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UNIVERSITY OF TIRANA.

FACULTETY OF TECHNICAL MEDICAL SCIENCE.


LABORATORY TECHNICIAN.
GROUP 1.

Theme: Obesity

Alketa Demirxhiu
Elena Dinkollari

March 18th, 2014


Tiran, 2014.

What is obesity
Negative effects
Factors which cause obesity
Treatments
(ELENA)
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it
may have a negative effect on health, wich increase health problems. People are considered
obese when their body mass index (BMI), exceeds 30 kg/m2.
Obesity increases health problems , particularly heart disease, diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea,
certain types of cancer, ect. Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of
excessive food energy intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility.
Dieting and physical exercise are the mainstays of treatment for obesity. Diet quality can be
improved by reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods such as those high in fat and
sugars, and by increasing the intake of dietary fiber. If diet, exercise and medication are not
effective, a gastric balloon may assist with weight loss, or surgery may be performed to reduce
stomach volume and/or bowel length, leading to feeling full earlier and a reduced ability to
absorb nutrients from food. Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with
increasing rates in adults and children. Authorities view it as one of the most serious
health problems of the 21st century. Obesity is stigmatized in much of the modern world.

Obesitys effect on organism.


Obesitys causes.
Facts about obesity.
(Alketa)

Obesity increases the risk of many physical and mental conditions. These comorbidities are most
commonly shown in metabolic syndrome, a combination of medical disorders which
includes: diabetes mellitus type 2, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and high
triglyceride levels.
Complications are either directly caused by obesity or indirectly related through mechanisms
sharing a common cause such as a poor diet or a sedentary lifestyle. The strength of the link

between obesity and specific conditions varies. One of the strongest is the link with type 2
diabetes. Excess body fat underlies 64% of cases of diabetes in men and 77% of cases in women.
At an individual level, a combination of excessive food energy intake and a lack of physical
activity is thought to explain most cases of obesity. A limited number of cases are due primarily
to genetics, medical reasons, or psychiatric illness. In contrast, increasing rates of obesity at a
societal level are felt to be due to an easily accessible and palatable diet, increased reliance on
cars, and mechanized manufacturing.
The Greeks were the first to recognize obesity as a medical disorder. Many cultures throughout
history have viewed obesity as the result of a character flaw. The obesus or fat character in Greek
comedy was a glutton and figure of mockery. During Christian times food was viewed as a
gateway to the sins of sloth and lust. In modern Western culture, excess weight is often regarded
as unattractive, and obesity is commonly associated with various negative stereotypes. People of
all ages can face social stigmatization, and may be targeted by bullies or shunned by their peers.
Obesity is once again a reason for discrimination.

True/False
1. People are considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), exceeds 20 kg/m2.(F)
2. Dieting and physical exercise are the mainstays of treatment for obesity.(T)
3. Obesity is most commonly caused by drinking alcohol.(F)
4. Obesity does not have a negative effect on our health. (F)
5. Surgery may be performed to reduce stomach volume and/or bowel length (T)
6. Most cases of obesity are thought to be genetical.(F)
7. The Greeks were the first to consider obesity as a medical disorder.(T)
8. Obesity is strongly related with diabetes mellitus type 1.(F)
9. Excesive food intake can lead us to obesity.(T)
10. Excess body fat underlies 64% of cases of diabetes in men (T)

Questions :
1. What is obesity?
2. Does obesity increase dhe possibility for having health problems (examples)?
3. Which are the mainstays of treatment for obesity?
4. Which are 3 factors that cause obesity?
5. Can obesity cause death?
6. What are the most common causes of obesity?
7. How was obesity seen in the past?
8. What are some of the medical disorders it brings?
9. Give 2 facts about obesity.
10. Is obesity one of the reasons for divorces between two partners?

Dictionary :

Gastric balloon nje qese gastrike qe vendoset ne stomak per te shkaktuar ngopjen e individit
sa me shpejt ne procesin e ngrenies.

Gastric balloon intragastric balloon, involves placing a deflated balloon into the stomach, and
then filling it to decrease the amount of gastric space. The balloon can be left in the stomach for
a maximum of 6 months and results in an average weight loss of 59 BMI over half a year.

The body mass index (BMI) - Quetelet index, is a measure for human body shape based on an
individual's mass and height.
BMI indeksi I mases trupore.

Diet - is the practice of eating food in a regulated fashion to decrease, maintain, or increase body
weight. Dieting is often used in combination with physical exercise to lose weight in those who
are overweight or obese.
Diet nje regjim ushqimor qe na ndihmon te biem apo te rritemi ne peshe.

Comorbidity simptoma bashkeshoqeruese te nje semundjeje ne organizem qe vec te tjerash


shfaq edhe crregullime te ndryshme
Comorbidity - is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring
with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases.

Sedentary lifestyle jete jo shume aktive,nenkupton te qendruarit per nje kohe te gjate ulur
duke mos harxhuar kalori
Sedentary lifestyle - is a type of lifestyle with no or irregular physical activity.

Palatable diet - nje regjim ushqimor qe perfshin shume sheqer dhe yndyrna
Palatable diet - is the hedonic reward provided by foods or fluids that are agreeable to the
"palate" in regard to the homeostatic satisfaction of nutritional, water, or energy needs.

References :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obesity
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_mass_index
http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/