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International Conference on Hydropower for Sustainable Development

Feb 05-07, 2015, Dehradun

SUSTAINABLE HYDROPOWER TOWARD COMMUNITY


DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF JAPANESE RURAL AREA
Tokihiko Fujimoto, Dr.Eng, Asso,prof.
Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University and Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University
fujimoto.tokihiko@shizuoka.ac.jp
+81-54-238-4866

ABSTRACT
Renewable energy is noted all over the world because of energy problems and global warming
by CO2 emission. Especially in Japan, renewable energy got more attention due to the accident
at Fukushima of nuclear power plant (11/3/2011). Technologies of renewable energy
contribute not only to CO2 emission reduction but also to community building and regional
sustainability by utilizing local resources (in this paper, we will focus on Small Scale
Hydropower=SHP).
I want to insist on that we pay attention to SHP toward community development installing by
community power. In the aspect of community building, SHP has a lot of potential. The
development of SHP can create not only jobs but also democratic dialogue for sustainable
community. The purpose of this paper is to make practical methodology, compute possibility
of developing SHP for sustainable community: a case study of the Gokase river system
catchment area in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan.
The Gokase River has a lot of suitable points of hydropower. Therefore, 22 hydroelectric
power plants and many dams were built already. But, the Gokase river still has high
undeveloped potential (50-200kW). It is very important to build up basic concept of energy
for community.
This study shows clearly how to build up future plan with legitimacy. As a result, we revealed
conditions and viewpoints that SHP make the biggest impact on reconstructing community
and generating subjectivity.
Keywords: small scale hydropower (=SHP), community development, consensus building,
Japanese rural area, Gokase River system catchment area
1.

INTRODUCTION

Today, renewable energy is receiving plenty of attention by following two points; 1)


environmental issues like energy sustainability and global warming, and 2) potential of
undeveloped regional activation. Community-based renewable energy, especially SHP, is
expected to contribute to community development.
So, in this paper, we are going to pay attention to conduct case studies in Gokase-town. In
national energy program, we have only focused on where we can build big scale energy plant
(e.g., thermal power plant and nuclear power plant). On the other hand, when we think about
renewable energy, we need to make a great effort for consensus building with local residents.

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Because, the renewable energy resources are community-ownered property. We are going to
suggest the possibility of community-based as an alternative way of national scale centralized
supply.
2.

LOCAL HISTORY OF GOKASE RIVER SYSTEM CATCHMENT AREA

Figure 1 shows locations of already existing hydro power plant. In the Gokase river system
catchment area, hydropower energy has been used early since 1917 (see Table 1). Now, there
are 22th hydropower-plants in this area (see Figure 2). In this area, There are many know-how
and experience of hydropower. But, long time passed until now, There are no memory about
hydropower as local resources.
Kumamoto Prefecture

Ohita Prefecture

1
20

2
3 4
5

17

9
10

1
1

22
18

12
Gokase town

21

1
5

13
14

19

16
Power plant
Dam

Fig. 1: The Gokase River system catchment area and the position of hydropower plants
Table 1: The hydropower plants of Gokase River system
Number

Plant

River

15
12
10
9
8
5

Hoshiyama
Gokase River
Suigasaki
Takachiho
Kuwanouchi
Mamihara

Gokase River
Gokase River etc.
Gokase River etc.
Gokase River etc.
Gokase River etc.
Gokase River

16

Yanazaki

Aminose River

Kurohara

Aminose River

14
13
2
7
1
4
6
19
18
17
22
21
20
11
3

Shinsugabaru
Aminose River etc.
Kawabashi River First
Kawabashi River
Kawabashi River Second
Kawabashi River etc.
Hakusui
Kawabashi River etc.
Sangasho
Sangasho River
Magaribuchi
Sangasho River
Hamago
Houri River
Houri
Houri River etc.
Kamihouri
Houri River
Shimoaka
Kita River
Kita River
Kita River etc.
Kuwabaru
Kuwabaru River
Hinokage
Hinokage River
Shimotakishita
Yunotani River
The total amount

Maximum outputkW

Maximum amount of the

Initial permission date

12,200
13,500
16,000
12,800
6,400
5,000

water takenm3/s
49.000
29.700
24.200
19.480
15.000
5.000

480

1.670

1920. 07. 14

650

1.670

1917. 07. 07

7,500
2,000
3,200
1,500
1,400
1,100
2,400
16,800
3,300
1,700
25,100
2,800
2,300
68
138,198

5.500
2.960
4.580
2.540
2.920
2.450
12.000
8.000
2.300
20.000
25.000
1.950
1.440
0.139
237.499

1958. 01. 20
1924. 06. 17
1924. 06. 17
1956. 01. 18
1925. 11. 11
1925. 12. 02
1988. 10. 28
1969. 02. 27
1971. 12. 08
1961. 03. 15
1961. 03. 17
1959. 08. 12
1980. 08. 19
1920. 11. 03

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1939. 09. 04
1922. 05. 06
1949. 10. 31
1925. 12. 02
1925. 12. 02
1922. 10. 09

Establisher
Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corp.
Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corp.
Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corp.
Chisso Corp.
Kyushu Electric Power Co.,Inc
Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corp.
Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corp.
(originally Mitsubishi Materials Corp.)
Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corp.
(originally Mitsubishi Materials Corp.)
Kyushu Electric Power Co.,Inc
Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corp.
Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corp.
Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corp.
Kyushu Electric Power Co.,Inc
Kyushu Electric Power Co.,Inc
Miyazaki Prefecture
Miyazaki Prefecture
Miyazaki Prefecture
Oita Prefecture
Oita Prefecture
Oita Prefecture
Hinokage Land Improvement District
Kyushu Electric Power Co.,Inc

International Conference on Hydropower for Sustainable Development


Feb 05-07, 2015, Dehradun

3.

SHP TOWARD COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT -- A CASE STUDY OF


GOKASE-TOWN
The Gokase town is located on the upper reaches of the Gokase River. The Gokase town
belongs to Nishiusuki-gun, Miyazaki-prefecture of Kyushu. The total area of the town is
171.77km2, and the forest occupies 88% in this town. The current population is 4,332 people,
and a number of households are 1,358 (01/01/2012).
According to The report about energy-saving measure of Gokase-town (2006), energy
consumption in Gokase-town (2005) was 1,965kWh. [1] In Figure 2, we can see that Gokasetown has already 3 hydropower plants and their total amount of electric generation is 8,900kW
(maximum).
Moreover, Figure 2 show that GIS analysis of hydro power generating capacity in Gokasetown based on ministry of environments study (2010). [2] As a result of this GIS analysis, I
found that the estimation of potential amount for hydro power generation is 17,127kW
(included existing hydropower plants). Thus, I show that 8,027kW undeveloped hydro power
potential exists in Gokase-town. In figure2, we can see many undeveloped points which have
small scale hydropowers potential. I should consider utilizing the hydropower for community
development based on the consensus building.

Small scale hydropower


Potential
Capacity(kW)

Fig. 3: Potential map of hydropower in Gokase-town

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ICHPSD-2015

Table 2: Result of discharge in Gokase-town


settlement

number of
households

Haki

28

Motoyashiki
Nagasako

19
16

Ohara

10

Aradani
Tokoji
Kasabe
Ohishi

11
22
13
18

flow rate number of


point
(m3/s)
0.0399
0.1288
1.0986
0.2942
0.7540
0.6439
0.0490
0.0441
little
little

Table 2 shows that the results of discharge which I carried out in Gokase-town on October 22
and 23, 2011. [2] In winter season, flow rate is decreasing. So these values are smaller than
general seasons.
The number in figure 2 indicates the number of point in table 3. In , where showed the
biggest flow rate, if we utilize 0.5 m3/s which is half of the flow rate and build hydropower
plant at the place where the head is 100m, we can generate about 350kW of electric power
Theoretically. If the yearly operating time is for 6,500hours (270days) / year, we can generate
2,275,000kWh of electric power.
If we sell the electric power for 20yen/kwh by Japanese Feed-in Tariffs, we can earn
45,500,000yen / year. This is enough income for small scale community.
Mainstream

Management and
maintenance of water
intake and waterway

Private power generation


13kwh

Private power generation


Private power distribution
In-house use

Waterway

Unit of
community

Head
100m
Flow rate
0.5m3/s

Haki and Motoyashiki


(the number of households: 47)

Power plant

Battery

Power plant for


Community self-support
6080kwh
Branch

Head
100m
Flow rate
0.1m3/s

Selling electricityFeed-in Tariffs of renewable energy


Power plant for selling electricity 350400kwh

Fig. 4: Model community image (i.e., Haki and Motoyashiki)

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International Conference on Hydropower for Sustainable Development


Feb 05-07, 2015, Dehradun

Figure 4 shows that sustainable community image based on small scale hydropower energy.
This is Haki and Motoyashiki communities in Gokase-town ( in table 3).
This image has three size power plants from small to large. To start with, large power plant
generates electric power about 350-400 kWh (the head is 100 meter and the discharge is 0.5
m3/s). We are selling all amount of electricity by Feed-in Tariffs of renewable energy.
Secondly, we estimated that middle power plant generate electricity from 60-80 kWh (the
head is 100 meter and the discharge is 0.1 m3/s). Haki and Motoyashiki community have 47
households. So, we can supply enough electricity with these communities. Instead, the
communities have to manage and maintain water-intake and waterway daily. Finally, small
size power generator (1-3kWh) is for backup. Generated electricity is charged storage battery
for each. This provides the community with electricity during power failure. Therefore,
community will be strong and robust against disasters. This is how to develop energyindependent community.
March 2013, I and Gokase member has started to set up SHP system(=5kW2) on site for
demonstration(Figure 5). Before planning, we had 3 times consensus building meeting. I
worked hard to promote civic participation and consensus building process. I used local wood
for powerhouse by local people (Figure6).

Fig. 5: Power house of Haki SHP

Fig. 6: Made by Local people

Ive coordinated local power in constructing process; taking in water, water supply canal and
conduit, electrical work. It is very important to build community of practice about SHP, for
realization of energy-independent community model.
3.

CONCLUSIONS

Im talking about outlook for the future. Gokase-town consists of 14 districts. We are going to
plan energy independent-community for each district. For this, wed like to accumulate knowhow from practice in the model district. And we hope to realize renewable energy town in the
whole of Gokase-town.
To do that, well need to consider other renewable energy (i.e., wind power, solar power etc.),
too. The most important task will be consensus building because renewable energy resources
are local communitys property. January 2013, Gokase Project leader, his name is Isamu Ishii,
organized social venture association on site (= Research Institute of Renewable Energy in
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ICHPSD-2015

Gokase). We would like to continue to promote community development based on renewable


energy while discussing with local residents. In order to solve various environmental issues
and depopulated issues, renewable energy is required (See Figure 7). [3]
In this paper focused on Community based action toward sustainable community by practical
using natural source energy. We have to understand that renewable energy is local commons.
From this case study, there were some matters that require attention about how to reach
agreement and contract among community members. Hydropower energy is highly public, but
there are no rules how to use. Once again, to promote community based action through
practical using natural and local resource energy, it is important to reach social-agreement
among community members and to develop sustainable and autonomous local communities.
Therefore, we are challenging to put diverse positions together, in which local residents and
stakeholders can share a vision of the community's future.

Fig. 7: Research Institute of Renewable Energy in Gokase [3]


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to thank Japan Science and Technology Agency Research Institute of Science
and Technology for Society (JST-RISTEX) for a grant that made it possible to complete this
study.
REFERENCE
[1]
[2]
[3]

The Government Office of Gokase.2006, The Report about Energy-Saving Measure of


Gokase-Town. Japan.
Ayaka Yasunaga, Tokihiko Fujimoto, Yukihiro Shimatani, 2012, SHP toward
community development, Proceedings of the 4th ICAE2012; 302-208.
Yukihiro Shimatani, Terukazu Yamashita, Tokihiko Fujimoto, 2013, CommunityEnergy, Noubunkyou; 177-198.

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