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"Parrrole": Berio's Words on Music Technology

Author(s): Andrea Cremaschi and Francesco Giomi
Source: Computer Music Journal, Vol. 28, No. 1 (Spring, 2004), pp. 26-36
Published by: MIT Press
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Nonetheless. nor is there a desire to present an analysis of Berio's music. -Luciano Berio (Rizzard and De Benedictis 2000.95. beginning with the now distant concert on October 28. Therefore. It is mostly composed of quotations taken from essays or interviews in order to cover the entire are of Berio's production. He imagined no clear separation between genres nor 26 Computer Music Journal For fifty years. Italy andreacremaschi@tiscali. 1952. he never intended to devalue the technological component (without which of course his electroacoustic music would not exist). particularly when faced with the vast possibilities of electronic means. or rather. were inhabited by heaven and earth. p. as we will see. (2003). 24 Jan 2016 20:26:09 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Nevertheless. Giomi et al. by the entire universe. of a dualistic conception of the material. there is no systematic purpose.28:1. a comprehensive examination of his work is likely to be somewhat disorienting. It was not always a steady relationship. Cronaca del Luogo. Vidolin (1992). obviously. Another characteristic is his criticism of those who consider the electroacoustic resources available as a simple "sampler" programmed with new sounds. This is not meant to be a musicological study. It is perhaps still too early to take stock of Berio's musical and theoretical contributions to the field of electroacoustic music. Luciano Berio (1925-2003) (see Figure 1) worked with music technology. from Aristotle to the late Middle Ages. which led to the creation of new masterworks. One of these is surely the centrality of the act of creation and its absolute preeminence in his technological inquiries-the centrality of the music itself in comparison to its productive mechanisms. Spring2004 ? 2004 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. it was an enduring relationship-surviving even to recent years-thanks to Berio's personal interest in live electronics. sometimes they are and in some comprehensive studies about the composer. a brief retrospective. and Restagno (1995). As will become evident. For Berio.48. and it is organized as a sort of multi-voiced dialogue. Berio (1975). moments of extraordinary creativity were mixed with moments of apparent disinterest in technology resulting from problems posed by the electronic manipulation of sound. This very relationship and the theoretical apparatus that developed is the focus of this article. not to understand how we arrived at this revolution is one of the most serious dangers that can befall a composer. and Altra voce.AndreaCremaschi* Giomit andFrancesco Parrrole: Berio's * Via Michelangelo 2 27058 Voghera (PV). 26-36. Outis. and aesthetics Berio used. but rather a tribute. where he heard his first piece of tape music. including Berio (1956).it tCentro Tempo Reale Villa Strozzi-Via Pisana 77 50143 Florence.254 on Sun. or alibis.uemusic. The revolution in new technologies has brought us far beyond this. Delalande (1974). In this. inhabited at will. and This content downloaded from 208. and extending to the recent works Ofanim.and macrostructures. Osmond-Smith (1991). pp. Nowadays. but rather to reaffirm the role of the composer as creator. Menezes (1993). We refer the reader willing to investigate the matter deeper to a number of contributions on specific subjects. Italy on Technology Numbers in music. as is clearly evident in the generation of new musical processes. central to Berio's thinking was his desire to create a continuity between electroacoustic music and instrumental music. it is possible to trace certain hypotheses and lines of research that characterized Berio's language from the very beginning. Scaldaferri (1994). Further historical and biographical information can be found online at the Universal Edition Web site (www. in the simultaneous control of micro. Given the variety of solutions. numbers are uninhabited. including Stoianova (1985). and thus in the elimination. or something else. techniques. 164) Music Words Computer Music Journal.

i:::.r~. Electronic music. (Berio 1976a.254 on Sun. We can no longer define it solely by its methods. only some contained a message that was then picked up and transformed. ???::. serves as a sort of "balance sheet" for the first twenty-five years of the history of electroacoustic music.. Often. We therefore leave it to the composer himself to introduce the topic of this article. We discuss it less than ever and it is rare to meet musicians who still speak of it with that optimistic. We can describe the specific techniques but we can no longer hold electronic music up as the antithesis of other modes and conceptions of musical creation. Electronic music has in fact contributed to developing a unitary vision of musical process. Luciano Berio. So.: . In the same way. musical homogeneity and continuity among extremely diverse acoustic characters.:::~::: i??i?~ii between means of production. both creatively and theoretically. no longer exists because it is everywhere and is a part of everyday musical thought. futuristic vocabulary of the 1950s. Many other dilemmas that Berio addressedwill be easily traceable in the citations that follow. of relationships..~ :. electronic music is not news today because it is an integral part of that factory of meaning. vii-viii) Cremaschi and Giomi This content downloaded from 208. At the time he wrote this essay. . electronic music.~? the symbol of liberation from the slavery of instrumental academia. from 1976.. This first essay.??? jF1 id81Bii?i!:: :I. or other means. As a result.Figure 1. instruments. Not only is it difficult to find someone still willing to defend and describe the infinite possibilities of electronic music and the lusty cheek-to-cheek relationship of the musician to sonic material. Not surprisingly. pp. to concretely overcoming the harmonic-timbral dichotomy and to discovering a true. ??:. but also because they did not make reference to the musical work of humans. The first works of electronic music in the 1950s were as if wrapped in silence.?e:. Parrrole For some time now.. who embrace it as the banner of the avant-garde. 24 Jan 2016 20:26:09 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 27 .1::~. the most important "electronic" works of the last twenty-five years are those that have sought a mediation between the acoustic dimension and another realm-those that expanded the continuity between "electronic" sounds and "natural" sounds.* . by now shared by almost every form of musical thought. enabling interaction between the different levels through reciprocal transformation. in a certain sense. electronic music has not been news. a musician of today who does not explore the world of electronic music is necessarily incomplete.48.95. electronic generators. and of expression that we continue to call music.. nor can we define it according to its general principles. They lacked the well-known behaviors associated with musical legacy. but rather creative acts that are fundamentally defined by the imaginations of composers and by their capacities to integrate various materials and memories they bring to music. these electronic works were like bottles tossed in the sea.x-rn~ *:?'?'? ??-*? -ii?. whether they be produced by voices. it has become quite difficult to use and to define the term itself. a musician who ignores voices and instruments to concentrate only on sounds produced and transformedelectronically is not a total musician. not only because the concert halls that occasionally hosted them were often empty. Berio was midway through his career. in constant and rapid evolution. ? Universal Edition/ Eric Marinitsch.

concentrating on existing elements of 28 sound. [Bruno] Maderna. culminating in the creation of the Studio di Fonologia (1955) at the Radio Audizioni Italiane (RAI) in Milan. in 1952 at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. 164) It seemed to me that I was flying in those years. a piece of tape music was presented. (Dalmonte 1981.95. from which different musical functions can be derived through an analysis. in those years. I did not propose any particular technical or musical strategy yet. I say "strangely. My musical ear was further refined. and [Otto] Luening and [Vladimir] Ussachevsky were the composers. It was an experience without any musical content. and I was deeply impressed. and. but I found myself-rather like La Forza del Destinomoving between these two poles: a subtractive pole. the history of which is already well known. based on the elementary manipulation of piano sounds recorded on tape. was not a synthesis between two existing entities.48. an orchestra ceased to be the orchestra. I heard of works by MeyerEppler. p. I was able to reexamine the relations and the degree of fusion or separation every time. I prefer to describe it as a dialogue between different dimensions. contributing to the overcoming of sterile and archaic separate parameters for which we all wish. as if it were an ideological alternative. p. 24 Jan 2016 20:26:09 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . (Rizzardi and De Benedictis 2000. pp. at least when I was there. an historic organization of acoustic families. his efforts expanded on this first experience. In that concert in New York. I truly regained the time I had lost from living in the city-particularly during the war-and in Milan.254 on Sun. 162) Our work at the Studio di Fonologia.In MyBeginning We now return to the story of Berio's personal. it was only a few weeks before I began to experiment with the tape recorders at RAI. quite strangely. Stockhausen. Eimert. In the succeeding years. p. between 1953 and 1954. for the first time. It was called Sonic Contours. (Rizzardi and De Benedictis 2000. 68) The work at the Studio di Fonologia (which is why I am grateful to what was then the RAI) allowed me to deepen the dialogue between musical thought and the acoustic or morphological dimension. both musical and acoustic." because I was completely in the dark about what [Werner] Meyer-Eppler and [Herbert] Eimert were preparing in Germany. 172) A VeilAwaveUponthe Waves With the end of the fecund period in Milan (1961) that saw the production of some of the most sigComputer Music Journal This content downloaded from 208. and an additive pole. creating an inner unanimity. In that period. (Dalmonte 1981. I was aware of embracing and beginning to master new dimensions. [Alfredo] Lietti of RAI and my encounters with [Henri] Pousseur. that appeared to me through my early studies and my early electroacoustic experiences. and [Karlheinz] Stockhausen did the rest. during a concert dedicated for the most part to [Edgard]Varbse and directed by Leopold Stokowski. in the immediate postwar period. My first contact with the possibility of new means of productions happened. and I knew of what Pierre Schaeffer was doing in Paris only by word of mouth. on the addition and combination of sine waves. but I remained profoundly struck by the new sound and by the possibilities of magnetic recording-by the pos- sibility of cutting sound with scissors. essentially based. in Corso Sempione. I would say that these two conceptions. perfectly innocuous. not superimposing language. When I returned to Italy. for example. (Rizzardi and De Benedictis 2000. p. these two different operative setups. Every type of functional music became a pretext for electroacoustic experimentation. 133-134) Back in Italy. almost fortuitous introduction to electronic music in 1952. I worked in every possible musical occupation to survive. rather than as the synthesis of two specific entities. influenced for a few years the work of various studios in the world. The support of Dr.

Sounds do not get old like ideas get old. (Berio 1996a. New musical thought. it is not as important to invent new stories as it is to create conceptual organisms eventually capable of generating stories. as they often did in the 1950s. p. All this invites us to reflect on the maturing relationship Berio had with electronic music. for these sounds to emanate from a new musical thought. aesthetic.95. 140-141) We often think that new technologies must serve primarily to produce new sounds. leaving technological experimentation in the background and concentrating more on the development of his own personal. saw a composer grappling with new domain that held enormous potential. has to be conscious of musical experience that is not new. It is perfectly useless to contrast a computer that controls a digital system to a conductor who controls an orchestra. the two are complementary as long as their evolution is always guided by musical considerations. 140) Hisssss For Berio. especially when dealing with new technologies. If the experience of electronic music is important. In literature. as I believe it is. They permitted an incredible expansion of the acoustic vocabulary. This stance did not reflect so much the technical differences between the two. but that was still. marked by a search for new outlets and for new ways to use electronic music.254 on Sun. This is to say that it is better to use a digital system for its ability to transform already acquired sound information than to use it to produce "new sounds. but it is difficult." It is easy to produce new sounds. pp. in certain aspects. then. He began to reflect with more detachment on the conceptual. but on a conceptual level. p. because music needs new sounds. 138) Even today. it is incorrect to contrast new technologies with traditional vocal and instrumental techniques. He perceived a risk in the splitting up of music and thought-of music and meaning. in the following years. in its broadest sense. its importance does not reside so much in the discovery of new sounds. In the studios that use advanced technology. This detachment was owing more to extra-musical exigencies-the growing obsolescence of the equipment at the Studio di Fonologia and Berio's move to the United States-than anything. but-as was obvious to Berio from the beginning-had not equivalently brought a store of new musical thoughts that would render this new vocabulary necessary. It lies in the possibility that these experiences will allow the composer to extend the field of sonic phenomena and to integrate them into his musical thoughts and thus to overcome the dualistic conception of musical material. From a practical point of view. for now. there can be enormous differences. especially when espoused via new technological means. but was based on much more profound conceptual problems that Berio saw in the argument. Berio avoided retracing his steps. and even social repercussions of the introduction of these new methods into musical life. the input is still more important than the output. this period witnessed a turning point. Still. new technologies have to find ways to approach the musical work of the performer and to insert themselves into this work-to extend it and not to oppose it. Most important.nificant works of electroacoustic music in his catalogue. Berio's interests seem to have moved in other directions. electronic music is not and cannot be simply the utopian and vaguely solipsistic Cremaschi and Giomi This content downloaded from 208. Thus.48. orchestral technique. 24 Jan 2016 20:26:09 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 29 . This sometimes problematic rapport. quite immature. I think instead that new sounds are not so important. except for brief moments or for very particular or limited projects. we should look less toward inventing fresh sonorities and more toward defining and developing new conceptual organisms capable of generating new musical processes that will eventually be recognized precisely for their use of new sounds. (Berio 1996b. (Dalmonte 1981. We notice first a clear rejection on Berio's part of electronic music as a contrasting dimension to instrumental music.

He recognized the need to heed these indicators as stronger than ever. Contact with the performer and recognition of the history contained in the sound of the instruments are some of the elements that Berio felt were now essential components of music. filters. filters. more sophisticated. but also of ways of doing. dialectically. pp. a real rapport and a true need for them. Studios have begun to exist not to produce music. analog electronic music studios (where the musician manually controlled continuous electrical waves that were analogous to the forms of sound waves) existed for the purpose of producing musical works. 147-149) In the 1950s and 1960s. but for the sake of their technology. And history is made not only of musical forms and structures. more powerful.254 on Sun. they risk losing momentarily the continuity of their musical decisions and of their own presence . because they lack the premise. 24 Jan 2016 20:26:09 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .48. and I will never tire of saying this. certain works illuminate the relationship with an original light. We can in fact pass indifferently from one system to another. the Computer Music Journal This content downloaded from 208. and tape recorders-all instruments borrowed from other fields-they did so because they were motivated by necessity and saw in these instruments a natural outlet for their efforts. We are often incapable of grasping the connection in these transformations and sometimes. It seems to me that for some time now. Technological development (in part owing to industrial applications) tends. It is only when beginning with this idea that we can make profitable exchanges between music and technology.) to fit their ideas and their for fresh sonorities. tape recorders. one has the impression that they let themselves be chosen by the new technologies without being able to establish. In music. They must constantly upgrade without ever having assimilated the preceding conquests. The prospective relationship between these machines and musical thought is certainly exciting. The fact is that the initial push for improved means must derive from a musical conception. They evolve and they are transformed. Composers who work with new means in electronic music (computers included) tend to place their pasts in parentheses. from one computer to another-they are ever faster. twenty or thirty years ago. and therefore. They cannot frame the relationship in a poetic perspective. Technology and musical language no longer peacefully coexist. (Dalmonte 1981. Sometimes. etc. Every so often. but it is neither easy nor peaceful. they cannot define a universal element. ways of listening. Composers seem to have correspondently fallen into a difficult situation. for their part. They do this simply to do something different-something 30 exceptional. and social mechanisms that cannot be ignored. things do not get better or worse.. we entered into a frantic chase in which composers end up constrained by the new technology. as groundbreaking as it is grounded in history. and ever smaller-without really using musically that which was there. Machines specifically produced for electronic music have been around for a long time. electronic music studios switched technology and began to exist only for their own perfection. by nature.95. but they fail to define a line of conduct. that relationship has been resolved only anecdotally.. Musicians. However. we do not know where to look.. When composers in the 1950s acquired oscillators. disconnected from all other aspects of one's musical life. In the last ten or fifteen years. begin to believe that they are improving only when they posses ever more sophisticated technology. musicians bent nonmusical technologies (oscillators. Everything must depend on a thought. to be indifferent to musical considerations and instead follows the law of technology and the law of the market: to always improve and to do so at all costs. During the 1970s and even before. the conditions that would justify the adoption of new means. In short. We do not know how to focus our attention on the best part of ourselves-on that which we have inside. With the advent of synthesizers and the exponential growth of the possibilities offered by digital sound editors.

it is not easy to creatively use and develop one of the most important aspects of the new digital technologies generally-the ability to simultaneously control the various temporal dimensions. For their part. historical. Only compositional criteria that clearly manifest their rejection of immutable musical mateCremaschi and Giomi This content downloaded from 208. if in the past-even the distant past-music was often the testing ground and the stimulus for scientific research. It is exactly in the slow and laborious research of a convergence. 137-140) turers of musical life. 150-151) That which Berio sought in electronic means was not the unheard sound. at a much higher level than the specific technology. now it seems that science has attracted and taken possession of music . and. He sought continuity with the past. and now. has taken the upper hand. We can only hope to continue to coordinate creatively the acoustic dimension and the musical dimension. intended not as a model. Electronic music seemed no longer to regard a definite audience as necessary . for me. composers are struck dumb by new technologies created especially for them. both in its linguistic dimension and in general in its social dimension as well. by itself. The duty of composers and technicians.. To create-to program a musically coherent and meaningful rapport between these three dimensions-would mean. is to anchor the new means to the musical reality. nor was it the grand possibilities of sound manipulation taken by themselves. melodies.. to take a step forward in the conquest of a broader musical space. the global. on occasion. but as a context of which the composer is asked to take notice. And this is wonderful. we risk losing the meaning of music. Without recognizing the importance of this context. Now. it seems to me. with equal subtlety. macroscopic dimension (that which brings together the different strata of our memories). we have all experimented with the musical limits of the technicians. electronic music as a means for musical thought had arrived at an impasse.. and the intermediate dimension.. and expressive aspects. rhythmic articulations. not only a musical object to listen to. and ephemerality.95. He sought continuity with the work of performers. and the identification (always a bit utopian) between science and music that new things are found. for example. Similarly. that an audience assembled to listen to loudspeakers is not particularly exciting. We realized that a concert is not only the piece. We realized. Composers must control. In these last few years. The experience of listening to music in public is made up of many has things-many different conventions-and roots in many different aspects of society and culture.. pp. pp. he sought new continuity within the realm of thought. is ineffective at transforming listening conventions and socio-musical rapports. but also its immediacy and its social aspects. in all its complexity. (Dalmonte 1981. impermanence. the microscopic dimension (that which we do not perceive as such and is measured in milliseconds)." By nature. We lost music in not only its technical. With or without the new technologies.. 24 Jan 2016 20:26:09 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 31 . even if said piece proposes "new sounds. Perspectives It certainly is not easy.48. (Dalmonte 1981. The new medium has taken from us music as a global and total idea.254 on Sun. made of the articulation of perceivable durations. a piece of music. who even today are the principal nur- By now it is clear that only compositional criteria based on a concrete reference united with the sonic material allow the musician to contemporaneously coordinate within the vast field of possibilities in electronic music. we are on the point of experimenting with the technical limits of the musicians. In other words. and in their complete detachment from the usual gestures of a musical work) were not the ideal "containers" for a type of thought that had always been elaborated in terms of duration. musicians felt that a magnetic tape or patches on a synthesizer (in their fragility.

of one musical dimension whose complexity and relational multiplicity will continuously incorporate all the sonic phenomena of our audible world.95. we have heard compositions that combine instrumental and electronic means. 133-134) I believe that if some day we arrive at a better understanding between the different genres of music. is somewhat similar to that which happened in linguistics. more or less symbolic.254 on Sun." that eventually get to the depths of the experience and can access the true meaning. but of the individual. We will also owe a debt to those experiences that tend to assimilate and to deal with the world of sounds using substantially neutral operations indifferent to the intrinsic cultural connotations of the musical material they would like to transform. We see this as the most important aspect of electronic music. as the functions of this qualitative evolution can be organically set outside of the specific field of electric generation of sound.. we will owe this in part to our experiences with electronic music. Composers have attempted to create an organic meeting of natural sounds (including the human voice) and synthetic sounds. in electronic music. And as it energizes an ever more participating public. it is those investigations. they will be invited by the situation itself to consciously participate in the action. Gesang der Jiinglinge by Stockhausen. This will be a sign of a renewal of the conscience. and Musica su due dimensioni by Maderna all come to mind. To this renovation of material and of form of interest to acoustic research ever further afield-we can connect even our spiritual problems. That which has happened and is happening. This dense fabric of relations will unceasingly stimulate conscious reactions in composers and perform- ers alike. momentarily ignoring the "contents. Listeners will less than ever before be put in the position of having to close their eyes to abandon themselves to mu32 sical dreams.rial-in which there is an implicit possibility of modification from one work to the next. In the last few years. where the search for a "universal" grammar Computer Music Journal This content downloaded from 208. Often.. it will definitively purge our musical customs of any residual duality. I say this without in any way impeding the notion that the personal styles of composers will always act as the bridge between a form and the newly altered material. they will have to follow the transformations and the unpredictable proliferation of vocal and instrumental sounds through various modes of practical expression. All the while. between the different strongholds of music consumption. (Berio 1976b. And it is precisely the observation of this continuity that has made possible the conception of musical forms linked to the qualitative evolution of the material. The action-just the presence of the interpreter who sings or plays-will be completely assimilated in this enlargement of the musical experience. This integration will happen according to an evolutionary process that is simultaneously broad and refined.48. For the sense to become intelligible. in function of its incommutable structural necessities-permit the composer to use the immense sonic richness that electronics have made available in all their continuity. they will have to take into consideration the more or less effective presence of a visible action on the part of the performer. Therefore. The sinusoidal sound will be only the beginning. pp. The possibility of intervening in the internal structure of sound with ever greater subtlety (which means an improved control in "microtempo" where this structure is articulated) will allow us to perfectly integrate synthetic sounds into the complexity and the relative discontinuity of natural phenomena. in fact.. I base any prospect of a musical renewal of contemporary music on the enlargement of musical media in its broadest sense. I am certain that even the antinomy of the due dimensioni-the contrast between recorded music (electronic music) and music actually performed (instruments as well as sung and spoken voice)-will soon be overcome. Rimes by Pousseur. for the first time. 24 Jan 2016 20:26:09 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . especially today. not just musically.

These problems were already "in the air" for some time. p. and the composer had already had the opportunity to express his opinions on them. Some of the opinions may seem a bit dated. and then the appearance of digital technology. because it was exthis of abstraction of contents that. All this is fascinating. that computers will be further integrated into the creative process. they must err and correct themselves as all humans.254 on Sun. faced the musical community. By 1987. especially as they relate to the conceptions of that time (particularly the strong dichotomy between people and computers). even if they left almost no mark in his official catalog as composer. A number of the citations included here derive from reflections in those years. as far as music technology is concerned. (Berio 1973) Listen! We now return to Berio's career. with its extreme versatility. Berio's numerous attempts to found a new center of electroacoustic production in Florence had finally come to fruition. but it also posed new problems. and not only in music. (This is also thanks to the famous 4X Synthesizer by Giuseppe Di Giugno. of which this passage is testimony. was a moment of transition.95. Tempo Reale was born. (Dalmonte 1981.necessarily relegated the semantic and expressive aspects of language to secondary importance. The computer took the place of the cumbersome machines previously in use. but as an instrument acting directly in creation. and. I would say. and he wasted no time in realizing this and beginning to explore the consequences.) Live electronics seemed the response that best fit Berio's needs. do. it was in these years that Berio concentrated his interests on live electronics. brought about a radical change in compositional conceptions and in the way electroacoustic studios operated. He envisioned the computer not simply as a machine for the elaboration of data. or better. marked by a systematic rethinking of the assumptions of the 1950s and 1960s. including those who construct computers and those who make music. his vision of technology as not only a "tool. Pierre Boulez called on Berio to direct the department of electroacoustic music at the Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique (IRCAM). when they are able to make mistakes. which we left just after his experiences in Milan. quickly became the privileged instrument in the compositional world. The following passage comes from C'? musica e musica. and Berio expected internationally important works to emerge from this new endeavor. but is the intelligence of a computer sufficient for composing music? I do not intend to reproduce here for the nth time the conflict between people and machines.. a time that. But that is another discussion. discovering. paradoxically.48. and creating precisely because it is guided by a human idea-an idea with a concrete awareness of context.. The advent of synthesizers at first. I only want to suggest that the intelli- gence of a computer remains only abstract even if it can simulate human behaviorabstract because artificial intelligence is based only on reason. Yet. computers tend to process data and information without much regard for the circumstances or the context from which they are derived. In particular. a cycle of television programs created and directed by Berio for RAI. In 1974. on logic. 135) Thnthnthn Imperthnthn "Another discussion"-perhaps. but they are nonetheless indicative of the direction of Berio's thoughts. Our intelligence is capable of inventing. actly problem in the early 1980s (the period in which the above interview occurred). a position he held until 1980. He saw Tempo Reale as the successor to the Studio di FoCremaschi and Giomi This content downloaded from 208. These took place in 1973. 24 Jan 2016 20:26:09 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 33 . intending this term in its highest and most multifaceted sense. These years were devoted to research and intense experimentation that. In other words. coincided with a broadening and deepening of his theoretical writing." but also as an instrument of thought-and therefore as a subject capable of error-is prescient. All this opened new avenues for the manipulation of sound.

Today. And. pp. virtual reproductions. the composer worked closely with technicians to produce instruments as responsive as possible to his musical exigencies.95. Yet this was on the same wavelength as his most recent artistic endeavors and his interests in other areas of expression. When confronting these new technologies. to think in terms of "good" and "bad" acoustics and of venues "more" and "less" adapted to musical performance. We know that. Music conceived for traditional instrumental and vocal performance tends to implicate more or less standardized collective listening situations (concert hall. auditorium. concretely. new and-one might say-virtual. a bridge. whether it be a cathedral. buildings. I think that today we could even create music in real time (and listen to it) in the middle of the Sahara Desert. its establishment indicates the new tendencies that Berio was then beginning to contemplate. etc. an apartment building. Tempo Reale set out. and assuming the availability of a highly sophisticated system for sound processing and reproduction. but as the physical place in which the performance occurs. The reasons that lead a composer in one direction instead of another must always be musical reasons. Yet. not only as a simple parameter according to (by now) dated ideas. pp. Berio visualized a space with its own properties. It can also explore virtual spaces created from those others that remain acoustically illusory. transform. But it also proposes to occupy musically-to conquer in the name of music-real spaces not originally conceived of for musical performances:town squares. as is evident from the name of the center. it was the musical ideas that were fundamental. 24 Jan 2016 20:26:09 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . it is quickly becoming the reality. to become one of the principal international think tanks for music technology. At the same time. The spatialization of sounds constitutes perhaps the newest and most stimulating aspect of our efforts. there is a terrain-almost a noman's land-that deserves exploration: listening. (Berio 1996b.Tempo Reale is particularly engaged in the definition and the realization of flexible acoustic spaces. valleys. Assuming the absence of unforeseen problems. (Berio 1988.). in proportion to the complexity of the perceived connections the work is able to provoke. we are always dealing with an elastic architecture. This testifies once again to his undying interest in confronting the field of musical research. quantifiable in all its aspects. theater. that the performer then is free to accept. A vision and a musical project must develop and move in a technological realm organically homogeneous to both that vision and that project. 140-141) Berio's final work seemed to be ever more directed toward the phenomenal aspects of music. even Computer Music Journal This content downloaded from 208. The field of research is immense. a listening strategy can be an internal dimension of the 34 musical process. particularly in relation to live electronics. as Berio never tired of repeating. musically "legitimate" or not.nologia from thirty years earlier. etc. in Berio's mind.254 on Sun.48. today. cloisters. it seems to me improper. or their respective. The idea of music as sonic architecture is losing its metaphoric status. Composers cannot be ignorant of the techniques they want to use. a musical thought capable of identifying with these new technologies can creatively adapt itself to any real space. streets. or reinvent. 3-4) Closely related to the problem of acoustic space is the problem of listening processes and the reception of music. as always. capable of re-adaptation to different environments. He sought instruments that would permit the creation of the imaginary spaces needed for his most recent works. The new music technologies instead do not usually impose an ideal listening location tied to permanent criteria of collective aggregation. In this case. In this sense. as at the Studio di Fonologia and at IRCAM. the new technologies can play a beneficial role in the overhaul of certain ingrained habits and hence can extend creativity into this realm as well. Chief among these was the use of space. to the detriment of the research centered on inherent structures in music. For example. Here.

ed. D. 1974. It is important that the composer does not become its slave. L." In Pousseur. Berio."In Rizzardi. Berio. Berio. Milan: Teatro alla Scala. Meacci.. "A Conversation with Luciano Berio. I. 1981." Concert program. pp. pp. Schwoon. D. Modena: Mucchi.and TwoLoudspeakers WillTakeMyPlace References Berio."ProgramBulletin GRM 12:41-54. p. 1988. L.. Osmond-Smith. Rome-Bari:Laterza.when it is limited to the study of a particular "instrument. 2000. We ask only that they know that which they need to know. Berio's ideas regarding electroacoustic music.Elaborazione elettroacustica della voce di Cathy Berberiansu nastro magnetico (1958). 138-139.V. Composers. It is important that the composer's vision and project are musically strong and conceptually sensible. ed.. "L'Omaggioa Joyce de Luciano Berio. in this we find a passage that summarizes. 24 Jan 2016 20:26:09 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 35 . F. 1996b. H. Technology is the means. I would be tempted to say that as an organist does not necessarily have to know how to construct an organ.95. 1996a. F. Berio. pp. Turin: EDT. L. Un essai sur la composition verbale 6lectronique. and A. "Prefazione." The Score 15:83. Rizzardi.. Testo di JamesJoyce. Why are we obliged to "compose the sounds" instead of just composing with the sounds? Why must we take into consideration all the characteristics of the acoustic space in addition to the musical elements? Why must we consider the most minimal elements.V." C'b musica e musica IX. La musica elettronica. "Live Electronics in Luciano Berio's Music. Berio. "Centro Tempo Reale. "Poesia e musica-un'esperienza. 1976a. 140-141. Luciano Berio."In Pousseur. "Ofanim."In Degrada. ed. E. pp.Prato:Museo d'arte contemporanea. ed. Berio. 1993. Nuova Musica alla Radio. ed. Oxford:OxfordUniversity Press.. we ask the technician to be capable of identifying musically with the composer. Intervista sulla musica. RAI-RadioTelevisioneItaliana. R.." and it is appropriatethat a composer work with highly specialized technicians in applying technology to music. Visage de Luciano Berio. the profound "why" of electronic music. I am often asked what is the sense. never stop learning. Dalmonte. H."Musique en jeu 15:45-54. eds. 1991. This constitutes the ideal conclusion for our voyage through the words of the composer along the are of his creative life. "Chants parallbles. F." In Degrada. a composer does not necessarily have to explore all the technological implications that are part of the digital elaboration of sound. L. Berio. 2003. and A. Menezes. "Studio di Fonologia Musicale. Milan: Teatro alla Scala. EspeCremaschi and Giomi This content downloaded from 208. L. not the end. I. Delalande.48. Festival Luciano Berio. Milan: Feltrinelli. vii-ix. L.. 1975. Berio..F. 1973. 1995." (Berio 1976a." Computer Music Journal27(2):30-46. Festival Luciano Berio. 1976b. De Benedictis. vii-ix) I Shall LeaveYou Now. De Benedictis. Restagno. L. Similarly. 124-135. 67) In MyEndIs MyMusic We return in the end to the essay cited in the beginning of this article. (Scazzola 1996. perhaps in the clearest way. the most elementary elements. Berio. pp. Giomi. 1956. as well as the most global ones? I am convinced that the profound sense of electronic music is the same as that of any other experience: it reminds us of the "human" in "humanity. Milan: Feltrinelli. and K. La musica elettronica. L. "Thema (Omaggio a Joyce). like all mortals.254 on Sun. "Nuovo mondo. F.

254 on Sun. 1952. Stoianova. A. It develops on three polyphonic "Perspectives"is the title of a work for tape composed in 1957. is a tribute to Luciano Berio. The titles of the sections are taken from the texts of Berio's electroacoustic and vocal works. or "disturbs"the logical flow characterizing the other voices)." Telcma 6:67.48." I Quaderni della Civica Scuola di Musica 21/22:13-22." and "Listen!" are taken from Thema (Omaggio a Joyce) (1958)." La Revue Musicale 375-377. 24 Jan 2016 20:26:09 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1994.. "A Veil Awave Upon the Waves. The authors want to thank Daniel Mintz for the translation and Universal Edition for the permission to publish Berio's picture. 160-174.") was uttered by Leopold Stokowski to introduce the tape music concert in New York on October 28. . pp. "LucianoBerio:Chemins en musique." "Imperthnthn thnthnthn. Musica nel laboratorio elettroacustico. Scaldaferri. 1996. I. Vidolin. 1992. 36 Computer Music Journal Appendix This content downloaded from 208. Scazzola. our commentaries. according to his usual practice (even in non-musical expression). A. Intervista con Luciano Berio. In particular. Rome: Cidim-ERI2000. Lucca:LIM. as already mentioned in the introduction. layers: Berio's words (arrangedlike concordant or contrasting themes). The final sentence ("Ishall leave you now. Lo Studio di Fonologia di Milano e la ricerca musicale negli anni Cinquanta. 1985.rienze allo Studio di Fonologia della RAI di Milano 1954-1959. "In My Beginning" and "In My End Is My Music" come from A-Ronne (1974-75). and the titles (used as a third voice that articulates." "Hisssss. and finally. "Latecnica 6 un mezzo.N. "Parrrole"comes from Visage (1961). introduces. This article. la musica una ragione. we decided to conceive it as a sort of musical structure. "Avevamo nove oscillatori.95. Therefore.