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modified euler method for solving series solutions of differential equations

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Lecture 3

Modified Euler Method

Modified Euler Method: Better estimate for the solution than Euler method is expected

if average slope over the interval (t0,t1) is used instead of slope at a point. This is being

used in modified Euler method. The solution is approximated as a straight line in the

interval (t0,t1) with slope as arithmetic average at the beginning and end point of the

interval.

y1c

y1p

y0

t0

t1

Accordingly, y1 is approximated as

y(t1 ) y1 = y0 + h

(y0 + y1 )

(f(t ,y(t 0 ) + f(t1,y(t1 ))

y0 + h 0

2

2

However the value of y( t1) appearing on the RHS is not known. To handle this, the

value of y1p is first predicted by Euler method and then the predicted value is used in

(1.6) to compute y1 from which a better approximation y1c to y1 can be obtained:

y1,p y 0 h f(t 0 , y 0 )

y1c y 0 h

f(t 0 ,y 0 ) f(t1,y1,p )

2

y k 1,p y k h f(t k , y k )

y k 1 y k h

2

In the fig (1.3), observe that black dotted line indicates the slope f(t0,y(t0)) of the solution

curve at t0, red line indicates the slope f(t1,y(t1)), at the end point t1. Since the solution at

end point y(t1) is not known at the moment, its approximation y1p as obtained from Euler

method is used. The blue line indicates the average slope. Accordingly, y1 is a better

estimate than y1p. The method is also known as Heuns Method.

Step 0 [initialization] k=0, h=(b-t0 )/n , y(tk)=yk,

Step 1 [predict solution] y k 1,p y k h f(t k , y k )

Step 2 [correct solution] y k 1 y k h

Step 3 [increment]

2

tk+1=tk+h, k=k+1

Step 5 [termination]

stop

Example 1.4: Solve the IVP in the interval (0.0, 2.0) using Modified Euler method with

step size h=0.2

dy

y 2t 2 1 ;y(0) 0.5

dt

To compute local truncation error consider

y(t k h) y(t k ) h y(t k )

h2

h3

y(t k ) y( ), (t k ,tk h)

2

6

y(t k h) y(t k ) h y(t k )

h2 y(t k 1 ) y(t k ) h3

(

) y( ), (t k ,t k h)

2

h

6

(1.6)

Further simplification gives local truncation error of modified Euler formula as O(h3):

h

h3

y(t k h) y(t k ) ( y (t k ) y (t k 1 )) y( ), (t k ,t k h)

2

6

The FGE in this method is of order h2. This means that halving the step size will reduce

the error by 25%.

y0

f(t0,y0)

t1

y1p

f(t1,y1p)

y1c

0.5

1.5

0.2

0.8

1.72

0.822

0.2

0.822

1.742

0.4

1.1704

1.8504

1.18124

0.4

1.18124

1.86124

0.6

1.553488

1.833488

1.550713

0.6

1.550713

1.830713

0.8

1.916855

1.636855

1.89747

0.8

1.89747

1.61747

2.220964

1.220964

2.181313

2.181313

1.181313

1.2

2.417576

0.537576

2.353202

1.2

2.353202

0.473202

1.4

2.447842

-0.47216

2.353306

1.4

2.353306

-0.56669

1.6

2.239967

-1.88003

2.108634

1.6

2.108634

-2.01137

1.8

1.70636

-3.77364

1.530133

1.8

1.530133

-3.94987

0.740159

-6.25984

0.509162

0.509162

-6.49084

2.2

-0.78901

-9.46901

-1.08682

[Reference excel sheet modified-euler.xlsx]

The Euler method and Modified Euler methods are explicit single step methods as they

need to know the solution at a single step. It may be observed that the Euler method is

derived by replacing derivative by forward difference:

dy

dt

t tk

y k 1 y k

O(h)

h

The central and backward difference approximation can also be used to give single step

methods

dy

dt

t tk

y k y k 1

O(h)

h

or

dy

dt

t tk

y k 1 y k 1

O(h2 )

2h

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