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# 6.

## Lecture 12 - Sub-threshold MOSFET Operation - Outline

Announcement
Hour exam two: in 2 weeks, Thursday, Nov. 5, 7:30-9:30 pm

Review

## MOSFET model: gradual channel approximation

iD

(Example: n-MOS)
0
for (vGS VT)/ 0 vDS (cutoff)
K(vGS VT)2 /2
for 0 (vGS VT)/ vDS (saturation)
K(vGS VT vDS/2)vDS for 0 vDS (vGS VT)/ (linear)

## with K (W/L)eCox*, VT = VFB 2p-Si + [2Si qNA(|2p-Si| vBS)]1/2/Cox*

and = 1 + [(Si qNA/2(|2p-Si| vBS)]1/2 /Cox (frequently 1)
The factor : what it means physically

## Sub-threshold operation - qualitative explanation

Looking back at Lecture 10 (Sub-threshold electron charge)

## Quantitative sub-threshold modeling

iD,sub-threshold((0)), then iD,s-t(vGS, vDS)
[with vBS = 0]

## Stepping back and looking at the equations

Lecture 12 - Slide 1

The Gradual Channel result ignoring and valid for v BS " 0, and v DS # 0 is:
iG (vGS ,v DS ,v BS ) = 0, iB (vGS ,v DS ,v BS ) = 0, and
0
iD (vGS ,v DS ,v BS ) =

K
2
[vGS " VT (v BS )]
2
#
v &
K $vGS " VT (v BS ) " DS ' v DS % 2 ( for ! for ## [vGS " VT (v BS )] < 0 <v DS 0 < [vGS " VT (v BS )] <v DS for ## 0 <v DS < [vGS " VT (v BS )] with K ) W * * e Cox and Cox ) *ox t ox L We noted last lecture that these simple expressions without are easy to ## remember, and refining them to include involves easy to remember substitutions: v DS " # v DS L "#L K "K # ! What we haven't done yet is to look at itself, and ask what it means. What is it physically? 1/xDT(VBS) G ! * Cox +$Si qN A 2$Si 2% p&Si & v BS ox 1$SiqN A
ox/tox
" # 1+ *
=
*
Cox 2 2% p&Si & v BS
Cox
Si
Si/xDT
*
*
"Si x DT
"Si t ox
CDT
CDT
B
= 1+
= 1+
= 1+ * = *
"ox t ox
"ox x DT
Cox CGB
Lecture 12 - Slide 2

## MOS Capacitors: the gate charge as vGB is varied

qG* [coul/cm2]
"2
2Cox
vGB $VFB ) ( #SiqN A %' ( " qG = 1+$1**
"
'
Cox &
#SiqN A
)

"
qG" = Cox
(vGB # VT )

Inversion
Layer
Charge

+ qN AP X DT

qNAPXDT

Depletion
Region
Charge

VFB
"
qG" = Cox
(vGB # VFB )

## The charge expressions:

"
, Cox
(vGB # VFB )
.
"2
. %SiqN A &
2Cox
vGB # VFB ) )
(
"
( 1+
qG (vGB ) = #1++
"
(
%SiqN A
. Cox '
*
. C " (v # V ) + qN X
/ ox GB
T
A DT

vGB [V]

VT

Accumulation
Layer Charge

"
Cox
#

for

vGB $VFB for VFB$ vGB $VT ! VT$ vGB

for

## This version is only valid, however, when |(x)| -p.

When |(x)| > -p we have accumulation and inversion layers,
and we assume them to be infinitely thin sheets of charge,
i.e. we model them as delta functions.

Lecture 12 - Slide 4

## Poisson's Equation calculation of gate charge

Calculation compared with depletion approximation
model for tox = 3 nm and NA = 1018 cm-3:

tox,eff 3.2 nm

tox,eff 3.3 nm

## We'll look in this

vicinity today.
We've ignored
sub-threshold
charge in our
MOSFET i-v
modelling thus
far.

Lecture 12 - Slide 5

## MOS Capacitors: Sub-threshold charge

Assessing how much we are neglecting
Sheet density of electrons below threshold in weak inversion
In the depletion approximation for the MOS we say that the
charge due to the electrons is negligible before we reach
threshold and the strong inversion layer builds up:
*
qN (inversion ) (vGB ) = "Cox
(vGB " VT )

dx x= 0
&Si

## With this linear approximation to (x) we can do the integral

and find

qN (sub"threshold ) (vGB ) # q

kT n(0)
kT
= "q
q a
q

diD (x) = q De

W
W dx #
De q n ie q$(x,vGS )/ kT (1" e"qv DS )/ kT ) dx L L Lecture 12 - Slide 17 ## Sub-threshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont. - Then we add up all the contributions to get iD: ' W$0
q" (x,vGS )/ kT
iD =
De & # q n ie
dx)(1* e*qv DS / kT )
L &% x d
)(
- This is what we called qN(sub-threshold) in Lecture 9 and today on Foil 7.
Substituting the expression we found for this (see Foil 7), we have:

%
W
kT
iD(sub"threshold ) =
De 'q
L
'& q
!

(
#Si
n ie q $(0,vGS ) kT *(1" e"qv DS / kT ) 2qN A [$ (0,vGS ) " $p ] *) ## - Using the Einstein relation and replacing ni with NAeqp/kT, we obtain: 2 # & W kT 1 * iD(sub"th ) = e Cox % ( * L$ q ' 2Cox

2q)Si N A
q {* (0,vGS )"[ "* p ] }
e
[* (0,vGS ) " * p ]

kT

(1" e

"qv DS / kT

- To finish (we are almost done) we need to replace (0,vGS) with vGS
since we want the drain current's dependence on the terminal voltage.

Lecture 12 - Slide 18

vGS = VFB

1
*
d$(0) )* 2Cox + 2%SiqN A ) , "$ (0) . n "$(0) [$ (0) & $p ] )"n ## - In the current equation we have the quantity {(0,vGS) - [-p]}. - p is simply (0,VT), the potential at x = 0 when the gate voltage is VT, so {" (0,v GS ## ) # [#" p ]} = {" (0,vGS ) # " (0,VT )} = {vGS # VT } n ## - Using this and the definition for n, we arrive at: iD(sub"threshold ) # ## Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 W * e Cox L$ kT ' 2
q { vGS "VT } n kT
n
"1
e
1" e"qv DS / kT )
)
(
& ) (
% q(
Lecture 12 - Slide 19

## Sub-threshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont.

- To fully complete our modeling, we must add two more points:
1. The dependences on vBS and vDS:
vBS: The threshold voltage depends on vBS. (0,VT) does also,
i.e. (0,VT) = - p-vBS, and so do the junction barriers. Taking
this all into account we find that the only change we need to
make is to acknowledge that n and VT both depend on vBS.
vDS: The drain to source voltage introduced a factor (1 - e-qvDS/kT) 1.
This is discussed in the handout posted on Stellar.
The complete expression for iD is:

iD,s"t (vGS ,v DS ,v BS ) #

W
*
e Cox
L

## ** Notice that this is exactly the same expression as that for !

Lecture 12 - Slide 20

## Sub-threshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont.

- Comparing current levels above and below threshold:
The ranges of the two models do not overlap, but is it still
interesting to compare the largest possible value of the subthreshold drain current model (vGS - VT = 0 V),* with the strong
inversion model at vGS - VT = 0.06 V, 0.1 V, and 0.2 V:

iD(sub"threshold )
K

$kT ' 2 q v "V n kT # & ) ( n "1) e { GS T } % q( (0.025)2 iD(strong inversion ) ! " 1 2 v$
V
( GS T )
2#
0.4

0.25

(0.06)2
(0.1)2
(0.2)2

vBS = 0

= 1.56 x 10-4 V2

= 1.5 x 10-3 V2
= 4 x 10-3 V2
= 1.6 x 10-2 V2

## We see that the current in strong inversion drift current quickly

becomes much larger, although only grows quadratically.

## * This is pushing the model, particularly with regard to the

diffusion current model, beyond it's range of strict validity,
and is probably somewhat of an over-estimate.

Lecture 12 - Slide 21

## Sub-threshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont.

- Plotting our models for the earlier device: NA = 1018 cm-3, tox = 3 nm:

vBS = 0

Lecture 12 - Slide 22

## - Zooming into a lower current scale: NA = 1018 cm-3, tox = 3 nm:

vBS = 0

Lecture 12 - Slide 23

## Sub-threshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont.

- Repeating the plot with a log current scale: NA = 1018 cm-3, tox = 3 nm:

Slope = 60 x n mV/decade*

## * n = 1.25 here so 75 mV/decade

vBS = 0

Lecture 12 - Slide 24

## Sub-threshold Output Characteristic

- We plot a family of iD vs vDS curves with (vGS - VT) as the family

2

$qvCE / kT - The two biggest differences are (1) the magnitudes of the IS's, and (2) the factor of "n" in the MOSFET case. The totality of vBE reduces the barrier, whereas only a fraction 1/n of vGS does. ! - A third difference is that a BJT has a base current.* Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 Lecture 12 - Slide 26 * This is the price paid for having n = 1 in a BJT. ## Large Signal Model for MOSFET Operating Sub-threshold - The large signal model for a MOSFET operating in the weak inversion or sub-threshold region looks the same model as that for a device operating in strong inversion (vGS > VT) EXCEPT there is a different equation relating iD to vGS, vDS, and vBS: We will limit our model to ## vGS " VT , v DS > 3kT /q and v BS = 0. D ! iD iD (vGS , vDS ) G iG (= 0) iG,s"t (vGS ,v DS ,v BS ) = 0 S,B ## iD,s"t (vGS ,v DS ,0) # IS,s"t (1"$v DS ) e

!

Early effect

q { vGS "VTo } n kT

(1" e

"qv DS / kT

## 1 for vDS > 3 kT/q

Lecture 12 - Slide 27

## Sub-threshold operation - qualitative explanation

Look back at Lecture 10
(Sub-threshold electron charge)

the interface

Important in/for

## 1. power dissipation in normally-off logic gates

2. limiting the gain of strong inversion linear amplifiers
3. realizing ultra-low power, very low voltage electronics

## Quantitative sub-threshold modeling

This gives us a precise description of the voltage dependence
It also gives us the information on IS,s-t and n we need for
device design

## iD,s"t (vGS ,v DS ,v BS ) # IS,s"t e

with:
IS,s"t

2
$' W kT * # e Cox & ) [ n "1] L % q( q { vGS "VT (v BS )} n kT &( 1 and n " '1+ * () Cox "qv DS / kT 1" e ( ) *( #SiqN A + =2[$2% p \$ v BS ] (,

Lecture 12 - Slide 28

MIT OpenCourseWare
http://ocw.mit.edu

Fall 2009