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1. What is a research problem?

A research problem is a statement about an area of concern, a condition to be
improved upon, a difficulty to be eliminated, or a troubling question that exists in
scholarly literature, in theory, or in practice that points to the need for meaningful
understanding and deliberate investigation. In some social science disciplines the
research problem is typically posed in the form of one or more questions. A research
problem does not state how to do something, offer a vague or broad proposition, or
present a value question.
2. What are the source of research problems?
a. Deductions from Theory
b. Interdisciplinary Perspectives
c. Interviewing Practitioners
d. Personal Experience
e. Relevant Literature
3. What are the characteristics of a research problem?
a. It is generated by a question. A questioning mind is precondition for research.
b. Necessitates clarification for goal. Without a clear statement of the objectives and
what is intended to be done, the research cannot be successful.
c. It entails a specific program for work. Research needs to be carefully planned in
order to achieve its objectives and reach conclusions.
d. It is aimed at increasing understanding by interpreting the facts for ideas and
reaching some conclusions about their meaning.
e. It requires reasoned argument to support conclusions.
f. It is reiterative in its activities.
g. Divides the principal question or the problem into more practicable sub questions
or problems.
h. Tentatively guided by assertions called hypothesis.
i. Requires measurable data in attempting to answer the question which initiated
the researcher.
4. What is the role of related literature in a research?
It describes how the proposed research is related to prior research in
statistics. It shows the originality and relevance of your research problem.
Specifically, your research is different from other statisticians. It justifies your
proposed methodology. It demonstrates your preparedness to complete the
5. What is the difference of probability and non-probability sampling?
Probability sampling method is any method of sampling that utilizes some form
of random selection. In order to have a random selection method, you must set
up some process or procedure that assures that the different units in your
population have equal probabilities of being chosen. Humans have long practiced
various forms of random selection, such as picking a name out of a hat, or
choosing the short straw. These days, we tend to use computers as the
mechanism for generating random numbers as the basis for random selection.
Non-probability sampling does not involve random selection and probability
sampling does. Does that mean that nonprobability samples aren't representative
of the population? Not necessarily. But it does mean that nonprobability samples
cannot depend upon the rationale of probability theory. At least with a
probabilistic sample, we know the odds or probability that we have represented
the population well. We are able to estimate confidence intervals for the statistic.

6. & 7. What are the different research methodologies? How are they

Generally. this experiment method must be used where emotions or behaviors are measured. especially for larger experiments. such as the case study. following the ordinal or interval type. involving the standard practice of manipulating quantitative. and will advance human knowledge. Whilst the experiment cannot be replicated or falsified. this is what most people immediately think of. The results generated are analyzable and are used to test hypotheses. Mark Rosevelt Belono . or intensity. as ‘quasi-experimental’ research. and is often impossible to perform for some fields. because it passes all of the definitions of ‘true science’. These figures are arbitrary. are probably the furthest removed from the established scientific method. The other problem. with researchers often applying a ‘numerical scale’ to the type.Experimental Research Methods The first method is the straightforward experiment. as there is no other way of defining the variables. it still offers unique insights. The Bandura Bobo Doll experiment and the Asch Experiment were examples of opinion based research. where budget is a problem. It is also the biggest drain on time and resources. as a way of studying a group without affecting their behavior. ‘What is happening?’ or ‘Why?’ Observation is heavily used in social sciences. For this type of research. is that taking something out of its natural environment can seriously affect its behavior. Quantifying behavior is another way of performing this research. but at least give a directional method of measuring intensity. a researcher may notice unusual behavior and ask. where real life organisms are used. This method is very cheap and easy. by many scientists. Observational research methods. and gives an element of scale to opinion and emotion. This type is looked down upon. in some fields of research. independent variables to generate statistically analyzable data. Observational Research Methods Observational research is a group of different research methods where researchers try to observe a phenomenon without interfering too much. When we talk about ‘scientific research methods’. Observational research tends to use nominal or ordinal scales of measurement. The researcher is accepting or refuting the null hypothesis. with statistics giving a clear and unambiguous picture. behavioral studies and anthropology. requiring rigorous design and a great deal of expense. and testing emotions or preferences. of behavior. and questions may arise during the course of the study. although this is usually an unfair criticism. Questionnaires are an effective way of quantifying data from a sample group. experimental research is ‘too’ accurate. Observational research often has no clearly defined research problem. the measurements are usually arbitrary. Opinion Based Research Methods Opinion based research methods generally involve designing an experiment and collecting quantitative data. This research method is one of the most difficult. the system of scientific measurements is interval or ratio based. because of ethical considerations. It is often argued that. For example. By definition.