuroticis
m. D: the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. E: the self-monitoring personality test.
84. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) includes all of these dimensions EXCEPT:
A: sensing/intuition. B: judging/perceiving. C: thinking/feeling. D: extroversio
n/introversion. E: internal/external locus. 85. Sensing, thinking, and judging r
epresent three dimensions of: A: Schwartzs values model. B: the MARS model. C: Ho
llands model of occupational choice. D: the Big Five personality dimensions E: the
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 86. If a co-worker said that she was an ENTJ, she woul
d probably be referring to: A: her degree of distinctiveness in Hollands vocation
al choice model. B: her Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality . C: her locus o
f control. D: her value system based on Schwartzs model. E: her level of conscien
tiousness. 87. Which of these statements about the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (
MBTI) is FALSE? A: The MBTI measures the personality traits in Jungs psychologica
l types. B: The MBTI is one of the most widely used personality tests in organiz
ations. C: Research has concluded that the MBTI does a poor job of measuring Jun
gs psychological types. D: Research suggests that the MBTI is more useful for car

eer development and self-awareness than for selecting job applicants. E: The MBT
I combines four pairs of traits into 16 distinct types. 88. Employees who feel t
hat they are very much in charge of their own destiny have: A: a self-monitoring
personality B: an agreeableness personality C: an internal locus of control per
sonality D: an emotionally unstable personality E: all of the above 89. In most
work situations, employees perform better when they have: A: a moderately strong
internal locus of control B: a strong external locus of control C: no locus of
control D: a weak internal locus of control E: none of the above

BA 12 N pre-test Page 10
90. People who are sensitive to situational cues, such as the moods and behaviou
rs of co-workers, are said to have: A: an external locus of control. B: a high l
evel of introversion. C: an advanced personality deficiency. D: a strong self-mo
nitoring personality. E: an internal locus of control. 91. Compared with those w
ho have a low self-monitoring personality, employees with a high self-monitoring
personality: A: tend to be better conversationalists C: have more of an externa
l locus of control B: have difficulty controlling their temper D: all of the abo
ve E: both A and C 92. Hollands theory of occupational choice states that: A: careers
develop various patterns over time and these patterns influence the individuals
need fulfilment. B: people with a high level of conscientiousness can perform we
ll in almost any job. C: career success depends on the degree of fit between the
person and his or her work environment. D: careers operate across company and i
ndustry boundaries rather than just within one organization. E: people have succ
essful careers when they network and get a mentor. 100.According to Hollands theo
ry of occupational choice, a person is highly differentiated if he or she: A: fits
specifically into one of Hollands career types rather than several types. B: is
in a job that is quite different from his or her ideal career type. C: fits into
two or more of Hollands career types rather than just one type. D: is self-emplo
yed rather than working as an employee. E: does not fit into any of Hollands care
er types. 101.One problem with Hollands model of occupational fit is that: A: ver
y few career practitioners are willing to use it. B: his career types refer to o
nly two of the Big Five personality dimensions. C: there is no support for the ide
a that congruence between personality and work environment affects job stress or
other career outcomes. D: no one has developed a graphic model to illustrate th
e relations among the six career types. E: E. all of the above are problems with
Hollands model.