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You are on page 1of 27

Circuits

(b) Pure inductance

Let the inductance of the circuit be L henry whose reactance

varies directly as the frequency of the applied voltage.

Its reactance for the fundamental would be X1 = ωL; for the

second harmonic, X2 = 2ωL, for the third harmonic, X3 = 3ω L and

for the nth harmonic Xn = n L ω .

However, for every harmonic term, the current will lag behind the

voltage by 90°.

**Instantaneous current due to
**

2nd harmonic:

E1 m

π

i 1 (t) =

sin( ωt − )

Lω

2

E

π

i 2 (t) = 2 m sin( 2 ωt − )

2 Lω

2

**Instantaneous current due to
**

nth harmonic:

E nm

π

i n (t) =

sin( nωt − )

nL ω

2

**Instantaneous current due to
**

fundamental :

45

**7. Harmonics in Single-phase A.C. Circuits
**

(b) Pure inductance

Total current: i ( t ) = i 1 ( t ) + i 2 ( t ) + ... + i n ( t )

E1 m

E2m

E nm

π

π

π

i(t ) =

sin( ωt − ) +

sin( 2 ωt − ) + ... +

sin( nωt − )

Lω

2

2 Lω

2

nL ω

2

i ( t ) = I 1 m sin( ωt −

π

2

) + I 2 m sin( 2 ωt −

π

2

) + L + I nm sin( nωt −

π

2

)

**It can be seen from the above equation that:
**

(i) the waveform of the current differs from that of the applied

voltage.

(ii) for the nth harmonic, the percentage harmonic content in the

current-wave is (1/n) of the corresponding harmonic content in the

voltage wave. It means that in an inductive circuit, the current

waveform shows less distortion that the voltage waveform. In this

case, current more nearly approaches a sine wave than it does in a

circuit containing resistance.

46

**7. Harmonics in Single-phase A.C. Circuits
**

(c) Pure Capacitance

Let the capacitance of the circuit be C (Farad) whose reactance

varies directly as the frequency of the applied voltage.

Its reactance for the fundamental would be X1 = (1/Cω); for the

second harmonic, X2 = (1/2Cω), for the third harmonic, X3 = (1/3Cω)

and for the nth harmonic Xn = (1/nCω).

However, for every harmonic term, the current will lead behind

the voltage by 90°.

π

**Instantaneous current due
**

to fundamental :

i 1 (t) = E 1 mC ω sin( ωt +

**Instantaneous current due
**

to 2nd harmonic:

i 2 (t) = E 2 m 2C ω sin( 2 ωt +

**Instantaneous current due
**

to nth harmonic:

2

i n (t) = E nm nC ω sin( nωt +

)

π

2

π

2

)

)

47

**7. Harmonics in Single-phase A.C. Circuits
**

(c) Pure Capacitance

Total current:

i ( t ) = i 1 ( t ) + i 2 ( t ) + ... + i n ( t )

i ( t ) = E 1 mC ω sin( ωt +

π

2

) + E 2 m 2C ω sin( 2 ωt +

+... + E nm nC ω sin( nωt +

π

π

2

)

)

2

i ( t ) = I 1 m sin( ωt ) + I 2 m sin( 2 ωt ) + L + I nm sin( nωt )

This equation shows that

(i) the current and voltage waveforms are dissimilar.

(ii) percentage harmonic content of the current is larger than that of

the applied voltage wave. For example, for nth harmonic, it would be

n time larger.

(iii) the current wave is more distorted than the voltage wave.

(iv) Capacitor effect on distortion is the reverse of that of inductance.

48

**7. Harmonics in Single-phase A.C. Circuits
**

Exercise .5. A complex wave of r.m.s. value 240 V has 20% 3rd

harmonic content, 5% 5th harmonic content and 2% 7th harmonic

content. Find the r.m.s. value of the fundamental and of each harmonic.

Solution Exercise .5.

Let V 1, V 3, V 5 and V 7 be the r.m.s. values of the fundamental and

harmonic voltages.

Then V 3 = 0.2 V 1 ; V 5 = 0.05 V 1 and V 7 = 0.02 V 1

240 = V 12 +V 32 +V 52 +V7 2

240 = V 12 + (0 , 2V 1 ) + (0 ,05V 1 ) + (0 ,02V 1 ) = 1 ,0429V 12

2

2

2

240

V1 =

= 235V ; V 3 = 0 , 2 × 235 = 47V

1 ,0429

V 5 = 0 ,05 × 235 = 11 ,75V ; V 3 = 0 ,02 × 235 = 4 ,7V

49

**7. Harmonics in Single-phase A.C. Circuits
**

Exercise .6. An alternating voltage of:

e( t ) = 250 sin ( ωt

)

+ 50 sin ( 3 ωt + 60 ° ) + 2 sin ( 5 ωt + 150 ° )

**is applied to a series circuit of resistance R = 20 Ω and inductance L = 0,05
**

Henry with fundamental angular frequency ω = 314 rad/s. Derive:

1) The instantaneous expression for the current

2) The r.m.s. value of the current and for the voltage

3) The total power supplied

4) The power factor.

Exercise .7.

An alternating voltage of :

v ( t ) = sin ( 500t

)

+ 0 ,5 sin ( 1500t

)

**is applied across a capacitor which can be represented by a capacitance of
**

C = 0,5 µF shunted by a resistance of 4000 Ω. Determine:

1) The r.m.s. value of the current I

2) The r.m.s. value of the applied voltage V

3) The power factor of the circuit PF.

50

**8. Effect of Harmonics on Measurement of Inductance and
**

Capacitance

Generally, with the help of ammeter and voltmeter

readings, the value of impedance, inductance and capacitance

of a circuit can be calculated.

But while dealing with complex voltages, the use of

instrument readings does not, in general, give correct values of

inductance and capacitance except in the case of a circuit

containing only pure resistance.

It is so because, in the case of resistance, the voltage and

current waveforms are similar and hence the values of r.m.s.

volts and r.m.s amperes (as read by the voltmeter and

ammeter respectively) would be the same whether they ware

sinusoidal or non-sinusoidal (i.e. complex).

51

**8. Effect of Harmonics on Measurement of Inductance and
**

Capacitance

Effect on Inductances

Let L be the inductance of a circuit and E and I the r.m.s.

values of the applied voltage and current as read by the

instruments connected in the circuit. For a complex voltage:

Hence:

**E = 0 ,707 E 12m + E 32m + E 52m + ....
**

2

2

2

E1 m E 3 m E 5 m

I = 0 ,707

+

+

+ ....

Lω 3 Lω 5 Lω

0 ,707

I =

Lω

0 ,707

L=

ω ×I

E 12m +

E 12m +

E 32m

9

E 32m

9

+

+

E 52m

25

E 52m

25

+ ....

+ ....

52

**8. Effect of Harmonics on Measurement of Inductance and
**

Capacitance

Effect on Inductances

For calculating the value of L from the above expression, it is

necessary to known the absolute value of the amplitudes of

several harmonic voltages. But, in practices, it is more

convenient to deal with relative values than with absolute

values.

For this purpose, let us multiply and divide the right-hand

side of the above expression by E but write the E in the

denominator in its form:

E = 0 ,707 E 12m + E 32m + E 52m + ....

Hence:

0 ,707

L=

ωI

E1m +

2

E 32m

9

+

E 52m

25

+ .... ×

E

0 ,707 E 12m + E 32m + E 52m + ....

53

**8. Effect of Harmonics on Measurement of Inductance and
**

Capacitance

Effect on Inductances

Or:

2

E 1m +

2

E

L=

ωI

E 12m

E 3m

2

E5m

+

+ .... E

9

25

=

2

2

+ E 3 m + E 5 m + .... ω I

2

2

E3 m

1 E5 m

+

+ ....

25 E 1 m

E1 m

2

2

E E

1 + 3 m + 5 m + ....

E1 m E1 m

1

1+

9

**If the effect of harmonics were to be neglected, then the value of
**

the inductance would appear to be (E /ωI) but the true or actual

**value is less than this.
**

The apparent value has to be multiplied by the quantity under the

radical to get the true value of inductance when harmonics are

present. The quantity under the radical is called the correction

factor.

True Inductance Apparent Inductance correction

=

×

L

L

factor

′

54

**8. Effect of Harmonics on Measurement of Inductance and
**

Capacitance

Effect on Capacitances

Let the capacitance of the circuit be C Farads and E and I the

instrument readings for voltage and current. Since the

instruments read r.m.s. values, hence, as before:

E = 0 ,707 E 12m + E 32m + E 52m + ....

2

2

2

E1 m E 3 m E 5 m

I = 0 ,707

+

+

+ ....

( 1 C ω ) ( 1 3C ω ) ( 1 5 C ω )

I = 0 ,707

(C ω E 1 m )

2

( E1 m )

2

I = 0 ,707 C ω

+ ( 3C ω E 3 m ) + ( 5 C ω E 5 m ) + ....

2

2

+ ( 3 E 3 m ) + ( 5 E 5 m ) + ....

2

2

**I = 0 ,707 C ω E 12m + 9 E 32m + 25 E 52m + ....
**

55

**8. Effect of Harmonics on Measurement of Inductance and
**

Capacitance

Effect on Capacitances

C =

I

0 ,707 ω E 12m + 9 E 32m + 25 E 52m + ....

**Again, we will multiply and divide the right-hand side E but
**

in this case, we will write E in the numerator in its form:

E = 0 ,707 E 12m + E 32m + E 52m + ....

C =

I

0 ,707 ω E

2

1m

+ 9E

2

3m

+ 25 E

2

5m

+ ....

×

**0 ,707 E 12m + E 32m + E 52m + ....
**

E

56

**8. Effect of Harmonics on Measurement of Inductance and
**

Capacitance

Effect on Capacitances

Or:

L=

I

Eω

E3 m

1 +

E 12m + E 32m + E 52m + ....

E1 m

I

=

2

2

2

E 1 m + 9 E 3 m + 25 E 5 m + .... E ω

E3 m

1 +9

E1 m

2

E5 m

+

E

1m

2

E5 m

+9

E1 m

2

+ ....

2

+ ....

**If the effects of harmonics were neglected, the value of capacitance
**

would appear to be (I/ωE) but its true value is less than this.

For getting the true value, this apparent value will have to be

multiplied by the quantity under the radical (which, therefore, is

referred to as correction factor)

True

Apparent

correction

capacitance = capacitance × factor

C

C

′

57

**8. Effect of Harmonics on Measurement of Inductance and
**

Capacitance

Exercise 7. A current of 50-Hz containing first, third and

fifth harmonics of maximum values 100, 15 and 12 A

respectively, is sent through an ammeter and an inductive coil

of negligibly small resistance. A voltmeter connected to the

terminals shows 75 V.

hat would be the current indicated by the ammeter and what

is the exact value of the inductance of the coil in Henrys ?

Solution Exercise 7.

The r.m.s. current is:

I = 0 ,707 I 12m + I 32m + I 52m = 0 ,707 100 2 + 15 2 + 12 2 = 72 A

**The r.m.s. voltage across the terminals of the coil is :
**

E = 0 ,707 E 12m + E 32m + E 52m

58

**8. Effect of Harmonics on Measurement of Inductance and
**

Capacitance

Solution Exercise 7.

E3 m

E5 m

E1 m

Also :

I 1m =

; I 3m =

; I5m =

Lω

3 Lω

5 Lω

⇒ E1 m = L ωI 1 m ; E 3 m = 3 L ωI 3 m ; E 5 m = 5 L ωI 5 m

⇒ E = 0 ,707

( L ωI 1 m )

2

+ (3 L ωI 3 m ) + (5 L ωI 5 m )

2

2

⇒ E = 0 ,707 L ω I 12m + 9 I 32m + 25 I 52m

⇒ 75 = 0 ,707 × L × 2 × 50 × π 100 2 + 9 × 15 2 + 25 × 12 2

⇒ 75 = 0 ,707 × L × 2 × 50 × π 100 2 + 9 × 15 2 + 25 × 12 2

⇒ L = 0 ,0027 H

Note. Apparent inductance:

E

75

'

L =

=

= 0 ,00331 H

ω I 2 π × 50 ×72

59

**8. Effect of Harmonics on Measurement of Inductance and
**

Capacitance

Exercise 8.

The capacitance of a 20 µF capacitor is checked by direct

connection to an alternating voltage which is supposed to be

sinusoidal, an electrostatic voltmeter and a dynamometer

ammeter being used for measurement. If the voltage actually

follows the law,

e( t ) = 100 sin ( ωt

)

+ 20 sin ( 500t − φ ) + 10 sin (750t − φ )

**Calculate the value of capacitance as obtained from the direct
**

ratio of the instrument readings

60

**8. Effect of Harmonics on Measurement of Inductance and
**

Capacitance

Solution Exercise 8.

• True value, C = 20 µF

• Apparent value: C ′ = value read by the instruments

Now, C = C′ × correction factor.

Let us find the value of correction factor.

Here:

E = 100 ; E = 20 ; E

1m

2m

3m

= 10

Correction factor

**E 12m + E 22m + E 32m
**

Correction factor =

E 12m + 4 E 22m + 9 E 32m

100 2 + 20 2 + 10 2

Correction factor =

= 0 , 966

2

2

2

100 + 4 × 20 + 9 × 10

C

20

'

C =

=

= 21 ,82 µ F

Correction factor 0 , 966

61

9. Harmonics in Different Three-phase Systems

**In three-phase systems, harmonics may be produced in the
**

same way as in single-phase systems.

Hence, for all calculation they are treated in the same

manner i.e. each harmonic is treated separately.

Usually, even harmonics are absent in such systems. But care

must be exercised when dealing with odd, especially, third

harmonics and all multiples of 3rd harmonic (also called the

triple-n harmonics).

62

**9. Harmonics in Different Three-phase Systems
**

(a) Expressions for Phase E.M.Fs.

Let us consider a 3-phase alternator having identical phase

windings (R, Y and B) in which harmonics are produced. The

three phase e.m.fs. would be represented in their proper phase

sequence by the equation.

e R ( t ) = E 1 m sin ( ωt + ψ 1 ) + E 3 m sin ( 3 ωt + ψ 3 ) + E 5 m sin ( 5 ωt + ψ 5 ) + L

2π

2π

2π

eY ( t ) = E 1 m sin ωt −

+ ψ 1 + E 3 m sin 3 ωt −

+ ψ 3 + E 5 m sin 5 ωt −

+ ψ 5 +L

3

3

3

4π

4π

4π

e B ( t ) = E 1 m sin ωt −

+ ψ 1 + E 3 m sin 3 ωt −

+ ψ 3 + E 5 m sin 5 ωt −

+ ψ 5 +L

3

3

3

**On simplification, these become
**

e R ( t ) = E 1 m sin ( ωt + ψ 1 ) + E 3 m sin ( 3 ωt + ψ 3 ) + E 5 m sin ( 5 ωt + ψ 5 ) + L

2π

4π

eY ( t ) = E 1 m sin ωt −

+ ψ 1 + E 3 m sin ( 3 ωt + ψ 3 ) + E 5 m sin 5 ωt −

+ψ5

3

3

4π

2π

e B ( t ) = E 1 m sin ωt −

+ ψ 1 + E 3 m sin ( 3 ωt + ψ 3 ) + E 5 m sin 5 ωt −

+ψ5

3

3

+L

+L

63

**9. Harmonics in Different Three-phase Systems
**

(a) Expressions for Phase E.M.Fs.

From these expressions, it is clear that:

(i) All third harmonics are equal in all phases of the circuit i.e.

**they are in time phase ⇒ all triple-n harmonics (3rd , 9th, 15th
**

etc.) are in phase,

(ii) All harmonics which are not multiples of three, have a

phase displacement of 120º so that they can be dealt with in

the usual manner.

(iii) At any instant, all the e.m.fs. have the same direction

which means that in the case of a Y-connected system they are

directed either away from or towards the neutral point and in

the case of ∆-connected system, they flow in the same

direction.

64

**9. Harmonics in Different Three-phase Systems
**

(b) Line Voltage for a Star-connected System

In this system, the line voltages will be the difference

between successive phase voltages and hence will contain no

third harmonic terms because they, being identical in each

phase, will cancel out.

The fundamental will have a line voltage 3 times the phase

voltage. Also, 5th harmonic has line voltage

3 its phase

voltage.

But it should be noted that in this case the r.m.s. value of the

line voltage will be less than 3 times the r.m.s. value of the

phase voltage due to the absence of third harmonic term from

the line voltage. It can be proved that for any line voltage.

65

**9. Harmonics in Different Three-phase Systems
**

(c) Line Voltage for a ∆-connected System

If the winding of the alternator are delta-connected (∆), then

the resultant e.m.f. acting round the closed mesh would be the

sum of the phase e.m.fs.

The sum of these e.m.fs. is zero for fundamental, 5th, 7th, 11th

etc. harmonics.

Since the third harmonics are in phase, there will be a

resultant third harmonic e.m.f. of three times the phase value

acting round the closed mesh.

It will produce a circulating current whose value will depend

on the impedance of the windings at the third harmonic

frequency.

66

**9. Harmonics in Different Three-phase Systems
**

(c) Line Voltage for a ∆-connected System

It means that the third harmonic e.m.f. would be shortcircuited by the windings with the result that there will be no

third harmonic voltage across the lines. The same is applicable

to all triple-n harmonic voltages.

**Obviously, the line voltage will be the phase voltage but
**

without the triple-n terms.

Exercise 9.

**A 3- phases generator has a generated e.m.f. of 230 V with 15
**

per cent third harmonic and 10 per cent fifth harmonic

content. Calculate

(i) the r.m.s. value of line voltage for Y-connection.

(ii) the r.m.s. value of line voltage for ∆-connection.

67

**9. Harmonics in Different Three-phase Systems
**

(d) Line Voltage for a ∆-connected Alternator

Let the three symmetrical phase e.m.fs. of the alternator be

represented by the equations:

e R ( t ) = E 1 m sin ( ωt + ψ 1 ) + E 3 m sin ( 3 ωt + ψ 3 ) + E 5 m sin ( 5 ωt + ψ 5 ) + L

2π

2π

2π

eY ( t ) = E 1 m sin ωt −

+ ψ 1 + E 3 m sin 3 ωt −

+ ψ 3 + E 5 m sin 5 ωt −

+ ψ 5 +L

3

3

3

4π

4π

4π

e B ( t ) = E 1 m sin ωt −

+ ψ 1 + E 3 m sin 3 ωt −

+ ψ 3 + E 5 m sin 5 ωt −

+ ψ 5 +L

3

3

3

**The resultant e.m.f. acting round the ∆-connected windings
**

of the armature is the sum of these e.m.fs. Hence it is given by:

e( t ) = e R ( t ) + eY ( t ) + e B ( t )

**e( t ) = 3 E 3 m sin ( 3 ωt + ψ 3 ) + 3E 9 m sin ( 9 ωt + ψ 9 ) + 3 E 15 m sin ( 15 ωt + ψ 15 )
**

68

**9. Harmonics in Different Three-phase Systems
**

(d) Line Voltage for a ∆-connected Alternator

If R and L represent respectively the resistance and

inductance per phase of the armature winding, then the

circulating current due to the resultant e.m.f. is given by :

i(t ) =

i(t ) =

3 E 3 m sin ( 3 ωt + ψ 3 )

3 R + 9L ω

E 3 m sin ( 3 ωt + ψ 3 )

2

2

R + 9L ω

2

2

+

2

2

+

3E 9 m sin ( 9 ωt + ψ 9 )

3 R + 81 L ω

E 9 m sin ( 9 ωt + ψ 9 )

2

2

R + 81 L ω

2

2

2

2

+

+

3 E 15 m sin ( 15 ωt + ψ 15 )

3 R 2 + 225 L 2 ω 2

E 15 m sin ( 15 ωt + ψ 15 )

R 2 + 225 L 2 ω 2

**The r.m.s. value of the current is given by:
**

E 32m

I = 0 ,707

+

2

2 2

(R + 9L ω )

E 92m

E 152 m

+

2

2 2

( R + 81 L ω ) ( R 2 + 225 L 2 ω 2 )

69

**9. Harmonics in Different Three-phase Systems
**

(e) Line-phase four-wire System

In this case, there will be no third harmonic component in

line voltage.

For the 4-wire system, each phase voltage (i.e. line to neutral)

**may contain a third harmonic component. If it is actually
**

present, then current will flow in the Y-connected load.

In case of balanced load , the resulting third harmonic line

currents will all be in phase so that neutral wire will have to

carry three times the third harmonic line current.

There will be no current in the neutral wire either at

fundamental frequency, or any harmonic frequency other than

the triple-n frequency.

70

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