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LABORATORY BASED DIAGNOSIS MODULE

PROBLEM BASED LEARNING


General Instructional Objectives

PBL Group 7B Medical Faculty of Airlangga University


Laboratory Based Diagnosis Module

CHAPTER ONE
FIRST TUTORIAL
1.1 SCENARIO
1.2 MAIN PROBLEM
1.3 KEYWORDS

1.4 HYPOTHESIS
1.5 EARLY CONCEPT MAPPING
1.6 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

1.7 LEARNING ISSUES


1.
2. A
3. A
4. B. What are the signs and symptoms of left heart failure?

PBL Group 7B Medical Faculty of Airlangga University


Laboratory Based Diagnosis Module

CHAPTER TWO
SECOND TUTORIAL
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4 b Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump
enough blood to meet the body's needs. In some cases, the heart
can't fill with enough blood. In other cases, the heart can't pump
blood to the rest of the body with enough force. Some people have
both problems. Left-side heart failure occurs if the heart can't pump
enough oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body.(NIH,2012)

There are two types of left-sided heart failure. Drug treatments are different
for the two types.

Systolic failure: The left ventricle loses its ability to contract normally.
The heart can't pump with enough force to push enough blood into
circulation.
Diastolic failure (also called diastolic dysfunction): The left ventricle
loses its ability to relax normally (because the muscle has become stiff).
The heart can't properly fill with blood during the resting period between
each beat.(AHA,2012)

The most common signs and symptoms of heart failure are:

Shortness of breath or trouble breathing


Fatigue (tiredness)

Swelling in the ankles, feet, legs, abdomen, and veins in the neck

All of these symptoms are the result of fluid buildup in your body. When
symptoms start, you may feel tired and short of breath after routine physical
effort, like climbing stairs. Fluid buildup from heart failure also causes
weight gain, frequent urination, and a cough that's worse at night
and when you're lying down. This cough may be a sign of acute
pulmonary edema. This is a condition in which too much fluid builds
up in your lungs.(AHA,2012)

2.5
PBL Group 7B Medical Faculty of Airlangga University
Laboratory Based Diagnosis Module

2.6
2.7

PBL Group 7B Medical Faculty of Airlangga University


Laboratory Based Diagnosis Module

CHAPTER THREE
THIRD TUTORIAL
ANALYTICAL REVIEW
3.1 ANALYSIS
1.3 FINAL HYPOTHESIS
1.4 GROUP OPINION
1.5 OBSTACLE
3.6 FINAL CONCEPT MAPPING

PBL Group 7B Medical Faculty of Airlangga University


Laboratory Based Diagnosis Module

REFERENCES
National Institute of Health,9 January 2012,What Is Heart Failure? Viewed at 23
October 2013 7.48 am http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/healthtopics/topics/hf/
National Institute of Health,9 January 2012,What Are The Signs And Symptoms of
Heart Failure? Viewed at 23 October 2013 7.49 am
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hf/signs.html
American Heart Association,20 September 2012,Types Of Heart Failure viewed
at 23 October 2013 7.51
http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartFailure/AboutHear
tFailure/Types-of-Heart-Failure_UCM_306323_Article.jsp

PBL Group 7B Medical Faculty of Airlangga University


Laboratory Based Diagnosis Module

Source

For Answering
Question

Searching
Method

http://www.nhlbi.nih.
gov/health/health-

4.b

topics/topics/hf/signs.
html
http://www.heart.org/

Type

Validity
Foundation
Result

Importance
Foundation
Result

.html

Yes

Yes

.html

Yes

Yes

.html

Yes

Yes

Website

topics/topics/hf/
http://www.nhlbi.nih.
gov/health/health-

Information

4.b

Website

4.b

Website

HEARTORG/Conditi
ons/HeartFailure/Abo
utHeartFailure/Typesof-Heart-

PBL Group 7B Medical Faculty of Airlangga University


Laboratory Based Diagnosis Module

Failure_UCM_30632
3_Article.jsp

PBL Group 7B Medical Faculty of Airlangga University


Laboratory Based Diagnosis Module

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PBL Group 7B Medical Faculty of Airlangga University


Laboratory Based Diagnosis Module

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