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KILN AUDIT

TRAINING
OKKE PLANT – KOREA
Sept. 8 – 12, 2008

8-12. 2008 2 .OBJECTIVES ■ To transfer the knowledge and skills necessary for: ❏ ❏ ❏ ATC Performing a heat & mass balance on the pyro system Interpreting results & drawing conclusions Benchmarking performance & making recommendations Sept.

8-12. Report Writing Guideline Presentations ❏ Plant Walk Through ❏ Checking of Instruments ❏ Review of Operation from CCR Day 2 ❏ Collection of Measurements (2 sets) AM / PM Sept.AGENDA ■ ■ ATC Day 1 ❏ Introduction / Safety Briefing ❏ Kiln Audit Training / Details. 2008 3 .

8-12. 2008 4 .AGENDA ■ ■ ■ ATC Day 3 ❏ Performing Calculations Day 4 ❏ Complete Heat & Mass Balance ❏ Identify Areas of Improvement & Recommendations Day 5 ❏ Presentations by participants Sept.

. 2008 5 .. 8-12.Action Plan Detect optimization potential Sept. production. Basis for comparison ❏ impact of investment or modifications carried out ❏ comparison to other plants Detect weak points ..GOALS OF KILN AUDIT ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ATC To get a detailed view of the kiln line performance Evaluate exact data for heat consumption.

a simple kiln audit should be completed by the plant alone Sept. a complete kiln audit is to be completed with assistance from the TC Once a year. 8-12. 2008 6 .WHEN TO DO A KILN AUDIT ■ ■ ATC Every 3 years.

8-12.BOUNDARY SELECTION Dust Flow during compound operation Raw Material direct Operation Silo Dust flow during Raw Mill Exhaust Feed Bypass ATC Sept. 2008 7 .

8-12.BOUNDARY SELECTION Dust Flow during compound operation D = 11. 2008 8 .8 tph KF = 204 tph Bypass Cli = 126 tph ATC Sept.0 tph Boundary for mass balance Raw Material direct Operation Silo Dust flow during Raw Mill Exhaust Feed Coal Ash = 1.

BOUNDARY SELECTION ■ ■ ■ ATC Any boundary shape can be chosen Every stream that crosses the envelope must be taken into account The boundary line is chosen so that the boundary points are: ❏ useful for the balance goals ❏ easily accessible for reliable measurements Sept. 8-12. 2008 9 .

2008 10 .“Energy cannot be created or destroyed but may be converted from one form to another” Energy in = Energy out MASS BALANCE Σ massin = Σ massout HEAT BALANCE Σ heatin = Σ heatout ATC Sept. 8-12.

MASS BALANCE Cooler exhaust gas Kiln feed Return dust Kiln exit gases Exit dust Water spray False air Primary air Kiln System Fuels cooling air Bypass gas and dust Clinker Σ massin = Σ massout ATC Sept. 8-12. 2008 11 .

2008 12 .HEAT BALANCE Kiln feed Return dust Kiln exit gases Exit dust Water spray Wall losses Cooler exhaust gas False air Primary air Kiln System Fuel cooling air Bypass gas and dust Clinker Σ heatin = Σ heatout ATC Sept. 8-12.

8-12.COOLER BALANCE Vent air Tertiary air Secondary air Raw mill Coal mill Clinker Cooling air ATC Sept. 2008 Clinker 13 .

4 — 1. 8-12.4 0.1 13.6 1750 506 314 21 — 50 276 452 42 14 51.HEAT BALANCE EXAMPLES Wet Process 1.8 9.3 0.7 5750 100 3425 100 3223 100 RAW MEAL Total input 2.) 67 1.6 — 1.2 0.4 97. INPUT FUEL from sensible heat from combustion % kJ/kg clk 0. 2008 14 .1 14. sec.6 — 2.4 19. OUTPUT Heat of formation Evaporation of water from raw meal Exhaust gas sensible heat Dust sensible heat Incomplete combustion (CO) Clinker exit temperature Cooler exhaust gases Losses due to radiation and convection Water cooling (Recupol inlet chute) Difference Total output ATC kJ/kg clk 25 5560 Semi-Dry (Lepol) Sept.2 1.4 — 2.6 from sensible heat from sensible heat of water 25 71 0.2 30 17 0.4 41.0 13.0 1.4 1750 13 636 18 — 63 423 297 — 23 54.6 kJ/kg clk 13 3150 % 0.1 9.2 — 0.7 9.7 — COMBUSTION AIR from sensible heat of all the air supplied (prim.5 8.4 15 96.2 20 0.5 54 — 1.7 0.1 0.7 3343 Dry Preheater (4-Stage) % 0.2 0.6 6 0.2 5750 100 3425 100 3223 100 1750 2370 754 25 — 59 100 540 — 152 30.2 13.4 97.9 0.

8-12. 2008 15 .QUESTIONS ??? ATC Sept.