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1. Turbo-alternators of rating __________ and above are normally hydrogen cooled.

(a) 10 MW
(b) 20 MW
(c) 25 MW
(d) 50 MW.
2. The length cf air gap to be provided in ______ is primarily determined by power factor
(a) d.c. series motor .
(b) d.c. shunt motor
(c) induction motor
(d) synchronous motor

5. In dc machines by increasing the number of poles, all of the following reduce except:
(a) weight of copper
(b) weight of iron parts
(c) frequency of flux reversals
(d) overall size of the machine.
6. In d.c. machines the usual limit of slot pitch is
a) Between 5 to 10 mm
b) Between 10 to 15 mm
c) Between 15 to 20 mm
d) Between 25 to 35 mm

7. In a d.c. machine, the value of pheripheral speed should not, normally, exceed
a) 10 m/s
b) 20 m/s
c) 30 m/s
d) 40 m/s

11. Distinguish between specific electric loading and specific magnetic loading loading.
12. In what way the air gap length influence the design of machines?
13. List the factors that influence the separation of D and L of a dc machine
14. State the relationship between number of armature coils and number of commutator segments in
D.C. machine.
15. Define window space factor?
16. Mention clearly the condition for maximum efficiency for a transformer
17. Give any three advantages and disadvantages of large air gap length in induction motor
18. Why does induction motor designed with high specific electric loadings have smaller over load
19. Write down the main consideration in the selection of specific loadings for the design of
synchronous motor.
20. Differentiate critical speed from run-away speed.
21. a) (i) Discuss the three methods of calculating the mmf of tapered teeth. (6)
a) (ii) Compare and contrast direct and indirect cooling of turbo alternator.(6)
21. b) (i) Determine the air-gap length of a dc machine from the following particulars: gross-length
of core = 0.12m, number of ducts = one and is 10 mm wide, slot pitch = 25 mm, slot width
= 10 mm, carter's coefficient for slots and ducts = 0.32, gap density at pole center = 0.7
Wb/m2; field mmf/pole = 3900 AT, mmf required for iron parts of magnetic circuit =
b) (ii) Calculate the apparent flux density at a section of the teeth of an armature of a dc machine
from the following data at that section : slot pitch= 24 mm, slot width = tooth width = 12
mm, length of armature core including 5 ducts of 10 mm each = 0.38 m, iron stacking
factor = 0.92. True flux density in teeth at that section is 2.2 Wb/m2 for which the mmf is
70000 AT/m.

22. a) Explain the various steps involved in the design of the brushes and commutator for dc
22. b) Determine the diameter and length of armature core for a 55 KW, 110V, 1000 rpm, 4 pole
shunt generator, assuming specific electric and magnetic loadings of 26000 amp.cond./m and
05 Wb/m2 respectively. The pole arc should be about 70% of pole pitch and length of core
about 1.1 times the pole arc. Allow 10 ampere for the field current and assume a voltage
drop of 4 volts for the armature circuit. Specify the winding used and also determine suitable
values of the number of armature conductors and number of slots. (12)

23. a) (i) Derive the output equation for 3 phase transformers.


a) (ii) Estimate the main dimensions including winding conductor area of a 3=phase, delta-star
core type transformer rated at 300 KVA, 6600/440 V, 50 Hz. A suitable core with 3-steps
having a circumscribing circle of 0.25 m diameter and a leg spacing of 0.4 m is available.
Emf/turn = 8.5V, = 2.5 A/mm2 Kw = 0.28, Sf = 0.9 (stacking factor).
23. b) The tank of 1250 KVA, natural oil cooled transformer has the dimensions length, width and
height as 1.55 x 0.65 x 1.85 m respectively. The full load loss = 13.1 KW, loss dissipation
due to radiations = 6 W/m2-0C, loss dissipation due to convection = 6.5 W/m 2-0C,
Improvement in convection due to provision to tubes = 40 %, Temperature rise = 40 0C,
Length of each tube = 1 m, Diameter of tube = 50 mm. Find the number of tubes for this
transformer. Neglect the top and bottom surface of the tank as regards the cooling.

24. a) (i) Determine the D and L of a 70 Hp, 415V, 3-phase, 5-Hz, star connected, 6 pole induction
motor for which ac = 30000 amp.cond/m and B av = 0.51 wb/m2. Take = 90 % and pf =
0.91. Assume = L. Estimate the number of stator conductors required for a winding in
which the conduxtors are connected in 2-parallel paths. Choose a suitable number of
conductors/ slots, so that the slot loading does not exceed 750 amp. cond.
a) (ii) Give a detailed procedure for the design of rotor bars and end rings of a squirrel cage
induction motor.
24. b) A 90 kW, 500 V, 50 Hz, three phase, 8 pole induction motor has a star connected stator
winding accommodated in 63 slots with 6 conductors per slot. The slip ring voltage on open

circuit should be 400 V approximately. Design a suitable rotor winding and state (i) Number of
slots in rotor (ii) Number of conductors per slot (iii) Coil span (iv) Slip ring voltage on open
circuit (v) Full load current per phase in rotor. Assume efficiency of 90% and power factor of

25. a) (i) Explain the choice of specific magnetic and electric loadings of synchronous machines (6)
a) (ii) Determine the output coefficient for a 1500 KVA, 2200 volt, 3-phase, 10-pole, 50 Hz, star
connected alternator with sinusoidal flux density distribution. The winding has 60 0 phase
spread and full pitch coils. ac = 30000 amp.cond/m, Bav = 0.6 Wb/m2. If the peripheral speed
of the rotor must not exceed 100 m/sec and the ratio pole pitch to core length is to be between
0.6 and 1, find D and L. Assume an air gap length of 6 mm. Find also the approximate
number of stator conductors.
25. b) Determine the main dimensions for a 1000 KVA, 50 Hz, 3-phase, 375 rpm, alternator. The average
air gap flux density is 0.55 Wb/m2 and the ampere conductors per metre are 28000. Use
rectangular poles and assume a suitable value for ration of core length to pole pitch in order that
bolted on pole construction is used for which the maximum permissible peripheral speed is 50 m/s.
the run-away speed is 1.8 times the synchronous speed.