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Two-way slab systems

Types

Dr. Ahmed Shuraim


CE 472- 2007

Flexure Design: Direct Design method (DDM)


DDM limitations
Floor Frames and strips
Statical Moment concept

Flat plate
Flat Slab
W ffl
Waffle
SWB
all

Minimum Thickness
Beamless slabs
SWB

Punching shear

DDM- SWB-example
M0
M+ve & M-ve

DDM- flat plate-example


M0

Column Moment
andd axial
i l load
l d

M+ve & M-ve

Mcs & Mms

Mcs & Mms

Rebars

Rebars

Types of two-way slabs-Flat Plate


For relatively light loads
spans : 4.5-6 m

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

Types of two-way slabs- Waffle slab


For relatively light loads
spans : 7.5
7 5-12
12 m

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

Types of two-way slabs-flat slab


For heavy industrial loads
spans : 6-9 m

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

Types of two-way slabs- slabs with beams


For heavy industrial loads
spans : 6-9 m

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

Floor types
SWB

Flat
plate

Flat
Slab

Waffle
CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

Floor Frames
F1

Frame 1

Frame 4
CE 472
2007

Fram
me D

Frame 3

F2

Fram
me C

Fram
me B

M
o
r
e

Fraame A

Frame 2

F3

F4
Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

Defining
design
frames and
strips

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

DDM Limitations
SECTION 13.6
DIRECT DESIGN METHOD
13.6.1

Limitations
Design
D
i off slab
l b systems
t
within
ithi the
th limitations
li it ti
off 13.6.1.1
13 6 1 1 through
th
h 13.6.1.8
13 6 1 8 by
b the
th
direct design method shall be permitted.

13.6.1.1
13.6.1.2
13.6.1.3
13.6.1.4
13.6.1.5
13.6.1.6

13 6 1 7
13.6.1.7
13.6.1.8

CE 472
2007

There shall be a minimum of three continuous spans in each direction.


Panels shall be rectangular,
g
, with a ratio of longer
g to shorter span
p center-to-centerof
supports within a panel not greater than 2.
Successive span lengths center-to-center of supports in each direction shall not
differ by more than one-third the longer span.
Offset of columns by a maximum of 10 percent of the span (in direction of offset)
f
from
either
i h axis
i between
b
centerlines
li
off successive
i columns
l
shall
h ll be
b permitted.
i d
All loads shall be due to gravity only and uniformly distributed over an entire panel.
Live load shall not exceed two times dead load.
For a panel with beams between supports on all sides, the relative stiffness of beams
in two perpendiculardirections
1l22
(13-2)
2l12
shall not be less than 0.2 nor greater than 5.0.
Moment redistribution as permitted by 8.4
8 4 shall not be applied for slab systems
designed by the Direct Design Method. See 13.6.7.
Variations from the limitations of 13.6.1 shall be permitted if demonstrated by
analysis that requirements of 13.5.1 are satisfied.
Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

Statical Moment

M
o
r
e

M0

M0

For any continuous


F
i
member
b (beam
(b
or slab), the static moment is given
by
M0=wl2/8=Mpos+average(Mneg)

wu l2 ln2
M0 =
8
ln
l2

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

10

Assignment of M0 to positive and negative

M
o
r
e

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

11

Assignment of M0 to positive and negative in the end span

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

12

75 + 30 (1l 2 / l 1 ) (1 l 2 / l 1 )

M
o
r
e

60 + 30 ( 1l 2 / l 1 )(1.5 l 2 / l 1 )

Use
CE 472
2007

(1l 2 / l 1 ) 1.0
Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

13

13.6.4.2

Column strips shall be proportioned to resist the following portions in percent of


exterior negative factored moments:

l 2 / l1

(1l 2 / l 1 ) = 0
(1l 2 / l 1 ) 1.0

t = 0
t 2.5
t = 0
t 2.5

0.5

1.0

2.0

100

100

100

75

75

75

100

100

100

90

75

45

Linear interpolations shall be made between values shown.

100 10 t + 12 t ( 1l 2 / l 1 ) (1 l 2 / l 1 )

t 2.5 (1l 2 / l 1 ) 1.0

Use

t
CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

14

Span Statical Moments-FP examples

M0= 298.31
kN-m
Span A-1-2:
ln =6.5-(0.2+.25)
= 6.05 m

=7.0
70m

Fraame A

=6.5 m

Span A-2-3:
ln =7.0-2*.25 = 6.5
m

M0= 344.34
344 34
kN-m

=6.5 m
Frame A:
l2 =7/2+ext = 4.0 m

CE 472
2007

=7.0 m

=8 m

Span C-1-2:
ln =6.5-2*.2 = 6.1
m

Span C-2-3:
ln =7.0-2*.2
=7 0 2* 2 = 6.6
66
m

Fram
me C

=7.0 m

M0= 568.62
kN-m

M0= 665.65
kN m
kN-m

Frame C:
l2 =8/2+7/2 = 7.5 m

Example data:
Live load = 3 kN/m2
dead load = 2 kN/m2
Slab thickness =250
250
mm
Wu=1.4(2+0.25*24)+1
.7*3= 16.3 kN/m2

C-1-2
C-2-3
A12
A-1-2
A-2-3

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

15

Span negative- positive-FP examples


=7.0 m

77.56

147.84

155.12

=6.5 m

M0= 298.31 kN-m

208 82
208.82

120.52

295.68

M0= 568.62 kN-m

398 03
398.03
432.67

223.82
=7.0
70m

=7.0 m

=8 m

Example data:
Live load = 3 kN/m2
dead load = 2 kN/m2
Slab thickness =250
mm
Wu=1.4(2+0.25*24)+
(
)
1.7*3= 16.3 kN/m2

M0= 344.34 kN-m

223.82

=6.5 m
Frame A:
l2 =7/2+ext = 4.0 m

232.98
432.67

Frame C:
l2 =8/2+7/2 = 7.5 m

M0= 665.65 kN-m

C-1-2
C-2-3
A-1-2
A-2-3

Code

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

16

Column strip & middle strip moments-FP examples


=7.0 m
6.5/4 7/2-6.5/4

77.56 0
=6.5 m

=8 m
8/2-6.5/4 6.5/4

M-ve
ve= 77.56 kN-m

177.41

118.27

167.9 55.95 M-ve= 223.82 kN-m

324.5

108.17

M-ve= 432.67 kN-m

139.8

93.2

M+ve= 232.98 kN-m

8/2-7/4

A-1-2

7/4

7/4

M+ve= 295.68 kN-m

7/4

Coolumn sttrip

Coolumn sttrip

7/4

Strips C
Strips-C

Frame C:
l2 =8/2+7/2 = 7.5 m

Frame A:
l2 =7/2+ext = 4.0 m

Code

M-ve= 147.84 kN-m

93.07 62.05 M+ve= 155.12 kN-m

7/4

CE 472
2007

6.5/4 7/2-6.5/4

147 84
147.84

kN-m
m
72 31 48.21
48 21 M+ve
+ = 120.52 kN
=7.0
7 0 m72.31

=6.5 m

=7.0 m

A-2-3

Strips-A
C-2-3

C-1-2
Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

17

FP- Reinforcement

=6.5 m

=7.0
70m

Strips-A
CE 472
2007

6.5/4 7/2-6.5/4

8/2-7/4

7/4

Frame C:
l2 =8/2+7/2 = 7.5 m

Frame A:
l2 =7/2+ext = 4.0 m

A-1-2

7/4

Coolumn sttrip

=6.5 m

7/4

Coolumn sttrip

7/4

=7.0 m

12@250

12
2@250
12@
@250
50
12@25

=8 m
8/2-6.5/4 6.5/4

14@200
14
4@280
20@24
40
14@250

=7.0 m
6.5/4 7/2-6.5/4

A-2-3

7/4

St i C
Strips-C
CS bot
CS top
MS top
MS bot
Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

18

FP-Reinforcement detailing in frame C


14@250

20@240

20@240

14@250

14@280

14@200

14@200

Column strip

12@250

12@250

12@250

12@250

12@250

12@250

12@250

middle strip
Calculation sheets
CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

19

Span C-2-3

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

20

Span C-2-3
C 2 3 flexure reinforcement

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

21

Span C-1-2 flexure

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

22

Span C-1-2
C 1 2 flexure reinforcement

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

23

Span A-2-3 flexure

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

24

Span A-2-3
A 2 3 flexure reinforcement

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

25

Span A-1-2 flexure

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

26

Span A-1-2
A 1 2 flexure reinforcement

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

27

Span Static Moments-SWB examples

M0= 298.31
kN-m
Span A-1-2:
ln =6.5-(0.2+.25)
= 6.05 m

=7.0
70m

Fraame A

=6.5 m

Span A-2-3:
ln =7.0-2*.25 = 6.5
m

M0= 344.34
344 34
kN-m

=6.5 m
Frame A:
l2 =7/2+ext = 4.0 m

Code

CE 472
2007

=7.0 m

=8 m

Span C-1-2:
ln =6.5-2*.2 = 6.1
m

Span C-2-3:
ln =7.0-2*.2
=7 0 2* 2 = 6.6
66
m

Fram
me C

=7.0 m

M0= 568.62
kN-m

M0= 665.65
kN m
kN-m

Frame C:
l2 =8/2+7/2 = 7.5 m

Example data:
Live load = 3 kN/m2
dead load = 3.68
kN/m2
Slab thickness =180
mm
Wu=1.4(3.68+0.18*24
)+1.7*3= 16.3 kN/m2

C-1-2
C-2-3
A12
A-1-2
A-2-3

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

28

Span negative- positive-SWB examples


=7.0 m

47.73

90.98

170.04

=6.5 m

M0= 298.31 kN-m

208 82
208.82

120.52

324.11

M0= 568.62 kN-m

398 03
398.03
432.67

223.82
=7.0
70m

=7.0 m

=8 m

Example data:
Live load = 3 kN/m2
dead load = 3.68
kN/m2
Slab thickness =180
mm
Wu=1.4(3.68+0.18*24
)+1.7*3= 16.3 kN/m2

M0= 344.34 kN-m

223.82

=6.5 m
Frame A:
l2 =7/2+ext = 4.0 m

232.98
432.67

Frame C:
l2 =8/2+7/2 = 7.5 m

M0= 665.65 kN-m

C-1-2
C-2-3
A-1-2
A-2-3

Code

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

29

Column strip & middle strip moments-SWB


examples
=7.0 m
6.5/4 7/2-6.5/4

6.24 6.14
6.
=6.5 m

=8 m
8/2-6.5/4 6.5/4

M-ve
ve= 47.73 kN-m

M-ve= 90.98 kN-m

34.22

95.99

25.18 55.95 M-ve= 223.82 kN-m

47.29

117.44

M-ve= 432.67 kN-m

25.46

63.24

M+ve= 232.98 kN-m

8/2-7/4

A-1-2

7/4

7/4

M+ve= 324.11 kN-m

7/4

Coolumn sttrip

Coolumn sttrip

7/4

Strips C
Strips-C

Frame C:
l2 =8/2+7/2 = 7.5 m

Frame A:
l2 =7/2+ext = 4.0 m

Code

6 35
6.35

18.54 46.43 M+ve= 170.04 kN-m

7/4

CE 472
2007

6.5/4 7/2-6.5/4

12 69
12.69

kN-m
m
13 56 30.13
30 13 M+ve
+ = 120.52 kN
=7.0
7 0 m13.56

=6.5 m

=7.0 m

A-2-3

Strips-A
C-2-3

C-1-2
Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

30

SWB-Reinforcement

=6.5 m

=7.0
70m
8/2-7/4

2007

A-1-2

7/4

7/4

Frame C:
l2 =8/2+7/2 = 7.5 m

Frame A:
l2 =7/2+ext = 4.0 m

Strips-A
CE 472

6.5/4 7/2-6.5/4

Coolumn sttrip

=6.5 m

7/4

Coolumn sttrip

7/4

=7.0 m

14@300

12
2@300
12@
@300
50
14@25

=8 m
8/2-6.5/4 6.5/4

12@300
12
2@300
12@30
00
12@300

=7.0 m
6.5/4 7/2-6.5/4

A-2-3

7/4

Strips-C
CS bot
CS top
MS top
MS bot
beams
Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

31

SWB-Reinforcement detailing in frame C

12@300

12@300

12@300

12@300

12@300

12@300

12@300

Column strip

14@300

CE 472
2007

12@300

14@250

14@250

12@300

12@300

middle strip

14@300

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

32

Minimum thickness- flat plate & slabs


9.5.3.2
For slabs without interior beams spanning between the supports and having a ratio of long to short
span not greater than 2, the minimum thickness shall be in accordance with the provisions of Table 9.5(c) and
shall not be less than the following values:
(a) Slabs without drop panels as defined
in Section 13.3.7.1 and 13.3.7.2
120 mm
(b) Slabs with drop panels as defined in
Section 13.3.7.1 and 13.3.7.2
100 mm
TABLE 9.5(c)-MINIMUM
9 5( ) MINIMUM THICKNESS OF SLABS WITHOUT INTERIOR BEAMS

( ))

Yield
Without drop panels
strength, Exterior panels
Interior
fy MPa
panels
Without
With edge
edge beams beams
300
ln
ln
ln
33
36
36
420
ln
ln
ln
30
33
33
520
ln
ln
ln
28
31
31
CE 472
2007

With drop panels


Exterior panels
Without
edge beams
ln
36
ln
33
ln
31

With edge
beams
ln
40
ln
36
ln
34

Interior
panels

ln
40
ln
36
ln
34
Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

33

Minimum thickness- flat plate & slabsExample


=7.0 m

=6.5 m

=7.0
70m

=6.5 m

CE 472
2007

Ln 6550
=
= 218 mm
30
30

Ln 6550
=
= 218 mm
30
30

Ln 6550
=
= 218 mm
30
30

=8 m

Ln 7500
=
= 250 mm
30
30

Ln 7500
=
= 227 mm
33
33

Ln 7500
=
= 250 mm
30
30

=7.0 m

Ln 6550
=
= 218 mm
30
30

Ln 6550
=
= 218 mm
30
30

Ln 6550
=
= 218 mm
30
30

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

34

Minimum thickness- Slab with beams


9.5.3.3

(a)
((b))

For slabs with beams spanning between the supports on all sides, the minimum
thickness shall be as follows:

For m equal to or less than 0.2, the provisions of Section 9.5.3.2 shall apply;
For m g
greater than 0.2 but not g
greater than 2.0, the thickness shall not be less than
fy

l n 0.8 +
1500

h=
36 + 5 ( m 0.2)

(9-12)

and
d nott less
l than
th 120 mm;
(c)

For m greater than 2.0, the thickness shall not be less than
fy

l n 0.8 +
1500

h=
36 + 9
and not less than 90 mm;

(d)

At discontinuous edges, an edge beam shall be provided with a stiffness ratio not
less than 0.80 or the minimum thickness required by Eq. (9-12) or (9-13) shall be
increased by at least 10 percent in the panel with a discontinuous edge.

CE 472
2007

(9-13)

= ratio of flexural stiffness of beam section to flexural stiffness of a width of


y by
y centerlines of adjacent
j
panels
p
(if
( any)
y) on each side
slab bounded laterally
of beam. See Chapter 13
= average value of a for all beams on edges of a panel
= ratio of clear spans in long to short direction of two-way slabs
Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

35

Minimum thickness- SWB


=7.0 m

fy

l n 0.8 +
1500
h=
36 + 9

=
=6.5 m

8 0.3
7.70
=
= 1.24
6.5 0.3 6.2

hh=176.3
176.3 mm

=
=7.0 m

=7.0 m

=8 m

7 0.3 6.7
=
= 1.08
6.5 0.3 6.2

h=158.3
h
158.3 mm

8 0.3
7.70
=
= 1.15
7.0 0.3 6.70

h=179.4 mm

=6.5 m

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

36

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

37

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

38

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

39

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

40

Two-way(Punching) shear-Vu& Vc
y1=d_avg/2+yc/2 +ext= 0.21/2+0.4/2+0.5= 0.805 m
x1=d_avg/2+xc/2
=d avg/2+xc/2 +ext= 0.21/2+0.4/2+0.5=
0 21/2+0 4/2+0 5= 0.805
0 805 m
=7.0 m

y1
x1

Frame 1:
l2 =6.5/2+ext = 3.75 m

=7.0 m

=8 m

x1=d_avg+xc= = 0.21+0.5= 0.71 m


y1=d_avg+yc= 0.21+0.4= 0.61

=6.5 m
Frame A:
l2 =7/2+ext = 4.0 m

x1
y1

=7.0
70m
E
Exteriori A1

Pu-A1
=6.5 m

Cr.s-A1
Check
CE 472
2007

Frame C:
l2 =7/2+8/2= 7.5 m
Example
E
ample data:
Live load = 3 kN/m2
dead load = 2 kN/m2
Slab thickness =250 mm
Wu=1.4(2+0.25*24)+1.7*3=
16.3 kN/m2

Frame 2:
l2 =7/2+6.5/2= 6.75 m

Interior- C2

Pu C2
Pu-C2
Cr.s-C2
Check
Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

41

Two-way shear- around C2


y1=d_avg+yc = 0.21+0.4= 0.61 m
x1=d_avg+yc = 0.21+0.5= 0.71 m

Vu = 16.3[(7.5 * 6.75) 0.61* 0.71] = 818.1 kN

0.5
= 1.25
0.4
b0 = 2(0.61 + 0.71) = 2.64 m = 2640 mm

c =

Vc = (1 +

2
1.25

25 * 2640 * 210
25 * 2640 * 210
=
= 924.0 kN
V
)
= 1201 kN c
3 *1000
6 *1000

*210
Vc = ( 402640
+ 2)

CE 472
2007

25 * 2640 * 210
= 1197 kN
12 *1000
Vc 0.75 * 924.0
=
= 0.85 < 1 Not .OK
Vu
818.1

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

42

Two-way shear- around A1


y1=d_avg/2+yc/2 +ext= 0.21/2+0.4/2+0.5= 0.805 m
x1=d_avg/2+xc/2 +ext= 0.21/2+0.4/2+0.5= 0.805 m

Vu = 16.3[(4 * 3.75) 0.805 * 0.805] = 233.9 kN


0.4
= 1.0
0.4
b0 = (0.805 + 0.805) = 1.61 m = 1610 mm

c =

Vc = (1 + 12.0 )

25 *1610 * 210
= 845 kN
6 *1000

*210
Vc = ( 201610
+ 2)

25 *1610 * 210
= 563.5 kN
3 *1000

25 *1610 * 210
= 649 kN
12 *1000

Vc
Vu
CE 472
2007

Vc =

0.75 * 563.5
= 1.81 > 1 .OK
233.9
Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

43

Slab with beams :


Span C-1-2

bw=300 mm
hw=420 mm
hf =180 mm

Ib
=
Is

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

44

Torsional member-Slab with beams- t

bw=300 mm
hw=420 mm
hf =180
180 mm

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

45

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

46

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

47

Distribution of Moments in flat plates


p

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

48

Effect of edge beams on moments in slabs

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

49

Unified approach for moments in two-way slabs

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

50

Two-way slab systems


Dr. Ahmed Shuraim
CE 472- 2003

CE 472 2007

Dr. Ahmed Shuraim

51

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

52

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

53

CE 472
2007

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

54

Minimum Thickness

DDM- SWB-example

DDM limitations
CE 472 2007

DDM- flat plate-example

M0

M0

M+ve & M-ve

M+ve & M-ve

Mcs & Mms

Mcs & Mms

Rebars

Rebars

Dr. Ahmed Shuraim

55

Drop Panels
13.3.7

13.3.7.1

13 3 7 2
13.3.7.2

13.3.7.3

CE 472
2007

Where a drop panel is used to reduce amount of negative moment


reinforcement over the column of a flat slab, size of drop panel shall be in
accordance with the Section 13.3.7.1, 13.3.7.2, and 13.3.7.3.
D
Drop
panell shall
h ll extend
t d in
i each
h direction
di ti from
f
centerline
t li off supportt a distance
di t
not less than one-sixth the span length measured from center-to- center of
supports in that direction.
Projection of drop panel below the slab shall be at least one-quarter the slab
thickness beyond the drop.
In computing required slab reinforcement, the thickness of the drop panel
below the slab shall not be assumed g
greater than one-quarter
q
the distance from
edge of drop panel to edge of column or column capital.

Dr. Ahmed
Shuraim

56