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Rolls-Royce Technology for Future

Aircraft Engines
RAeS Hamburg
March 20 2014
Ulrich Wenger, Head of Engineering & Technology
Rolls-Royce Deutschland

2014 Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG


The information in this document is the property of Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party, or
used for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without the express written consent of Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG.
This information is given in good faith based upon the latest information available to Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, no warranty or representation
is given concerning such information, which must not be taken as establishing any contractual or other commitment binding upon Rolls-Royce
Deutschland Ltd & Co KG or any of its subsidiary or associated companies.

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Content
o 1. Introduction to Rolls-Royce
o 2. Engine Technology in the Past
o Engines for Commercial Jets

o Turboprops
o Engines for Business Jets

o 3. Sustainable Aviation
o ACARE / Flight Path 2050 Targets
o Future Engine Concepts

o 4. Technology Development at Rolls-Royce

1. Introduction to Rolls-Royce:
Power Systems for 4 Markets

2013 Financial Highlights

Rolls-Royce Deutschland 2013


at a Glance

Sustainable Growth in Germany

Rolls-Royce in Germany

Rolls-Royce Power Systems


Friedrichshafen

2. Engine Technology in the Past

First jet propelled flight took place 75 years ago:


Heinkel He 178 with HeS3
designed by Pabst von Ohain,
27.08.1939 Rostock
Source: Wikipedia

First commercial jet airplane 1949/52:


DeHavilland Comet DH106
DeHaviland Ghost at first flight.
Rolls-Royce Avon engines on production aircrafts.
(later also in S.A. Caravelle)

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Supersonic
Concorde, RR/Snecma Olympus, Turbojet Engine

First flight:
No of Aircraft built:
Cruise Speed:

21.01.1976
16(+4)
Ma 2,2

RR Olympus, developed by Bristol Aero Engines for Vulcan Bomber

Rolls-Royce proprietary information

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Engine Design RR Olympus


Turbojet engine, no bypass flow
Medium pressure ratio
Variable geometry at inlet and exhaust (afterburner)
Minimum frontal area

Rolls-Royce proprietary information

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Turboprops

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Turboprop Engine RR Dart


2 axial-centrifugal compressors
Tubular combustor
First run 1946
Commercial airplanes:
Fokker F27 Friendship
Vickers Viscount
Douglas DC-3 re-engineing
Gulfstream GI
Convair 600/640
YS-11
Rolls-Royce proprietary information

Source: Wikipedia

Turboprops

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Turboprop Engine RR Tyne


Applications in military aircraft:
Breguet Atlantique, maritime patrol
Transall C-160
First flight Atlantique: 21.10.1961

Medium air speed, conventional


propeller delivers good efficiency

Low fuel burn requires moderate


pressure ratio of about 13,5. Two shaft
core engine allows very effective
components

Source: Wikipedia

Turboprops

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Airbus A400M
EPI TP400 D6

Air speed nearly at jet level (Ma 0,72) => modern propeller with complex control
required (one power lever to control per engine)
Low fuel burn on long missions => Turboprop with high pressure ratio(ca. 26);
optimum component efficiencies; 2 shaft core, free power turbine
First flight of the engine on C-130 testbed: 17.12.2008

Bypass Engine RR Conway

First bypass engine in commercial service


2 shafts, 2 axial compressors
BPR=0,6

Commercial airplanes:
Boeing 707
Douglas DC-8

Source: Wikipedia

Rolls-Royce proprietary information

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High Bypass Engine RR RB 211

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3 shafts
BPR ca. 5
Wide Chord Fan (Honeycomb)
on later versions (-535, -524)

Commercial airplanes:
Boeing 757, 767, 747
Lockheed L 1011 Tristar
Source: Wikipedia

Rolls-Royce proprietary information

Modern Commercial Jets

A380, RR Trent 900

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Trent XWB - Advanced Technology for A350


Low emissions
combustor

Hollow
lightweight
titanium fan
system

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Advanced
materials
Turbine end wall
profiling

Integrated
intelligent engine
health monitoring
Soluble core HP
turbine blades
Full 3D aero
compressors

Bearing load
management

2 stage IP turbine
Blisk
technology

Rolls-Royce proprietary information


Copyright: Airbus

Milestones Business Jets


Gulfstream
Gulfstream
Gulfstream
Gulfstream

GI
GII
GIII
GIV

Gulfstream
Gulfstream
Gulfstream

G350/450 RR Tay 8C
GV/G550 BR710
G650
BR725

Rolls-Royce proprietary information

RR Dart
RR Spey
RR Spey
RR Tay

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BR725 Engine for Gulfstream G650


Smoke free
combustor

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New 3stage LPT

New swept fan,


Trent technology,
increased diameter,
increased bypass ratio

16 lobe mixer for


minimal jet noise
Improved HPC with
5 stages of blisk

3. Sustainable Aviation

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Climate Change (CO2 Emissions)


Today

Circa 1900

Pasterz Glacier, Austria

Noise

Pasterz Gletscher, sterreich

problematic close to Airports


1

737-200

DC9-50

85 dB(A) Take-off Noise

0.5

Startbahn
0

RJ100

-0.5

717-200

-1
-1

Rolls-Royce proprietary information

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Greenhouse
gas emissions
(all gasses)(all
forgasses)
(2005)
Man-made
greenhouse
gas emissions
4.0

3.2

Electricity and heat

2.3 1.6

4.3

28.0

8.5

Agriculture, land use change and


forestry
Manufacturing and construction
Transport
Other fuel combustion
Industrial processes
Fugitive emissions

10.4

Waste
11.9

25.9

Marine

~1050 million tonnes of


CO2 per year

Aviation ~700 million tonnes of


CO2 per year

Source: World Resources Institute 2005

Rolls-Royce proprietary information

Global Aviation CO2 Emissions Scenario

Rolls-Royce proprietary information

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Flightpath 2050
Goals to take ACARE beyond 2020
The Advisory Council for Aviation Research and
Innovation in Europe (ACARE) has set new
technology goals to achieve by 2050
75% reduction in CO2 per passenger kilometre

Requires
Improvement
in all areas

90% reduction in NOx emissions, and


65% reduction in noise
Airframe

Engine

ATM &
Operations

Strategic Research & Innovation Agenda goals:


Meeting Societal and Market Needs
Maintaining and Extending Industrial Leadership
Protecting the Environment and the Energy Supply
Ensuring Safety and Security
Prioritising Research, Testing Capabilities & Education

Rolls-Royce proprietary information

ACARE 2020 and Flight Path 2050 Targets

Trent 1000 is 12% more fuel efficient than Trent 800


Rolls-Royce proprietary information

X
X

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Alternative Fuels

Rolls-Royce proprietary information

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4. Technology Development at Rolls-Royce

Rolls-Royce proprietary information

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Turbofan Thermodynamic Cycle Efficiencies


0.700

Specific Fuel Consumption lb / hr / lbf @ 0.8Mn

0.70

0.725
0.750

0.65

0.800

Current
Rolls-Royce
HBR engines

0.60
0.55

propulsive
efficiency prop

0.775

0.825
0.850
0.875

practical limit for


low NOx

0.900

0.925
0.950
0.975

0.50

1.000

0.45
0.40
0.35
0.30

0.4

30%
theoretical
improvement at
Ma 0.8
theoretical limit
stoichiometric TET,
optimum componenten
efficiency, 80+ OPR.

theoretical limit
0.425
for Open Rotor
propulsive
0.450
efficiency

0.475

0.500
0.525
0.550
0.575
0.625

0.600

thermal efficiency th
x transfer efficiency tran

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Fuel Burn Reduction and CO2 Improvements


2nd Generation BPR<5

Commercial Jets

PW JT8D, RR Conway
3rd Generation BPR=5-8

+12-15%

RB211, Trent 700, V2500


4th Generation BPR=8-10

Trent 500/900, GP7000


Reference

ATF or GTF BPR >11

5th Generation BPR>10

Trent 1000, GENX

- 5-8 %
- 10%

UHBR, BPR>20, CRTF

New Architectures

- 15 %
- 20 %

1985

ACARE Vision 2020 Target


1990

1995

Rolls-Royce proprietary information

2000

2005
Year

Open rotor, BPR>35

2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

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Process Temperatures, Trends


High OR cycles
increase turbine entry
temperatures

Type Test Turbine Entry Temperatures (TET)

S
s
S

Required HPT
technology:
Materials & Coatings
Cooling design &
airsystem design

Rolls-Royce proprietary information

S
Y
y

Current
Development
Engines

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Composite Fan Research today

Eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee
ee
E
e

Rolls-Royce proprietary information

Rolls-Royce Carbon-Titanium Fan, CTi Fan

Composite/Ti fan
blade for next
generation large
engine

Rolls-Royce UltraFan

With further increasing bypass ratios,


a geared LP-system offers benefits
Current nacelle designs with TRU
could be replaced by variable pitch
composite fan (VP fan) and variable
area nozzle (VAN)

Technology Demonstrators

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Potential Game Changers

Open rotor

Advanced Cycles
ICR

Integrated electrical
systems

Pressure Gain
Combustion

Engine Airframe Optimisation

Adaptive cycles

Turboelectric Hybrid Propulsion (NASA Concept)

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Seperate power- and


thrust generation
Blended wing body with
maximum L/D ratio

Electrcally driven fans


with wing boundary
layer suction

Source: Paper ISABE 2011-1340

Rolls-Royce proprietary information

Gas turbine in wing tips


generates electrical
power

eConcept (Airbus/Rolls-Royce)

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Source: Airbus

Blended Wing Body

1 GT-Engine with
Generators

6 electrically driven
Fans

Battery to store
electrical energy
Rolls-Royce proprietary information

eConcept presented by
EADS at Aero Salon Paris
2013

Summary
Gasturbines still have a lot of potential in

aircraft propulsion
Rolls-Royce and the aerospace industry
carry out a lot of research to fulfil the
challenging ACARE targets which will make
air travel more sustainable.
This overview presented some of the
technologies on which RR works currently
My personal opinion about future air
transport:
In 20 years we will still fly, and probably subsonic
Gasturbines will largely generate the power for

aircraft propulsion

We will see more propellers and hybrid systems in

use on aircraft

Rolls-Royce data

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