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E.S.

BIO
SOURCE: MANAGEMENT - A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE
BY WEIHRICH AND KOONTZ 11TH EDITION

Directing/Leading

but, rather, to recognize what motivates


people.

 The managers job is not to manipulate people

maintenance of an environment in which


individuals work together in groups toward
the accomplishment of common objectives.

 Managing requires the creation and

so that they will contribute to organizational and


group goals.

 It is defined as the process of influencing people

Leading/Directing

understanding of the roles assumed by


people and the individuality and
personalities of people.

Managers should thus have an

help people see that they can satisfy their


own needs and utilize potential while
contributing to the aims of the enterprise.

Through the function of leading, managers

Human Factors in Managing

govern managers, ethics that guide behavior, and a


tradition of human dignity that is a major
characteristic of our society.

 In these different roles, they establish laws that

organizations; they are consumers of goods and


services, schools, churches, trade associations, and
political parties.

 They are members of social systems of many

factor in managements plans.

 Individuals are much more than a productive

Multiplicity of Roles

individuals are uniquethey have different


needs, different ambitions, different attitudes,
different desires for responsibility, different levels
of knowledge and skills, and different potentials.

 It is equally important to acknowledge that

 There is no average person.

different themselves.

 People act in different roles, but they are also

No Average Person

means that people must be treated


with respect, no matter what their
position is in the organization.

The concept of individual dignity

The Importance of Personal Dignity

we consider the whole person, not just


separate and distinct characteristics such as
knowledge, attitude, skills, or personality traits.
 A person has them all to different degrees.
 The human being is a total person affected by
external factors.
 People cannot divest themselves of the impact of
these forces when they come to work.
 Managers must recognize these facts and be
prepared to deal with them.

 We cannot talk about the nature of people unless

Consideration of the Whole Person

entire class of drives, desires, needs,


wishes, and similar forces.

It is a general term applying to the

Motivation

1.

McGregors Theory X and Theory Y


 Two sets of assumptions about the nature of
people.
 Theory X is pessimistic, static, and rigid.
Control is primarily external, imposed on
the subordinate by the superior.
 In contrast, Theory Y is optimistic, dynamic,
and flexible, with an emphasis on selfdirection and the integration of individual
needs with organizational demands.

Motivation Models/Theories

2.

When one set of


needs is satisfied,
this kind of need
ceases to be a
motivator.

Maslows
Hierarchy of
Needs Theory

Motivation Models/Theories

3.

Alderfers ERG Theory


 People are motivated by existence needs
(similar to Maslows basic needs),
relatedness needs (pertaining to
satisfactorily relating to others), and growth
needs (referring to self-development,
creativity, growth, and competence).

Motivation Models/Theories

Theory
 Dissatisfiers, also called maintenance,
hygiene, or job-context factors, are not
motivators, while satisfiers are
motivators and are related to job
content.

4. Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene

Motivation Models/Theories

Motivators

Motivation Models/Theories

Maintenance factors

5.

The Expectancy Theory of Motivation


 People will be motivated to do things to
reach a goal if they believe in the worth of
the goal and if they can see that what they
do will help them in achieving it.

Motivation Models/Theories

6.

Effort

Perception of
task required

Ability to do a
specified task

Performance
accomplishment

motivation model

Extrinsic
rewards

Intrinsic
rewards

Perceived
Equitable
rewards

Satisfaction

Adapted from L. W. Porter and E. E. Lawler, Managerial Attitudes and Performance (Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.,
1968), p. 165.

Perceived effort
and reward
probability

Value of
rewards

The Porter and Lawler Motivation


Porter and Lawlers
Model

Motivation Models/Theories

7.

Balance or
imbalance
of rewards

More than
Equitable
reward

Equitable
reward

Inequitable
reward

Equity Theory

Harder work
Reward
discounted

Continuation
at same level
of output

Dissatisfaction
Reduced
output
Departure from
organization

Motivation is influenced by an individuals


subjective judgment about the fairness of the
reward he or she gets, relative to the inputs,
compared with the rewards of others.

Equity Theory

Motivation Models/Theories

objectives to be
meaningful, they must
be clear, attainable,
and verifiable;
SMARTly
formulated.

 For

Theory for
Motivation

8. Goal Setting

Control
and
Appraisal

Planning
Actions

Objective setting for


motivation

Motivation Models/Theories

9.

Skinners Reinforcement Theory


 Individuals can be motivated by proper
design of their work environment and
by praise for their performance, while
punishment for poor performance
produces negative results.

Motivation Models/Theories

Motivation
 The basic motivating needs are the need
for power, the need for affiliation,
and the need for achievement.

10. McClellands Needs Theory of

Motivation Models/Theories

4.

3.

2.

1.

It is often more than monetary value; it can also mean


status or power, or other things.

It may include a feeling of accomplishment and selfactualization.

Include benefits, recognition, status symbols, and


money.

It may be based on individual, group, and


organizational performance.

Pay

Extrinsic Rewards

Intrinsic Rewards

Money

Special Motivational Techniques

influencing people so that they will strive


willingly and enthusiastically toward
the achievement of group goals.

Leadership is the art or process of

Leadership

5.

4.

3.

2.

1.

Power
A fundamental understanding of people
The ability to inspire followers to apply
their full capabilities
The leaders style
The development of a conductive
organizational climate

Ingredients of Leadership

Stogdill found that various researchers had


identified specific traits related to leadership
ability: 5 physical traits (such as energy,
appearance, and height), 4 intelligence and
ability traits, 16 personality traits (such as
adaptability, aggressiveness, enthusiasm, and
self-confidence), 6 task-related characteristics
(such as achievement drive, persistence, and
initiative), and 9 social characteristics (such as
cooperativeness, interpersonal skills, and
administrative ability).

 Many studies of traits have been made. Ralph M.

Trait Approaches to Leadership

that charismatic leaders may have certain


characteristics, such as:
being self-confident,
having strong convictions,
articulating a vision,
being able to initiate change,
communicating high expectations,
having a need to influence followers and supporting them,
demonstrating enthusiasm and excitement, and
being in touch with reality.

 Done by Robert J. House. He and other authors indicate

Charismatic Leadership Approach

1.

Leadership based on the use of authority


2. The Managerial Grid
3. Leadership involving a variety of styles,
ranging from a maximum to a minimum
use of power and influence

Leadership Behavior and Styles

3.

2.

1.

He commands and expects compliance, is


dogmatic and positive, and leads by the ability
to withhold or give rewards and punishment.

He consults with subordinates and encourages


their participation.

He uses power very little, if at all, giving


subordinates a high degree of independence.

Free-rein Leader

Democratic, or Participative Leader

Autocratic Leader

Styles Based on Use of Authority

Styles Based on Use of Authority

style: the 1.1 style, the 9.9 style, the 1.9 style,
and the 9.1 style.

 Blake and Mouton recognizes four extremes of

for people and concern for production.

 The managerial grid has two dimensions: concern

styles is the managerial grid, developed decades


ago by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton.

 A well-known approach to defining leadership

The Managerial Grid

The Managerial Grid

1.

Fiedlers Contingency Approach to


Leadership
 People become leaders not only because of
their personality attributes but also
because of various situational factors
and the interactions between leaders and
group members.

Situational, Contingency, Approaches to


Leadership

2.

The Path-Goal Approach to Leadership


Effectiveness
 The main function of the leaders is to clarify
and set goals with subordinates, help
them find the best path for achieving the
goals, and remove the obstacles.

Situational, Contingency, Approaches to


Leadership

Functions of
the leader

Work
environment

Leader
behavior

Characteristics
of
Subordinates

Motivated
subordinates

Path-goal approach to leadership effectiveness

Effective
organization

Situational, Contingency, Approaches to


Leadership

from a sender to a receiver, with the


information being understood by the
receiver.

 It is the transfer of information

Communication

6.

5.

4.

2.
3.

1.

To establish and disseminate the goals of


an enterprise.
To develop plans for their achievement.
To organize human and other resources
in the most effective and efficient way.
To select, develop, and appraise members
of an organization.
To lead, direct, motivate, and create a
climate in which people want to
contribute.
To control performance.

The Purpose of Communication

The Communication Process

The Communication Process

Downward Communication

It flow from people at higher levels to those at
lower levels in the organizational hierarchy.

Upward Communication

Travels from subordinates to superiors and
continues up the organizational hierarchy.

Crosswise Communication

It includes the horizontal flow of information,
among people on the same or similar
organizational levels, and the diagonal flow of
information which is among people at different
levels who have no direct reporting relationships with
one another.

1.

2.

3.

Communication in an Organization

Communication in an Organization

1.

Written Communication
 French managers are almost obsessed
with the use of written
communication, not only for formal
messages but also for informal notes. A
French manager stated that something
has no reality unless it is written
down.

Written, Oral, and


Nonverbal Communication

2.

Oral communication can occur in a face-to-face meeting of


two people or in a managers presentation to a large
audience, it can be formal or informal, and it can be planned
or accidental.
The principal advantage of oral communication is that it
makes possible speedy interchange with intermediate
feedback. People can ask questions and clarify points. In a
face-to-face interaction, the effect can be noted.
However, oral communication also has disadvantages. It
does not always save time, as any manager knows who has
attended meetings in which no results or agreements
were achieved. These meeting can be costly in terms of
time and money.

Oral Communication

Written, Oral, and


Nonverbal Communication

Facial
Gestures
Postural

What a person says can be reinforced (or contradicted) by nonverbal


communication such as facial expressions and body gestures.
 Nonverbal communication is expected to support the verbal, but
it does not always do so. An autocratic manager may pound a fist on the
table while announcing that from now on participative management will be
practiced; such contradictory communications will certainly create a
credibility gap.
 Similarly, managers may state that they have an open-door policy, but
then they may have a secretary carefully screen people who want to
see them; this creates incongruence between what they say and what they do.
This is an illustration of noise in the communication process model.

Nonverbal Communication:

3.

Written, Oral, and


Nonverbal Communication

mail. On the other hand, for informal communication and if time is of


the essenceand technology is available-you may want to use e-mail
rather than snail mail (regular mail).

 You probably do not want to invite an honored guest by e-

communication, include speed of feedback, ease of use, cost and time,


as well as formality and informality.

 Some of the advantages and disadvantages of various types of

and wireless telephone, fax, voice mail, e-mail, as well as


teleconference and videoconference.

 Technology is used for certain types of communication, such as wired

are oral, some are written, and some use information technology.

 There are different methods and channels for communication: some

Communication Methods

 Avoid unnecessary words.

 Use active verbs, such as The manager plans

 Use short sentences and paragraphs.

 Give illustrations and examples; use charts.

 Use personal pronouns (such as you) whenever appropriate.

 Use short and familiar words.

 Use simple words and phrases.

Tips for Improving Written


Communication

Jonathan S. Bio 2010

language that you are confident and are in command of the situation.

 Use a colorful, specific language and show through your body

and clear voice, good posture, and a smile.

 Communicate confidence and create trust. This can be done by strong

computer graphic presentations.

 Use visual aids such as diagrams, charts, overhead slides, and

listening.

 Pausedo not rush. In a discussion, a pause shows that you are

 Tell a story, an anecdote, and give examples.

conversation.

 Communicate with a large audience as you would do in a one-to-one

Tips for Improving Oral Communication