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Dvaita

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v t e
Dvaita (?????) is a Sanskrit word that means "duality, dualism, doubt".[1] The t
erm refers to any premise, particularly in theology on the temporal and the divi
ne, where two principles (truths) or realities are posited to exist simultaneous
ly and independently.[1][2]
Dvaita also refers to a sub-school in Vedanta tradition of Hindu philosophy. Alt
ernatively known as Bhedavada, Tattvavada and Bimbapratibimbavada, Dvaita Vedant
a sub-school was founded by the 13th-century scholar Madhvacharya.[2] The Dvaita
Vedanta school believes that God (Vishnu, supreme soul) and the individual soul
s (jivatman) exist as independent realities, and these are distinct. The Dvaita
school contrasts with the other two major sub-schools of Vedanta, the Advaita Ve
danta of Adi Shankara which posits nondualism
that ultimate reality (Brahman) an
d human soul are identical and all reality is interconnected oneness, and Vishis
htadvaita of Ramanuja which posits qualified nondualism
that ultimate reality (B
rahman) and human soul are different but with the potential to be identical.[3][
4]
Contents
1
2
3
4

Philosophy
Influence
See also
References
4.1 Bibliography
5 External links
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v t e
Dvaita Vedanta is a dualistic interpretation of the Vedas, espouses dualism by t
heorizing the existence of two separate realities. The first and the only indepe
ndent reality, states the Dvaita school, is that of Vishnu or Brahman.[5] Vishnu
is the supreme Self, in a manner similar to monotheistic God in other major rel
igions.[6] The second reality is that of dependent but equally real universe tha
t exists with its own separate essence. Everything that is composed of the secon
d reality, such as individual soul, matter, and the like exist with their own se
parate reality. The distinguishing factor of this philosophy, as opposed to moni
stic Advaita Vedanta, is that God takes on a personal role and is seen as a real
eternal entity that governs and controls the universe.[7]
Like Ramanuja, Madhvacharya also embraced Vaishnavism. Madhvacharya posits God a
s being personal and saguna, that is endowed with attributes and qualities. To M
adhvacharya, the metaphysical concept of Brahman in the Vedas was Vishnu. He sta
ted "brahmasabdasca Vi??aveva", that Brahman can only refer to Vishnu. To him, V
ishnu was not just any other deva, but rather the one and only Supreme Being.[8]
[9]
Dvaita Vedanta acknowledges two principles; however, it holds one of them (the s
entient) as being eternally dependent on the other. The individual souls are dep
icted as reflections, images or shadows of the divine, but never in any way iden
tical with the divine. Moksha (liberation) therefore is described as the realiza
tion that all finite reality is essentially dependent on the Supreme.[5]
Five fundamental, eternal and real differences are described in Dvaita school:[5
][9][10]
Between the individual souls (or jivatman) and God (Brahmatmesvara or Vishnu
).
Between
Between
Between
Between

matter (inanimate, insentient) and God.


individual souls (jivatman)
matter and jivatman.
various types of matter.

These five differences are said to nature of the universe. The world is called p
rapaca (paca "five") by the Dvaita school for this reason.
Madhva differed significantly from traditional Hindu beliefs owing to his concep
t of eternal damnation. For example, he divides souls into three classes. One cl
ass of souls, mukti-yogyas, qualifies for liberation, another, the nitya-samsari

ns, subject to eternal rebirth or eternal transmigration and a third class, tamo
-yogyas, who are condemned to eternal hell (andhatamasa).[11] No other Hindu phi
losopher or school of Hinduism holds such beliefs. In contrast, most Hindus beli
eve in universal salvation, that all souls will eventually obtain moksha, even i
f after millions of rebirths.
Influence
Dvaita Vedanta and Madhvacharya's historical influence in Hinduism, state Ku
landran and Kraemer, has been salutary, but not extensive.[12]
According to Sharma, the influence of Dvaita Vedanta ideas have been most pr
ominent on the Chaitanya school of Bengal Vaishnavism,[13] and in Assam.[14]
Madhva's theology influenced later scholars such as Nimbarka, Vallabha Achar
ya and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. B.N.K. Sharma notes that Nimbarka's theology is a l
oose rchauff of Madhva's in its most essential aspects.
Dvaita Vedanta's discussion of the eternal differences and the gradation bet
ween the concept of God, human beings and the observed nature led some early col
onial-era Indologists such as George Abraham Grierson to suggest that its founde
r, the 13th-century Madhva was influenced by Christianity,[12] but later scholar
ship has rejected this theory.[15][16]
See also
Achintya Bheda Abheda
Dvaitadvaita
Shivalli Brahmins
Shuddhadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
References
Sir Monier Monier-Williams, Dvaita, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Etymologicall
y and Philologically Arranged with Special Reference to Cognate Indo-European La
nguages, Oxford University Press (Reprinted: Motilal Banarsidass), ISBN 978-8120
831056, page 507
Jeaneane D. Fowler (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philo
sophy of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 340 343. ISBN 978-1-898723-94-3.
Jeaneane D. Fowler (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philo
sophy of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 238 243, 288 293, 340 343. ISBN 978-1-89
8723-94-3.
James Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 1 & 2,
Rosen Publishing, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, pages 12-13, 213-214, 758-759
Fowler 2002, pp. 340-344.
Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge, ISBN 978-07007
12571, pages 124-127
Etter 2006, pp. 59-60.
Bryant, Edwin (2007). Krishna : A Sourcebook (Chapter 15 by Deepak Sarma). Oxfor
d University Press. p. 358. ISBN 978-0195148923.
Stoker, Valerie (2011). "Madhva (1238-1317)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosoph
y. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
James Lochtefeld (2002), Madhva, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol.
1: A M, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 978-0823931798, page 396
Tapasyananda, Swami. Bhakti Schools of Vedanta pg. 177.
Sabapathy Kulandran and Hendrik Kraemer (2004), Grace in Christianity and Hindui
sm, James Clarke, ISBN 978-0227172360, pages 177-179
Sharma 1962, pp. 22-23.
Sharma 2000, pp. xxxii-xxxiii, 514-516.
Jones & Ryan 2006, p. 266.
Sarma 2000, pp. 19-21.

Bibliography
Etter, Christopher (2006). A Study of Qualitative Non-Pluralism. iUniverse.
ISBN 978-0-595-39312-1.
Fowler, Jeaneane D. (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the
Philosophy of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-898723-93-6.
Jones, Constance; Ryan, James D. (2006), Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Infobase
Sharma, B. N. Krishnamurti (1962). Philosophy of Sri Madhvacarya. Motilal Ba
narsidass (2014 Reprint). ISBN 978-8120800687.
Sharma, B. N. Krishnamurti (2000). A History of the Dvaita School of Vedanta
and Its Literature, 3rd Edition. Motilal Banarsidass (2008 Reprint). ISBN 978-8
120815759.
Sarma, Deepak (2000). "Is Jesus a Hindu? S.C. Vasu and Multiple Madhva Misre
presentations". Journal of Hindu-Christian Studies 13. doi:10.7825/2164-6279.122
8.
Sarma, Deepak (2005). Epistemologies and the Limitations of Philosophical En
quiry: Doctrine in Madhva Vedanta. Routledge.
External links
Dvaita.org
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