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Fluid Mechanics (ECE-301)

III rd Sem. Mechanical Engineering

UNIT-1 (Introduction)

1 Define the following fluid properties:

Density, weight density, specific volume and specific gravity of fluid.
1. Differentiate between : (I) Liquids and gases (ii) Real fluids and Ideal fluids (iii) Specific
weight and Specific volume of a fluid
2. What is the difference between dynamic viscosity and kinematic viscosity? State their units
of measurements.
3. Define Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids.
4. What do you understand by Isothermal process, adiabatic process and Universal gas
5. Define compressibility. Prove that compressibility for a perfect gas undergoing Isothermal
compression is 1/p while for a perfect gas undergoing isentropic compression is 1/wp.
6. Explain the phenomenon of capillarity. Obtain an expression for capillary rise of a liquid.
7. Define and explain the Newtons law of viscosity.
8. Why does the viscosity of a gas increase with the increase in temperature while that of a
liquid decreases with increase in temperature?
9. Develop the expression for the relation between gauge pressure p inside a droplet of liquid
and the surface tension.
10. Calculate the sp.weight, density and sp.gravity of one liter of a liquid which weighs 7N.
11. The space between two square flat parallel plates is filled with oil. Each side of the plate is
60 cm. The thickness of the oil film is 12.5 mm. The upper plate which moves at 2.5 meter
per sec. requires a force of 98.1 N to maintain the speed. Determine :
The dynamic viscosity of the oil in poise, and
The kinematic viscosity of the oil in stokes if the sp. Gravity of the oil is 0.95.
12. If the velocity profile of a fluid over a plate is parabolic with the vertex 20 cm from the plate,
where the velocity is 120 cm/sec. calculate the velocity gradients and shear stresses at a
distance of 0.10 and 20 cm from the plate. If the viscosity of the fluid is 8.5 poise.
13. A 15 cm diameter vertical cylinder rotates concentrically inside another cylinder of diameter
15.10 cm. Both cylinders are 25 cm high. The space between the cylinders is filled with a
liquid whose viscosity is unknown. If a torque of 12.0 Nm is required to rotate the inner
cylinder at 100 r.p.m. determine the viscosity of the fluid.

14. A cylinder of 0.6 m3 in volume contains air at 50C and 0.3 N/mm2 absolute pressure. The air
is compressed to 0.3 m3. Find (i) pressure inside the cylinder assuming isothermal process
and (ii) pressure and temperature assuming adiabatic process. Take k=1.4
15. Calculate the pressure exerted by 5 kg of nitrogen gas at a temperature of 10C if the volume
is 0.4 m3.Molecular weight of nitrogen is 28.Assume ideal gas laws are applicable.
16. A viscosity of oil is 5 poise is used for lubrication between a shaft and sleeve. The diameter
of a shaft is 0.5 m and it rotates at 200 rpm. Calculate the power lost in oil for a sleeve length
of 100 mm .The thickness of the oil film is 1.0 mm.
17. Determine the sp. Gravity of a fluid having viscosity 0.07 poise and kinematic viscosity
0.042 stokes.
18. A plate 0.025 mm distant from a fixed plate moves at 50 cm/sec and requires a force of 1.471
N/m2 to maintain this speed. Determine the fluid viscosity between the plates in the poise.
19. One liter of crude oil weighs 9.6 N. Calculate its sp. Weight, density and sp. Gravity.
20. Draw and explain the Rheological diagram.
21. What is capillarity? What is its significance in fluid flow problems?

UNIT-II (Kinematics of fluid flow)

22. What are the methods of describing fluid flows? Explain

23. Explain the terms (I) path line (ii) streak line (iii) stream line
24. Differentiate between steady flow and uniform flow with the help of real life examples.
26. Distinguish between :- (I) Steady flow and Unsteady flow
(ii) Uniform and Non - uniform flow
(iii) Rotational and Irrotational flow
(iv) Laminar and Turbulent flow
27. Differentiate between compressible and Incompressible flow with example.
28. Define the following terms with practical examples

Turbulent flow

(iii) Laminar flow

(I) Uniform flow

(IV) Steady flow

29 Define the equation of continuity. Obtain an expression for continuity equation for a three
dimensional flow.

30. Explain the following terms (I) Total acceleration (ii) Convective acceleration and (iii) Local
31. Define the terms (i) Velocity potential function (ii) Stream function
32. What do you mean by equip-potential line and a line of constant stream function? Explain.
33 Describe the use and limitations of flow net and under what conditions draw flow net?
34. Differentiate between forced vortex and free vortex flow.
35 Show that incase of forced vortex flow, the rise of liquid level at the ends is equal to the fall
of liquid level at the axis of rotation.
36. Sketch the flow pattern of an ideal fluid flow past a cylinder with circulation.
37. Explain doublet and define the strength of doublet.
38. Distinguish between a source and a sink with example.
39. A point source is a point where an incompressible fluid is imagined to be created and sent out
evenly in all directions. Determine its velocity potential and stream function.
40. Explain uniform flow with source and sink. Obtain expressions for stream and velocity
potential functions.
41. Under what conditions can one treat real fluid flow as irrotational (as and approximation).
42. A 30 cm diameter pipe, conveying water branches into two pipes of diameters 20 cm and 15
cm respectively. If the average velocity in the 30 cm diameter pipe is 2.5 m/s. find the discharge
in this pipe, also determine the velocity in 15 cm pipe if the average velocity in 20 cm diameter
pipe is 2 m/s.
43. A jet of water from a 25 mm diameter nozzle is directed vertically upwards, assuming that
the jet remains circular and neglecting any loss of energy that will be the diameter at a point 4.5
m above the nozzle, if the velocity with which the jet leaves the nozzle is 12 m/s.
44. The velocity vector in a fluid flow is given
acceleration of fluid particle at (2, 1, 3) at time t=1.

V=4x 3i-10x2yj+2tk find the velocity and

45. The velocity potential function is given by =5(x2-y2). Calculate the velocity components at
the point (4, 5).
46. The stream function for a two-dimensional flow is given by =2xy, calculate the velocity at
the point p (2, 3). Find the velocity potential function.

47. A cylindrical vessel 12 cm in diameter and 30 cm deep is filled with water up to the top. The
vessel is open at the top. Find the quantity of liquid left in the vessel, when it is rotated about its
vertical axis with a speed of (a) 3000 rpm (b) 600 rpm.
48. The velocity components for 3-D flow are given asU= x2+z2+5
V= y2+z2
W= 4xyz
Show whether the flow is possible or not.
49. For the steady incompressible flow, are the following values of u and v possible?
(i) U= 4xy+y2, v= 6xy+3x and
(ii) U=2x2+y2, v= -4xy

UNIT-III (Fluid Statics)

50. The diameter of the plunger and ram of a hydraulic press are respectively 60 mm and 140
mm. If a load of 6 KN is applied on the plunger to lift a load W on the ram, determine the value
of W when(i) The plunger and the ram are at same level
(ii) The plunger is at 400 mm above the ram assuming that water is used in the hydraulic press.
51. Determine the vacuum pressure in meter of water when the absolute pressure is 0.5434 bars,
Assume atmospheric pressure as 10.30 meter of water.
52. Define pressure. Obtain an expression for the pressure intensity at a point in a fluid.
53. What is the difference between U-tube differential manometers and Inverted U-tube
differential manometer? Where are they used?
54. Distinguish between manometers and mechanical gauges. Explain various mechanical
pressure gauges.

55. Derive an expression for the pressure at a height z from sea level at a static air when the
compression of the air is assumed isothermal. The pressure and temperature at sea level are p 0
and T0 respectively.
56. Explain briefly the working principle of Bourdon pressure gauge with a neat sketch.
57. A single column vertical manometer is connected to a pipe containing oil of sp.gravity 0.8.
The area of reservoir is 80 times the area of manometer tube. The reservoir contains mercury of
sp. Gravity 13.6. The level of mercury in the reservoir is at a height of 30 cm below the centre of
the pipe and difference of mercury levels in the reservoir and right limb is 50 cm. Find the
pressure in the pipe.
58. Derive an expression of force exerted on a sub-merged vertical plane surface by the static
liquid and locate the position of centre of pressure.
59. Derive an expression for the depth of centre of pressure from free surface of liquid of an
inclined plane surface sub-merged in the liquid.
60. Why the resultant pressure on a curved sub-merged surface is determined by first finding
horizontal and vertical forces on the curved surface? Why the same is not adopted for a plane
inclined surface sub-merged in a liquid?
61. What is the difference between sluice gate and lock gate? Also prove that the reaction
between the gates of a lock is equal to the reaction at the hinge.
62. Determine the total pressure on a circular plate of diameter 1.5 m which is placed vertically
in water in such a way that the centre of the plate is 3 m below the free surface of water, Find the
position of centre of pressure also.
63. An inclined rectangular sluice gate AB 1.2 m by 5 m size is installed to control the discharge
of water. The end A is hinged. Determine the force normal to the gate applied at B to open it.
64. The end gates ABC of a lock are 9 m high and when closed include an angle of 120. The
width of the lock is 10 m. each gate is supported by two hinges located at 1 m and 6 m above the
bottom of the lock. The depth of water on the two sides is 8 m and 4 m respectively. Find (i)
Resultant water force on each gate.
(ii) Reaction between the gates AB and BC, and
(iii) Force on the each hinge, considering the reaction of the gate acting in the same horizontal
plane as resultant water pressure.
65. A wooden log of 0.6 m diameter and 5 m length is floating in river water. Find the depth of
wooden log in water when the specific gravity of the log is 0.7.

66. Derive an expression for the time period of the oscillation of a floating body in terms of
radiation of gyration and meta-centric height of the floating body.
67. With neat sketches, explain the conditions of equilibrium for floating and sub-merged bodies.
68. The least radius of gyration of a ship is 8 m and meta-centric height is 70 cm. calculate the
time period of oscillation of the ship.
69. A solid cone floats in water with its apex downwards. Determine the least apex angle of cone
for stable equilibrium. The specific gravity of the material of the cone is 0.8.
70. Show that a cylindrical body of 1 m diameter and 2.0 m height weighing 7.848 KN will not
float vertically in sea water of density 1030 Kg/m3. Find the force necessary in a vertical chain
attached at the centre of base of the body that will keep it vertical.
71. Show that the distance between the meta-centre and centre of buoyancy is given by BM=I/
72. Differentiate between:- (I) Dynamic viscosity and Kinematic viscosity (ii) Absolute and
gauge pressure (iii) Centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy (iv) Simple and differential
73. What do you understand by hydrostatic equation? With the help of this equation, derive the
expression for the buoyant force acting on a sub-merged body.
75. A rectangular tank is moving horizontally in the direction of its length with a constant
acceleration of 2.4 m/s2. The length, width and depth of the tank are 6m, 2.5m and 2.0 m
respectively. If the depth of water in the tank is 1.0m and tank is open at the top then calculate:(i) The angle of the water surface to the horizontal
(ii) The maximum and minimum pressure intensities at the bottom
(iii) The total force due to water acting on each end of the tank.

UNIT-IV (Dynamics of fluid flow)

76. What is Eulers equation of motion? How will you obtain Bernoullis equation from it/
77. State Bernoullis theorem and write down all the assumptions made in its derivations.
78. Derive Eulers equation of motion along a stream line for an ideal fluid stating clearly the
assumptions made.
79. Draw the graphical representation of the Bernoullis equation in following devices:(i) Venturimeter
(ii) Converging-diverging nozzle
(iii) Converging-diverging diffuser
80. Define a venturimeter. Prove that the discharge through a venturimeter is given by the
81. What is an orifice plate? How will the discharge through a pipe line be measured with the
help of an orifice plate?
82. Describe with a neat sketch, the principle and working of a pitot-tube.
83. What is a weir? Differentiate between a notch and a weir.
84. Derive an expression for the discharge over a rectangular weir.
85. A pipe of 250 mm diameter carries an oil of specific gravity 0.8 at the rate of 130 liter/s and
under a pressure of 3 kpa. Find the total energy per unit weight at a point which is 3m above the
datum line. Find the total energies per unit mass and per unit volume.
86. At a certain section A of a pipeline carrying water, the diameter is 1.5m,the pressure is 100
kpa and the velocity is 4m/s. at another section B which is 2.5m higher than A, the diameter is 1
m and the pressure is 60 kpa. What is the direction of flow?
87. What should be pressure difference between the upstream section and throat of a 60mm by
30mm horizontal venturimeter carrying 60 liter/s of water at room temperature?

88. An orifice meter consisting of 100mm diameter orifice in a 250mm diameter pipe has
Cd=0.65. The pipe delivers oil of sp. Gravity of 0.8. The pressure difference on the two sides of
the orifice plate is measured by a Hg oil differential manometer. If the differential gauge reading
is 800mm of Hg, find the rate of flow in liter/s.
89. A pitot static tube placed in the centre of a 250mm pipe line has one orifice pointing
upstream and other perpendicular to it. The mean velocity in the pipe 75 of the central velocity.
Find the discharge through the pipe if the pressure difference between the two orifices is 80mm
of water. Take CV=0.99.
90. What is meant by end contractions of a rectangular weir? How can the loss of discharge due
to end contractions be compensated?
91. How does the velocity of approach affect the expression for discharge over a weir?
92. The daily rainfall over a catchment area was found to 2.5*10 liter. It was observed that 25
of the rain water is lost due to vaporization and the remaining reaches the reservoir which passes
over a rectangular weir. Find the length of the weir, if water over the weir will never rise more
than 500mm. Take Cd=0.62
93. A sharp crested rectangular weir of 1.4m height extends across a rectangular channel of 4m
width. if the head of water over the weir is 0.5m. Find the discharge over the weir. Consider the
velocity of approach and Cd=0.61
94. A 300 diameter of pipe carries water under a head of 20 meter with a velocity of 3.5m/s. if
the axis of the pipe turns through 45 and the pipe is laid horizontally, find the magnitude and
direction of the resultant force on the bend.
95. What is Cipoletti weir? How does it differ from rectangular weir?
96. Water is flowing through a pipe of 70mm diameter under pressure of 50 kpa and with
velocity of 3m/s. neglecting friction, finds the total head, if the pipe is 10m above the datum line.
97. Find the discharge over a rectangular notch 5m long when the head of liquid over the sill is
0.4m. Take Cd=0.62
98. Find the discharge over a stepped notch of the following dimensions:Top section: 1000mm*150mm
Middle section: 800mm*100mm
Bottom section; 600mm*800mm
Take Cd for three sections as 0.62

99. A pitot tube was inserted in a pipe to measure the velocity of water in it. If the water rises in
the tube is 400mm, find the velocity of water. Take Cv=0.98
100. Explain the classification of orifices and mouthpieces based on their shape, size and

UNIT-V (Dimensional Analysis and Hydraulic Similitude)

101. Find an expression for drag force on smooth sphere of diameter d, moving with a uniform
velocity v, in a fluid of density and dynamic viscosity..
102. Assuming that the resistance force F exerted by a fluid on a sphere of diameter D depends
on the viscosity, mass density of the fluid and the velocity of the sphere v, obtain an
expression for resistance force.
103. State Buckinghams -theorem. Why this theorem is considered superior over the
Rayleighs method for dimensional analysis?
104. What do you mean by repeating variables? How the repeating variables are are selected for
dimensional analysis?
105. Define the term: - Model, prototype, model analysis, hydraulic similitude.
106. Explain different types of hydraulic similarities that must exist between a prototype and its
107. Define and explain Reynoldss number, Froudes number and Mach number. Derive
expression for any two above numbers.
108. What is meant by geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarity? Are these similarities truly
attainable? If not why?
109. What are the different laws on which models are designed for dynamic similarity? Where
are they used?
110. How will you determine the total drag of a ship or partially sub-merged bodies?
111. Explain the terms:- distorted
importances of distorted models.

models and undistorted models. Also mention the

112. Show that ratio of inertia force to viscous force gives the Reynolds number.

113. Prove that the scale ratio for discharge for a distorted model is given asQp/Qm = (Lr) H * (Lr) v3/2
114. The force exerted by a flowing fluid on a stationary body depends upon the length L of the
body, velocity v of the fluid, density of fluid. Viscosity of the fluid and acceleration g due to
gravity, find an expression for the force using dimensional analysis.
115. The pressure difference p in a pipe of diameter D and length L due to turbulent flow
depends upon the velocity v, viscosity, density and roughness k. Using Buckinghams theorem or otherwise obtain an expression for p.
116. A 1: 64 model is constructed of an open channel in concrete which has Mannings N =
0.014. Find the value of N for model.
117. In a 1 in 20 model is stilling basin the height of hydraulic jump in the model is observed to
be 0.20 meter. What is the height of hydraulic jump in the prototype? If the energy dissipated in
the model is 1/10 kW, what is the corresponding value in prototype?
118. In 1 in 40 model of a spillway the velocity and discharge are 2 m/s and 2.5 m 3/s. find the
corresponding velocity and discharge in the prototype.
119. A ship model of scale 1/50 is towed through sea water at a speed of 1 m/s A force of 2N is
required to tow the model. Determine the speed of ship and the propulsive force on the ship, if
prototype is subjected to wave resistance only.
120. A pipe of diameter 1.5 m is required to transport an oil of sp. Gravity 0.90 and viscosity
3*10-2 poise at the rate of 3000 liter/s. Tests were conducted on a 15 cm diameter pipe using
water at 20C. find the velocity and rate of flow in the model. Viscosity of water at 20C=0.01
121. What are the methods of dimensional analysis? Describe the Rayleighs method for
dimensional analysis.
122. Explain the term dimensionally homogenous equation.
123. What do you mean by fundamental units and derived units? Give examples.
124. Write down the dimensions of the following: - specific weight, surface tension, momentum
and bulk-modulus.
125. A pump develops a power p which is a function of the discharge q, the head h and the
specific weight w of the fluid. Show that p= KQWH where k is a dimensionless number.

UNIT-VI (Laminar and Turbulent Flow)

126 What do you mean by viscous flow? Explain.

127. Differentiate between laminar and turbulent flow.
128. What do you mean by critical velocity of a fluid through a circular pipe?
129. Show for viscous flow through a circular pipe the velocity distribution across the section is
parabolic. Show that the mean velocity is equal to one half the maximum velocity.
130. Prove that the loss of pressure head for the viscous flow through a circular pipe is given by;Hf = 32ul/gD
131. What do you mean by turbulent flow? Explain
132. Define the following terms:Instantaneous velocity, Fluctuation velocity, Average velocity
133. Explain briefly hydro- dynamically smooth and rough boundaries.
134. Define the terms with examples degree of turbulence and intensity of turbulence.
135. Distinguish between wall turbulence and free turbulence.
136 What is meant by turbulence? How does it affect the flow properties?
137. Derive an expression for velocity distribution for turbulent flow in smooth pipe.
138. What are the semi-empirical theories of turbulence? Explain the concept of mixing length
introduced by prandtl and state the relationship that exists between the turbulent shearing stress
and mixing length.
139. Explain the prandtls mixing length theory for turbulent shear stress.
140. Water is flowing through a rough pipe of diameter 600mm at the rate of 500 liter/s. the wall
roughness is 3 mm. find the power lost for 1000m length of pipe.

141. For turbulent flow in a pipe of diameter 300mm, determine the discharge when the
maximum velocity is 2 m/s and the velocity at point 100mm from the centre is 1.6m/s.
142. An oil of viscosity 4.5 poise flows in a 40 mm diameter pipe, discharge rate being 5 liters/s.
If the specific gravity of oil is 0.85. State whether the flow is laminar or turbulent.
143. A pipe line carrying water has average height of irregularities projecting from the surface of
the boundary of the pipe as 0.15mm. What type of boundary it is? The shear stress developed is
4.9 N/m2. The kinematic viscosity of water is 0.02 stokes.
144. A laminar flow is taking place in a pipe of diameter of 200mm. the maximum is 1.5 m/s.
find the mean velocity and the radius at which this occurs. Find also the velocity at 40mm from
the wall of the pipe.
145. A fluid of viscosity 7 poise and sp. Gravity 1.3 is flowing through a circular pipe of
diameter 100mm. the maximum shear stress at the pipe wall is given as 196.2 N/m 2 find the
pressure gradient, average velocity and Reynolds number of flow..
146. A smooth pipe line 75mm in diameter and 500mm long conveys water at the rate of 75
liter/s. find the loss of head, wall shear stress, and centerline velocity thickness of laminar sublayer. Take kinematic viscosity as .0195 stokes.
147. A rough pipe is of diameter 50mm. the velocity at a point 30mm from wall is 30 more
than the velocity at a point 10 cm from pipe wall. Find the average height of the roughness.
148. Find the distance from the pipe wall at which the local velocity is equal to the average
velocity for turbulent flow in the pipe. Also find the distance from the centre of the pipe.
149. An oil of sp. Gravity 0.9 is flowing through a rough pipe of diameter 400mm and length 4
km at the rate of 0.4m3/s. Find the power required to maintain this flow. Take average height of
roughness as k=0.5mm.
150. A laminar flow is taking place in a pipe of diameter 250mm. the maximum velocity is 2m/s.
Find the mean velocity and the radius at which this occurs. Also find the velocity at 40mm from
the wall of pipe.

UNIT-VII (Boundary Layer Analysis)

151. Explain briefly the major and minor losses in pipe lines.
152. Derive an expression for the loss of head due to sudden enlargement in pipe diameter.
153. Derive an expression for the loss of head due to sudden contraction of a pipe.
154. Define and explain the terms: - pipe in series and pipe in parallel, equivalent pipe,
equivalent size of the pipe and minor and major energy losses
155. What is a siphon? On what principle it works?
156. Show that for maximum transmission of power by means of water under pressure, the
frictional loss of head in the pipe equals one-third of the total head supplied.
157. Explain the phenomenon of water hammer. Obtain an expression for rise of pressure. When
the flowing water in a pipe is brought to rest by closing the valve gradually.
158. The rate of flow of water through a horizontal pipe is 300 liter/s. The pipe of diameter
200mm is suddenly enlarged to 400mm. Find:(i) Loss of head
(ii) Change in pressure
(iii) Loss of fluid power
159. Determine the head loss due to friction in a pipe of diameter 300mm and length 75m,
through which water is flowing at a velocity 3 m/s by using- (a) Darcy-weisbach formula
(b) Chazys formula for which C= 6 Take kinematic viscosity for water=0.01 stoke.
160. Define and explain the following:Displacement thickness, Momentum thickness, Energy thickness as applied to boundary
layer flow, Laminar sub-layer, Boundary layer thickness, laminar and turbulent boundary layer .
161. Derive expression for the momentum thickness and the energy thickness for the boundary
layer flows.
162. Derive an expression for Von-Karman momentum integral equation.

163. Show that for linear distribution of velocity in the boundary layer; /=6
164. Show that for the velocity profile;
u/U = 2-2
Where =y/. That ratio /* = 3
165. Define the following terms:Airfoil, leading and trailing edges, chord, angle of attack, aspect ratio, drag and lift, wall
drag, form drag and total drag.
166. What is Magnus effect? Why is it known as Magnus effect?
167. Define stagnation points. How the position of the stagnation points for a rotating cylinder in
a uniform flow is determined? What is the condition for single stagnation point?
168. What is the expression for the drag on sphere, when Reynoldss number of the flow is up to
0.2? And prove that the co-efficient of drag for sphere for this range of the Reynoldss number is
given by
Cd = 24/Re

where Re= Reynoldss number

169. What is circulation? Find an expression for circulation for a free vortex of radius R.
170. Prove that the lift force acting on rotating cylinder in a uniform flow is given by;FL = LU
171. Prove that the co-efficient of lift for a rotating cylinder placed in a uniform flow is given
by;CL = /RU
172. Prove that the co-efficient of lift for airfoil is given by
CL = 2 sin
When the circulation developed on an airfoil is equal to C U sin, where = angle of attack.
173. A flat plate 1.5m * 1.5m moves at 50 km/hr in stationary air of density 1.15 kg/m3. If the
co-efficient of drag and lift are 0.15 and 0.75 respectively. Find: - (I) the lift force (ii) the drag
force (iii) the resultant force (IV) The power required keeping the plate in motion.
174. A metallic sphere of sp. Gravity 8 falls in an oil of sp. Gravity 0.8. The diameter of sphere is
10mm and it attains a terminal velocity of 0.05 m/s. find the velocity of oil in poise.

175. A kite of dimension 0.8 * 0.8m and weighing 4 N assumes an angle of 15 to the horizontal.
The string attached to the kite makes an angle of 45to the horizontal. The pull on the string is 24
N when the wind is flowing at a speed of 30 km/hr. Find the co-efficient of drag and lift. Take
density of air =1.22 kg/m3.