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org

Published in IET Electric Power Applications

Received on 21st September 2010

Revised on 15th August 2011

doi: 10.1049/iet-epa.2010.0226

ISSN 1751-8660

**Hybrid excitation synchronous generators for
**

island operation

K. Kamiev1 J. Nerg1 J. Pyrho¨nen1 V. Zaboin2 V. Hrabovcova´3 P. Rafajdus3

1

**LUT-Energy, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, Lappeenranta 53851, Finland
**

Department of Electrical Machines, Saint-Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg, Russia

3

Department of Power Electrical Systems, University of Zˇilina, Zˇilina, Slovakia

E-mail: janne.nerg@lut.fi

2

Abstract: Hybrid excitation synchronous machines (HESMs), which combine the best features of traditional electrically excited

synchronous machines (SMs) and permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs), are investigated. Such machines provide

energy efﬁciency beneﬁts over traditional ﬁeld-winding-excited machines, especially in the lower power region upto a few

megawatts. This paper studies the applicability of a hybrid excitation synchronous generator (HESG) to a marine diesel

genset. Three HESG structures are proposed, and their performance in island operation are studied by the two-dimensional

(2D) ﬁnite-element analysis. Comparison of the proposed constructions is performed.

1

Introduction

**Because of their high energy efﬁciency, permanent magnet
**

synchronous generators (PMSGs) are nowadays an

attractive choice in distributed power generation. For

example in moderate-size power marine diesel gensets, the

electrical efﬁciency of PMSGs may be several percents

higher compared with traditional electrically excited

synchronous generators (SGs).

However, PMSGs have also some disadvantages. The main

drawback of the permanent magnet (PM) machines is that

they do not include excitation control, and therefore voltage

regulation in island operation is problematic. The PM

remanent ﬂux density also decreases as the temperature

increases, which further complicates the voltage control.

Other disadvantages related to the PMs are material price

and PM handling during manufacturing.

In general, a PMSM does not have excitation losses, but

PMs suffer from eddy current losses excited by permeance

and armature harmonics. While the ﬂux regulation

capability of PMs is practically non-existent, a traditionally

excited SM has good ﬁeld regulation instead, yet it is

characterised by considerable excitation losses, much higher

than the PM eddy current losses.

Attempts to maintain the beneﬁts and to mitigate the

deﬁciencies of both traditional SMs and permanent magnet

synchronous machines (PMSMs) have led to the invention

of a hybrid generator; an electrical machine with different

excitation sources. In the literature, such machines are

referred to with different names, the most common being ‘a

hybrid excitation synchronous machine (HESM)’ [1 –3],

‘a double excitation synchronous machine (SM)’ [4, 5] or

‘a combined excitation SM’ [6]. The term ‘HESM’ seems

IET Electr. Power Appl., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 1, pp. 1 –11

doi: 10.1049/iet-epa.2010.0226

**to be the most frequent one used in the literature, and is
**

therefore used also in this paper.

HESMs are a relatively novel class of electrical machines.

Such machines can be used as generators or motors, where the

total rotor current linkage is produced by the simultaneous

action of two different excitation sources: a PM excitation

and a ﬁeld winding excitation. The target behind the use of

two excitation sources is to combine the advantages of PMexcited machines and wound ﬁeld SMs. PMs produce the

main excitation ﬂux, while the electrical excitation winding

mainly takes care of the armature reaction compensation.

Owing to PMs, the electrical excitation losses are much

lower than those of SMs with traditional electrical

excitation. If the PM excitation is arranged such that

the machine can run without signiﬁcant ﬁeld winding

current at its typical partial load, the machine efﬁciency

approximately corresponds to the efﬁciency of the

permanent-magnet-excited machine. In the family of SMs,

HESMs are placed between separately excited SMs and

PMSMs. Further classiﬁcation of HESMs can be carried out

depending on the factors considered in the following.

From the magnetic circuit point of view, depending on how

the excitation sources are combined, HESMs or their different

magnetic circuits can be divided into the following two

groups [2]:

1. Series hybrid excitation,

2. Parallel hybrid excitation.

Examples of series and parallel HESMs with twodimensional (2D) radial ﬂux paths are presented in Fig. 1.

In the ﬁrst group, the PMs and excitation coils are

connected in series, and the ﬂux produced by the electrical

1

& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012

www.ietdl.org

**Fig. 1 Examples of series and parallel HESMs with 2D radial ﬂux paths
**

a and b Series hybrid excitation (in b partly parallel)

c and d Parallel hybrid excitation

Solid lines correspond to the magnetic ﬂux paths resulting from the PM excitation, and the dotted lines indicate an electrical excitation

**excitation passes through the PMs. Since the permeability of
**

PMs is close to that of air (a typical value for NdFeB

mr ¼ 1.04), it is difﬁcult to change the air gap ﬂux density

and therefore the PM excitation should produce a no-load

voltage within the standard limits.

In the second group, the path of the PM excitation ﬂux

differs from the ﬂux path produced by the excitation

winding. In contrast to the series HESM, the parallel

HESMs have more ﬂux weakening capability and allow a

wider variety of structures.

The ﬂuxes in the series HESMs always pass through the

PMs, which considerably affects the total reluctance of the

magnetic circuit. Owing to the low relative permeability of

modern PM-materials, the equivalent air gap length is

signiﬁcant; therefore in series HESMs, the synchronous

inductance Ld should be smaller than that of parallel

HESMs. Series connection, in comparison with the parallel

connection, is simpler and because of the low synchronous

inductance, its armature reaction is small making it possible

to start the armature reaction compensation later if the noload voltage is set to the upper limit (U ¼ 1.1 p.u.) allowed

by the standards. A parallel connection from the

electromagnet side is effective if the voltage really has to be

changed, but from the design point of view, the task is

more complex.

According to the behaviour of the magnetic ﬂux, the

HESMs can be radial, axial or a combination of these two.

Because of its complexity, the last group belongs to the

parallel hybrid excitation group.

There are various implementation methods of HESMs. The

excitation winding can be placed either in the rotor as in the

PMs, which requires slip rings and brushes, or in the stator,

thereby leading to different constructions. The classiﬁcation

of HESMs based on the location of the excitation windings

and the PMs is shown in Fig. 2. This paper, however,

studies only radial ﬂux machines with 2D ﬂux paths. In

these constructions, the PMs and the excitation coils are

placed in the rotor.

For example [7] studies a SynPM machine, where both the

excitation sources are placed in the rotor. The machine has

four PM poles and two ﬁeld winding poles. By adjusting

the excitation current, the machine changes not only the

total air gap ﬂux but also gradually the rotor pole number

from six to two. This does not, however, affect the stator

2

& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012

**Fig. 2 Classiﬁcation of HESMs based on the location of the
**

excitation windings (EWs) and the PMs

frequency as the stator reacts only to the correct rotorcaused harmonic. The excitation sources are connected in

parallel. The PM has two different ﬂux paths so that one

passes the adjacent PM and the other passes through the

other adjacent, electrically excited pole. The ﬂux of the

electrical excitation is circulated between two ﬁeld windings

in the case where the pole pair number p is odd. The ﬂuxes

produced by PMs and DC ﬁeld windings are radial ﬂuxes.

Another possible construction termed ‘a consequent pole

PM hybrid excitation machine’ is studied in [8]. The

machine consists of a rotor divided into two sections. One

section has rotor surface PMs that are radially excited, and

the other has a laminated iron pole. The stator is composed

of a laminated core, solid iron yoke and a conventional AC

three-phase winding located in the slots. A circumferential

ﬁeld winding is placed in the middle of the stator that is

excited by a DC current. The magnetic paths of the two

excitation sources are relatively independent. The two

excitation sources are in parallel.

Because of their special conﬁguration and operation

principle, HESMs have potential to be used in such

applications where conventional SMs or PMSMs do not

satisfy all the desired requirements (efﬁciency, machine size

limitations, etc.). In this paper, a hybrid excitation

synchronous generator (HESG) is studied with respect to its

applicability to a marine diesel genset. The contribution of

this paper is to propose a solution where an HESM replaces

an SM in ship electrical power generation and meets all the

requirements set by the classiﬁcation societies, particularly

in island operation. Three different 8-pole HESG topologies

that fulﬁl all the requirements in island operation are

IET Electr. Power Appl., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 1, pp. 1– 11

doi: 10.1049/iet-epa.2010.0226

**www.ietdl.org
**

introduced and their performances are compared applying 2D

ﬁnite-element analysis (FEA).

The paper is organised as follows: The problems faced by

traditional solutions (PMSGs and conventional SGs) in island

operation are discussed in Section 2. The structures and

operation principle of the proposed generators are presented

in Section 3. The performance of the proposed generators in

island operation is studied by the 2D-FEA, see Section 4

and their comparison is performed in Section 5.

This paper is an extension of [9]. Two more HESM

topologies meeting the boundary conditions set by marine

classiﬁcation societies are proposed, and their performance

is studied in detail. The paper does not present detailed

experimental results as we have not yet had an opportunity

to build a 500 kW machine prototype. The authors,

however, have a lot of experience in the design and testing

of machines of different sizes upto several MW in power

[10 – 17]. In these designs, the calculation methods used

have proven to demonstrate satisfactory conformity with

practical results.

2

**In distributed power generation and island operation, the
**

generator must be capable of island operation. The main

boundary conditions set for instance by IEC for a SG

operating in an AC island are: (i) The peak torque of the

machine must be at least 160% of the rated torque. (ii) The

terminal voltage must not vary more than +10% of the

rated voltage during operation at any load within the

generator rated working area. (iii) The sustained shortcircuit current must be 300% of the rated current for at least

2 s. (iv) The generator must be capable of supplying

inductive loads with a load power factor cos w ¼ 0.8ind ,

which results in a large demagnetising armature reaction

and ﬁnally (v) the machine must have efﬁcient damper

windings to operate in parallel with other similar generators.

As the internal voltage EPM of a PMSG cannot be

controlled and it is affected by the operating temperature,

PMSGs equipped with a damper winding are normally used

only in rigid networks, which maintain the voltage

irrespective of the behaviour of the PMSG. In such a case,

only the 160% torque requirement limits the machine

design unless the machine reactive power is limited

somehow. Such PM machines are lightweight and

economically competitive. If the reactive power of such a

PMSG must be kept at a low level, the size of the generator

has to be increased or the generator main transformer must

have a tap changer to control the terminal voltage and

hence, the reactive power.

In island operation, especially in ships, a PMSG has to

meet all the above-mentioned boundary conditions. One of

the most challenging requirements is the 300% sustained

short-circuit current, which, in the case of a PMSG, cannot

be reached by increasing the excitation but has to be

achieved by a small enough synchronous inductance.

According to equation

EPM

Ld

(p.u.)

(1)

**the sustained short-circuit current Isc depends on the induced
**

voltage EPM and the direct-axis synchronous inductance

Ld . The synchronous inductance consists mainly of the

IET Electr. Power Appl., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 1, pp. 1 –11

doi: 10.1049/iet-epa.2010.0226

Lm = m0

m 2 tp ′

l · (kw1 Ns )2

p2 p deff

(2)

**Here m0 is the permeability of vacuum, m is the number of
**

phases, deff is the effective air gap, tp is the pole pitch, p is

the pole pair number, l ′ is the effective length of the

machine and kw1Ns is the effective number of turns in series

per stator winding. The air gap voltage of the machine Em is

1

ˆ

Em = √ vkw1 Ns F

h

2

(3)

**where v is the electrical angular frequency. The amplitude of
**

ˆ is

the air gap ﬂux of the machine F

h

ˆ =

F

h

tp l′

0

(Bˆ d ) dx dy

(4)

0

**where Bˆ d is the amplitude of the air gap ﬂux density. The
**

number of turns required can be written as

Generators in island operation

Isc =

magnetising inductance, which can be written as [12]

√

√

Em 2

Em 2

=

Ns =

ˆ

vkw1 ai Bˆ d tp l′

vkw F

h

(5)

**where kw1 is the winding factor and ai is the factor of the
**

arithmetic average of the ﬂux density. Inserting this into (2)

gives

Lm = m0

√ 2

m2 1

Em 2

·

k

w1

p2 p deff tp l′

vkw1 ai Bˆ d

(6)

The pole pitch of the machine is

tp =

pD

2p

(7)

**where D is the air gap diameter. Equation (6) is rewritten with
**

(7) as

√2

m

4

Em 2

Lm = m0 2

′ ·

p deff pDl

vai Bˆ d

(8)

**As it can be seen in (8), the magnetising inductance with a
**

constant voltage and phase number is minimised by

selecting a large effective air gap deff , a large diameter D or

a large effective length l ′ for the machine. Maximising the

air gap ﬂux density Bd also has a clear effect but the air gap

ﬂux density usually remains within quite tight limits. As an

example, increasing the air gap ﬂux density fundamental

amplitude from 0.8 T to 1 T reduces the magnetising

inductance by 36% as the number of winding turns is

simultaneously reduced by 20%.

Fig. 3 illustrates two PMSGs that meet all the aforementioned

boundary conditions. A non-salient pole PMSG is considered

in Fig. 3a, and a salient pole PMSG is observed in Fig. 3b.

Fig. 3a studies how large a non-salient pole PMSG has to be

in order to be capable of supplying the rated load without

excitation control. When EPM ¼ 1.1 p.u. and the rated power

factor is cos w ¼ 0.8ind , the synchronous inductance Ls should

equal 0.15 p.u. to reach Us ¼ 1 p.u. at the rated operating

3

& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012

www.ietdl.org

**Fig. 3 Phasor diagrams of two PMSGs meeting the boundary conditions at the rated operating point
**

a Non-salient pole PMSG

b Salient pole PMSG

The non-salient pole PMSG is larger than normal ones. The generator no-load voltage is EPM ¼ 1.1 p.u., the power factor is cos w ¼ 0.8ind and the generator rated

voltage Us and the current Is are equal to 1 p.u. According to the phasor diagram, the synchronous inductance Ls is equal to 0.15 p.u. and the load angle is d ¼ 6.68.

This machine meets the requirements given above but the machine is large and expensive. The parameters for the salient pole PMSG are: the power factor

cos w ¼ 0.8ind , the generator rated voltage Us and the current Is are equal to 1 p.u, the d-axis magnetising inductance is 0.27 p.u, the q-axis magnetising

inductance equals 0.51 p.u., and the stator leakage inductance is equal to 0.1 p.u. According to the phasor diagram, the generator no-load voltage should be

EPM ¼ 1.26 p.u. and the load angle is d ¼ 208. This generator does not meet the voltage range condition as the no-load voltage is higher than 1.1 p.u

**point. To achieve the rated apparent power S ¼ 1 p.u., the
**

voltage is set to Us ¼ 1 p.u. in both PMSGs. With this

synchronous inductance value, also the short-circuit

requirement Isc ¼ EPM/Ls ¼ 7.3 p.u. . 3 p.u. is met more

than amply but the main dimensions of this machine should

be greatly overdimensioned according to (8). For example, if

other values are kept constant, Dl ′ must be large compared

with a machine that does not meet the requirements.

According to the short-circuit requirement, the synchronous

inductance could be as large as Ls ¼ EPM/Isc ¼ 1.1/

3 ¼ 0.37 p.u. In this machine, Dl ′ is only 0.15/0.37 ¼ 0.405

of the Dl ′ of the previous machine. Such a machine will,

however, not meet the voltage requirements at the rated

voltage. In the case of a salient pole pure PMSG (Fig. 3b), the

synchronous inductances in the direct and quadrature axes are

different Ld = Lq . If it is set that a salient pole PM generator

can meet the short-circuit requirement, the d-axis synchronous

inductance should be Ld ¼ EPM/Isc ¼ 1.1/3 ¼ 0.37 p.u.

Normally, the stator leakage inductance Lss is equal to about

0.1 p.u., and in that case, the d-axis magnetising inductance is

Lmd ¼ 0.37 – 0.1 ¼ 0.27 p.u. In general, a salient pole pure

PM machine can have a different ratio of direct and

quadrature axis inductances depending on the purpose of the

machine. For example, a pure PMSM with PMs positioned in

V-shape, which was used as a prototype in [13], has a ratio of

Lq/Ld ¼ 1.64. Then, the q-axis inductance is Lq ¼ Ld

1.64 ¼ 0.61 p.u. and the q-axis magnetising inductance is

Lmq ¼ 0.61– 0.1 ¼ 0.51 p.u. According to the phasor

diagram presented in Fig. 3b, the generator no-load voltage

has to be EPM ¼ 1.26 p.u., which is not in agreement with

the maximum allowed PM generator no-load voltage. If the

generator’s no-load voltage is decreased to 1.1 p.u., the

already small d-axis synchronous inductance should be made

even smaller, thus resulting in a large machine.

We can conclude that a traditional PM generator (whether

non-salient pole or salient pole) that meets all the

requirements faces the following problems:

† to meet all the requirements, a very large machine should

be built or

† there is a need to increase the PM generator no-load voltage

exceeding the maximum allowed value EPM ¼ 1.1 p.u. and

4

& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012

**† the d-axis synchronous inductance Ld must be made
**

considerably smaller than Ld ¼ 0.6 p.u., which should be

sufﬁcient to meet the 160% torque requirement.

Traditional electrically excited SGs easily meet the

conditions because the ﬁeld winding current is controllable.

During a short-circuit, the extra ﬁeld winding current is

supplied by two cascaded excitation generators having a

large voltage reserve for the short-circuit excitation. In

brushed machines, suitable current transformers are used to

supply extra current to the ﬁeld winding during a short

circuit. Such arrangements guarantee a compact main

generator capable of meeting the boundary conditions

mentioned above. The only problem related to energy

efﬁciency is that an SG following tightly the ﬁve

requirements easily becomes quite a low-efﬁciency

machine. For example a 500 kW, 400 V SM may have a

rated point efﬁciency of only 94% [18], while the best

PMSGs of the same power and speed can reach even 98%

because of the large overdimensioning.

Sufﬁcient voltage stability in PMSGs can, hence, be reached

by overdimensioning the PM generator. Normal variation in

the manufacturing and materials may, however, result in a

generator that does not meet the voltage condition despite large

machine size. The temperature dependency of the PM material

makes the situation even more challenging. One problem

still remains: the machine does not tolerate a capacitive load at

low power because the voltage should increase above the

accepted values. Capacitive loads in islands are, however, rare

and can be present, in practice, only by accident for instance

when a compensator capacitor bank control fails.

The problems mentioned above can be avoided in island

operation by utilising an HESM as a generator. The HESM

is built by using PM poles and poles with a traditional ﬁeld

winding combining the best features of the PMSG and the

SG. PM poles provide constant air gap ﬂux density, and

electrically excited poles act as the ﬂux regulators to adjust

the air gap ﬂux density and the total amount of ﬂux. During

the operation, the air gap ﬂux can be increased or reduced

by adjusting the magnitude and direction of the excitation

current in the ﬁeld winding.

**IET Electr. Power Appl., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 1, pp. 1– 11
**

doi: 10.1049/iet-epa.2010.0226

**www.ietdl.org
**

Next, three different structures of the HESG are proposed

and their performances are studied by a 2D FEA.

**3 Structures and operation principle of the
**

proposed generators

The design speciﬁcations for the HESG are presented in Table 1.

The proposed HESGs consist of identical laminated stator iron

cores, which are used in conventional electrically excited

SMs. The stators carry traditional AC three-phase armature

windings. The rotor iron cores contain PMs and electric

excitation coils. The proposed HESGs use the same electric

excitation system as in conventional electrically excited SMs.

The cross-section views of the 6 – 2 HESG, 4 – 4 HESG and

8 – 8 HESG are shown in Fig. 4. The 6 – 2 HESG has three

pairs of PM poles and one pair of electrically excited poles.

In such a construction, the stator armature reaction cannot

Table 1

Design specifications of HESGs

Parameter

phase number, m

nominal power, Pn

nominal voltage, Un

nominal current, In

power factor, cos w

rotation speed, n

frequency, f

number of pole pairs, p

Value

Unit

3

520 000

450/260

833

0.8ind

900

60

4

—

W

V

A

—

rpm

Hz

—

**be compensated pole by pole and therefore the ﬂux of the
**

ﬁeld excitation poles must really be altered to have an

overall compensation of the armature reaction. The 4 –4

HESG has two pairs of PM poles and two pairs of

electrically excited poles. In this case, each pole pair has

both excitation sources, and therefore it is possible to

evenly compensate the stator armature reaction. The 8 – 8

HESG has four pairs of PM and electrically excited poles,

and the armature reaction compensation takes place at every

pole. In the 6 – 2 and 4 – 4 HESGs, two PMs per pole are

embedded in the V position. In the case of the 8 – 8 HESG,

the PMs are embedded in the pole shoe leaving some space

for the iron bridge. Because of the centrifugal force, some

stresses affect upon the iron bridges. If these stresses are

higher than the yield strength of the material, the iron

bridges may break. Taking into account the mechanical

aspects, the iron bridges in the 8 – 8 HESG must be selected

to be equal to 3 mm.

The magnetic paths of all the proposed constructions are

quite similar. The magnetic path of the PM ﬂux is the

following: from the N pole of the PM PM pole

body air gap stator tooth stator yoke stator

tooth air gap PM/EW pole body the S pole of the

neighbour PM/own pole to form a loop as shown in Fig. 4d

for the 4 –4 HESG. The magnetic ﬂux path caused by the

electric excitation is the following: from the pole of the

electric excitation the S pole of the neighbour PM PM

pole air gap stator tooth stator yoke stator

tooth air gap the electrically excited pole to form a

loop as shown in Fig. 4d for the 4 – 4 HESG. If the current is

equal to zero, there is only the PM ﬁeld and no excitation ﬁeld.

**Fig. 4 Structures of the proposed constructions
**

a

b

c

d

6– 2 HESG

4– 4 HESG

8 –8 HESG

Magnetic paths of the ﬂuxes produced by PMs (solid lines) and excitation coils (dotted lines) for the 4– 4 HESG

**IET Electr. Power Appl., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 1, pp. 1 –11
**

doi: 10.1049/iet-epa.2010.0226

5

& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012

**www.ietdl.org
**

Table 2

Main geometry data

Parameter

6 –2

4– 4

8–8

**air gap diameter, Ds (mm)
**

length, l (mm)

air gap length, d (mm)

number of stator slots, Qs

number of slots per pole and phase, q

number of phase turns, Nph

number of PMs per pole

number of excitation field turns per pole, Nf

760

370

5

48

2

16

2

500

760

385

5

48

2

16

2

500

760

422

5

48

2

16

1

280

**The dimensioning of the proposed HESGs and the ﬁeld
**

windings is carried out so that at no load the ﬁeld winding

current is equal to zero, and only PM excitation exists. At

the rated operation, the ﬁeld winding current is positive.

During a short circuit, the ﬁeld winding currents are also

positive to ensure the sufﬁcient short-circuit current. The

possible ﬁeld weakening operation is not used in this study

unless the no-load voltage is reduced from 1.1 to 1.

By a proper connection of the stator windings, the total

induced EMF in the armature winding E is equal to the sum

of the EMF caused by the PM ﬂux EPM and EMF resulting

from the excitation ﬂux Ef , that is

E = Ef + EPM

(9)

**Equation (9) shows that the EMF is adjusted by the EMF
**

resulting from electrical excitation, controlled by the

excitation current if , which can be also negative to weaken

the PM-produced ﬂux. Ef and EPM are, however, not

independent of each other as the magnetic circuits of the

PM ﬂuxes and ﬁeld-winding-produced ﬂuxes are partly the

same. Hence, (9) may only be used as a symbolic equation

to describe the HESG behaviour.

The proposed constructions of HESGs belong to the group

of the series hybrid excitation where the magnetic paths

produced by the excitation coils pass through the PMs. The

main dimensions of the proposed HESGs are shown in

Table 2. Such constructions are criticised by the fact that

the ﬁeld winding excitation has to excite the machine

through PM poles, which should be difﬁcult. However, the

issue has to be considered further. Also the armature

reaction in these versions has to travel through the PM

material. This results in a low inductance and low armature

reaction. Actually, in correctly designed HESGs the

excitation current in the rotor is needed only to compensate

the armature reaction and not to control the air gap ﬂux

density. As the armature reaction is distributed to every pole

and the compensating EWs are used, in the 6 – 2 and 4 – 4

constructions, only at some of the poles, the observation is

not very straightforward and has to be carried out by FEA.

Analytical calculations can easily be made for machines

having a symmetrical arrangement of PM and EW poles (in

this case the 4 – 4 and 8 – 8 machines) but machines having

unsymmetrical arrangements (in this study the 6 – 2

machine) are difﬁcult to be modelled by analytical equations.

4

**three tests, the no-load, rated operation and short-circuit
**

tests are carried out. All the calculations have been

performed using the 2D time stepping FEA.

4.1

Synchronous inductances

**In this test, the ﬂux linkages are determined by Flux-2D for
**

the d- and q-axes at different stator current values. Ld is

calculated by aligning the rotor d-axis along the axis of the

phase A. Similarly, Lq is calculated by aligning the phase

axis with the rotor q-axis. The stator current linkage is

aligned along the d- and q-axes, by injecting maximum

current amplitude into the phase A. The currents in the

phases B and C are opposite and equal to half of the

maximum magnitude injected in the phase A. The

magnitudes of these currents are varied accordingly to

investigate their inﬂuence on both inductances. The

inductance can be written as

Ld,q =

Cd,q

is

(10)

**Fig. 5 depicts the synchronous inductances calculated in the
**

d- and q-axes positions. The 8 – 8 HESG has the lowest

d-axis synchronous inductance compared with the 6 – 2 and

4 – 4 HESGs. This is explained by the rotor conﬁguration.

Different from the 6 – 2 and 4 – 4 HESGs, the armature

reaction in the 8 – 8 HESG travels through the PM material

in every pole.

4.2

No-load test

**Despite the fact that the electrical excitation in these designs
**

is needed only to compensate the armature reaction, no-load

tests were performed. In the no-load test, the rotor of the

generator is rotated at the nominal speed and the electrical

excitation is changed. Each phase of the generator outputs

is connected to a resistance load, which has a high enough

value to imitate an open circuit. The objective of the noload test is to see the voltage across the resistive load,

which is the induced phase voltage. Fig. 6 illustrates the noload ﬂux lines with positive and zero ﬁeld currents of the

proposed constructions. The fundamental components of

the air gap ﬂux density distributions of the 6 – 2 HESG and

Finite-element analysis

**To verify the operation of the proposed HESGs, four different
**

tests are performed applying the Flux-2D software package

by Cedrat Ltd. In the ﬁrst test, the synchronous inductances

are calculated for different stator current values. In the last

6

& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012

**Fig. 5 Synchronous inductances as a function of stator current in
**

different HESM designs

IET Electr. Power Appl., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 1, pp. 1– 11

doi: 10.1049/iet-epa.2010.0226

www.ietdl.org

**Fig. 6 No-load ﬂux lines of the proposed constructions
**

a– c 6 –2 HESG, 4– 4 HESG and 8 –8 HESG with positive currents, respectively

d– f 6– 2 HESG, 4–4 HESG and 8 –8 HESG with zero ﬁeld currents, respectively

**4 – 4 HESG are given in Table 3. The air gap ﬂux density
**

distributions of the 8 – 8 HESG are shown in Fig. 7.

Fig. 6 shows that from the electromagnetic point of view,

the 4 – 4 HESG and 8 – 8 HESG remain symmetrical at

different rotor current linkages. Therefore modelling only a

quarter of the rotor (two poles) or one-eighth (one pole)

should be enough; this in turn will decrease the calculation

time. Such symmetricity also leads to easy analytic

calculation of the machines. In the case of the 6 – 2 HESG

when there is zero excitation current, the symmetry goes

only through half of the model, which allows analysing

only half of the generator in the FEA. Such a construction

also sets some limitations to the stator winding

arrangements. The asymmetry of ﬂux lines per pole in

Fig. 6d makes the design process of the 6 – 2 HESG more

difﬁcult compared with the 4 – 4 and 8– 8 HESGs. There are

two relatively different magnetic circuits in the 6 – 2 HESG.

The ﬁrst magnetic circuit consists of the electrically excited

and neighbouring PM poles. The second magnetic circuit

includes pure PM poles. Both magnetic circuits should be

included in the design procedure.

Because of the special rotor structures of the 6 – 2 and 4 – 4

HESGs, the air gap ﬂux densities across the PM poles are

different from the air gap ﬂux densities across the

electrically excited poles. Moreover, in the 6 – 2 HESG, the

Table 3

**Fundamental components of the air gap flux densities
**

at three different total current linkages for the 6 –2 HESG and 4–4

HESG

Pole

6 –2 HESG

PM poles

electrically excited pole

4 –4 HESG

PM pole

electrically excited pole

B1d , T at

Qf ¼ 40 kA

B1d , T at

Qf ¼ 0 A

B1d , T at

Qf ¼ 25 kA

1.25/1.19

1.14

1.16/1.24

0.6

1.11/1.26

0.33

1.24

1.03

1.16

0.81

1.13

0.73

**IET Electr. Power Appl., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 1, pp. 1 –11
**

doi: 10.1049/iet-epa.2010.0226

**Fig. 7 Air gap ﬂux density distributions for the 8–8 HESG at
**

three different ﬁeld currents: positive DC, If ¼ 20 A/pole, zero

DC, If ¼ 0 A and negative DC, If ¼ –2.23 A/pole

Fundamental components are 1.04 T, 0.9 T and 0.88 T, respectively

**air gap ﬂux density across the PM pole that is close to the
**

electrically excited pole is distinct from the another PM

pole close to it. That is why in Table 3 there are two values

for the PM poles in the case of the 6 – 2 HESG. The ﬁrst

value corresponds to the PM pole that is close to the

electrically excited pole, and the second one is for the PM

pole next to it.

Despite the original purpose of the armature reaction

compensation according to Table 3 and Fig. 7, the air gap

ﬂux densities effectively change as the electrical excitation

current varies. The fundamental components of the air gap

ﬂux densities of the 6 – 2 HESG and 4 – 4 HESG, especially

under PM poles, seem somewhat higher than the common

values (0.85 – 1.1 T). Nevertheless, the normal components

of the ﬂux densities in the stator teeth and yoke are within

acceptable limits to avoid saturation. The fundamental

components of the air gap ﬂux densities of the 8 – 8 HESG

7

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**www.ietdl.org
**

are close to the common values compared with the 6 – 2

HESG and 4 – 4 HESG. Table 3 and Fig. 7 demonstrate the

operation principle of the proposed HESGs: the PM source

provides the air gap with a constant ﬂux, and the excitation

winding acts as the ﬂux regulator to adjust the air gap ﬂux

distribution and the total amount of ﬂux.

Fig. 8 presents a no-load generator voltage as a function of

electrical excitation. When there is a positive DC current in

the excitation winding, it increases the rotor excitation, and

the RMS value of the induced phase voltage increases

compared with the induced phase voltage corresponding to

a zero excitation current. According to Fig. 8, the variation

ranges (with respect to the rated 260 V or 1 p.u.) of the

induced phase voltages at the total current linkage of 40 kA

reach +28, +26 and +24.5% for the 6– 2, 4– 4 and 8 – 8

HESGs, respectively. When the DC excitation current is

negative, it weakens the excitation and the RMS value of

the induced phase voltage decreases with respect to the case

of no electric excitation current. Effective variation in the

magnitude of the induced EMF results in effective control

of the output voltage. As it can be seen in Fig. 8, at the

zero excitation current linkage, the induced voltages of the

**Fig. 8 No-load generator voltage as a function of electrical
**

excitation current linkages

Machines saturate at no load under positive ﬁeld winding excitation

**6 – 2 and 8 – 8 HESGs are 1.09 p.u., and the induced voltage
**

of the 4 – 4 HESG is equal to 1.1 p.u. According to the

boundary conditions, the generator voltage must be kept

between +10% in all cases. Therefore working without

electrical excitation in low-load operations would be

optimal for the proposed HESGs thereby preventing rotor

excitation losses.

4.3

Rated operation test

**In this test, the generator is rotated at the nominal speed, and
**

it supplies an inductive load with a load power factor

cos w ¼ 0.8ind . All tests start when there is no electrical

excitation in the HESGs and continue upto 50, 30 and 30 A

ﬁeld current in the 6 – 2, 4 – 4 and 8 –8 HESGs, respectively.

In terms of the total current linkage, the tests are carried out

from 0 A upto 50, 60 and 67.2 kA for the 6 – 2, 4 –4 and

8 – 8 HESGs, respectively. The current linkage is at its rated

value when the generator voltage is equal to 1 p.u. During

the test voltage, the stator current and power are observed.

Generator voltages as a function of electrical excitation and

power as a function of electrical excitation are presented in

Fig. 9.

Fig. 9a shows that all machines need some positive

excitation to maintain at least 90% of the terminal voltage:

the 6 – 2 HESG needs 4.5 kA current linkage at each wound

pole and 9 kA in all at two poles (SQf6-2 ¼ 9 kA), the 4 – 4

HESG requires 4 kA per wound pole, which results in

16 kA in all at four wound poles (SQf4 – 4 ¼ 16 kA) and the

8 – 8 HESG needs 1.25 kA per wound pole and 10 kA in

total (SQf8 – 8 ¼ 10 kA). Without any electrical excitation,

the 6– 2, 4 – 4 and 8 – 8 HESGs give 314, 306 and 379 kW

to the cos w ¼ 0.8ind rated impedance at 0.79, 0.79 and

0.86 per unit voltages, see Fig. 9b. As the compensating

rotor currents are located symmetrically in the 8 –8 and 4 – 4

constructions, the extra ﬁeld winding currents keep the

machine operation quite linear as the load increases and the

ﬁeld current increases. However, the 6– 2 machine has only

two wound poles being capable of compensating the

armature reaction, and Fig. 9b shows that the capability of

the two wound poles to compensate the armature reaction

of all eight stator poles saturates. However, the construction

is well capable of operating upto the rated point and even

to some extent beyond it. To reach the desired rated

Fig. 9 Results of the rated operation test; the HESGs supply inductive loads with a load power factor cos w ¼ 0.8ind producing rated

operation at U ¼ 1 p.u

a Generator voltage as a function of electrical excitation

b Power as a function of electrical excitation

8

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**IET Electr. Power Appl., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 1, pp. 1– 11
**

doi: 10.1049/iet-epa.2010.0226

**www.ietdl.org
**

operating point, the 6 – 2 and 8 – 8 HESGs need almost an

equal total current linkage (SQf ¼ 40 kA) and the 4 – 4

HESG needs 30 kA.

The efﬁciencies and loss divisions as well as the power

density of different machine types at the rated operation are

given in Table 4.

The 6– 2 HESG suffers from the limited wound space in

the rotor, and therefore the excitation losses are higher than

in the 4 – 4 and 8 – 8 HESGs. However, the machine has the

highest power density.

4.4

Table 5

Results of the short-circuit test

Parameter

6– 2

4–4

8– 8

E0 , V

Isc , A

Qf , A/pole

xd , V

334

2873

21000

0.12

329

2551

10625

0.13

296.7

2692

1400

0.11

**Minimum short-circuit current must be three times the nominal
**

current, 3In ¼ 3 × 833 ¼ 2499 A

Short-circuit test

The short-circuit test is carried out to check whether the shortcircuit requirement mentioned in the boundary conditions is

met: the sustained short-circuit current must be 300% of the

rated current for at least 2 s. This condition is one of

the most challenging requirements for pure PMSGs. During

the test, the generator is rotated at the nominal speed, and

all three output phases are short-circuited through switches.

At the beginning, the switches are turned off and the

generator is running at no load. After 0.0333 s (two

periods), the switches are turned on. The objective of the

test is to observe the sustained short-circuit current.

As an example of the short-circuit test results, Fig. 10

presents the short-circuit current of the 6 – 2 HESG as a

function of time. With 6– 2 and 4 – 4 HESGs, the shortcircuit requirement is met when the excitation current

linkages are equal to 21 000 A/pole and 10 625 A/pole,

which corresponds to 42 and 21.25 A ﬁeld winding

currents, respectively. The corresponding current densities

in the excitation windings are 5.6 and 2.83 A/mm2. The

Table 4

**Efficiencies, loss divisions and power densities of
**

different machine types at rated operation

Parameter, W

mechanical losses

iron losses, W

stator copper losses, W

rotor copper losses, W

additional losses, W

total losses, W

efficiency, %

power density, kW/m3

6 –2 HESG

4– 4 HESG

8 – 8 HESG

5144

2500

3496

7000

2600

20 740

96.16

1995

5284

2360

3568

2014

2600

15 827

97.05

1904

5631

2532

3749

3197

2600

17 709

96.71

1802

**8 – 8 HESG meets the short-circuit requirement at 1400 A/
**

pole current linkage, which corresponds to 5 A ﬁeld

winding current and 0.67 A/mm2 current density. It should

be noted that in the case of the 6 – 2 and 8 – 8 HESGs, the

short-circuit requirement is met at the rated current linkage,

whereas for the 4 – 4 HESG, some extra (beyond rated

value) current linkage is needed. The results of the shortcircuit test of the proposed HESGs and the calculations of

the d-axis synchronous reactances are given in Table 5.

The results of the short-circuit test fully demonstrate that all

the proposed HESGs can meet the short-circuit requirement.

In the case of a sudden short circuit, no extra excitation

current is needed for the 6 – 2 and 8 – 8 HESGs, which in

turn provides an option to avoid an extra control unit.

5

Comparison of the proposed constructions

**The results of the FEA thoroughly verify the operation
**

principle of the proposed HESGs. All three constructions

can work without electrical excitation in no-load operation,

while in the rated operation they can supply inductive loads

with a load power factor cos w ¼ 0.8ind at a lower voltage

(see Fig. 9), and during the short circuit, they all can meet

the short-circuit requirement. Comparison of the masses of

the proposed generators is shown in Table 6.

According to Table 6, the total masses of all HESGs are

close to each other. However, the PM and rotor copper

masses are different. In general, the PM material is the most

expensive component in an electrical machine. Therefore

considering the machine cost, the 4 – 4 HESG seems the

best one of the versions studied.

Fig. 11 shows a comparison of the calculated efﬁciencies of

the proposed constructions. The efﬁciencies are calculated

based on the results of the rated operation test, that is, all

the HESGs supply inductive loads with a load power factor

cos w ¼ 0.8ind , and the electrical excitation is varied. At the

nominal power, the efﬁciency of the 6 – 2 HESG is 96.16%,

the 4 – 4 HESG has 97.05% and the 8 – 8 HESG has

96.71%, respectively (see Table 4). These values are

deﬁnitely higher than the efﬁciencies of the SGs having the

same nominal power. By efﬁciency, the 4 – 4 and 8 – 8

HESGs can compete with a pure PMSG with the same

Table 6

**Fig. 10 Short-circuit current of the 6–2 HESG as a function of
**

time

IET Electr. Power Appl., 2012, Vol. 6, Iss. 1, pp. 1 –11

doi: 10.1049/iet-epa.2010.0226

Active mass comparison

Masses, kg

6–2

4–4

8– 8

PM

rotor iron

stator iron

rotor copper

stator copper

total

108

734

976

84

283

2185

87

748

1021

172

287

2314

128

681

1101

204

297

2411

9

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**www.ietdl.org
**

excited poles. After 550 kW the 4 – 4 HESG has the highest

power density.

Considering manufacturing of the proposed constructions,

the stators of the proposed machines are the same except

the length of the machines, the only difference lying in the

rotor fabrication, in particular in the installation of poles. In

the case of the 6 – 2 HESG and 4 – 4 HESG, the installation

of poles should not pose any major problems; the poles can

be mounted on the rotor yoke with bolts going through the

holes between two adjacent PMs.

Based on the above comparisons, the 4– 4 and 8 – 8 HESGs

look more attractive from the design, manufacturing and

economic points of view. Of course, the 6 – 2 HESG has

only two wound poles, which is also a favourable factor.

6

Fig. 11 Comparison of efﬁciencies of the proposed HESGs

Fig. 12 Power densities as a function of HESG powers

**power rate. From 375 kW up to 490 kW, the 6 – 2 HESG has a
**

higher efﬁciency than the two others. After 490 kW, the

efﬁciency of the 6 – 2 HESG decreases rapidly. This is

explained by the saturation of the electrically excited poles.

The dominating factor inﬂuencing the efﬁciency differences

is the electrical excitation loss. The 6 – 2 HESG requires a

higher amount of excitation current to compensate the

armature reaction, roughly two times as high as the 4 – 4

and 8 – 8 HESGs. At the rated operating point, the 6 – 2

HESG needs 42 A ﬁeld winding current, whereas the 4 – 4

and 8– 8 HESGs require 15.75 and 18.25 A, respectively.

At no electrical excitation, the 4 – 4 HESG gives the lowest

output power. The 8 –8 HESG at no electric excitation

gives the highest efﬁciency since it works as a pure PMSG.

The 4 – 4 and 8 – 8 HESGs should perform better in practice

because they have quite high efﬁciencies upto the rated point.

The calculated power densities against machine powers of

the proposed HESGs are shown in Fig. 12. Without electrical

excitation, the 8 – 8 HESG has the highest power density since

it produces the highest power (see Fig. 8), and the 4 – 4 HESG

has the lowest power density because of the low power (see

Fig. 9b). When the current linkage in all HESGs increases,

the power density of the 6 – 2 HESG becomes higher than

that of the 4 – 4 and 8 – 8 HESGs. Close to the rated current

linkage, the power density increase of the 6 – 2 HESG

decelerates as a result of the saturation of the electrically

10

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Conclusions

**New 500 kW, 60 Hz versions of a novel type of an electrical
**

machine, a HESM, were introduced. These kinds of machines

are designed for generator use in island conditions. The

feasibility of HESGs in island operation was shown by an

FEA. Three possible HESG structures were proposed and

their performances were studied by a 2D FEA. A

comparison of the proposed constructions was made.

Based on the results of the FEA simulations, all three

proposed HESGs can meet the marine application

conditions set by classiﬁcation societies, that is, the

generator voltage must remain within +10% at all loads,

the generator sustainable short-circuit current must be three

times the rated current for at least 2 s and the generator

must be capable of supplying inductive loads with

cos w ¼ 0.8ind .

It should be noted that the machine type needs either slip

rings and brushes or brushless excitation systems. Since the

structure and the operation principle resemble PMSMs as

the PM poles still produce large enough air gap ﬂux density

even without electrical excitation, the maintenance of

brushes should not pose a signiﬁcant problem as it would

for the conventional electrically excited SMs. In emergency

cases, the machines work satisfactorily without any

excitation current but at a lower voltage, see Fig. 9.

7

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the Academy of Finland.

8

References

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**

experimental study on a novel tangential/radial hybrid excitation

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8 Naoe, N., Fukami, T.: ‘Trial production of a hybrid excitation type

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& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012

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