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Chapter 6

Fatigue Failure
Resulting from
Variable Loading

Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, Ph.D., PE


Chapter Outline
 Introduction to Fatigue in Metals
 Approach to Fatigue Failure in Analysis and Design
 Fatigue-Life Methods
 The Stress-Life Method
 The Strain-Life Method
 The Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics Method
 The Endurance Limit
 Fatigue Strength
 Endurance Limit Modifying Factors
 Stress Concentration and Notch Sensitivity
 Characterizing Fluctuating Stresses
 Fatigue Failure Criteria for Fluctuating Stress
 Torsional Fatigue Strength under Fluctuating Stresses
 Combinations of Loading Modes
 Varying, Fluctuating Stresses; Cumulative Fatigue Damage
 Surface Fatigue Strength
 Stochastic Analysis
Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, Ph.D., PE


Introduction to Fatigue in Metals
 Loading

produces stresses that


 Maximum stresses well below yield strength
 Failure occurs after many stress cycles
 Failure is by sudden ultimate fracture
 No visible warning in advance of failure
Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, Ph.D., PE

PE ..4 Stages of Fatigue Failure  Stage I: Initiation of micro-crack due to cyclic plastic deformation  Stage II: Progresses to macro-crack that repeatedly opens & closes. creating bands called beach marks Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. Ph.D.

D. Ph. PE .5 Stages of Fatigue Failure  Stage III: Crack has propagated far enough that remaining material is insufficient to carry the load. and fails by simple ultimate failure Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba..

Ph.D..6 Fatigue Fracture Example  AISI 4320 drive shaft  B: crack initiation at stress concentration in keyway  C: Final brittle failure Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE .

7 Fatigue-Life Methods Three major fatigue life models Methods predict life in number of cycles to failure. N. Ph.D. for a specific level of loading Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.. PE .

8 Fatigue-Life Methods 1. Stress-life method Strain-life method Linear-elastic fracture method mechanics Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. 3.D. PE .. Ph. 2.

D. Ph. Stress-Life Method Test specimens subjected to repeated stress while counting cycles to failure  Pure bending with no transverse shear  completely reversed stress cycling  Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.. PE .9 1.

D. Ph.10 S-N Diagram Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE ..

Ph..11 S-N Diagram for Steel Stress levels below Se : infinite life 103 to 106 cycles: finite life Below 103 cycles: low cycle  Yielding usually occurs before fatigue Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.D. PE .

D.12 S-N Diagram for Nonferrous Metals    no endurance limit Fatigue strength Sf S-N diagram for aluminums Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE .. Ph.

Ph.D.13 2. PE .. Strain-Life Method Detailed analysis of plastic deformation at localized regions  Useful for explaining nature of fatigue  Fatigue failure begins at a local discontinuity  Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.

14 2.. leading to fatigue  Fig. plastic strain occurs  Cyclic plastic strain can change elastic limit. Ph. 6–12 Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE . Strain-Life Method When stress at discontinuity exceeds elastic limit.D.

.D. 6–12) Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. 6–12) Fatigue strength coefficient s'F = true stress corresponding to fracture in one reversal (point A in Fig. Ph. PE .15 Relation of Fatigue Life to Strain    Figure 6–13: relationship of fatigue life to true-strain amplitude Fatigue ductility coefficient e'F = true strain at which fracture occurs in one reversal (point A in Fig.

6–13 Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. Ph.16 Relation of Fatigue Life to Strain Fig. PE ..D.

. 6–13 Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. 6–13  Equation of elastic strain line in Fig. Ph. PE .D.17 Relation of Fatigue Life to Strain  Equation of plastic-strain line in Fig.

D. PE .18 Relation of Fatigue Life to Strain    Fatigue ductility exponent c = slope of plastic-strain line 2N stress reversals = N cycles Fatigue strength exponent b = slope of elastic-strain line Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. Ph..

. PE . Ph.19 Relation of Fatigue Life to Strain  Manson-Coffin: relationship between fatigue life and total strain  Table A–23: values of coefficients & exponents  Equation has limited use for design  Values for total strain at discontinuities are not readily available Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.D.

D..20 The Endurance Limit Fig. PE . 6–17 Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. Ph.

. S'e Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. Ph.D. PE .21 The Endurance Limit Simplified estimate of endurance limit for steels for the rotating-beam specimen.

Ph. an approximation of idealized SN diagram is desirable. PE  For design.. (6-2)  Define specimen fatigue strength at a specific number of cycles as .22 Fatigue Strength Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.D. start with Eq.  To estimate fatigue strength at 103 cycles.

.  f = fraction of Sut represented by ( S f )10 3  SAE approximation for steels with HB ≤ 500.23 Fatigue Strength  At 103 cycles.D. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. Ph. PE .

PE .D. substitute endurance strength and corresponding cycles into Eq. Ph. (6–9) and solve for b Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.24 Fatigue Strength  To find b..

. Ph.25 Fatigue Strength Substitute Eqs. 6–9 and 6–10 to obtain expressions for S'f and f Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE .D. 6–11 & 6–12 into Eqs.

. Ph.5Sut at 106 cycles Fig. PE . 6–18 Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. (6–10) for the fatigue strength fraction f of Sut at 103 cycles Use f from plot for S'f = f Sut at 103 cycles on S-N diagram Assume Se = S'e= 0.26 Fatigue Strength Fraction f    Plot Eq.D.

27 Equations for S-N Diagram Fig..D. Ph. PE . 6–10 Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.

Sf = f Sut  At N =106 cycles. Sf = Se  Equations for line:  Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.D. Ph. PE .28 Equations for S-N Diagram Write equation for S-N line from 103 to 106 cycles  Two known points  At N =103 cycles..

a completely reversed stress with the same life expectancy must be used on the S-N diagram Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.29 Equations for S-N Diagram  If a completely reversed stress srev is given. (6–13) and solving for N gives. Ph. PE . setting Sf = srev in Eq.  Typical S-N diagram is only applicable for completely reversed stresses  For other stress situations..D.

D. Sut) Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.30 Low-cycle Fatigue   1 ≤ N ≤ 103 On the idealized S-N diagram on a loglog scale.. Ph. f Sut) and (1. PE . failure is predicted by a straight line between two points: (103.

.D. b. PE . the endurance strength of a polished rotating-beam specimen corresponding to 104 cycles to failure c. the rotating-beam endurance limit at 106 cycles. the expected life of a polished rotatingbeam specimen under a completely reversed stress of 55 kpsi.31 Example 6-2 Given a 1050 HR steel. Ph. estimate a. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.

a set of factors are used to adjust the endurance limit Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.. PE .32 Endurance Limit Modifying Factors    Endurance limit S'e is for carefully prepared and tested specimen If warranted. Ph.D. Se is obtained from testing of actual parts When testing of actual parts is not practical.

Ph.33 Endurance Limit Modifying Factors ka = surface condition factor kb = size factor kc = load factor kd = temperature factor ke = reliability factor kf = miscellaneous-effects factor Se’ = rotary-beam test specimen endurance limit Se = endurance limit at the critical location of a machine part in the geometry and condition of use Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.. PE .D.

PE .34 Surface Factor ka  ka is a function of ultimate strength  Higher strengths more sensitive to rough surfaces  Table 6–2 Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.D. Ph..

D. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba..35 Example 6-3 A steel has a min ultimate strength of 520 MPa and a machined surface. Ph. PE . Estimate ka.

D.36 Size Factor kb rotating & Round  Larger parts have greater surface area at high stress levels  Likelihood of crack initiation is higher For bending and torsion loads. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. Ph.. PE .

rotating diameter  For axial load.. there is no size effect.37 Size Factor kb rotating & Round  Applies only for round. kb = 1 Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.D. Ph. PE .

. so equate areas Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.D.38 Size Factor kb not round & rotating  An equivalent round rotating diameter is obtained.  Volume of material stressed at and above 95% of max stress = same volume in rotating-beam specimen. Ph.  Lengths cancel. PE .

Ph. the 95% stress area is the area of a ring.  Equate 95% stress area for other conditions to Eq.D. PE . (6–22) and solve for d as the equivalent round rotating diameter Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba..39 Size Factor kb not round & rotating  For a rotating round section.

PE .D. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. Ph.. (6-22) and solving for equivalent diameter. PE Dr.40 Size Factor kb round & not rotating  For non-rotating round. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.  Equating to Eq.


Size Factor kb not round & not rotating
 For

rectangular section h x b, A95s = 0.05
hb. Equating to Eq. (6–22),

Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, Ph.D., PE
Dr. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, PE


Size Factor kb
Table 6–3: A95s for common non-rotating
structural shapes undergoing bending

Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, Ph.D., PE


Size Factor kb
Table 6–3: A95s for common non-rotating
structural shapes undergoing bending

Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, Ph.D., PE

D. PE . A nonrotating mode. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. b. Ph. Estimate the Marin size factor kb if the shaft is used in a.. abutting a filleted shoulder 38 mm in diameter. A rotating mode.44 Example 6-4 A steel shaft loaded in bending is 32 mm in diameter. The shaft material has a mean ultimate tensile strength of 690 MPa.

Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE .45 Loading Factor kc    Accounts for changes in endurance limit for different types of fatigue loading. Only to be used for single load types. Use Combination Loading method (Sec.. Ph.D. 6– 14) when more than one load type is present.

PE .  ST = tensile strength at operating temperature  SRT = tensile strength at room temperature Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba..46 Temperature Factor kd  Endurance limit appears to maintain same relation to ultimate strength for elevated temperatures as at RT  Table 6–4: Effect of Operating Temperature on Tensile Strength of Steel. Ph.D.

47 Temperature Factor kd Table 6–4 Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE . Ph.D..

let kd = 1. then just use that strength. PE . If ultimate strength is known only at RT. use Table 6–4 to estimate ultimate strength at OT. Use ultimate strength at RT and apply kd from Table 6–4 to the endurance limit. Ph. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba..48 Temperature Factor kd    If ultimate strength is known for OT. With that strength.D. Let kd = 1.

D. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE ..49 Temperature Factor kd  A fourth-order polynomial curve fit of the data of Table 6–4 can be used in place of the table. Ph.

Estimate the Marin temperature modification factor and (Se)450◦ if a.50 Example 6-5 A 1035 steel has a tensile strength of 70 kpsi and is to be used for a part that sees 450°F in service. Only the tensile strength at RT is known.. RT endurance limit by test is (S’e)70◦ = 39.0 kpsi b. Ph. PE .D. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.

PE . Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. Ph.D. 6–17.51 Reliability Factor ke  Fig. S'e = 0..  Reliability factor adjusts to other reliabilities.5 Sut is typical of the data and represents 50% reliability.

PE . Ph..D.52 Reliability Factor ke Fig. 6–17 Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.

53 Reliability Factor ke Table 6–5 Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE . Ph.D..

 May require research or testing.D.54 Miscellaneous-Effects Factor kf  Consider other possible factors: Residual stresses  Directional characteristics from cold working  Case hardening  Corrosion  Surface conditioning   Limited data is available. Ph.. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE .

Ph. PE .D. ranging from 0 (not sensitive) to 1 (fully sensitive)  For q = 0.. Kf = Kt Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. Kf = 1  For q = 1.55 Stress Concentration and Notch Sensitivity  Obtain Kt as usual (Appendix A–15)  Kf = fatigue stress-concentration factor  q = notch sensitivity.

6–20: q for bending or axial loading Kf = 1 + q( Kt – 1) Fig..D. PE . Ph. 6–20 Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.56 Notch Sensitivity Fig.

6–21: qs for torsional loading Kfs = 1 + qs( Kts – 1) Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE . Ph.57 Notch Sensitivity Fig..D.

Bending or axial: Torsion: Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. 6–20 & 6–21 to get notch sensitivity.58 Notch Sensitivity Use curve fit equations for Figs. PE .. or go directly to Kf . Ph.D.

 Recommended to use q = 0.59 Notch Sensitivity for Cast Irons  Cast irons are already full of discontinuities.. which are included in the strengths.2 for cast irons.  Additional notches do not add much additional harm. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.D. Ph. PE .

Equations (6–33) and (6–35) Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba..D. Figure 6–20 b.60 Example 6-6 A steel shaft in bending has an ultimate strength of 690 MPa and a shoulder with a fillet radius of 3 mm connecting a 32-mm diameter with a 38-mm diameter. PE . Ph. Estimate Kf using: a.

 Some designers apply 1/Kf as a Marin factor to reduce Se . Decreasing Se applies more to high cycle than low cycle. since 1/ K f  Se  Se nf   K fs s  For finite life. Ph.61 Application of Fatigue Stress Concentration Factor  Use Kf as a multiplier to increase the nominal stress.  For infinite life. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE .. either method is equivalent.D. increasing stress is more conservative.

Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. Ph. Consider the shaft undergoes a fully reversing nominal stress in the fillet of (σrev)nom = 260 MPa..62 Example 6-7 For the step-shaft of Ex. PE . it is determined that the fully corrected endurance limit is Se = 280 MPa.D. Estimate the number of cycles to failure. 6–6.

Ph. Using ASTM minimum properties. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE . It is to be placed in reversed axial loading for 70 000 cycles to failure in an operating environment of 550°F.D. and a reliability of 99%.. estimate the endurance limit and fatigue strength at 70 000 cycles.63 Example 6-8 A 1015 hot-rolled steel bar has been machined to a diameter of 1 in.

64 Example 6-9 Figure 6–22a shows a rotating shaft simply supported in ball bearings at A and D and loaded by a non-rotating force F of 6. PE . Ph.. Using ASTM “minimum” strengths. Fig.D.8 kN. estimate the life of the part. 6–22 Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.

D. but not necessary Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE .65 Characterizing Fluctuating Stresses  The S-N diagram is applicable for completely reversed stresses  Other fluctuating stresses exist  Sinusoidal loading patterns are common. Ph..

PE .66 Fluctuating Stresses Figure 6–23 fluctuating stress with high frequency ripple non-sinusoidal fluctuating stress Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.. Ph.D.

.67 Fluctuating Stresses Figure 6–23 General Fluctuating Completely Reversed Repeated Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE . Ph.D.

68 Characterizing Fluctuating Stresses Stress ratio Amplitude ratio Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.. Ph.D. PE .

D. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.  In this case.69 Application of Kf for Fluctuating Stresses  For fluctuating loads at points with stress concentration. PE .. Kf should be applied to both alternating and midrange stress components. Ph. the best approach is to design to avoid all localized plastic strain.

Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. some methods (nominal mean stress method and residual stress method) recommend only applying Kf to the alternating stress. PE .D. Ph..70 Application of Kf for Fluctuating Stresses  When localized strain does occur.

where Kfm is Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE . Ph..71 Application of Kf for Fluctuating Stresses  Dowling method recommends applying Kf to the alternating stress and Kfm to the midrange stress.D.

D.. PE .72 Plot of Alternating vs Midrange Stress  Most common and simple to use  Goodman or Modified Goodman diagram Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. Ph.

73 Commonly Used Failure Criteria Fig. 6–27 Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.D.. PE . Ph.

D. Ph..74 Equations for Commonly Used Failure Criteria Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE .

75 Summarizing Tables for Failure Criteria  Tables 6–6 to 6–8: equations for Modified Goodman.D.. PE . Gerber. Ph. and Langer failure criteria  1st row: fatigue criterion  2nd row: yield criterion  3rd row: intersection of static and fatigue criteria  4th row: equation for fatigue factor of safety  1st column: intersecting equations  2nd column: coordinates of the intersection Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. ASME-elliptic.

D. PE ..76 Table 6–6: Modified Goodman and Langer Failure Criteria (1st Quadrant) Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. Ph.

PE .D.. Ph.77 Table 6–7: Gerber & Langer Failure Criteria (1st Quadrant) Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.

Ph.. PE .D.78 Table 6–8: ASME Elliptic and Langer Failure Criteria (1st Quadrant) Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.

a fatigue stressconcentration factor Kf is 1. This part is to withstand a fluctuating tensile load varying from 0 to 16 kip.79 Example 6-10 A 1.. Ph.D.5-in-diameter bar has been machined from an AISI 1050 cold-drawn bar. Find Sa and Sm and the factor of safety guarding against fatigue and firstcycle yielding. and the fillet radius. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. using a.85 for 106 or larger life. PE . ASME-elliptic fatigue line. Because of the ends. Gerber fatigue line b.

.80 Example 6-10 Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.D. PE . Ph.

81 Example 6-10 Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.. PE .D. Ph.

. and Se = 28 kpsi fully corrected. bending moment. Sy = 127 kpsi. The spring strengths are Sut = 150 kpsi. too. The spring is preloaded to adjust to various cam speeds. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.D.Example 6-11 82 A flat-leaf spring is used to retain an oscillating flatfaced follower in contact with a plate cam. and stress is fixed. and 1/4 in thick. The designer wishes to preload the spring by deflecting it 2 in for low speed and 5 in for high speed. For lower speeds the preload should be decreased to obtain longer life of cam and follower surfaces. as seen in Fig. 6–30a. The preload must be increased to prevent follower float or jump. The spring is a steel cantilever 32 in long. Ph. 2 in wide. so the alternating component of force. The follower range of motion is 2 in and fixed. PE . The total cam motion is 2 in.

D.Example 6-11 a. What are the strength factors of safety corresponding to 2 in and 5 in preload? Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. 83 Plot Gerber-Langer failure lines with the load line. Ph.. PE . b.

Example 6-11 Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE 84 .. Ph.D.

and f = 0. For the material. Modified Goodman criterion.9.. Sut = 80 kpsi. Sy = 65 kpsi. Gerber criterion. Ph.D. PE . Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. Estimate the number of cycles to a fatigue failure using: a.85 Example 6-12 A steel bar undergoes cyclic loading such that σmax = 60 kpsi and σmin = −20 kpsi. a fully corrected endurance limit of Se = 40 kpsi. b.

86 Fatigue Criteria for Brittle Materials  First quadrant fatigue failure criteria follows a concave upward Smith-Dolan locus.. Ph. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.D. PE .  Or as a design equation.

the intersection point is  In the second quadrant. Ph.  Table A–24: properties of gray cast iron..87 Fatigue Criteria for Brittle Materials Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.9 . PE  For a radial load line of slope r. including endurance limit  Endurance limit already includes ka and kb  Average kc for axial and torsional is 0.D.

. b. Use the Smith-Dolan fatigue locus. PE . The surfaces are machined. The load F = 1000 lbf tensile. Ph. In the neighborhood of the hole.D. 6–31a. The load is 1000 lbf repeatedly applied. what is the factor of safety guarding against failure under the following conditions: a.88 Example 6-13 A grade 30 gray cast iron is subjected to a load F applied to a 1 by 3/8 -in cross-section link with a 1/4 -in-diameter hole drilled in the center as depicted in Fig.Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. The load fluctuates between −1000 lbf and 300 lbf without column action. steady. c.

Ph. PE ..89 Example 6-13 Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.D.

D. PE ..90 Example 6-13 Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. Ph.

notch-free.D. polished.  For shear ultimate strength.  For less than perfect surfaces. PE . use kc = 0. Ph. the modified Goodman line is more reasonable.. recommended to use Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.  For pure torsion cases. and cylindrical.59 to convert normal endurance strength to shear endurance strength.91 Torsional Fatigue Strength  Testing: steady-stress component has no effect on the endurance limit for torsional loading if the material is :  ductile.

D. Ph. PE .59) is inherently included in the von Mises equations. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. The torsional load factor (kc = 0.  Obtain Von Mises stresses for both midrange and alternating components.92 Combinations of Loading Modes  For combined loading.  For load factor.  Apply appropriate Kf to each type of stress.. use kc = 1. use Distortion Energy theory to combine them.

axial load factor can be divided into the axial stress.93 Combinations of Loading Modes  If needed..D. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE . Ph.

D.. PE . Ph.94 Static Check for Combination Loading  Distortion Energy theory still applies for check of static yielding  Obtain Von Mises stress for maximum stresses  Stress concentration factors are not necessary to check for yielding at first cycle Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.

95 Static Check for Combination Loading  Alternate simple check is to obtain conservative estimate of s'max by summing s'a and s'm 2 1/2   s a  s m   3  a   m   s max 2  Sy ny   s max    ≈ s a  s m s max Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE . Ph..D.


Example 6-14
A rotating shaft is made of 42×4 mm AISI 1018 CD
steel tubing and has a 6-mm-diameter hole drilled
transversely through it. Estimate the factor of safety
guarding against fatigue and static failures using the
Gerber and Langer failure criteria for the following
loading conditions:
a. The shaft is subjected to a completely reversed
torque of 120 N.m in phase with a completely
reversed bending moment of 150 N.m.
b. The shaft is subjected to a pulsating torque
fluctuating from 20 to 160 N.m and a steady
bending moment of 150 N.m.
Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, Ph.D., PE


Example 6-14

Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, Ph.D., PE



Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, Ph.D., PE

 The cycles at each stress level contributes to the fatigue damage  Accumulation of damage is represented by the Palmgren-Miner cycle-ratio summation rule. PE . then at s2 for n2 cycles.D.. Ph.99 Cumulative Fatigue Damage A common situation is to load at s1 for n1 cycles. etc. also known as Miner’s rule  Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.

 Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.7 < c < 2.2..100 Cumulative Fatigue Damage ni = number of cycles at stress level si  Ni = number of cycles to failure at stress level si  c = experimentally found to be in the range 0. Ph. with an average value near unity  D = the accumulated damage. PE .D.

Ph.. 6–33.101 Example 6-15 Given a part with Sut = 151 kpsi and at the critical location of the part. PE . Fig. Se = 67. estimate the number of repetitions of the stress-time block in Fig.5 kpsi. 6–33 that can be made before failure. For the loading of Fig. 6–33 Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.D.

PE .102 Illustration of Miner’s Rule   Figure 6–34: effect of Miner’s rule on endurance limit and fatigue failure line. Ph. Damaged material line is predicted to be parallel to original material line.D. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba..

PE .. Ph. 2. It predicts the static strength Sut is damaged. It does not account for the order in which the stresses are applied Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.103 Weaknesses of Miner’s Rule Miner’s rule fails to agree with experimental results in two ways 1.D.

It requires each line to be constructed in the same historical order in which the stresses occur. PE .104 Manson’s Method  Manson’s method overcomes deficiencies of Miner’s rule..9Sut at 103 cycles. Fig. 6–35 Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. All fatigue lines on S-N diagram converge to a common point at 0.D. Ph.

D. and temperature Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE . Ph. number of cycles. hardness.  Factors include Hertz stresses. lubrication.105 Surface Fatigue Strength  When two surfaces roll or roll and slide against one another.  The surface fatigue mechanism is complex and not definitively understood. surface finish.. a pitting failure may occur after a certain number of cycles.

.D. PE .106 Surface Fatigue Strength  From Eqs. (3–73) and (3–74). Ph. the pressure in contacting cylinders. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.

. PE . contact fatigue strength. Ph. or Hertzian endurance strength) Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. to radius r and width w instead  pmax = surface endurance strength (contact strength.D.107 Surface Fatigue Strength  Converting of length l.

D. (6–61) and (6–63).. Ph. a similar factor is used.  K1 = Buckingham’s load-stress factor. or wear factor  In gear studies. PE .108 Surface Fatigue Strength  Combining Eqs. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.

with material property terms incorporated into an elastic coefficient CP Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. Ph.109 Surface Fatigue Strength  From Eq..D. (6–64). PE .

from Eq.D. PE .110 Surface Fatigue Strength  Experiments show the following relationships  Data on induction-hardened steel give (SC)107 = 271 kpsi and (SC)108 = 239 kpsi.. is Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. so β. (6–67). Ph.

Ph.111 Surface Fatigue Strength A long standing correlation in between SC and HB at 108 cycles is  AGMA steels uses Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE ..D.

112 Surface Fatigue Strength  Incorporating 66).. Ph.D. design factor into Eq. PE . (6– Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba.

113 Surface Fatigue Strength  Since this is nonlinear in its stress-load transformation. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba. PE .  If loss of function is focused on the load.D. Ph.  If loss of function is focused on the stress.. the definition of nd depends on whether load or stress is the primary consideration for failure.