You are on page 1of 51

Feminist Divinity

Dr. Neelam G. Tikkha

Dr Neelam G. Tikkha
ISBN : 81-86067-24-8

Copyright@CFI 2016, Publisher : Confidence Foundation


3A-I Vrindavan, 173, Civil Lines,
Nagpur 440001 India
E-mail : internationalmultijournal@gmail.com
confidencefoundation@yahoo.com
http://cftraglobal.org
Cell : +91-9422145467
0712-2520741
Price INR 900/All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced. Stored in a retrieval system or
transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or
otherwise without the prior permission of the publishers. The entire responsibility regarding views
and originally is of individual writers and CFI holds ono responsibility for the same. Legal
Jurisdiction, Nagpur

Feminist Divinity
Dr. Neelam Tikkha

Contents

S.No.

Dedication

Introduction

Chapter - I

When God was a Girl


Women Identity a Reflection of Culture and
Divinity

Chapter II

When Muse was a Woman

Chapter III

One Woman Two identities

Chapter IV

When Woman was an Aggressor

Chapter V

When Women was a Soap Artist

Chapter VI

Conclusion
Bibliography

5
12
24
33
39
40

Preface
The present study emanates from the concept that women determines the
society and culture. Women is a powerful force whether she is an artist a
film star or a mother or a Goddess.

She has always been the most powerful force. She is praised for her
fertility and her nurturing quality. She is also praised for her valiancy for
example there are Shakti peeths in India in the honour of powerful female
deity like Kali and Durga.

The various facets of women are presented in vibrant shades in this


study. Her representation determines the culture and society.

Author: Dr. Neelam Tikkha

DEDICATION
The book Woman Divine
is dedicated to
my parents and my daughter Ishita

CHAPTER - 1

Introduction
When God was a Girl
Women Identity a Reflection of Culture and Divinity
From the dawn of time, women have always been the heart of divine for their ability to
procreate. They have been represented in all splendors for their sexuality and their capacity
to be fertile. They have been worshipped as goddess and were considered sacred. Drawing
on the research evidence entire story of Christianity can be told without the mention of a
man. Women were considered sacred in 1600 BC and were represented in the face with
dangerous sexuality most of them were represented with explicit sexuality. Sex was
considered to be the work of devil and woman was believed to be the agent of devil.

Fig: Image: Dante Charles Gabriel Rossetti, Venus Verticordia (Hughes, Divine Woman )
Representation on the substantiations on cutting edge through literary work and
archaeological evidences, women in religion tell about the lives of the real flesh and blood
women of their day.
The present study tells the story of the relationship of women with culture and religion from
9000 BC onwards. The female of the species has always formed 50% of the population, but
has never occupied 50% of human history. Yet the connection between women and the
culture and divinity has been so strong in all societies that the present study unearths new
evidences for the character of humanity and a fuller, truer history of the world.
1

Women have been worshipped round the length and breadth of the globe at all times in the
history of humanity for her sexuality and fertility though she has been marginalized in
leadership positions. Women as a goddess occupy so prominent position that even in
contemporary times her shrines are preserved. UNESCO, in 2005 listed the 75-hectare forest
at Osogbo among its valued World Heritage sites, since it has one of Osuns shrines or
temples, and many sculptures and artworks. This endorses its cultural magnitude more than
its ecological significance (Forest houses and shelters endangered white-throated monkeys.) i

Fig: Image: Oshogbo Nigeria, figure of Goddess Osunii


Furthermore, the evidences of women being considered divine can be traced in the oldest
religious temple unearthed by the Archaeologist in South East of Turkey which happens to
be the oldest religious building of the world, as old as 7000 BC. It is called the Lion Temple
by the Archeologist and the most surprising thing is that a woman occupied the central space
and was commemorated in the sacred temple. She was depicted with accentuated sexuality
and fertility.
Then, there are images of fearsome goddesses, who controlled life and death. The goddesses
ruled the heavens and earth, and that is why our ancestors thought of the divine as female.
Goddess Kali and goddess Durga, of modern-day India, are examples of fierce power which
rules heaven and earth and the goddess is still a powerful force for thousands of Hindus. God
Shanker tells his wife Parvati about the immense power of Goddess Durga. He says, she is
pleased by chanting eight hundred times her name ashtotarshat namka paath (Shastri). The
devotee can get anything from wealth, health prosperity, and children and can even get
freedom from the life and death cycle.
Similarly, Christianity was created by a woman and it is possible to tell the history of
Christianity without even mentioning a man. Women identity as explicit in the literature and
divinity reflects the culture of a society.

There have been a number of women who are extraordinary and their legends and lives cast
new light on some of the hottest arguments about the role of women in religion and society
today. One such extraordinary legendary poetess was Sappho, the great Greek lyricist, and
few known female poets of the ancient world. Sappho was born sometime between 630 and
612 BC. Her influence was so strong that her image was embossed on the coin.
In ancient times women was commemorated and considered sacred, yet some women in
present times are seen fighting for space in the society and even in religion. One can notice
the entire space being occupied by man. Men and women do not have equal roles today. She
is considered a second class citizen in India and some other countries.
Cultural spaces determine the way people think and behave. Every ritual symbolizes culture
of humanity. Similarly, the ways women in a particular culture grieve determine her identity
in that culture. Cultures have different ways of coping even with death. The cultural
education is based on the myths and mysteries a person is brought up with. Her response to
grief can be directly linked to the cultural, attitude, belief, and practice he has grown up with.
Bharati Mukherjees short story The Management of Grief holds testimony to this concept.
It is a heartbreaking, despondent and a testimony to the way two genders from different
culture respond to grief. Man has to immediately forget the lost family and move on, whereas
women have to live with grief and manage by reading books or resorting on religious rituals.
The present situation is worse than the times, when women in India committed sati (burning
in the funeral pyre of husband). This ritual was highly symbolical of low status of a woman
in the society and lack of identity, which becomes zero at the death of her husband and that
she must stop living and show her valiancy by the performing the ritual of Johar by
burning herself.
Tarabai Shinde a Marathi writer challenges the man like Nirbhaya, the Delhi gang rape
victim, very boldly. Her boldness represents an identity which retaliates mans dominance
very strongly in a mans world. She erupts like a volcano and spits fire. In this attempt she
clearly projects her identity and the cultural space occupied by the women of her time.
Another writer Bahna Bai, who became very popular with her work talks of life as burning
pan on cook stove fire sansar sansar jasa tawa chulha wari reflects a subdued female
identity that determines a second class status of women in that period of time.
Objective: This study aims to study the cultural spaces being reflected through the identity of
women under the heads of religion, literature, films, TV Soaps and social protests against the
backdrop of existing and prevailing snapshot of the time frame.
Justification: The topic is highly relevant since it has not been dealt by any literary author
before and female gender is a very powerful gender that determines the culture of a particular
civilization .
Review of Literature: There is a study by Historian Betteny Hughes titled Hand Maids of
God. This was also shown as a three part serial on BBC but, this study lacks the literary
perspective hence the author proposes to present a literary perspective.
Chapter Scheme: First Chapter is titled When God was a Girl Women Identity a Reflection of
Culture and Divinity. It deals with the social norms that changed the woman into divinity.

Second Chapter is titled When Muse was a Woman (Ancient Literature) This chapter deals
with the woman Sapphos who was successful as a poet in mans worldand projects her
feminist ideology. Third Chapter is titled One Woman Two identities. It projects the two
contrasting identity of woman one demure and another bold. Fourth Chapter is titled When
Woman was an Aggressor, which deals with the aggressive woman . Chapter V is titled
When Women was a Soap Artist. The chapter deals with the woman identity as projected in
soaps and Bollywood. Chapter six is Conclusion.
Scope of the subject:
Methodology: The methodology followed would be exploratory and interpretive research.
Thus, the use of hymns, folklore, prayers and architectural evidences have enabled us to
examine the subject thoroughly . This new approach to the subject has not been followed by
the scholars of this cult. I hope the study will be of some help and interest to all students of
the history, literature, anthropology and religion.
Conclusion : The role women played had been very important since the dawn of civilization.
Recently, Globalization has given a great boost to the status of women. They are competing
and at times challenging the man. Earlier automization and mechanization had also brought
shocking change in the society. Women went to work which gave them tremendous
economic, political and social independence. The place woman occupies in the society is
reflective of the culture prevalent in the society and happens to be an indicator of the attitude
and the degree of patriarchy existing in the society at a particular point of time. Every literary
writer, poet or critic presents it in various shades and colors that would gel with the taste of
the society. They do a wonderful presentation of voicing the culture through the voice of their
characters. Beginning from Rishi Vyas later Kalidas, Tarabai Shinde, Bahna bai, Jhumpa
Lahiri , Bharati Mukherjee , Shobha De, Arundhati Roy and Jane Austen have been
successful in projecting the societal attitude and sensibility towards female gender through
their literary work.
End Notes
i
ii

Ibid p.3.
Ibid.p.12.

CHAPTER - II

When Muse was a Woman


Ancient Literature
Sappho (circa 630 B.C.): Sappho was a great Greek lyrist and female poetess of the ancient
world. She was born in an aristocrat family and was a wife of a prosperous merchant which
gave her the advantage to study the arts on the isle of Lesbos. Lesbos was a cultural center in
those days. Sappho composed her own music to be sung with the accompaniment of a lyre.
Her innovated and refined music is now called as sapphic meter. Her lyrics sent a wave in
Greek lyric that moved from writing poetry on muses and gods to writing with individual as
focus. She was one of the first poets to write from the first person, describing love and loss as
it affected her personally.
Her style was sensual and melodic; primarily songs of love, yearning,
and reflection. Most commonly the target of her affections was female,
often one of the many women sent to her for education in the arts. She
nurtured these women, wrote poems of love and adoration to them, and
when they eventually left the island to be married, she composed their
wedding songs. That Sappho's poetry was not condemned in her time for
its homoerotic content (though it was disparaged by scholars in later
centuries) suggests that perhaps love between women was not
persecuted then as it has been in more recent times. Especially in the last
century, Sappho has become so synonymous with woman-love that two
of the most popular words to describe female homosexuality-lesbian and sapphic have derived from her.ii
It is very appreciating that women like Sappho could prove themselves and their work was
appreciated so much that society did not object to lesbianism and Sappho could create a space
for expression for several female poetess and lyricists. She is an epitome of freedom and
space granted to female in those days. Sapphos popularity in ancient times is a reflection of
the kind of respect and attention women drew in ancient times. Plato the great philosopher
considered her not a poet but a muse. An Athenian ruler, lawyer, and a poet called Solon,
asked that he be taught the song "Because I want to learn it and die." The residents of
Syracuse were so honored by her visit to Sicily, where she had spent some time in Sicily
during her family exile because of their political activities, that they erected a statue of hers.
A coin was embossed with the image of her head.

Image of Coin of the Greek poet Sappho British Museum 2nd century AD
Mytilene, Island of Lesbos, Greece. The copper alloy coin depicts the head of Sappho, a
lyric poet who lived on the Greek island of Lesbos in the second half of the seventh
century
BC.ii
In more modern poets to name a few; Michael Field, Pierre Louys, Rene Vivien, Marie
Madeleine, Amy Lowell, and H.D. all have cited that their work has been inspired by
Sappho .
Her work was popular even in Egypt as the factual evidence from the late 19th century
manuscripts which had Sapphos work, dating back to the eighth century AD, were
discovered in the Nile Valley. Excavations that followed in ancient Egyptian refuse heaps
unearthed a quantity of papyruses from the first century BC to the 10th century AD. Here,
strips of papyrus--some containing her poetry--were found in number. These strips had been
used to wrap mummies, stuff sacred animals, and wrap coffins. Still more of her work is
being brought together even in twentieth century. Her work has been translated and each
translation gives a different approach to her work because of the fragmented nature of her
work.
She is a muse of ancient times but still she lives as an important literary and cultural figure
adding a touch of mystery every time a fragment of her work is unearthed. Poets labor to
reconstruct and derive more meaning to her work. Her influence still continues and more and
more new poets and researcher take fervent interest in her work conjecturing new meaning
and producing imaginary tales. A woman who died over 2000 years ago this inspiration is a
gigantic achievement.
Some selected works by Sappho are :

"I have not had one word from her" (tr. Mary Barnard)
"Please" (tr. Paul Roche)

"On the throne of many hues, Immortal Aphrodite" (tr. Diane Rayor)
"To Andromeda" (tr. Jim Powell)
"Some an army of horsemen, some an army on foot" (tr. Josephine Balmer)
To Atthis (tr. Willis Barnstone)

I have not had one word from her


I have not had one word from her
Frankly I wish I were dead
When she left, she wept
a great deal; she said to me, "This parting must be
endured, Sappho. I go unwillingly."
I said, "Go, and be happy
but remember (you know
well) whom you leave shackled by love
"If you forget me, think
of our gifts to Aphrodite
and all the loveliness that we shared
"all the violet tiaras,
braided rosebuds, dill and
crocus twined around your young neck
"myrrh poured on your head
and on soft mats girls with
all that they most wished for beside them
"while no voices chanted
choruses without ours,
no woodlot bloomed in spring without song..."
--Translated by Mary Barnard
The poem emphasizes the beauty of woman and the love which a woman shares with the
other. The poem is a testimony that a womans world can be complete even without a man
but, woman cannot be complete without the support and love of another woman.
I have not had one word from her. Frankly I wish I were dead The line expresses very
strong feeling of Sappho for the girl who has left her after her wedding. She eagerly awaits
like a lover to hear words from her. It is a very chauvinist belief but it was very much true
for Sappho. A woman just needs flowers which are representative of beautiful nature which
is a part of the world of a woman to embellish and decorate her beauty like the goddess

Aphrodite. The song and lyre should accompany the natural outburst of love to sing about
the love and the beauty of a woman for another one.
Please
Come back to me, Gongyla, here tonight,
You, my rose, with your Lydian lyre.
There hovers forever around you delight:
A beauty desired.
Even your garment plunders my eyes.
I am enchanted: I who once
Complained to the Cyprus-born goddess,
Whom I now beseech
Never to let this lose me grace
But rather bring you back to me:
Amongst all mortal women the one
I most wish to see.
--Translated by Paul Roche
Another poem titled Please also celebrates in a lyrical manner love of Sappho for another
woman.
On the throne of many hues, Immortal Aphrodite,
child of Zeus, weaving wiles--I beg you
not to subdue my spirit, Queen,
with pain or sorrow
but come--if ever before
having heard my voice from far away
you listened, and leaving your father's
golden home you came
in your chariot yoked with swift, lovely
sparrows bringing you over the dark earth
thick-feathered wings swirling down
from the sky through mid-air
arriving quickly--you, Blessed One,
with a smile on your unaging face
asking again what have I suffered
and why am I calling again
and in my wild heart what did I most wish
to happen to me: "Again whom must I persuade

back into the harness of your love?


Sappho, who wrongs you?
For if she flees, soon she'll pursue,
she doesn't accept gifts, but she'll give,
if not now loving, soon she'll love
even against her will."
Come to me now again, release me from
this pain, everything my spirit longs
to have fulfilled, fulfill, and you
be my ally
--Translated by Diane Rayor
To Andromeda
That country girl has witched your wishes,
all dressed up in her country clothes
and she hasn't got the sense
to hitch her rags above her ankles.
--Translated by Jim Powell
Some an army of horsemen, some an army on foot
and some say a fleet of ships is the loveliest sight
on this dark earth; but I say it is whatever you desire:
and it it possible to make this perfectly clear
to all; for the woman who far surpassed all others
in her beauty, Helen, left her husband -the best of all men -behind and sailed far away to Troy; she did not spare
a single thought for her child nor for her dear parents
but [the goddess of love] led her astray
[to desire...]
[...which]
reminds me now of Anactoria
although far away,
--Translated by Josephine Balmer

To Atthis
Though in Sardis now,
she things of us constantly
and of the life we shared.
She saw you as a goddess
and above all your dancing gave her deep joy.
Now she shines among Lydian women like
the rose-fingered moon
rising after sundown, erasing all
stars around her, and pouring light equally
across the salt sea
and over densely flowered fields
lucent under dew. Her light spreads
on roses and tender thyme
and the blooming honey-lotus.
Often while she wanders she remembers you, gentle Atthis,
and desire eats away at her heart
for us to come.
--Translated by Willis Barnstone

The Divine Sappho, containing Sappho's poetry, a first line index, fragments in
translation, and great Sappho links.
Psappha, A Novel of Sappho by Peggy Ullman Bell (site contains information about
the book)
Sappho, Sappho, translated by Mary Barnard (Berkeley: University of California
Press, 1958)
Sappho, The Love Songs of Sappho, translated by Paul Roche (New York: Penguin
Books, 1966, 1991)
Eva Cantarella, Pandora's Daughters: The Role and Status of Women in Green and
Roman Antiquity (Baltimore: John Hopkins, 1987)
Judy Grahn, The Highest Apple: Sappho and the Lesbian Poetic Tradition (San
Francisco: Spinsters, Ink, 1985)
William Harris, Professor Em. Classics, Middlebury College, Sappho: The Greek
Poems (133 page PDF file with illustrations). See also his shorter paper in HTML
format.

10

Edith Mora, excerpt from Sappho -- The Story of a Poet(Flammarion, 1966)


Diane Rayor, Sappho's Lyre: Archaic Lyric and Women Poets of Ancient Greece,
translated by Diane Rayor (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991)
Leah Rissman, Love as War: Homeric Allusion in the Poetry of Sappho (Konigstein:
Verlag Anton Hain, 1983)
David M. Robinson, Sappho and Her Influence (Boston: Marshall Jones, 1924)
Jane McIntosh Snyder, The Woman and the Lyre: Women Writers in Classical Greece
and Rome (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1989)

http://www.sappho.com/poetry/sappho.html

11

CHAPTER - III

One Woman Two Identities


Women identity has always been a representation of culture. Any change in the identity of
women reflects the cultural change. This is true in any country round the globe and is
timeless and yet temporal. The recent Nirbhaya rape case of 16th December in Delhi has
brought forth an identity of a woman strong enough to challenge the male dominance. This is
reflective of a cultural change which was voiced by a number of women on street in their
slogans My body my right. The wearing of religious symbol like hijab by Muslim women
and terrorizing of the two girls who were chatting on mobile in Kashmir are yet another
example of the reflection of culture. In this paper an attempt is being made to study the
various changes in the society being reflected through the identity of women.
The reading of Kalidass classic drama Abhijanana Shakuntalam (Kalidas ed.Narayana
Rama Acharya) and the Shakuntala of The Mahabharata are projected with striking
difference. Shakuntala is the mother of the first king called Bharata of Bharata the Sanskrit
name for the Indian sub- continent. She is half -nymph and half- Brahmin. She was left when
a small child by her parents at hermitage of Rishi Kanva where she was brought up by the
Rishi Kanyas. One day when Rishi Kanva is out on a pilgrimage. King Dushyanta, the ruler
of Hastinapur, was on his hunting expedition and he came across Shakuntala. He was
enchanted and spellbound by her beauty so much that he proposes her for Gandharva Vivah.
A marriage, where in the mother Earth is the witness to a mutually consensual marriage.
Shakuntala was first written by Rishi Vyasa in Mahabharata and later adapted by Kalidas in
his drama Abhijanana Shakuntalam. The great poet Kalidas has projected her to be meek and
a loving woman. She is a shy daughter, a beloved and a gentle mother. When she meets
Dushyanta, the king of she does not look at him directly but through furtive glances. She is
incapable of independence and is always accompanied by her two female friends Primvada
and Anusuya.
She is described as:
adhrah kislayragah komalavilapanukainau bahu,
Kusumamiva lobhaniyam
Yauvanamangesu samnaddhamii
Her lips are fresh red buds, her arms are tendrils. Impatient youth is poised to blossom in her
limbs. Shakuntala has been introduced through comparison with nature which symbolizes
her purity. Fresh buds are a metaphor for virginity and the tendril describe her longing for
support and emotional dependency. Impatient youth is poised to blossom in her limbs are
indicative of her virginity and achieving fulfillment with the company of a man in her life.

12

This is a typical Indian psyche of the time when Kalidas was writing where women were
considered second fiddle to man and would be considered complete only with the presence of
a man in life. In striking contrast, in The Mahabharat written by Vyas, Dushyanta never
speaks of Shakuntalas purity or project her as weak and dependent on any man for identity .
He calls her rambharu (you of tapering thighs).ii The phrase tapering thighs sexualizes
Shakuntala. Shakuntala accepts such praises from Dushyanta boldly without any inhibition is
highly symbolic of her audacity.
The Mahabharat written by Vyas projects her as confident and bold woman character. When
she meets Dushyanta for the first time she herself initiates and welcomes him. The text states:
sa tam drstavawa rajanam dushyantam asitekasan svagatam ta iti ksipram uvanca pratipujyl
caii
In complete contrast, Shakuntala hides her feeling of love for King Dushyanta, at first sight
and ponders :
Kim nu khalviman preksya tapovanavirodhina vikarasya gamaniyasmi samvrttaii which when
translated into English reads: Why do I get emotions that forest forbids?
When the black- eyed damsel saw the king Dushyanta, she instantly bade him welcome and
worshipped him in due form. After wooing king Dushyanta to marry in Gandharva style ;
she even goes to the extent of making profitable pre nuptial agreement .In Mahabharat
Shakuntala is strong woman seeking her sons political power. At length she says that she
does not desire any material wealth for herself but for her son born from him she desires the
crown. She thus states:
Satyam me pratijanihi yatlwan vaksyamy aham rahah mam jayate yah putrah sa bhavet tvad
anantram yuvrajo maharaja satyam etad bravihi me yadi etad evam dusyanta astu me
sangamas tvaya. ii
She is admired by her wit rather than by her delicate beautiful sexy body as is the case with
Kalidass Shakuntalam.
One Shakuntala can only have two identities because Kalidas was writing at a time when
women were considered as beautiful artifact to decorate the life of a man.
If we go back to look at other female characters during the time of The Mahabharata we find
the women capable enough to challenge the patriarchy. For example, Satyawati was an
example of a strong headed, assertive figure, in Mahabharat, who saved Bharata dynasty.
Satyawati was Devavrata Bhishmas step mother. Bhishma was Shantanus eldest son.
Bhishma would have become the king, had not for his father, who had fallen in love with
Satyavati, the daughter of the chief of a tribal fisherman. Satyavati had put a condition to
their marriage that unless her children are promised the throne, she would not marry.
13

Bhishma to fulfill his fathers desire vouched to remain celibate all his life. She had two sons
from Shantanu. Bhishma loved them intensely but they died young. Satyavati requests
Bhishma to impregnate her widowed daughters in law by the law of levirate to produce an
heir.But, Bhishma refuses to go back from his vow of celibacy. She summons her
illegitimate son, Vyasa, to impregnate her daughters in law to get heirs to save Bharata
dynasty.
Another, example of a powerful character in Mahabharat was Kunti. Kunti when became
aware of her husbands inability to have sex, found a solution to continue the family line. She
invoked the gods and had five godly Pandava children from four different Gods. Despite
their vague parentage they are called Pandavas or the sons of Pandus. They are also referred
more correctly in the epic as Kaunteyas, the Sons of Kunti. Another, interesting thing which
gets unfolded is that though Kunti had all the children through different Gods yet her
illegitimate son Karna does not get affection and love and on the contrary she coerces him to
promise that her five Pandava children survive in the battle. Why does not she ask for the
same promise to Arjun and her other children? The answer is evident that Pandavas were her
legal children whereas Karan was her illegitimate child. The attitude of mother exhibited here
is very biased and shows the criticism and ostracism a woman with illegitimate child would
get if the secret gets disclosed.
On the same lines, the marriage system favored a man having many wives but polyandry was
quite uncommon. There was hardly any acceptance of polyandry as highlighted by remarks of
Karna ,Dushasan and Duryodhan since they called Draupadi a harlot, a slut since she had five
husbands. Polyandry is a custom in some communities so that the land holding does not get
divided. Kunti must have also thought the same that Pandavas are quite weak in comparison
to Kauravas so if they also get divided than they would become more vulnerable. Hence, she
asks her rest of the four sons to get married to Draupadi and retain whatever strength they
have to sustain in front of Kauravas. It has been referred in the epic that Pandavas were
forewarned about Draupadi being born through a powerful sacrifice in order to wipe out their
Kuru race, but they went ahead and marry her anyway. The Kauravas had become
perpetrators of immorality and their decadence is seen in the incidence when Dushasan drags
Draupadi when she is menstruating and disrobes her in front of the assembly. It can be
perceived clearly that the degradation of Kauravas morality has reached its nadir and the
destruction of entire Kuru race is inevitable. The prophecy that Draupadi would bring the
doom of Kshatriyas was bound to come true is evident from the following snippets of
moment of molestation of Draupadi:
Duryodhan is warned and dissuaded from claiming Draupadi as his prize, won by deceit in
the game of dice, by Vidur his half brother who has been born from low caste maid.
He says:

14

You dont know it, fool, you are tied in a noose!


You are a deer provoking a tigers wrath
She is not a slave yet. Bharata! I think she was staked
When the king was no longer his own master. ii
But, Duryodhan pays no heed he orders the royal messenger to bring Draupadi in the
assembly. The messenger speeds off and enters like a dog in a lions den, crawling up to the
queen of the Pandavas.ii He softly speaks:
Intoxicated on dice, Yudhishtra has lost you, O Draupadi
You must come now to Dhritrashtras houseii
Listening to these words Draupadi goes mad with anger:
What son of a king would wager his wife?
The king is befooled and crazed by the game?ii
She tells the messenger to go back to the assembly and ask her husband :
Whom did you lose first, yourself or me?ii
The messenger returns and puts the question, Yudhishter does not stir, as though
he is a stone statue. Since he doesnt reply Duryodhan says Let Draupadi come
here and ask the question herself. All the people want to hear what she has to say.
The messenger returns to Draupadi and says:
The kings in the hall are summoning you it seems the fall of the Kurus
has come ! Princess , when you are led into that hall , the king will be
too weak to protect our fortunes?ii
Meanwhile, Duryodhan gets impatient, and orders his brother to bring Draupadi to the court.
And quickly angry Dushasana
Came rushing to her with a thunderous roar;
By the long teressed black and flowing hair
Dushasana grabbed the wife of a king .ii
And as she was dragged she bent her body
And whispered softly,It is now my month!
This is my sole garment, man of slow wit,
You cannot take me to the hall you churl! ii
But, Dushasana continues to drag her by the hair. She appeals to his sense of
Dharma not to debase her but Dushasana answers her:
Come, come you are wonenjoy the Kurus
With slaves one delights as one wishes.ii

15

Draupadi warns him that he has lost his mind.


Assembly is shocked at the sight of Draupadi being dragged thus. She contemptuously looks
at her husbands and questions Yudhishter:
Whom did you lose first, yourself or me?
Her question points to a confusing, eventually insoluble crystallization of conflict expressed
along opposing lines of explanation since prashna can also mean a riddle in Sanskrit.ii
Not the kingdom lost, nor the riches looted
Not the precious jewels plundered did hurt
As much as did her sidelong glance. ii
Despite Draupadi being dragged while she is menstruating does not lose courage to protect
her dignity and raise a question on Dharma and lawfulness of the wager by Yudhishter since
Dharm is subtle as Bhishma puts it:
As dharma is subtle, my dear, I fail
To resolve your question in the proper way. ii
Karna puts forth his argument that no one objected when Yudhishter made the bet , and
everyone saw him lose the bet. Moreover, while staking Draupadis name was mentioned and
none of the Pandavas objected to it so Draupadi was won fairly. Besides a virtuous woman
has only one husband and Draupadi has five Pandava brothers making her a slut who
ought to be stripped in public.ii Karna s argument smells of avenging his insult by
Draupadi who had refused to marry him since he was a charioteers son: Draupadi says:
naham varyami sutam I do not choose a Charioteer The brave little Draupadi snubs
openly the semi divine bastard, the unwanted suitor.ii
Draupadi does not give up. She turns her legal challenge into a moral one. Being aware of the
fact that dharma can mean both what is lawful and what is right, the real question she leads to
is : Is it right or fair that that a woman , let alone a queen become a slave because her husband
staked her in a gambling game? She assumes that law is reflective of the desires of the
powerful in the society and drifts away from what is right thing to do. That is to be concerned
with the well being of the low castes, poor , slave and women- and historically it is essential
for the deprived and vulnerable one to fight for the change. This is the extension of her
second question, What is the dharma of the king ? ii
The massive destruction of Kshatriya race takes place because of the humiliation of
Draupadi. If the five brothers had not been married to Draupadi, who knows Mahabharat
would have taken a different recourse. Like Karan there would be possibility of differences
amongst the five Pandavas and some might also support the Kauravas for some bounties.
Kunti must have thought of strengthening the ties between brothers by way of getting them
all married to one woman. There is another possibility that in those days male female ratio
must have been a problem and getting suitable brides for the rest of the four Pandavas must

16

have been a problem so immediately Kunti came out with this solution. Moreover, while
battle of Mahabharat was going on she approaches Karan, If you and Arjun are united
nothing would be impossible in this world.asadhyamkim nu loke syad yuvayoh
sahitatmanoh.ii Kaurvas would be defeated and Karan would be crowned the king instead of
Yudhishter since he is the rightful claimant to the throne. Kunti is not only assertive but
strong headed and witty. She does not disclose to Yudhishter that Karan is his illegitimate
brother since she knew very well Yudhishter might become weak and surrender which would
mean the Kurus victory would be ensured. Draupadi is also another strong woman like Kunti
who performs a major role in the war of Mahabharat. She raises a subtle question on dharma
and saved the Pandavas from slavery and the kingdom that they had lost. Secondly, she goads
Yudhishter to fight for the kingdom during thirteen years of their exile. Another brilliant
example in the literary world is that of Portia, the female protagonist, in the play, The
Merchant Of Venice, written by William Shakespeare, who saved Antonio of pound of flesh,
by her wit and logic.
Kunti tries to stop the war so she goes to Karan, her illegitimate son from the Sun god, to
coerce him to change sides and join Pandav camp. Draupadi, Kunti, Shakuntala and
Satyawati are all depicted as very strong women characters in The Mahabharata. The women
play an active role in politics which has been clearly seen in the efforts made by them. None
of the women are meek. On the contrary, they perform a great role in saving their dynasty.
They enjoy great liberty. The kind of freedom enjoyed by women would be a feminist desire.
The freedom they enjoyed is reflective of the societys approach towards women in those
days.
James Thurber and Eliot, the two American writers have projected a modern woman so
strong that men change into legendary Prufrocksii in her presence. The parable, The Little
Girl and the Wolf presents a challenge before man in a mans world. The story of Red
Riding Hood has been given a twist in this parable by Thurber:
When the little girl opened the door of her grandmother's house she
saw that there was somebody in bed with a nightcap and nightgown on.
She had approached no nearer than twenty-five feet from the bed when
she saw that it was not her grandmother but the wolf, for even in a
nightcap a wolf does not look any more like your grandmother than the
Metro-Goldwyn lion looks like Calvin Coolidge. So the little girl took an
automatic out of her basket and shot the wolf dead.
(Moral: It is not so easy to fool little girls nowadays as it used to be.) ii
Thurber had the genius and wit to draw weird drawings where women have their own exposed
nerve endings radiating from their heads. They were neither prosaic hair nor celestial haloes,
but rather their own exposed nerve endings, as though they suffer a vitality that cannot be
contained. In Men, Women, and Dogs by the same author, atrocious confusion arises out of

17

remarkably commonplace scenes: in a drawing of a middle-aged group playing table tennis, a


woman suddenly dis- ' robes and needlessly asks, "Do you people mind if I take off some of
these hot clothes?";ii At a Thurber cocktail party, filled with his pathetic people, we overhear
this introduction: "This is Miss Jones, Doctor. . . . She's been through hell recently," and we
see a plump, middle-aged nude woman play the piano while two men whisper, "I'd feel a
great deal easier if her husband hadn't gone to bed." Her presence creates such a powerful
image that the two men wish her husband to be present so that they could be protected from
her. This is the kind of fear she has created.
The nakedness of the woman and the ease with which she plays piano are symbolic of her
confidence in mans world. The nudity also symbolizes her down to earth attitude without
any hypocrisy.
What is to be done with the lady on the bookcase, a
live, but shelved, former wife who peers down on her
equally drab substitute and a horrified visitor? Or about
"the room where my husband lost his mind," with its extra,
ancient furnishings and tiny, obscure drawings on the
walls? Or for the respectable couple that desperately
hopeswhen confronted with a man standing on the back
of a woman, who is at the same time balancing a lamp on
her head.ii
In each of these frames Thurber has managed to freeze a moment of perfect power and
the strength the females have acquired and the feminine dominion which is so
powerful that man is seen standing on the back of a woman. The Bollywood film
Welcome also projects a similar scene where Katrina Kaif saves Akshay Kumar
from the fire. She is seen walking out from the fire with Akshay Kumar on his
shoulders. This film shows the reversal of role of men and women in the society quite
reflective of the change happening in and around the society.
TS Eliot in his poem The Love-Song of J. Alfred Prufrockii shows the
dilemma of a man who grows middle aged observing women of high
class engaging in snobbish talk.
In the room the women come and go
Talking of Michelangelo.
There will be time, there will be time
To prepare a face to meet the faces that you meet; And indeed there
will be time
To wonder, "Do I dare?" and, "Do I dare?"
Time to turn back and descend the stair,
With a bald spot in the middle of my hair
40

18

[They will say: "How his hair is growing thin!"]


My morning coat, my collar mounting firmly to the chin,
My necktie rich and modest, but asserted by a simple pin
[They will say: "But how his arms and legs are thin!"]
Do I dare
Disturb the universe?
In a minute there is time
For decisions and revisions which a minute will reverse.
He prepares himself to propose but every time he fails to gather courage to propose the lady
whom he
Loves and wishes to be:
I should have been a pair of ragged claws
Scuttling across the floors of silent seas.
In this dilemma he has turned into a fool and utters in despair:
I grow old . . . I grow old . . .
I shall wear the bottoms of my trousers rolled.

120

Shall I part my hair behind? Do I dare to eat a peach?


This is all reflective of a cultural change where women have become more powerful and
stronger than man. This notion saps the man out of courage even to propose any woman and
in this dilemma he grows old with the desire of getting married only in his dream and utters in
despair:
I shall wear white flannel trousers, and walk upon the beach.
I have heard the mermaids singing, each to each.
I do not think they will sing to me.
This poem reflects the societal change that had ameliorated the position of women in the
west. The technological advancement , modernization and globalization uplifted the quality
of life of westerners and it also gave female gender a lot of leisure time and the power to
work that granted a lot of economical and societal liberty and they were cast out of the
frames of Tennysons stereotypical women, Man for earth and woman for hearth. The
liberty they enjoyed and the independence they acquired made them equal to men in all
respects.
Women found it difficult to bear with unreasonable dominance of man and some women
became so much dominant that they turned into tormentors and the men wanted to get rid of
such women. For example, James Thurbers story The Unicorn in the Garden wonderfully
presents the trick played by a husband to get rid of his wifes over domineering torture. He

19

tells her one fine morning that a unicorn with a golden horn has entered the rose garden. The
wife thinks it to be an opportunity to send him to asylum:
And as soon as the husband had gone out of the house, the wife got up
and dressed as fast as she could. She was very excited and there was a
gloat in her eye. She telephoned the police and she telephoned the
psychiatrist; she told them to hurry to her house and bring a straitjacket. When the police and the psychiatrist looked at her with great
interest. My husband, she said, saw a unicorn this morning. The
police looked at the psychiatrist and the psychiatrist looked at the
police. He told me it ate a lily, she said. The psychiatrist looked at the
police and the police looked at the psychiatrist. He told me it had a
golden horn in the middle of its forehead, she said. At a solemn signal
from the signal from the psychiatrist, the police leaped from their chairs
and seized the wife. They had a hard time subduing her, for she put up a
terrific struggle, but they finally subdued her. Just as they got her into
the strait-jacket, the husband came back into the house.
Did you tell your wife you saw a unicorn? asked the police. Of
course not, said the husband. The unicorn is a mythical beast.
Thats all I wanted to know, said the psychiatrist. Take her away.
Im sorry, sir, but your wife is as crazy as a jay bird. So they took her
away, cursing and screaming, and shut her up in an institution. The
husband lived happily ever after.ii
The marriage institution appears to have been transformed into a game of dice and a battle
ground where husband and wife are the competitors to each other. Individual goals are on the
driving seat where love and emotions are not even retained on the back seat. The only time
when the man and woman come together are for carnal pleasures. The story, The Seal in the
Bedroom describes a funny situation. A seal peers over a strangely amorphous couple in bed,
benignly barking as it keeps them company. Seal is a metaphor for animal instinct and the
barking of seal is indicative of man and woman becoming animals. The craving of the girl in
the fable The Last Flowerii to protect the last flower and love is fruitless in the world full of
selfishness. The awareness that we experience throughout Thurber's work is of that large
chaos in which human beings attempt to form groups, institutions, and systems in hopes of
somehow organizing and ordering life.
The Shrike and the Chipmunks also shows that husband and wife are no longer company to
each other but their togetherness leads to misery. Chipmunk alone is able to save himself
from all external as well as internal threats but as soon his wife returns he is killed:
A few days later the female chipmunk returned and saw the awful mess
the house was in. She went to the bed and shook her husband. What
20

would you do without me? she demanded. Just go on living, I guess,


he said. You wouldnt last five days, she told him. She swept the
house and did the dishes and sent out the laundry, and then she made
the chipmunk get up and wash and dress. You cant be healthy in you
lie in bed all day and never get any exercise, she told him. So she took
him for a walk in the bright sunlight and they were both caught and
killed by the shrikes brother, a shrike named Stoop.ii
It is a metaphorical death of his identity. He knows the answer to his wifes question; What
would you do without me? she demanded. Just go on living, I guess, he said. The answer
is clearly indicative that he would have a perfect life without his wife. Coming together is
exhibitive of the animal instinct and decadence and fragmentation of the society where family
system would soon vanish.
In complete contrast, the American society has slowly started to witness a change in the
attitude towards family and that is perceived and portrayed in Jhumpa Lahiris book,
Unaccustomed Earth. American women are more devoted and trying to hold on more to the
marriage rather than men. It is a tour de force that has been observed in the American society.
The story, Hell- Heavenii brings out this fact very clearly. Deborah an American woman
has a lovey dovey relationship with Pranab a Bengali Indian. They seemed to be in so much
love that they felt no awkwardness sharing it in front of others; Sometimes they ended up
feeding each other allowing their fingers to linger in each others mouth, causing my parents
to look down at their plates and wait for the moment to pass. At larger gatherings, they kissed
and held hands in front of everyone, ... Narrators mother would remark ; He used to be so
different Its just hell- heaven , the difference, . After twenty- three years of marriage,
Pranab and Deborah got divorced. It was he who had strayed, falling in love with a married
Bengali woman, destroying two families in the process and Deborah keeps wondering
despite her loyalty How could he do something like this ? ii It very clearly mirrors the
rapidly changing culture in America where American women are getting more loyal and
devoted to the marriage institution.
Conclusion: The role women played had been very important since the dawn of civilization.
Recently, Globalization has given a great boost to the status of women. They are competing
and at times challenging the man. Earlier automization, mechanization had also brought
shocking change in the society. Women went to work which gave her tremendous economic,
political and social independence. The place woman occupies in the society is reflective of the
culture prevalent in the society and happens to be an indicator of the attitude and the degree of
patriarchy existing in the society at a particular point of time. Every literary writer, poet or
critic presents it in various shades and colors that would gel with the taste of the society. They
do a wonderful presentation of voicing the culture through the voice of their characters.
Beginning from Rishi Vyas later Kalidas, Jhumpa Lahiri , Bharati Mukherjee , Shobha De,

21

Arundhati Roy have been successful in projecting the societal attitude and sensibility towards
female gender through their literary work.
ii Sonya Davey, One Shakuntala Two identities, Bhavans Journal , March,2013, p.33.
ii Ibid36.
ii
Ibid36.
ii Ibid.37
ii Ibd37.
ii
He calls him Bharata after the name of the clan to which the Kauravas and Pandavas belong. ( Paul Wilmots
translation of book Two of the epic in clay Sanskrit series , represented by CSLII 66.4: Vyaghran mrigah
kopayase tivelam!)
ii
Mahabharata II.67.4 CSL.
ii
II.60.46
ii

II.60.5

ii

II.60.7

ii

II.60.13.
II .60.22

ii

ii

II .60.20
II.60.20- II.60.22-27
ii
David, Schulman, The Yasakas Question in Galit Hasan- Rokem and David Schulmen (eds.), Untying the Knot :
On Riddles and Other Enigmatic Modes, New York : Oxford University Press,1996,153.
ii

ii

II.60.35,36

ii

II.67.47 CSL
Draupadi had five husbands not only because of Kunti but multiple layer in the text.
ii
V.S. Sukthankar, Critical Studies in the Mahabharata, Mumbai: Karnataka Publishing House, 1944, p.77-78. (
I.127.15)
ii
II.61,20-24
ii
Asadhyam kim nu loke syad yuvayoh sahitatmanoh (V.143.10).
ii

ii

T.S Eliot, The Love-Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

http://people.virginia.edu/~sfr/enam312/prufrock.html downloaded on 17th April,2013.


Prufrock may represent a man wearing a frock that is he is so weak emotionally that he is devoid of all
masculinity.
ii

James Thurber, The Little Girl and the wolf, http://downwithtyranny.blogspot.in/2009/12/thurber-tonightfables-for-our-time-hen.html


ii

ii

ii

James Thurber, Men, Women, & Dogs, Ballatine NY:Publishers,1970.


James Thurber,
T.S.Eliot ,The Love- Song OF J Alfred Prufrock

22

http://people.virginia.edu/~sfr/enam312/prufrock.html downloaded on 17th April,2013.


ii
James Thurber, The Unicorn in the Garden http://dgtized.net/pages/thurber_owlgod downloaded 19th April
2013.
http://dgtized.net/pages/thurber_owlgod downloaded 19th April 2013.
ii

James Thurber, The Last Flower, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X1RrEAroZbw , viewed 20th April,

2013.
ii

James Thurber, The Chipmunk and the Shrike, http://dgtized.net/pages/thurber_owlgod downloaded 19th
April 2013.
ii
ii

Jhumpa Lahiri, Random House India Private Limited , 2008,p. 60.


Ibid 68 , 81.

23

CHAPTER - IV

When Woman was an Aggressor

(Russia Today )

There are women have projected them as Durga and Kali in reality. They have vociferously
pointed out the double standards of man. They have shown immense courage to voice out
loud and clear their opinion. An example of such a woman is first lady cab driver of Afghan .
Sara Bahayi is Afghanistans first female taxi driver in recent memory, and she is believed
to be the only one actively working in the country. Shes 38. Shes unmarried. Shes
outspoken. In this highly patriarchal society, where women are considered second-class
citizens and often abused, Bahayi is brazenly upending gender roles. (Raghvan). She is
fighting all odds. She is firm and an exemplary female who is challenging man. She has been
threatened by many male taxi drivers but, nothing can destroy her feminine familial feeling to
save her family. She has bought a gun for her safety and is surging ahead with grit and
courage.

24

(BBC,Beale,Jonathan )
Tarabai Shinde (1840 -1910)
She was the one who pointed out the double standards of Indian Men. She believed that man
is responsible for hindering the growth of the women. She tears through the masque of double
standards of the man in dominant mans world. She highlights in her works the egoist attitude
of man, exploitation of married woman and other exploitive tendency existent in the man.
She was much ahead of her times this can be proven by the fact that her work Stree Purush
Tulna, published by CG Malshe, when it was presented at the first International Womens
year in 1975, drew tremendous attention of the researchers.
Jyotiba Phule appreciates the vociferousness of Tarabai, who had highlighted the extreme
torture, harassment and exploitation of the women, which was going on in the society
because the women were uneducated, ignorant and not empowered. Tarabai feels that
women are not a slave of man or a property but, deserve equal treatment. Her work is
relevant for all ages.
Jyotiba Phule in her appreciation says that Tarabai Shinde in her book Stree Purush Tulna has
poignantly attacked the exploitative nature of man. He further adds that there was a harsh
cyclone, in the heart of Tarabai, that emerged and resulted in the poison she spat about man
and his exploitative nature.
Stree Purush Tulna ya navachya pustakat bahutek bharte aplya
striyansamaksh pahijel ya chavcheshta karun neech karme acharu laglya
mude , kityek kuleen pativrata striyans atishay visham vatun tya agyani
va nirbal aslyamude amaryat kopate pavunty (Phadke) anche manat

25

dushkarmrupi samudrachya ati bhyankar lata udbhavtat tyache nivaran


vhaye yaprityarth tyani ati uttam bodh kela (Phadke)
Tarabai brings to light the poignant condition of widow in society in her times and compares
with the women in epics in the ancient times. She points that widow remarriage was allowed
in ancient times, for example, the remarriage of Satyawati, who had married Parasher Rishi
and then remarried Dushyant . Kunti had Gandharv marriage with lord Sun and then
remarried King Pandu of Hastinapur. She also mentions about Ahilya , Tara wife of Bali ,
Ruma wife of Sugriv all were remarried . Further, Tarabai comments on Lord Krishna who
would disguise and enter the palace of Chandrawali and destroy her chastity. She says that
your lord is a philanderer so there is nothing new that you are one. Arey tumche dev dekhil
dagabaj , mag tumhi aslach asaal yat naval kay? (Phadke)
She has vehemently attacked the custom of Sati by referring to an incidence in the epic
Ramayan. During, the war between Lord Ram and Ravan when, Inderjeet was killed
Sulochana had to commit Sati by burning herself in the funeral pyre along with her husband ,
Inderjeet. Sulochana, was a devoted wife and loved her husband very much. Lord Ram was
all powerful and could have saved Inderjeet but, he listened to Maruti and Vibhishan thus a
gem like Sulochana was lost at the hands of an evil exploitative custom. In the words of
Tarabai : te vedes sulochaneche khare pativrat pauhun Inderjeetala uthavine he Ramache
swadhin hote. Pan Maruti bovache va vibhishan gharbhedi yanche aikun sulochanasarkhe
durmid ratne vistavat ghalun jadun takle. (Phadke)
Custom of Sati was actually to protect women from furthur exploitation. A woman without a
man is open to several exploitation. She is considered property of others who can take
advantage of her by changing her into a labour working for food, clothing and shelter. In
Nissim Ezekiels novel Dont Call it Suicide Meeta is also exploited by turning her into a
domestic maid. No one ever realizes or seems to notice her as a daughter in law of the house.
Her parents do not provide her with any support and mother in law allows her to stay in the
house because she was a help to her in the house. Mrs. Nanda and all the other family
memebrs are subjecting her to such a treatment without any remorse or guilt. It is only Mr.
Nanda whose conscience rankles him to see his daughter in law turned into domestic after the
suicide of his husband. This story is not an unusual story in India . It was a very common
thing in the past and the condition is no better even now. Not only this , a woman is
exploited even sexually and is reduced to a doormat. The exploitation was so tremndous that
custom of Sati was considered to be less harsher treatment to save her from denigration.
Tarabai was a well read person. She had read not only epics but, the popular contemporary
magazines and stories of her time. She felt that the existing literature of her time was anti
woman and highly critical of woman . The literature defamed women. She critically observed
the stories written by Dr. Ramji Ganoji and questions the veracity about the character of
women as presented by him.
She says that royal women were surrounded by tight security then how could they come out
in the night wearing a mans clothing. She says were the guards blind that they did not
notice. She has put a rajor sharp question in front of the writer proving that his literature was
trying to defame woman. Rajanchya muli agar ranya hya kiti bandobastat kadak paharyat

26

astat bare? Tevhan ratriche vedes purushacha poshakh karun janakhanyabaher kiti mushkil ?
Ek raja vegda karun aat vadyat purush jatiche kutry sudha janyachi bandi ekapasun to pannas
darvajyawar kadak kadvya shipayancha chaukya . Tevhan to shipai ka andhade hote ?
(Phadke)
She has also criticised N.R Sadachiv Risbuds novel Manjughosha . She says that
Manjughosha was the darling daughter of the King Sarvbhaum and she was brought up in
great luxury. It is doubtful and hard to believe that she did not even think twice about his old
father and would elope with an ordinary man called Vasant Madhav. She writes
Manjughosha hi sarvbhaum Rajachi ati ladki kanya. Hi tya Vasant Madhavabarobar kahich
vichar na karita ekdam Vimanrudh houn mahatarya bapachya hatavar turi deoun jaail ka? Jya
bapane tila lahanpanyapasun ladane kanthatil kanthyapramane wagavito tyavishayi tiche
manat kahich aale nasel kay? Ti tar mothi shahani , sarvgunsampann ratnakhachit va te sarv
manoram upbhog takun nighun geli asel ka? Jate vedes tya mahatarya bapachi murti tiche
najaresamor ubhi rahili nasel ka? Tila kahich vatla nasel ka? (Phadke)
She feels the literature reflected the opinion of man about women not the actual situation.
She furthur talks about a novel written by Hadbeshastri Muktamala which has its origin
from the idea from the play called Manorama written by Mahadev Balkrishana Chitale.
She says that novel is interspersed with horrendous presentation of a womans character. She
advises that the dramatist and novelist should write about what is possible or has happened in
the earlier times and not totally fake ideas that emerge in their minds to melodramatise the
situation. She writes Pratyek goshtit pustakat shrungar , vinod, shok he teen gun
aslyavachun ras bharat nahin he kahre pan grunthkartyani apan je kahi lihato he
gadhnyasarkhi kinva purvi kadhikadi ase ghadun aale hote kinva nahin yacha aadhi vichar
karu mag pudhe granthrachva.
Tarabai Shinde demands a society where men and women are equal in status. She believes
that man has exploited woman for ages for his own selfishness. Man has given birth to a
society which blames and defames women. She feels that the belief which has been
propogated through ages that all good deeds are done by man and all evil by women which is
the root of all torture and injustice on the entire women folk. She goes to the extent of
condemning the nature of all men and saya that the nature of man is of victimizing the
woman. God and even the religion is no exception, since it also propogates the same idea.
According to Tarabai this exploitation should stop. She has iconclasticised the belief that all
evil are born from women which resonates the idea of the past and transports us to the garden
of Eden from where the downfall had started because of the woman who had lured the an to
taste the fruit of knowledge which led to the expulsion of man from heaven to earth.
Tarabai believes that whatever flaws and faults that a man has the same faults a woman has
but, unnecessarily the woman are projected with faults and man is idolicised as perfect
without any evil and elated to the level of God. She says she has no objection if a woman
considers her man to be a god but the behaviour of the man should be befitting the lord.
Thurber: James Thurber and Eliot, the two American writers have projected a modern
woman so strong that men change into legendary Prufrocksii in her presence. The parable,

27

The Little Girl and the Wolf presents a challenge before man in a mans world. The story of
Red Riding Hood has been given a twist in this parable by Thurber:
When the little girl opened the door of her grandmother's house she
saw that there was somebody in bed with a nightcap and nightgown on.
She had approached no nearer than twenty-five feet from the bed when
she saw that it was not her grandmother but the wolf, for even in a
nightcap a wolf does not look any more like your grandmother than the
Metro-Goldwyn lion looks like Calvin Coolidge. So the little girl took an
automatic out of her basket and shot the wolf dead.
(Moral: It is not so easy to fool little girls nowadays as it used to be.) ii
Thurber had the genius and wit to draw weird drawings where women have their own exposed
nerve endings radiating from their heads. They were neither prosaic hair nor celestial haloes,
but rather their own exposed nerve endings, as though they suffer a vitality that cannot be
contained. In Men, Women, and Dogs by the same author, atrocious confusion arises out of
remarkably commonplace scenes: in a drawing of a middle-aged group playing table tennis, a
woman suddenly dis- ' robes and needlessly asks, "Do you people mind if I take off some of
these hot clothes?";ii At a Thurber cocktail party, filled with his pathetic people, we overhear
this introduction: "This is Miss Jones, Doctor. . . . She's been through hell recently," and we
see a plump, middle-aged nude woman play the piano while two men whisper, "I'd feel a
great deal easier if her husband hadn't gone to bed." Her presence creates such a powerful
image that the two men wish her husband to be present so that they could be protected from
her. This is the kind of fear she has created.
The nakedness of the woman and the ease with which she plays piano are symbolic of her
confidence in mans world. The nudity also symbolizes her down to earth attitude without
any hypocrisy.
What is to be done with the lady on the bookcase, a
live, but shelved, former wife who peers down on her
equally drab substitute and a horrified visitor? Or about
"the room where my husband lost his mind," with its extra,
ancient furnishings and tiny, obscure drawings on the
walls? Or for the respectable couple that desperately
hopeswhen confronted with a man standing on the back
of a woman, who is at the same time balancing a lamp on
her head.ii
In each of these frames Thurber has managed to freeze a moment of perfect power and
the strength the females have acquired and the feminine dominion which is so
powerful that man is seen standing on the back of a woman. The Bollywood film

28

Welcome also projects a similar scene where Katrina Kaif saves Akshay Kumar
from the fire. She is seen walking out from the fire with Akshay Kumar on his
shoulders. This film shows the reversal of role of men and women in the society quite
reflective of the change happening in and around the society.
TS Eliot in his poem The Love-Song of J. Alfred Prufrockii shows the
dilemma of a man who grows middle aged observing women of high
class engaging in snobbish talk.
In the room the women come and go
Talking of Michelangelo.
There will be time, there will be time
To prepare a face to meet the faces that you meet; And indeed there
will be time
To wonder, "Do I dare?" and, "Do I dare?"
Time to turn back and descend the stair,
With a bald spot in the middle of my hair
40
[They will say: "How his hair is growing thin!"]
My morning coat, my collar mounting firmly to the chin,
My necktie rich and modest, but asserted by a simple pin
[They will say: "But how his arms and legs are thin!"]
Do I dare
Disturb the universe?
In a minute there is time
For decisions and revisions which a minute will reverse.
He prepares himself to propose but every time he fails to gather courage to propose the lady
whom he
Loves and wishes to be:
I should have been a pair of ragged claws
Scuttling across the floors of silent seas.

In this dilemma he has turned into a fool and utters in despair:


I grow old . . . I grow old . . .
I shall wear the bottoms of my trousers rolled.

120

Shall I part my hair behind? Do I dare to eat a peach?


This is all reflective of a cultural change where women have become more powerful and
stronger than man. This notion saps the man out of courage even to propose any woman and in

29

this dilemma he grows old with the desire of getting married only in his dream and utters in
despair:
I shall wear white flannel trousers, and walk upon the beach.
I have heard the mermaids singing, each to each.
I do not think they will sing to me.
This poem reflects the societal change that had ameliorated the position of women in the
west. The technological advancement , modernization and globalization uplifted the quality
of life of westerners and it also gave female gender a lot of leisure time and the power to
work that granted a lot of economical and societal liberty and they were cast out of the
frames of Tennysons stereotypical women, Man for earth and woman for hearth. The
liberty they enjoyed and the independence they acquired made them equal to men in all
respects.
Women found it difficult to bear with unreasonable dominance of man and some women
became so much dominant that they turned into tormentors and the men wanted to get rid of
such women. For example, James Thurbers story The Unicorn in the Garden wonderfully
presents the trick played by a husband to get rid of his wifes over domineering torture. He
tells her one fine morning that a unicorn with a golden horn has entered the rose garden. The
wife thinks it to be an opportunity to send him to asylum:
And as soon as the husband had gone out of the house, the wife got up
and dressed as fast as she could. She was very excited and there was a
gloat in her eye. She telephoned the police and she telephoned the
psychiatrist; she told them to hurry to her house and bring a straitjacket. When the police and the psychiatrist looked at her with great
interest. My husband, she said, saw a unicorn this morning. The
police looked at the psychiatrist and the psychiatrist looked at the
police. He told me it ate a lily, she said. The psychiatrist looked at the
police and the police looked at the psychiatrist. He told me it had a
golden horn in the middle of its forehead, she said. At a solemn signal
from the signal from the psychiatrist, the police leaped from their chairs
and seized the wife. They had a hard time subduing her, for she put up a
terrific struggle, but they finally subdued her. Just as they got her into
the strait-jacket, the husband came back into the house.
Did you tell your wife you saw a unicorn? asked the police. Of
course not, said the husband. The unicorn is a mythical beast.
Thats all I wanted to know, said the psychiatrist. Take her away.
Im sorry, sir, but your wife is as crazy as a jay bird. So they took her

30

away, cursing and screaming, and shut her up in an institution. The


husband lived happily ever after.ii
The marriage institution appears to have been transformed into a game of dice and a battle
ground where husband and wife are the competitors to each other. Individual goals are on the
driving seat where love and emotions are not even retained on the back seat. The only time
when the man and woman come together are for carnal pleasures. The story The Seal in the
Bedroom describes a funny situation. A seal peers over a strangely amorphous couple in bed,
benignly barking as it keeps them company. Seal is a metaphor for animal instinct and the
barking of seal is indicative of man and woman becoming animals. The craving of the girl in
the fable The Last Flowerii to protect the last flower and love is fruitless in the world full of
selfishness. The awareness that we experience throughout Thurber's work is of that large
chaos in which human beings attempt to form groups, institutions, and systems in hopes of
somehow organizing and ordering life.
The Shrike and the Chipmunks also shows that husband and wife are no longer company to
each other but their togetherness leads to misery. Chipmunk alone is able to save himself
from all external as well as internal threats but as soon his wife returns he is killed:
A few days later the female chipmunk returned and saw the awful mess
the house was in. She went to the bed and shook her husband. What
would you do without me? she demanded. Just go on living, I guess,
he said. You wouldnt last five days, she told him. She swept the
house and did the dishes and sent out the laundry, and then she made
the chipmunk get up and wash and dress. You cant be healthy in you
lie in bed all day and never get any exercise, she told him. So she took
him for a walk in the bright sunlight and they were both caught and
killed by the shrikes brother, a shrike named Stoop.ii
It is a metaphorical death of his identity. He knows the answer to his wifes question; What
would you do without me? she demanded. Just go on living, I guess, he said. The answer
is clearly indicative, that he would have a perfect life without his wife. Coming together is
exhibitive of the animal instinct and decadence and fragmentation of the society where family
system would soon vanish.
Bibliography:
BBC,Beale,Jonathan . A female taxi driver... in Afghanistan. 8 March 2015. 01 November 2015
<http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-31786822>.
Phadke, Y.D. editor. Mahatma Phule Vangmay. Mumbai: Maharashtra Rajya Sahitya and Sanskratik ,
1991.

31

Raghvan, Sudarshan. The Unlikely Life of Afghanistans First Female taxi driver. 26 February 2015. 1
Novmber 2015 <https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/the-unlikely-life-ofafghanistans-first-female-taxi-driver/2>.
Sara. The Afghan lady cab Mazar-I-Sharif for RT. 29 October 2015.

32

CHAPTER - V

When Women was a Soap Artist


Women were considered second class citizen earlier and the role that they played was that of
a procreator, a mother, a sister, a lover, seductress in daily soaps. She would assist in the
development of the male gender in various aspects. The story was and of male gender playing
a major role. Man was caste in powerful roles. They were shown as business tycoons (Shanti)
Mr. Bajaj or police officers and doctors, whereas women were cast in traditional roles that of
mother daughter, lover or seductress or a sister and if at all they were shown as career women
they were cast in the roles of a Obstetrician, a nurse , a reporter , a teacher or an interior
designer.
The trend seems to be changing as more and more women are being projected in powerful
roles. For instance, the role of men is very secondary in the soap Pyar Ka Dard Hai Meetha
Meetha Pyara Pyara. Avantika Kumar is a highly glamorous woman yet, a leading CEO,
who is also a chairperson for grievance committee of Business and Commerce. She has put
in her heart and soul to make her family business empire grow to amazing heights. Her
brother is shown lacking with such skills. Not, only this she has taken care of her other
siblings and is the one who works towards keeping the family united. She is a better MD
than her brother. Brother and other male characters are shadowed by her dominant presence
in the soap. Her daughter in law Punkhudi is shown as meek woman, yet in the times of
crisis, emerges a strong woman capable of hiring a spy for spying on her husband Adi and
Vikram Dhanrajgir her cousins Brother in law. Grandmother Anisha or Annie is yet another
glamorous woman and is also projected as a powerful character. She elopes to Australia with
her lover and marries there. She marries against the wishes of her entire family. On her return
to India for marriage of her student Varun to her granddaughter Kaira. She counsels Varun
for marriage. She guides Pankhudi to hire a spy to know about her husbands cause of worry.
She over dominates family and is rightly addressed as Mogambo by her daughter in law
Kairas mother.
It is the first time that a woman is cast in the role of an IPS officer Sandhya Rathi in the
daily soap Diya Aur Bati Hum on Star Plus. She is bold enough to fight the terrorists and
gets trophy of best cadet. She is shown striking a balance between her professional and
personal life. A desi Rajasthani bahu with her head covered wearing a lot of jewelry, leaves
for Hyderabad police training centre, with her husband and inlaws, diffident of the co traveler
who is staring at her jewelry. But, after 11 months of training, Sandhya Rathi returns
confident, wearing an IPS cap and dress and is a winner of best cadet trophy to her credit. On
the first day of her duty at Pushkar she takes the decision of suspending a few hooligan police
officers, who are under the influence of a local goon. They mock and pass gender sensitive

33

remarks that police cap does not suit a woman. But, she proves otherwise. She is able to
confiscate wine and money which is brought for distribution during elections. She does not
care for her life but tries to save people from fire. The local goon while praising her says
you are the only one mard meaning one man in the entire group. If a woman does
anything good or which is appreciable is comparable to a man. Why cant anything super be
comparable to a woman still symbolizes the second class status of a woman. She displays
extreme degree of feminity when her husband Suraj visits her office to give her breakfast.
She is being projected as a woman who displays perfect balance in the two role one of an
IPS officer and the other of a wife. When she is pregnant she is compared to a lioness with
triple power , since she is carrying two kids.

34

Singh trainer for IPS officer

35

Ye hain Mohabbattein, is a serial of a multi tasker dentist who makes the barren life fertile of
Ruhi by becoming a mother of hers. She marries Raman only for the sake of Ruhi but
gradually his family becomes an integral part of her life . She is a good and compassionate
daughter in law, who cares for the family. She gives support to her sister in law in the time of
crisis and financial difficulty by going out of the way. She is a good neighbor and risks her
life for a pregnant neighbor by trying to reach her to the hospital, during riots. When all her
attempts to reach her to the hospital fails, she assists in the delivery of the baby and
successfully delivers the baby. She is strong enough to protect her self- respect from the lust
of her brother in law. She stands strongly and complains to her sister in law, whose husband
misbehaves with her and also to her mother in law without being guilty of the fact that she is
draped in a modern dress which has made him fall for him or any other guilt which would
make her feel conscious that she is responsible for the action in any way. When she is not
heard by the two women she dares to tell it to her husband Raman. This is the changing
image of women in society.
Tumhari Pakhi is a story of a female guide in Chittorgarh, who has been married in
childhood to a man who has later turned into a successful businessman. She is a good mother,
a wonderful wife who is a symbolical guide for her family as well. She trains the child, who
was a brat, to be more disciplined and also guides him to have healthy food. She saves her
husband Anshuman from a vamp Tanya who fakes love and later her true character is
revealed through various instances like misguiding Aayan the child to go and have fun in the
water park rather than participating in the school competition. She also steals money from
Aayans piggy bank to win the bet with Pakhi. When she loses the bet she tries to scare
Aayan so that he manipulates his father Anshuman to marry her and to send Pakhi back to
Chittorgarh. When all her efforts fail she tries to kill Pakhi so that she is out of her way in
marrying Anshuman. Pakhi is ready to accept the challenge of being a good house wife, a
good girl friend and a good mother . But, she refuses to accept challenge of proving her
chastity. This shows how womens identity emerges as a strong women. Further, Pakhi
leaves the house of Anshuman and reaches Delhi and becomes a tourist guide because
Anshuman assassinates her character. She goes to Delhi in search of her identity. She stays
with a woman who, has had a bitter experience in her married life and a girl who is going to
get married and is a photographer.
Saraswatichandra is a story of a village girl called Kumud , who teaches in a school. Her
fathers friend who makes a good fortune in Dubai wants his son to be married to Kumud. He
sends his son to meet the family and soon Saras falls in love with Kumud and marries her.
She tries to uncover the past of her step mother in law called Gumaan, who had been a
tamashe wali and a prostitute. She risks her life and tries to unearth her secret by going in red
light area. She goes through various problems but does not give up . In this process she
comes to know that Kabir is the real brother of her husband and Gumaan had plotted to kill

36

him on birth itself. This incident had created rift between Sarass father and mother
Saraswati and they fell apart . This helped the entry of Gumaan into the life of Sarass father.
Veera Ek Veer ki Ardas has more number of women in lead characters. Two women singly
bring up two children. They give all support to the female child called Veera so that she
studies in London. Veera, who has the best of education in her childhood, rides a motor
cycle and is shown to be tom boyish. She also is capable of managing farm affairs very well.
She is a very strong personality and can fight with a number of boys. She is projected quite
stronger than even her childhood friend Baldev.
Sath Nibhaana Sathiya, also rests on a number of female characters. Men are very few and
play no significant role. Kokila is the head of the family, who is a powerful character and she
dares even to punish her grown up son Ahem by hitting with a scale on the hands of her son.
Balika Badhu shows the struggle for self assertion by Anandi a child bride . She is a bright
girl child who struggles hard and becomes a sarpanch and helps her family.
We find a number of women CEOs like Chandana Kochar from ICICI , IndiraNyooi from
PEPSI in real life and the same is being reflected by TV Soaps. TV soaps show a changing
trend in female identity. The female identity reveals the dynamic multifaceted aspect of
women. No longer women are seductive vamps like Kaumaulika or a second class citizen just
playing minor role of providing fulfillment in mans life but, a powerful dynamite giving
great impetus to the people and herself around her.
Is Pyar Ko Kya Nam Doon ?: This serial reflects two types of women existing in the
present society. Anjali, the mother in law, is being beaten by her husband daily for over
thirty years. Her daughter Jyoti also suffers similar type of treatment at the hands of her
husband. He along with his aunt illegally aborts two female fetus of Jyotis . To avoid all this
she runs away from the house but, again she falls in the same trap. She does not want to go
back to her husbands house but, her father is a staunch believer that a girls house is not her
mayeka but her husbands home. She is brutalized, ill-treated but nobody raises voice
because of the firm belief that man has right to do whatever he likes since a woman is mans
property. Anjali, the mother of Jyoti says She is a doormat and she is used as and when
needed after that nobody bothers about her. Aastha, sister in law of Jyoti, helps her by
complaining to police about Jyotis ill-treatment at the hands of her husband. She represents a
woman who has an identity of hers and is able to think for herself and decide what is right for
her and others. She helps Jyoti by complaining to the police about Jyotis husband. She is
able to convince her entire family that Jyoti should be supported and parents home is also
her house. She should be saved from the clutches of bad in-laws. Aastha represents a
progressive woman who is a multi tasker who can rock the world.

37

Ek Hasina Thi : Durga Thakur reminds of lordess Durga . She sheds her weak skin of Nitya
and transforms into Durga who can avenge the rape of her sister. She is strong multitasker
capable of punishing evil men. She is brilliant and capable of manipulating people for
teaching them a lesson. She is good at heart. She is a caring daughter and a caring sister. She
is honest but she deals the rapist Shourya and his family with an iron hand.
Women in Film:
Band Baja Barat: This is a typical film that shows how powerful women are becoming in
society. No longer does she need the support of a man to stand on her own. She has sex when
she wants to and does not feel guilty about it. She can leave the man if she thinks it
appropriate. She is no longer is a handmaid of man. The story is about two youngsters
Anushka and Ranbir who are looking for a job and land up in event management business
which they raise to great heights together. But, after some time they fall apart and the main
decision maker in this film is Anushka. It is a very feministic movie. The movie is a clear
indicator that sex is no longer considered to be a sin which binds a man and a woman forever
despite crack in harmony.
Welcome: The movie is a hilarious comedy but, Katrinas role of rescuing Akshay Kumar
from fire shows the change in trend.
Dum Laga Ke Hainsa: The movie is about a girl who is fat and plain looking. Anshuman
Khurana is the lead actor and he has played the role of her husband. He was reluctant to
marry but, because of family pressure he had to marry her. He finds it very embarrassing to
go along with her anywhere. Girl is better educated and is very dominating. She even puts her
opinion in front of her in laws. She even files for her divorce when she feels that relationship
is not a happy one . She is not afraid of societys opinion. She makes her husband sleep on
the floor instead of the usual docile heroines preferring to give more privileges to husband.
She is not ashamed of her over weight and she dances freely in the marriage ceremony of a
friend.
These movies show a contrast with earlier movies like Kabhie Kabhie and Sholay where
womans role was highly passive and she was not complete without a man. In fact, her
existence was questionable without a man. There is a change in society women are emerging
more powerful than man and this is being reflected through the films like PK , Dum Laga Ke
Hainsa , Welcome Band Baja Barat and daily soaps like Diya aur Bati Hum, Ek Hasina Thi .

38

CHAPTER - VI

Conclusion
Women played an important role in religion, poetry fiction and society since the dawn of
civilization. Ancient archeological, historical and literary evidences prove that women were
considered sacred and commemorated as Goddess and Muse. Literary women like Sapphos
have been casting their influence for over 2000 years of their death. It is the proof of their vital
space in the culture and society. In ancient times they were considered sacred and
commemorated in the centre part of the main temple. The women were on coins, on statues
glorifying their cultural space. Women were worshipped in the form of fire, river, earth, forest.
They were also in the sacred grove of the forest as a preserver and the entire forest in Osogbo
is valued World Heritage sites, since it has one of Osuns shrines or temples, and many
sculptures.
Epic literature has valued women so much that they were considered more important than
kingdom or wealth and any insult meted out to them was an insult which was to be avenged
for. Mahabharat took place because Draupadi was insulted by Kauravas. Ram fought with
Ravan because he had abducted Sita. Yet, an interesting thing to be noted is that despite
Draupadi being stripped publicly was valued by her husbands and given due respect and rather
husbands feel guilty that they were not able to protect her from humiliation. She continues to
live and does not think of ending her life. Similarly, Sita though stayed in Lanka at Ravans
house did not lose her identity and right to live.
The cultural space she receives show the
respect female gender got in the society in those days.
Recently, Globalization has given a great boost to the status of women. They are competing
and at times challenging the man. Earlier automization, mechanization had also brought
shocking change in the society. Women went to work which gave her tremendous economic,
political and social independence. The place woman occupies in the society is reflective of the
culture prevalent in the society and happens to be an indicator of the attitude and the degree of
patriarchy existing in the society at a particular point of time. Every literary writer, poet or
critic presents it in various shades and colors that would gel with the taste of the society. They
do a wonderful presentation of voicing the culture through the voice of their characters.
Beginning from Rishi Vyas later Kalidas, Jhumpa Lahiri , Bharati Mukherjee , Shobha De,
Arundhati Roy have been successful in projecting the societal attitude and sensibility towards
female gender through their literary work.

39

Bibliography
AmartyaSen, The Argumentative Indian. Writings on Indian Culture, History and Identity,
London: Penguin Books, 2005.Print.
Chaitanya, Krishna (K.K. Nair). The Mahabharata, A Literary Study, New Delhi: Clarion
Books, 1985. Print.
Das, Gurucharan. The Difficulty of Being Good on the Subtle art of Dharma, India:
Penguin books 2012.
Diane Rayor, Sappho's Lyre: Archaic Lyric and Women Poets of Ancient Greece, translated
by Diane Rayor (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991)
David M. Robinson, Sappho and Her Influence (Boston: Marshall Jones, 1924)
Edith Mora, excerpt from Sappho -- The Story of a Poet(Flammarion, 1966)
Eva Cantarella, Pandora's Daughters: The Role and Status of Women in Green and Roman
Antiquity (Baltimore: John Hopkins, 1987)
Hughes, Bettaney, Divine Woman, Milton Keynes, The Open University , 2012

Jane McIntosh Snyder, The Woman and the Lyre: Women Writers in Classical Greece and
Rome (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1989).
Judy Grahn, The Highest Apple: Sappho and the Lesbian Poetic Tradition (San Francisco:
Spinsters, Ink, 1985).
Lahiri, Jhumpa, Interpreter of Maladies, HarperCollins Publishers India, New Delhi,2007.
Leah Rissman, Love as War: Homeric Allusion in the Poetry of Sappho (Konigstein: Verlag
Anton Hain, 1983).
Mehendale, M.A. Draupadis Question, Journal Of The Oriental Institue, Baroda,35 (1985),
3-4, 194. Print.
Mukherjee, Bharati, The Middleman and Other Stories, Penguin, New Delhi, 1988.
Phadke, Y.D. editor.Mahatma PhuleVangmay. Mumbai: Maharashtra RajyaSahitya and Sanskratik ,
1991,p. 273.

Sappho, Sappho, translated by Mary Barnard (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1958)
Sappho, The Love Songs of Sappho, translated by Paul Roche (New York: Penguin Books,
1966, 1991)
ShriDurgaSaptshati, RandhirPrakashan, Haradwar, nd.
Shinde, Tarabai, StreePurushTulna, SeemaPrakashan, Nagpur,1998, reprint,2008.
William Harris, Professor Em. Classics, Middlebury College, Sappho: The Greek Poems (133
page PDF file with illustrations). See also his shorter paper in HTML format.
http://www.sappho.com/poetry/sappho.html

40

The Divine Sappho, containing Sappho's poetry, a first line index, fragments in translation,
and great Sappho links.
Psappha, A Novel of Sappho by Peggy Ullman Bell (site contains information about the
book)
Websites: http://www.sappho.com/poetry/sappho.html
Vaughan, Pilkian. Like Suns Risen at the End of Time : Metaphor and Meaning on the
Mahabharata, Journal Of Vaishnava studies,14.2 Spring 2006. Print.
Jean Jacques Rousseau, Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, in the Collected Writings Of
Rousseau, vol 3. IravatiKarve, Yuganta : The end of an Epoch, Hyderabad: Disha
Books/Orient Longman,1991,15-16. Print.
SarkarTanika, ButaliaUrvashi (eds.) , Women and the Hindu Right: A collection of Essays,
New Delhi : Kali for women ,1995,39.Print.
SenAmratya, Consequential Evaluation and Practical reason The journal of Philosophy ,
XCVl.9 ( September2000,) 485. Print.
Friedrich Paul, Gita within Walden, New York: State University of New York Press, 2008,1.
Print.
Davey, Sonya , One Shakuntala Two identities, Bhavans Journal , March,2013, p.33-40.
Print.
Webology:
The Mahabharata" - Full Text Translation by Romesh C Dutt - BOOK 2
http://hinduism.about.com/library/weekly/extra/bl-mahabharata6.htm
Eliot, T.S. The Love-Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

http://people.virginia.edu/~sfr/enam312/prufrock.html
April,2013

The Divine Sappho, containing Sappho's poetry, a first line index, fragments in
translation, and great Sappho links.

Psappha, A Novel of Sappho by Peggy Ullman Bell (site contains information about
the book)

Sappho, Sappho, translated by Mary Barnard (Berkeley: University of California


Press, 1958)

Sappho, The Love Songs of Sappho, translated by Paul Roche (New York: Penguin
Books, 1966, 1991)

Eva Cantarella, Pandora's Daughters: The Role and Status of Women in Green and
Roman Antiquity (Baltimore: John Hopkins, 1987)

Judy Grahn, The Highest Apple: Sappho and the Lesbian Poetic Tradition (San
Francisco: Spinsters, Ink, 1985)

41

downloaded

on

17th

William Harris, Professor Em. Classics, Middlebury College, Sappho: The Greek
Poems (133 page PDF file with illustrations). See also his shorter paper in HTML
format.

Edith Mora, excerpt from Sappho -- The Story of a Poet(Flammarion, 1966)

Diane Rayor, Sappho's Lyre: Archaic Lyric and Women Poets of Ancient Greece,
translated by Diane Rayor (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991)

Leah Rissman, Love as War: Homeric Allusion in the Poetry of Sappho (Konigstein:
Verlag Anton Hain, 1983)

David M. Robinson, Sappho and Her Influence (Boston: Marshall Jones, 1924)

Jane McIntosh Snyder, The Woman and the Lyre: Women Writers in Classical Greece
and Rome (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1989)

Web Reference :

http://www.religionfacts.com/christianity/beliefs/mary.htm.
http://www.indianmirror.com/temples/bhimakali-temple.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joy_Kali_Temple
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dakshineswar_Kali_Temple
http://kalighattemple.com/
http://kalighattemple.com/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ganges_in_Hinduism
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ganges_in_Hinduism
http://shestirs.wordpress.com/2013/08/15/kamakhya-the-goddess-of-desire/
http://shestirs.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/kamakhya-yoni-devipuram.jpg
Parveen, http://ardhnarishwar.blogspot.in/
http://www.anitavatvani.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Shiv-Ling1-e1337378991686.jpg
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=ardhnarishwar&id=FA937E6BDA672AFB92AAC72CF797BC20ABDFC8E
B&FORM=IQFRBA

http://www.sappho.com/poetry/sappho.html
http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/cm/c/coin_of_the_greek_poet_sappho.a
spx

42