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FoundationAnalysisandDesign

A mat is continuous in

two directions capable

of supporting multiple

columns, wall or floor

loads. It has dimensions

from 20 to 80 ft or more

for houses and hundreds

of feet for large

structures such as multistory hospitals and some

warehouses

Ribbed mats, consisting

of stiffening beams

placed below a flat slab

are useful in unstable

soils such as expansive,

collapsible or soft

materials where

differential movements

can be significant

(exceeding 0.5 inch).

This image cannot currently be display ed.

o Floating Foundations

o Coefficient of Subgrade Reaction

o Loads and Moments on Combined

Footings

o Design of Mats

MatFoundations

Structural loads

require large area to

spread the load

Soil is erratic and

prone to differential

settlements

Structural loads are

erratic

Unevenly distributed

lateral loads

Uplift loads are larger

than spread footings

can accommodate;

weight of the mat is

a factor here

Mat foundations are

easier to waterproof

Mat

foundation is 3

metres thick

and bottomed

at 19.2 m

below street

level

Example:

Chase Tower,

Houston, TX

ConditionsforMat

Foundations

that relies partially or

entirely on the weight of

the soil/water

combination it displaces

to support the structure

above it

A truly "floating"

foundation exists where

the weight of the soil

removed is greater than

or equal to the weight of

the building that replaces

it

Although foundations

can be made to float

entirely, it many not be

advisable due to heave

or settlement due to

changes in ground

conditions

weight or pressure

(weight/area) basis

structures with hollow

subterranean

structures

In this course, we will

analyse floating

foundations using the

buoyancy method of

analysis, i.e.,

comparing the weight

of the structure to the

weight of the soil

displaced

FloatingFoundations

Buoyancy

Method

FloatingFoundations

BasicsofBuoyancyMethod

o Foundation as Shown

o Foundation is 50 m long

and 70 m wide

o Sum of column and wall

loads = 805 MN

Given

of foundation

o Increase in stress due to

addition of foundation

o Whether foundation will

float

Find

FloatingFoundation

Example

A = (50)(70) = 3500 m2

Compute area of

foundation

load on foundation

Wf = (23.6)(50)(70)(1.8) = 148.68

MN

272.5 kPa

Compute pressure of

structure on foundation

Compute weight of

bottom of mat

Ws = (19)(50)(70)(8.7) = 578.55

MN

165.3 kPa

Foundation will float so long

as bearing capacity or

settlement analysis determines

that 107.2 kPa is an

acceptable additional stress

Compute change in

pressure on foundation

Compute displacement

on pressure basis (same

as total stress on base of

foundation)

displaced by foundation

FloatingFoundation

Example

The deformation

characteristics of the soil

are quantified in the

coefficient of subgrade

reaction, or subgrade

modulus, which is similar to

the modulus of elasticity for

unidirectional deformation

can be either linear or non-linear

(especially in the case of the soils)

take into account that

both the soil and the

foundation have

deformation

characteristics.

z

q = bearing pressure

= settlement

z

ks = coefficient of subgrade

reaction, units of force/length3

(the units are the same as the

unit weight, but not the

significance!)

z

q

ks =

Definition of

Coefficient of

Subgrade Reaction

CoefficientofSubgrade

Reaction

If using a pseudo-coupled

value, use values of ks in

the centre of the mat

which are half those along

the perimeter

This methodology has the

potential of eliminating the

problems described earlier

while at the same time

yielding values of ks which

then can be used in a

structural analysis of the

mat with some degree of

confidence

such as Terzaghi's

consolidation theory,

Schmertmann's or Houghs

method, etc., and express

the results in a ks value

Methods used to

determine coefficient

too limited in their application

possibilities

Derived relationships

between ks and Es

between the shape of the

loading plate and the actual

shape of the foundation

Adjustment must also be

made for the size of the plate

vs. the size of the foundation,

and the influence of size on

the depth of soil stress (see

following slide)

Attempts to make accurate

adjustments have not been

very successful to date

Methods used to

determine coefficient

DeterminingtheCoefficient

ofSubgradeReaction

Common method of

estimating the

coefficient of subgrade

reaction

Load is applied to plate

using reaction system

Described in some

detail in Murthy 13.2

Results in a loadsettlement curve of the

plate

PlateLoadTest

CoefficientofSubgrade

Reaction

makes unique value of ks non-existent

term cases

compressible soils) mat settlement is a process

which may take several years

Time

near the edges of the mat and smaller near the

centre

smaller percentage of the initial stress at

greater depths

Shape of the loaded area: stresses

beneath long, narrow loaded area is

different from those below square loaded

areas

mat will settle more than a

narrow one because more soil is

mobilised by a wide mat

Depth of the loaded area below

the ground surface

DifficultiesinDeterminingthe

CoefficientofSubgrade Reaction

purposes

o For clays, must correct for

beam length of foundation

other tests/methods are

unavailable, use typical

values of k1 given in

Table 14.1

Determine value of ks1

(results from plate

load test)

2k1 L + 0.5

(US Units, L in feet)

3 L

k s1 =

2k1

k s1 =

3

foundations:

2k1 L + 0.152

(SI Units, L in meters)

3

L

foundations:

k s1 =

UsingCoefficientofSubgrade

Reaction(Murthy14.4)

results from the size of the

plate load test to the actual

size of the foundation

o All of the limitations just

discussed with this method

need to be kept in mind when

doing this

Determine actual

coefficient of subgrade

reaction ks from ks1

Sands

2

3k s1

ks =

B

o Clays

B + 1

(US Units, L in feet)

k s = k s1

2B

B + 0.3

(SI Units, L in meters)

k s = k s1

2B

Scale Factors

UsingCoefficientofSubgrade

Reaction(Murthy14.4)

Foundation is rigid

relative to soil

of subgrade reaction and

assuming the following:

Find

120 kPa

Structure to be supported on a

30 m wide by 50 m long mat

foundation

Given

ks =

deflection:

q

Substituting B = 30 m, ks = 11.5

MN/m3

B + 0.30

k s = k sl

2 B

determine ks:

MN/m3

Solution

q

120 kPa

=

=

= 10 . 4 mm

3

k s 11500 kN / m

ExampleofUsingCoefficientof

SubgradeReaction

below the foundation

Scaling the subgrade

reaction to the actual size of

the foundation

With flexible foundations

(and that includes mats and

pavements) the coefficient

of subgrade reaction is

influenced by flexibility of

foundation

All of these factors make the

solution of the example

problem very preliminary

ProblemswiththeCoefficientof

SubgradeReaction

Application of

coefficient of subgrade

reaction to larger mats

z

P + W f u D = qdA = k s dA

experience more

settlement produce

more compression in the

springs

Sum of these springs must

equal the applied

structural loads plus the

weight of the mat

CoefficientofSubgrade

Reaction

Strength

z

Evaluate these requirements

using factored loads and

LRFD design methods

z

Mat must have sufficient

thickness T and reinforcement

to safety resist these loads

z

T should be large enough so

that no shear reinforcement is

required

Serviceability

z

Evaluate using unfactored

loads for excessive

deformation at places of

concentrated loads, such as

columns, soil non-uniformities,

mat non-uniformities, etc.

z

This is the equivalent of a

differential settlement analysis

z

Mat must be made thicker if

this is a problem

Example: Murthy, Ex. 14.4

two analyses

StructuralDesignofCombined

FootingsandMats

Methods

z Coupled Method

z Pseudo-Coupled

Method

z Multiple-Parameter

Method

z Finite Element

Method

z Winkler

Nonrigid methods

consider the

deformation of the

mat and their

influence of bearing

pressure distribution.

These methods

produce more

accurate values of

mat deformations and

stresses

These methods are

more difficult to

implement than rigid

methods because of

soil-structure

interaction

NonrigidMethods

"springs" to represent the

interaction between soil and

foundation was done by

Winkler in 1867; the model is

thus referred to as the Winkler

method

The one-dimensional

representation of this is a

"beam on elastic foundation,"

thus sometimes it is called the

"beam on elastic foundation"

method

Mat foundations represent a

two-dimensional application

of the Winkler method

WinklerMethods

independently. Bearing

pressure on one part of

the mat influences both

the "spring" under it and

those surrounding it (due

to lateral earth pressure)

No single value of ks truly

represents the

interaction between the

soil and the mat

The independent spring

problem is in reality the

largest problem with the

Winkler model

z

Actual data show that such a matsoil interaction will deflect in the

centre more than the edges

This is one reason why we use other

methods (such as Schmertmann's or

Houghs) to determine settlement

not really linear; we must

make a linear

approximation to use the

Winkler model

Winkler model assumes that

a uniformly loaded mat

underlain by a perfectly

uniform soil will uniformly

settle into the soil.

LimitationsofWinkler

Method

springs as shown below, is more accurate than the

Winkler method

The problem with the coupled method comes in

selecting the values of ks for the coupling springs

CoupledMethod

distributing the ks values in the pseudo-coupled

method; should be more accurate

Method has not been implemented into software

packages and thus is not routinely used on

design projects

linear springs of the Winkler method with springs

and other mechanical elements

MultipleParameter

Method

performed in practice

In theory, should be the

most accurate method

for structural analysis

Mat is modelled in a similar

way to other plate structures

with springs connected at the

nodes of the elements

Mat is loaded with column

loads, applied line loads,

applied area loads, and mat

weight

Usually superstructure stiffness is

not considered (conservative)

FiniteElementMethod

including presumptive bearing capacities

Bearing capacity

this should be done using other methods

Total settlement

OtherConsiderationsin

MatFoundations

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