Get the design fundamentals, straightfon¡vard concepts and key specifications

necessary to take full advantage of manufactured steel tubes' mechanical propefties, light weight and aesthetic appeal in steel construction.

ìl

Intsnnalional Gonfsrence ûn Tuhulan Slnuctur'Gs
May 9-10, 1996

. Vancouver, British Columbia

#
H
This is a not-to-be-missed architects to be briefed on concrete-filling, innovative world's leading experls on oppoftunity for structural engineers, fabricators, and static design. fatigue design, seismic design, bridge design, joining methods. and computer-based tools by some of the Hollow Structural Sections (HSS).

sponsors

American Welding Society
Endorsing 1rganizaîions

6 \-rl

welding lnstitute of Canada

.

.

American Society of Civil Engineers . American lnstitute of Steel Construction Steel Tube lnstitute of North America . University of Toronto

Thble of Contents
:f

Keynote Presentation: Limit States Design, Hollow Structural Sections, and D. J. L. Kennedy, Univenity of Alberta
Desigu Rules Key to CompeÌitive Tirbular R. M. Bent, Welding Instituæ of Canada

Welds
..

1
,:

I

i

.

Structu¡es

..

:.:

....

19

I

1

Resistance Ïhbtes for Welded Hollow Structurat Section Tbuss Connections 32 J. A. Packer, University of Toronto; G. S. Frater, Hatch Associates; and S. Kitipornchai, University of

I

Queensland Welded Circular lfollow Section Tbuss Connections
P. W:

i

48

Marshall, MHP Systems Engineering

I

I

Simpte Beam Connection to Ilollow Structural Section D. R. Sherman, University of Wisconsin

Columns

55

Fatigue of Hollow Structural Section Welded Connections A. M. van Wingerde and J. A. Packer, University of Toronto Earthquake-Resistant Design Provisions for Tl¡bular Y. Kurobane and K. Ogawa, Kumamoto University

64

Structurcs ......

74

Fire Performance of Concrete-FilledTirbular Columns. V. K. R. Kodur and T. T. Lie, National Fire Laboratory Tubular Offshore Structures P. W. Marshall, MIIP Systems Engineering
Design of Hollow Struqtural Section Columns and D. R. Sherman, University of Wisconsin

86

97

Beam-Ç61¡¡mns

.

.

110

.. . . 118 Guide to the Ilollow Structural Section Guides and Codes of Toronto; a¡rd S. Kitipornchai, University of Queensland J. A. Packer, University
Concrete-Filled Hollow Steel Sections. H. G. L. Prion, University of British Columbia Fundamental Criteria for Welding Thrbular R. M. Bent, Welding Insútute of Canada

..

..

126

Steel

. 137

ill

Bending, Bolting and Nailing of lfoilow Structural J. E. Henderson, Henderson Engineering Services
'W.

Sections.

.

150

Fabrication and Tnspection Practices for l{elded Ïtrbutar
J. Post, J. rñ/. Post Associates,Inc.

Connections . .
i : -i

162

Design of llalf-Through or'?ony" Thuss Bridges Using Squarg or Rectangular llollow Structural Sections. ,: S. J. Herth, Continental Bridge
Case Studies of Recent Ti¡bular C. M. Allen, Adjeleian Allen Rubeli, LTD

.

. 179

Stnrctures
'
,:':

.... . 189

lVelding of Structural Alrrminum Ïbbing.
R. Bonneaû, Canadian Welding Bureau

The Challenge of Knowledge-Based Expert Systems in the Future of the Design of Ttrbular Structures G. Davies, W. Tizani, and K. Yusuf, University of Nottingham

....

.

216

lv

LIMIT STATES DESIGN, HOLLOW STRUCTURAL SECTIONS, AND \ilELDS
D. J. L. Kennedy*

ABSTRACT
The rationale of limit states design with its inherent advantages over working stress design is discussed. Among other advantages, because, for the ultimate limit states, LSD focuses on the possible modes of failure, it fosters an examination of the true behaviour and the writing of strength or resistance formulations that reflect this behaviour. Within this conceptual basis, the development of some of the provisions of design standards for hot and cold formed hollow structural sections, concrete-filled hollow structural sections, partial penetration g¡oove welds and fillet welds at varying orientations is presented. The resistance formulations include resistance factors that account not only for the variation in material and geometric properties but also for the statistical fit of the formulation to the test results, i.e., the bias coeffrcient and the co effi ci ent of va¡iation of the test-to-predi cted ratio.

KEYWORDS Fillet welds, hollow structural sections, Iimit states design, partial penetration groove welds,
resistance formulations, resistance factors, statistical evaluation, test-to-predicted ratios.

LIMIT STATES DESIGN
General

for steel stn¡ctures in the National Building Code of Canada since 1990, is rapidly gaining world-wide acceptance. In the United States of America, when applied to steel structures, it is called Load and Resistance Factor Design, while for concrete structures, the term Ultimate Strengfh Design is used. The designation as used here is more universal in use and encompasses all the classes of limit states and not just those related to ultimate or failure conditions.
States Design, the only design methodology sanctioned

Limit

Limit States and its classifications
Limit states are those limiting states or conditions of a structure at u'hich it ceases to fulfill some intended function. Therefore the probability of exceeding any limit state is kept to an acceptable low level. Limit states design is that design philosophy in which the designer, recognizing the various limit states, proportions the structure such that these probabilities are attained. Currently
Professor Emeritus, Dept.

of Civil

Engineering, University

of Alberta,

Edmonton, AB. Canada, T6G 2G7

limit søtes a¡e classif¡ed

as seviceability, fatigue and ultimate

limit

states.

Seviceability limit states are those associated with the provision of proper acceptable service conditions such as the limitation of deflections, vibrations, permanent deflections, cracking, and foundation settlements. The seviceability limit states are to be satisfied during the life of the stn¡ch¡re at levels of load that are likely to occur with reasonable frequency. These are the socalled working loads of working stress design and are now called the specified loads. In the National Buitding Code of Canada (Ref. l), for example, the specified wind load is that of the I in l0 yearwind.

The fatigue limit state is that associated wittr crack growth under the stress raûge spectn¡m occtrrring under service conditions. Miner's rule may be used for combining stress range levels. As well we may need a method for counting the cycles of stress ranges such as the reservoir method and a method for assessing the remaining fatigue life.
The ultimate limit states are those associated with collapse of all or part of the stn¡cture and include, rupture or fracture, crushing, buckling, local buckling attainment of the critical, yield or fully plastic mometrt, mechanism formation, overturning, sliding or foundation failure. The ultimate limit states must be satisfied during constn¡ction and during the life of the stn¡cture at levels of load that occur very infrequently, i.e., that have a small probability of being exceeded. From this we see that Limit States Design (LSD) provides a unified approach in that the designer explicitly recognÞes the various limit states, i.e., the failure modes and designs against them, all the while taking into account the statistical variation of both the loads and the resistances.

Formulation of Limit States Desien

Fig. I depicts schematically the probability density functions for the effect of a load, S,
resistance, R, of some structural component

and the

:-QR= RI
Frequency

aS

Densrty

Magnitude

Fig.

L

Frequency distribution functions for the effect of a load and a resistance

The nominal values are indicated by S and R while mean values are indicated by S and R. In gretter than S-"*, the nominal values S working stress design (WSD), to attempt to keep in Fig.l, ate separated by a global factor of safety, G, thus: and R also shown

Ç¡,

G=R/S

(1a)

R:GS

(lb)

In Limit States Design (LSD), recognizing that both the loads and resistmces vary and that their probability density functions will differ from load to load and from resistance to resistance, two factors, a resistance factor and a load factor a¡e used thus:

$R>øS
or

(2a)

n>9s
0

(2b)

as illustrated in

Fig. l, where the LSD inequa,ity

is

just satisfied.

Comparing eqùations (1b) with (2b) we see t rat the global factor of safety, G, is replaced with the combination, c/S, but now these two àctors are determined based on their statistical variations. For more than ¡ryo loads the LSD *xpression becomes:

$R:

Ðcr;S¡

(2a)

Currently, in LSD, the two measures of the probabiliry density functions used are the mean value, e.g., S and R-, and the dispersion about the mean as measured by the standard deviation, o. The coefficient of variation, V, equal to tlle standard deviation divided by the mean value is more often used. As the reference or nomir,al value used is unlikely to be the mean value, as shown in Fig. l, the bias coefficient, p, equa: to the ratio of the mean to nominal value, and its mean value are also required. Thus we have, ior example, for the effect of loads:

V. = os/S
and

(3a)

P.:S/S

(3b)

The probability of failure can be expressed in va¡ious forms such as:

P¡:P(R-S>0)
or

(4a)
(4b)

P¡:

P(R/S >1.0)

3

P¡= P(ln R/S >0)
We let X = ln R/S and plot iæ probability density function as shown in Fig. 2.

(4c)

X = ln (R/S)

Fig.2

Probability Density Function of X

From Fig.2, because the total area under the curve is 1.0, then the area to the left of the origin representing values of X less than zero, is the probability of failure. By making the value of R larger we shift the curve to the right - as far as we can afford. We position t}re curve such that the distance from the mean value, i, to the origin is a number, p, times the standard deviation, o*, of X. The reliability index, p, is selected by calibrating against current good practice. After some mathematical manipulation, lrye obtain, for log-normal distributions and a number of loads:

Ec,s,

=fts*ololu

]

(5)

where the symbols have their previous definitions and the mean values of the bias coefficienß are used. The load factors and the resistance factors are linked by this equation and therefore they are not independent. Furthermore, for both the loads and the resistances, the bias coeffrcient and coeffrcient of va¡iation, e.8., pn and V¡, are needed. Putting aside how the data for loads are developed and ho'r load combi¡rations are handled what information is needed to develop these two measures for the resistances?

.t

I

The resistance of any structural component depends on the variability of three different quantities. These are the variability of a material property such as the yield strength, Fy, the variability of a geometric property such as the plastic section modulus, Z, and the variability of the predictive capacity of the design equation such as Mp = ZFy, as determined from comparisons of test results with that predicted by the simple equation. This laner variability arises from the fact that all design equations, in the interests of simplicity, contain some

4

three quantities.

approximations. In the present case, the formulation is based on fully plastic stress blocks without strain hardening. The first of these is not attainable and therefore the prediction is too high while the second is likely to be present and therefore the prediction is too low. As well, moment gradients have not been considered. Thus there is a va¡iability around the mean for all

Because the three variables are independent the mean value and the bias coefficient of the resistance are given simply as the product of the respective values while the coefficient of variation is obtained as the squa¡e root of the sum of the squares of the three quantities thus:

PR = Pc

tPu'Pp = PztPry.Py

(6a)

VR=

vfr+vfr+vf

vi +vf +vf

(6b)

These equations are used subsequently.

Advantages of Limit States Design
Some argue that LSD only complicates design and increases design time without any real advantages. This is not factual. Once the initial learning curve is mastered, designs are as e¿rsy or easier to carry out, increased understanding of the design process results and advantages accrue as follows.

I.0

Resistance formulations are written transparently as member strengths

The output of structural analyses is the stress resultants acting on the members such as ærial forces, bending moments and shears. That being the case, why not write member resistances in a parallel manner? The resistance formulations are based on the actual behaviour of the component, member or structure. Thus the designer is made aware of the possible failure modes and can then design against them rationally. Inelastic member behaviour is accommodated automatically in LSD. For example, the nominal moment resistance of a compact section as formulated in LSD is:

M=Mp =ZFy

(7a)

However, in WSD this must be expressed in terms of stresses; frequently the extreme frbre stress of stress blocks that vary linearly across the cross-section. Thus, introducing a global factor of safety, G, and dividing by the elastic section modulus, S, gives:

o* = M/GS - ZFvlGS

= l.l0Fy / G =l.lOFy /1.67 =0.66ry

(7b)

This formulation obscures the actual behaviour and appears to suggest that compact beams can have higher allowable stresses. Moreover the ratio of ZIS varies considerably from the value of l.l0 used here. Thus, in LSD, the designer is made aware of the behaviour and resort need not be made to fictitious allowable süesses.. The same condition applies in composite construction where, in LSD, fully plastic stress blocks are incorporated, when appropriate, for both the steel and concrete. Working stress design does not give a consistent rational method of assessing the flexural resistance.

2.O .Non-linear geometric effects'.

'

Progressive standards now reçire that second order geometric effects be considered in the analysis. In LSD these are evaluated at the factored or collapse load level and therefore are propedy established as they contain the product of the factored loads acting on the factored deflections. Second order amplification at the working load level underestimates these effecg as indicated in Fig. 3. Ar¡ analysis at the working load level cannot include the second-order nonlinear effects due to the change in geometry at the ultimate load.

Load

Â.
Fig.

4
Deformatíon

3

NonJinear geometric effects

3.0 Separate Load and Resistance

Factors Determined Statistically

These give rise to reliability levels that are much more consistent and at the same time lead to better safety and economy. Both these facts are illustrated in Fig. 4 based on Allen (Ref. 2) for three different design standards. The broad line represents usual load combinations and the fine, all combinations. Ideally there would be no variation in the reliability index, p, but this would make the load cõmbinations too complex. The range of is the least for the LSD standard. It is by far the most consistent. By eliminating low values of p the safety or reliabiliry is improved and by eliminating the high values economy is achieved.

I

6

6
5

4

all

F3
2

1
I

combinations

t r¡sr¡at casqs

I
0

sl6,

wsD AIsc, wsD

st6.l, LsD

Fig.

4

Range of the reliability index, p, for three standards (Ref. 2)

The Ferry Bridge Cooling Tower collapse, as reported by Allen (Ref. 3), was precipitated by failure of the tensile reinforcement. This also illustrates the superiority of limit states design arising from the use of both load and resistance factors. The reinforcement was designed, using WSD procedures, to withstand the difference between the uplift due to wind and the dead load effects, which were 0.85 of the uplift, using an allowable stress of 0.50 Fr. Thus the reinforcement a¡ea is found from: 0.50 orA"*, =
\l¡,r

-D

:

W - 0.85W

: 0. I5W

(8a)

or
where the subscript

Ar,,:0.30Wo,
"w"
stands for

(8b)

WSD. The wind force to cause yielding, Wu*, is:
(8c) (8d)

Wy* - D = W, - 0.85W = orAr.,, : 0.30\il

or

Wy*:

l.lsW

that is, only lilToabove the specified wind load. Had LSD been used, witl load factors of 1.50 on wind and 0.85 on the dead load when it is counteractive, and with a resistance factor of 0.85 on yield, the design equation would have been:

0.85o, Ar

:

1.50W - 0.85D

:

1.50W - 0.85 x 0.85W

: 0.778W

(ea)

or
where the subscript

A¡ = 0.915 Wo,

(eb)

"L"

stands for

LSD. The wind force to cause yielding would be:

Wv¡ - D = Wyl - 0.85W

: orA, = 0.915W

(ec)

7

or

WyL=

1.76W

(9d)

The increased reinforcement as required by LSD would have prevented collapse at little cost. This illustrates that a single factor of safety, as used in WSD, simply does not work.

4.0 Tailored Load and Resistance Factors
The use of statistical analyses also paves the way for the rational development of load and resistance factors tailored to the specific site conditio$¡ as may be desirable for major engineering structures. Such was the case for the Northumberland StrÀit Fixed Crossing. Load and resistance factors were de¡¡eloped by MKM Engineering (Ref. 4) taking into account the particular environmental conditions such as wind and ice loadings, values of p of 4 or more as iequired by the ou¡ner, and recoeûizing the tight contol on the manufactr¡ring of the structural
components.

5.0 Changes

in Reliability Levels

reliability index, p. Thus, by varying the value of p, values of the load and resistance factors can be determined to take into account such factors as the consequences of failure, the behaviour of the component, and the like. Table l, paralleling the work of Allen (Ref. 5) gives values for the change in p, i.e., Âp, proposed by Kennedy (Ref. 6). Other values of Âp could be considered. The target value of the reliability index may be found as:

As was established, the load and resistance factors are directly related to the value of the

9r:3.50+EÂF, >2.0
Table

(10)

l: Adjustment factors, Åp, to the reliability index, p

Life Safety Factor Consequences of failure

Description
essential

for post-disaster services

Component behaviour

System behaviour

Number of persons at risk

normal small probability of loss of life or economic loss sudden brittle failure limited ductility gradual ductile failure component failure leads to total collapse component failure leads to contained collapse component failure leads to local failure large loss of life moderate loss of life minimum loss of life

^P +0.30 0 -0.30
0

-0.35 -0.70 0 -0.35 -0.70 +0.30 0 -0.30

8

7.0

The Fostering of Research
States

Limit States Design fosters research. It soon becomes evident in examining the Limit

Design equation that much research needs to be done to define better the loads and load effects. The first of these deals with the assessment of loads acting on structures; whether they are environmental, use and occupancy, vehicular, dynamic, the weight of the structure itself or whatever. The determination of the effect of loads is the analysis of the structure under the action of the loads. Computer analyses that take more and more factors.into account and reduce or eliminate drudgery represent significant advances. On the other side of the equation is the assessment of the resistance of the particular structnral component. While quality control has reduced both the variability of the geometry and of the characteristic strength of components, the structural engineering researcher continues to look for better models of the behaviour of members, components and structures. The goal is to develop models for which the bias coefficient is close to 1.0 and the coefficient of variation is low. Reducing the lauer, in particular, is likely to enhance the resistance factor for a given reliabiliry. This is not the problem that is faced by a design engineer where it is perfectly acceptable to make simplifying assumptions provided only that they are conservative. The question being addressed by the researcher is what model predicts the behaviour closely and consistently. It is this latter aspect that is examined in the next two sections for some aspects of hollow structural sections, HSSs, and welds.

HOLLOW STRUCTURAL SECTIONS
Class H Hollow Structural Section Columns

Kennedy and Gad Aly (Ref. 7) proposed, in I980, thatColumn Curve of the Stn¡ctural Stability Research Council could be used for Class H hollow structural sections, produced in Canada in accordance with CSA Standard G40.20-1976, with a resistance factor generally greater than 0.90. Subsequently the Sl6 Committee on Structural Steel for Buildings incorporated this into the 516.1 Limit States Design Søndard (Ref. 8) with a resistance factor of 0.90. This represented a considerable increase in the factored compressive resistance as compared to the lower SSRC Curve 2. It is important to note, as the Standa¡d continues to state, that this higher strength is for Class H sections and not for Class C sections which have considerably different properties. Furthermore the sections must be produced to CSA Standard G40.20 the current edition of which is that of 1992 (Ref. 9). Hollow structural sections manufactured to ASTM Standard 4500-93 (Ref. l0) do not qualify as the tolerances on wall thicknesses are considerably less stringent in it. In S 16. I -94, SSRC Curve I is expressed in double exponential form as:

Cr=

oAFv

( * *"lX

(l l)

9

in which the resistance factor, Q, is 0.90 and the exPonen! n, is 2.24. The data given in Table 2 are based on the original analysis in which the equation of Galambos and Ravindra (Ref. I l) for the resistance factor, incorporating a separation factor, d,¡, of 0.55, was used- This is:

0 = pn exp(-ÞcrnVn) A reliability inder; p, of 3. 0, consistent with the NBCC, was used-

(r2)

Table 2. Statistical data for HSS Columns

Variable Static yield strength, Fy Cross-sectional area, A Test-to-predicted ratio, P Unit resistance, F for l, = 0.00

v
1.240 0.985 0.965 0.092 0.034 0.040 0.092 0.087 0.064
0.033

t.240
1.229

1.179

î,:0.40

Ll68

I I

= 0.80

t.174
r.025
1.040

l.l l6
0.974 0.986 0.970 0.974 0.984

0.106 0.102 0.083

?,.= 1.20 = 1.60

0.062
0.060 0.062 0.062 0.061

0.029
0.033 0.033 0.031

l. = 2.00

ì'=

2.40

t.021 t.025
1.035

l,:2.80

0.990 0.987 0.973 0.880 0.892 0.875 0.880 0.890

The test-to-predicted ratio is based on tests of Birkemoe (Ref. 12) and the entire procedure was confirmed by exagining the results of 158 tests reported by Sherman (Ref. 13). In table 2, the bias coefficients and the coefTicients of variation given for the unit resistance for different values of the slenderness parameter take into account the bias coeffÏcient and the coefficient of variation of the yielå strength, the radius of gyration and the modulus of elasticity and the fact that as the slendemess incieases the influence of the yield strength decreases and that of the modulus of elasticity increases. For any value of ln the bias coefficient, Pc,, iS the product of the those for the cross-sectional are4 the test-to predicted ratio and the unit resistance while for corresponding value of Vç, is found as the square root of the sum of the squares- Thus, example, for I:0.80, equation (12) gives:

0=0.985x0.965xl.l74exp(-3.0x055@)=0.973(l3)
is We note that the bias coefficient is reasonably close to 1.0 and that the coefficient of variation not too high for the range of slenderness ratios. In CSA Standard 516.l a single value of the resistance factor of 0.90 is used.

10

Concrete-Filled Hollow Structural Sections in Flexure

on 12 flexural tests on concrete-filled hollow strucA¡ral sections and control tests on the five different hollow structural sections used, Lu and Kennedy @ef. 14) developed n¡¡o models to predict the strength of concrete-filled hollow stn¡ctural sections; a "research model" and a "design model". Classifications of the sections, based on measured dimensions and properties, ranged from Class I to Class 4. By using rectangular sections with the long dimension oriented both horizontally and vertically and by using sections with a considerable variation in wall thickness, ratios of the concrete and steel areas in compression of 3.1 to 5.6 were tested. As well, shear span to depth ratios of I.0 to 5.0 were investigated. Neither of these factors had any
Based

effect on the test-to-predicted moment ratios and therefore the models developed a¡e considered to be independent of these facûors. The moment curvah¡re relationship is initially elastic followed by increasing inelastic softening culminating with a very long plateau of slightly increasing slope until failure occurs. Failure was precipitated by an upward buckle of the steel top flange. The concrete in the tension zone was heavily cracked a¡d in the compression zone was crushed where the steel had buckled. On the average, steel strains reached 14 000 ¡re in compression and23 000 pe in tension.

The concrete prevented inward movement of the steel webs and therefore provided rotational restraint to the edges of the top flange which could only buckle upwards. Thus the compressive strains in the steel at failure were very large. Observations indicated that there was no loss of composite action between the steel and the concrete due to lack of shear transfer by friction or bond. Confinement of the concrete by the steel increased its load carrying capacity such that the ratio of the maximum concrete stress in flexure to the cylinder strength should be taken as 1.00 and not just 0.85 as is the case in reinforced concrete design. The effective rectangular stress block in the concrete should be taken to extend to 0.85 of the depth to the neutral axis.
The "research" model to predict the ultimate moment resistance is suitable for use when the strengths of the steel and concrete are known. The concrete compressive resistance is taken as the concrete strength multiplied by 0.85 of the area of the concrete in compression i.e., the rectangular stress block extends to 0.85 of the depth to the neutral axis. The steel stress is taken, both in tension and compression, as the average of that at 14 000 and 23 000 pe. This is valid for Grade 350 steel with b/t ratios as high as 36.0. The position of the neutral axis is determined to satisfy horizontal equilibrium. For design, because the strengths of the steel and concrete are not known a priori, the model is based on the specified minimum yield strength and the 28-day concrete strength with the neutral axis position again established to satisfy equilibrium. Table 3 shows the test-to-predicted ratios for the two models where, for the design model, the measured steel yield strength and the measured cylinder strength have been used in the prediction
calculation.
'I
I

The coefficient of variation for both models is very low indicative of a narrow distribution about the mean. For the research model the mean value of the test-to-predicted ratio at 1.016 is very close to l. Thus the research model predicts the strength exceedingly well. The design model under-predicts the moment by about l9o/o on the average. This is due to the under-assessment

11

Table Test
Test moment

3

Test-to-predicted ratios for two models Predicted moment, klrlom Test-to-predi cted ratio

kì.Iom

Research Design

Research
l.Ml
0.991 1.068

Design
1.190

cB13

75.t
71.3

72.2
72.0

63.1

cBl5
cB22
cB31 cB33 cB35

t46.5
210.7

t39.7 2t2.4

62.9 t23.1

l.l34
l.190
1.196 1.200 1.184
1.141

2t0.7
207.6 283.8 282.2

ztt.7
211.3

t76.2 r75.6 t75.3
248.7 248.0

0.992 0.995
0.983
1.031

cB4l
CB4r'.

cBs2
cBs3 cB55

t4.7
t46.7
142.9

275.2 274.7 t42.5

tr7.l
I16.5 t16.4

t4t.4
141.4

1.027 1.015 1.038

1.138

l.0l I

t.236 t.260 t.227
1' 188

p

-Y

-

-

,-

-

o'o2s-

l'016

0:034

because the yield strength for the cold rolled HSSs, obtained by the O-2vo offset method, is considerably less than the stress levels obtained at the large strains the steel was able to undergo before failure. This high mean value would not be disadvantageous for design because a resistance factor derived using this test-to-predicted ratio together with the bias coeffrcients for the yield strength and the cross-sectional properties and with the respective coefficients of variation would give the desired reliability levels automatically.

of the steel contribution

WELDS

Partial Penetration Groove,lVelds
partial penetration groove welds do exist. Gagnon and Kennedy (Ref. 15) tested 75 such welds the made with matching electrodes in grade 300W and grade 3504 steel plates, to determine and the overall behaviour -¿ ttt" effects on the strength of percent penetration, plate strength, with the æris of the eccentricity of the load arising from the fact that the welds are not aligned plate. Nominal penetrations ranging from 20 to 100% were used. The plates were tested singly *¿ in pairs to establish any differãnces between eccentrically loaded welds and the concentric loading of a pair of specimens.
place so that The inherent ductility of the welds allowed lateral deflections and straining to take of the eccentrically loaded welds were as strong as concentrically loaded welds' The strengh

12

the welds is greater than the strength of the plate multiplied by the percent penetration and increases with increasing lateral restraint that occurs with decreasing penetration as shown in Fig.5.

I

¡

I

o"

¡¡
.l¡ l¡¡

t!

!l

¡

¡

!

20

40

60

80

100

Percent penetration

Fig.

5 Ultimate stress versus percent penetration

This increased strength was attributed to the fact that the weld, heavily strained in tension, attempts to contract laterally but is restrained from so doing by the adjoining less heavily loaded plate material. A biaxial or even triaxial stress state is set up which increases the failure stress. Extending the von Mises-Hencky yield criterion to the ultimate, for the case when the out of plane stress is zero, and for the case when the strains in the two orthogonal directions are zero, gives l.l5 and 1.75 times the ultimate tensile stess respectively,for v = 0.3. Furthermore, for eccentrically loaded welds, the moments developed in the plates tend to cause the plates to selfalign under the tensile force and the moments are reduced. (This cannot occur for the plates tested in pairs as they keep each other in the original alignment.) However, in both cases, when all the weld cross-section is yielded in tension there can be no moment on the weld. A very reliable model is, therefore, to take the tensile resistance of the partial penetration groove weld, made with matching electrodes, as:
T,

=0* pAp Fo

(14)

where p is the decimal fraction of the penetration, An and Fu are the area and tensile strength of the plate and the resistance factor is to be determined from equation (12) in a slightly modified form. Because load and resistance factors have to determined consistently, if equation (12) is used to determine resistance factors with a reliability index of, say 4.0, the corresponding equation for load factors should also be based on an index of 4.0. However, because it is convenient to use one set of load factors in design based on the general index for members ¿Ìs a whole, say 3.0, for example, an adjustment factor must be applied to equation (12). Based on

13

Fisher et al. (Ref.16), this is, for our case taking the two indices as 3.0 and 4.0 resPectively, about 0.93. Gagnon and Kennedy (Ref. 15) give the following bias coefficients: plate strength, 1.090; weld are4 0.978; plate areq 1.015; and the test-ùo predicted ratio, l.l52for the data in Fig. 5 resulting in pn obtained as the product, equal to 1.246. Combining the corresponding coãflicients of variation of 0.1013; O.147;0.013; and 0.l72to give V¡ equal to 0-248 results in:

0o, =

0.93

p¡ exp(- Þanvn)
=
0.67
.*,

(l sa)

0w =0.93x 1246 exp(-+.oxossx0.2a8)

(lsb)

which is that used in CSA Standard Sl6.l. with little deformation, even though the welds are ductile, to get overall ductile behaviour the plate must yield before the weld fractures, hence:

Because the partial penetration groove welds fracture

pApFutAo&
or Fillet Welds
Rr D>¿ ^Fo

(l6a)

(l6b)

it has been known for years that the strength of trarsversely loaded frllet welds is gr""trr-th* that of longitudinally loaded fillet welds and that welds loaded at intermediate
Although

Lgtes have intermediaæ strengths, as reported by Spraragen and Claussen F"f. ll) and bV has been Frãeman (Ref. lB) respectively, u-oog others, it is only relatively recently that this

19) formed the recognizeà in design standa¡ds. The more recent work of Butler and Kulak @ef. of the Limit basis-for the design tables for eccentrically loaded weld groups in the 7977 Edition (Ref. 20). Only in the States Design fvfanuaf of the Canadian Instin¡te of Steel Constnrction the lgg4 edition of cSA Standard sl6.l is the variation of the factored shear strength with direction of loading recognized in the equation:

Y, =0-67 0* A* Xu(1.00+0'50sinls 0)

(17)

the electrode classification where S* is the resistance factor for welds, A* is the throat area, X,, is of the force. This is based and 0 is the angle between the æris of the weld and the line of action (Ref' 22) ' Miazga and on the work of Miazgaand Kennedy (Ref. 2 I ) and of Lesik and Kennedy loading changed from the Kennedy gave two ,-."ron, for the increased shear strength as the

direction' i'e'' tongituiinãl direction, i.ê., parallel to the weld arcis, to the transverse continuously from oemendicular to the weld a,xis. First, the angle of the failure plane changes in Fig' 6, ;r ,¡. rongitudinal weld to about 140 for the transverse weld as shown mæ<imum ffi;¡ the using where are plotted their test results as well as the failure angle predicted groove welds' the lateral shear súess theory. Second, as was the case for partial Penetration

14

shear stess theory

Fractr¡re angle

15

30

45

60

75
a¡ces

900

Angle between longinrdinal and load Fig.

6

Variation of fracture angle with the angle between the longitudinal and load axes

restraint provided by the less heavily loaded adjacent plates increases the strength. For longitudinal fìllet welds in shea¡ this influence is zero but it increases to a maximum for the transverse welds when there is a considerable normal force component acting on the rveld in addition to the shear force. Equation 18, from Lesik and Kennedy (Ref.22), a simplificarion of the more complex equations inMiazga and Kennedy (Ref. 2l), is plotted in Fig. 7 aeainst -eiven the test results reported in the latter. The shear stress is computed for convenience as if it acted on the throat although this is the failure plane only for the longitudinal welds. This accounts, in considerable measure, for the increased strength of transverse welds.
The data in Fig. 7 give a mean bias coefficient for the test-to-predicted ratio of 1.010 w'ith the relatively low coeffrcient of variation of 0.089. With these, the statistical values of orher parameters as reported in Lesik and Kennedy are incorporated as follows. The mean value of the effective throat area to the nominal value, p6 is 1.034 with a coefficient of variation, \rç, of 0.026. There are two material factors to be considered; the ratio of the tensile strength ro the electrode classifrcation and the ratio of the shear strength to the tensile strength. This latter ratio is taken as 0.67 in the resistance equation. The mean value of the ultimate tensile strength of electrodes divided by the electrode classification, pÀ{r, is 1.123 u'ith V^a, equal to 0.077. The mean value of the shear suength to the ultimate tensile strength is 0.749. Thus p¡12 is 0.74910.67 = l.ll8 and the corresponding value of V¡a2 is found to be 0.12I. Multiplying the bias coefficients together gives a value of p¡ of l.3l and for the coefficient of variation the square root of the sum of the squares gives a value of 0.170. As before for partial penetration groove welds, using a p of 4.0 with an adjustment factor of 0.93 so that the resistance factor can be used with load factors determined for a 3.0, results in:

0r" = 0.93p¡ exp(-Þonvn)
0,,.. =0.93 x 1.3 I I exp

(1sa)

(-+.ox 0.55x 0.1 70) =

0.86

(1sc)

i5

1.0 + 0.50

sint'0

U6

Í*

l5

30

45

60

75
a:ces

g0o

Angle betwecnlongitt¡dinal and load

Fig.7

Variation of normalized shear strength with angle between the longinrdinal and load

æres

This exceeds the value of 0.67 given h 516.l considerably. Lesik and Kennedy give a lower value, but still greater than 0.67, when test results of others are incorporated.
Equation (17) can be used to develop the inelastic strengths of eccentrically loaded weld groups of arbitrary configurations, using the method of instantaneous centres, when it is expanded to include a tefm that accounts for the load deformation respoff¡e of the weld. Thus, writing in normalized form by dividing by the longinrdinal weld strength and without resistance factors the resistance of a unit area of weld is:

r"o Ír¿ =

[r.oo L

*

,¡nr-50

e]r(o)

(l 8)

where (p) is given by Lesik and Kennedy (Ref. 22) in polynomial form as obtained by conelating with the load-deformation response for all 42 tests of Miazga and Kennedy' A polynomiãl is used in order that the descending branch of the curves, after reaching the is further necessary to ensure that the ma<imum mocimum load, can be modelled. deformation that the weld can undergo at the particular angle between the weld æris and the load is not exceeded. In using equation (18) the test-to-predicted ratio is no longer determined for a single weld but by comparisons of the load carried by different weld configurations to that preãicted by equaiion (18). Such work,including the determination of resistance factors, was caniedout-byiesikandKennedy. Itwasfoundthatthe516.l resistancefactorof 0-67 wasat

Í

It

leas¡ 6Yo cons ervative.

liang (Ref. 23) advanced this procedure another step by developing and verifying a computer progiu* for the analysis and ãetermination of the factored resistance of eccentrically loaded i.tã groups of any arbitrary configuration of line segments when loaded in plane by a load acting-at any orientation. Input data are: the line of action of the in-plane force, the weld

16

configuration, the weld size, and the electrode strength. The solution is iterative and begins with an ¿$sumption of the location of the instantaneous centre of rotation. The program then carries out the iterations necessary to arrive at the correct location of the instantaneous centre and the ultimate load that the weld group can carry. One analytical experiment showed that an arbitrary one-third reduction in the deformation that the weld could undergo did not decrease the strength of the welded connection.

SUMI}ÍARY AND CONCLUSIONS In addition to the fundamental advantage of Limit States Design over Working Stress Design in providing much greater consistency in the reliability of structures and in providing economy at the same time, it has been shown, by particular application to hollow strucû¡ral sections, partial penetration groove welds and fillet welds, that LSD allows the rational development of resistance formulations that take into account the inelastic action that occurs ineviøbly in attaining the ultimate load that stn¡ctr¡ral components can carry. The obvious extension is the second-order inelastic analysis of structures under factored load combinations accounting for
both material and geometric nonJinearities.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The support of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Resea¡ch Council throughout the course the projects cited here in which the author played a role is gratefully acknowledged.

of

REFERENCES

l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6:
7

.

8.

NBCC 1995. National Buildine Code of Canada. Associate Committee on the National Building Code, National Research Council of Canada: Ottawa ON Allen, D.E. 1975. Limit States Design - A Probabilistic Snrdy. Canadian Journal of Civil Ensineerine 2 (1) 36-49 Allen, D.E. 1969. Safety Factors for Stress Reversal. International Association for Bridee and Structural Eneineering Publication 29-II 19-27 MKM Engineering Consultants 1993. Ultimate Limit States Load Combinations. Load Factors and Resistance Factors for the Desien of the Northumberland Strait Fixed Crossine Report to SCI Ltd. Allen, D.E. 1992. Canadian Highway Bridge Evaluation: Reliability Index. Canadian Journal of Civil Eneineering l9 (6) 987-991 Kennedy, D.J.L. l99l . Tareet Values of the Reliability Index Report to ISO Technical Committee 167 SCl, Document N 259E Kennedy, D.J.L., and Gad Aly, M. 1980. Limit states design of steel structures performance factors. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineerins 7 (l) 45-77 CSA 1994. CSA Standard S 16. I Limit States Desien of Steel Structures. Canadian
Standards Association, Rexdale ON

17

9. 10.

csA lgg2. CSA

oualitv steel canadian standards Association, Rexdale oN ASTM 1993

Standard G40.20 General Requirements

for Rolled or welded Structr:ral

American SocietY for Testing and

ll.
t2.
13.

ffiering

t4.
15.

16.

t7.
18. 19.

20. 21.
22. 23.

Materials, PhiladelPhia PA resistance factor desigrr Galambos, T.V., and Ravindrq M.K. 1973. Tentative load and and criteria foi steel buildines. Research Report No. l8 S nuctural Division, Civil Louis, Mo Deparrnent, washington university, st. Birkemoe, P.C.1976. publication No. 76-09 Departrrent of Civil Engineering University of Toronto sherman, D.R. 1974. Tentative çriteria for strucnral applicati gipe. American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington DC hollow and Kennedy, D.J.L. 1994. The flen¡ral behaviour of concrete-filled (l) I I l-130 stn¡ctural sections. Canadian Journal of Civil Eneineerine 2l tensile strength of Gagnon, D.p., and I<.oo.¿y, O.J.L. 1989. Behaviour and ultimate (3) 384p"rriul joint penetration gróóve welds. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineerine 16 399 Load and resistance Fisher, J.W., Galambos, T.V., Kulalq G.L. and Ravindr4 M. 1978. (sT9) 1427' factor design for conneótions- ASCE Journal of the Structr¡ral Division 104 t441 plug welds - a review of Spraragen, w., and claussen, G.E. 1942. Static tests of fîllet and the liteiature from l93Zto January 1, 1940. Welding Journal 2l (4) l6ls -197s (6) 16'24 Freeman, F.R. 1932. Strength of arc-welded joints. Weldine Jourqal I I Strength of fillet weld as a funcúon of direction of Butler, L.J., and Kula¡, C.L. loading. Weldins Journal 50 (5) 23ls'234s . Canadian Institute of Steel Consiruction,

tJ.e.,

ßlt

CISC,-tg

Willowdale ON Miazg4G.S., and Kennedy, D.J.L. 1989. Behaviour of fillet welds as a function of the ande of loading. Canadian Journal of Civil Eneineerine l6 (4) 583 - 599 Lesik, D.F., anã fenneJy, D.J.L. 1990. Ultimate strength of frlled welded connections Ioaded in plane. canadian Journal of civil Eneineerine 17 (l) 55'67 M. Eng. Thesis, Jiang, Y. 1995. University. Ottawa ON Environmental Engineering, Carleton Oepã4ment of Ciuit "nd

18

DESIGN RTJLES KEY TO COMPETITTVE TIJBI,JLAR STRUCTURES

R. M. Bent*
ABSTRACT
Despite a host of superior properties, many structural designers and.fabricators shunned the general use of Hollow Structural Sections (HSS) in the arly 1970's. Although the fundamental engineering guidelines were relatively straight forwa¡d, and have remained so for over 25 years, HSS designs were often uneconomical when compared to conventional structures. Moreover, frnished products were not always pteasing to the eye ... some were aestheticly zgly since the connections were particularly bad.

This early disillusionment left HSS with a stigma. Accordingly, architects became the prime users of HSS, teki¡g advantage of the fine aesthetic qualities. Major fabrications, m¿rny wary of past experiences, continued to use traditional shapes unless othenryise instructed by the client. A further impediment in Canada - still not quite fully remedied - was the lack of a single, allinciusive, universally accessible HSS Design Standard. Much useful information was scattered throughout various Standa¡ds or squirrelled away in obscure technical libra¡ies.
and comprehensive set of HSS design guidelines in Canada until 1982. However, having a limited distribution precluded these f,rne manuels from having a major impact. As Engineers and Fabricators gained experience with HSS, competitive tubula¡ stn¡ctures soon became a reality in the construction markeþlace. Designers had to reverse their traditional mindset of mínímum weight. . . HSS demanded a much tougher target.

Stelco

Inc., an active member

of

CIDECT, published perhaps the most useful

INTRODUCTION
General Notwithsta¡ding the early problems, appropriately designcd HSS structures can, and have, proven to be competitive in the markeçlace. Not surprisingly, the role of the structural engineer has proven to be the deciding factor; his choice of member sizes and joint orientation predetermines both the quality and economy of the final weldment. Designers also must appreciate that (1), not all structures lend themselves to HSS, and (2), simple substitution of equivalent HSS in lieu of existing shapes seldom succeeds.

Of the numerous factors that the structural designer needs to be cognizant, the following are especially signifi cant:

* Senior welding Engineer, welding Institute of canada, oakville, ontario

19

(1)

Q)
(3) (4) (5)

Inherent advantages of using HSS Design guidelines for both members and joints Design pitfalls Competitive truss designs Design references

J
INHERENT ADVATYTAGES OF USING HSS
Structural designers must take advantage of the inherent properties of HSS.

(l)

Strength Sections made to CSA G40.zl have a yield strength of 50 Ksi (350 Mpa). Thus, for satically designed structures, members can be designed for an allowable working súess of 30 Ksi; for aSTM 436, the equivalent allowable is 22 Ksi.
Torsional Resistance Being closed sections, HSS offer excellent resistance to torsional forces. Similarly, sections have favouable H/r slenderness ratios, making excellent compression members, especially bracing members. Also, a significantly longer unsupported length can be used for beams. These same properties give added stiffrress to fabricated units, facilitating field erection. For example, it is not unusual to see 50 ft. pedestrian wallovay trusses being brought to the construction site in one piece.
Reduced Slendemess Ratio Research has shown that the calculated values for kl/r may be further reduced in truss chord and web compression members. When combined with items (l) A (2), the load+o-weight ratio can be exceptional.

Q)

(3)

(4)

Corrosion Resistance Being hollow, corrosion takes place only on the outside surface. Likewise, only the exterior surface need be painted. The rounded edges promote a clea¡r
surface.

(5) (6)

Fewer Gussets For many welded connections, gusset plates are not required. Aesthetic Oualities Given the smooth lines of HSS, and the elimination of most gusset plates, aesthetically pleasing designs can be produced for a growing number of industrial, commercial, ild domestic uses. Combined with high strength, HSS is particularly favoured by architects.

DESIGN GI,'IDELIIYES
Philosophy of HSS Connec{ions The concept for obtaining an optimum economic design for HSS fabrications is zof based on minimum weight, the benchmark used so effectively for fabrications from conventional sections (Tees, Wide Flanges, Plate, etc.). With HSS the objectives are (l), to simplify the joint configuration, and (2), to maximize the joint strength . . . minimum weight is not the prime goal.

20

unreinforced HSS members is often a function of geometric parameters of the sections being joined (the relative dimensions and wall thicknesses). The profile of the
intersection between a branch member and a main member passes along a path of varying local stiffness in the main member. Simply

The strength of a welded connection benveen

stated, one must ñot forget that these members are hollow, and thus the percentage of the branch load that is ransferred through the chord member depends on the degree of Figure 1: Reduced neffectiven length for comprrssion local joint deformation. Stiffness variations chord and web members. produce wide ranges in weld loading. It follows that, when "portions" of the weld transfer little or no load, the strength of the connection is generally less than that of the member, regardless of weld size.
Connection capacity expressed as "connection resistance" effectively defines the capacity of HSS members that have unreinforced connections. Therefore, designers are advised to consider the available connection resistance when member sizes are being determined.

KIH = 0.751¡f
Klp

=

0.91p

Members selected solely

on the basis of

minimum mass may require expensive reinforced connections in order the loads.
The load carrying capacity of an HSS joint is directly dependent upon the geometry and configuration of the members framing into the connection. Thus, the designer's choice for | a truss diagonals (branch member) must be K JOINTS able to effectively transfer axial loads through the chosen chord member. The performance Fignrre 23 Typical load failure, web to chord of the resulting joint is intimately linked to face. both members. Unlike many other structures, the fabricator may have little no for substitution when dealing with HSS. Simply using an alternate HSS member opportunity with similar load carrying capacity does not ensure the integrity of the joint strength.t

l^

or

The load carrying capacities for various combinations of chord and wall geometries, as tabulated in the Stelco Inc. Design Manual of 1982, should not be used today, except for estimating initial sections. Safety may be at risk.

21

Simply stated, the web force can cause a localized failure in chord walls, particularly in the upper face, somewhat akin to the "high heel phenomena". The flexibility of the tubular walls give rise to such failure mechanisms ÍN excessive deformation, punching shear, plasticity, and buckling (Figure 1). Not unexpectantly, the degree of load transfer across the joint is critically impaired. In other words, the strength of the joint will be less than the súength of the web
member. An equally important observation, the welding may not be a factor in overall performance. Many HSS design principles of the late 1960's for attaining optimum connections still apply, particularly the simple rules relating to member geometry and configuration. Resea¡ch a¡ound the world, much of it under the auqpices of the International Institute of lVelding (Iltil), has better deñned the va¡iability of stress transfer benveen web and chord members. In particular, Professor J.Packer at the University of gauge tests on fulI scale models for à variety of different

joint configuration, i.e., "Nn and "Kn.
One tangible result has been significantly increased joint resisances, thereby allowing greater load transfers from branch members. Although the formulae and graphical design charts a¡e more complex, current design calculiations also have greater reliability over the qpectrum of infinite joint conñgurations.

FTJNDAI\{EIYTAL DF^SIGN RTJLES Members The design of individual HSS members differs little from conventional practice. One still uses the appropriate CSA 516.l criteria for tension, compression, bending, and allowable stress. However, the effective design length for HSS truss members in compression can be reduced, thereby increasing the allowable compressive load. For continuous chords, use 0.9 kllr; for webs, use a 0.75 factor (Figure 2). .Ioints The following guidelines a¡e consistent with CSA 516.1 criteria. Choosing web and chord members having compatible geometries will result in joints having:

(l)
(2) (3)

High joint efficiency (they will carry larger loads) Simple preparations and fit-up (no gussets or stiffener plates)
Accessible

fillet

welds

The net result should be a high-quality, economical design that is competitive with traditional fabrications. The designer, however, will ultimately determine the outcome. If the work reaches the shop floor with overly complicated joints, its too late for the welders and fitters to rectify the situation.

However, the old "load tables" shown here in Appendix A do illustrate the dramatic effect of geometry on HSS joint resistance.

22

Some Basic Rules

(l)

backing ba¡ inside the tube, a particularly diff,rcult task at large
radius corners. Choose a web that is narrower than the chord by at least 5 times the chord wall thickness. This small adjustment will provide enough space to use a

Connection capacity increases as the width of the joining HSS members (web and chord) approach the same values. Unfortunately, costs increase when welds are placed on the corner radius of the chords and the final quality may well depend on the skill of the individual welder (Figure 3). A poor fit-up may necessitate a

Wllh rmrll r¡cllur

com.rt. rulttDla

d.t¡ll tor

longtludlnrl

groova wald

simple

fillet weld around the full

Figure 3: tfarinun ef f icieacy is expensive aud difficult weld.

circumference.

Q)

Chord members with thick walls offer greirter joint efficiency. Efficiency is further increased when a thin walled web member is used. Thus, the designer should maximize the ratio of:

Chord wall thickness

/ lVeb

wall thickness

Also, thin web walls require smaller fillet welds for a full strength joint, another tangible
saving. (3)

Gap connections are preferable to overlap connections because the members are easier to prepare, fit, and weld. A gap joint facilitates the use of a simple fìllet weld a¡ound the
HSS periphery, provided that there is sufficient clearance between adjacent members. The recommended clea¡ distance between "toes" is four times the average web wall thickness, but not Iess than 16mm.

g = 16 minimum

r00x100x8

(4)

in eccentricity and secondary bending.

Gap joints usually result

Figure 4i Gap joints are usually the most economical.

However, these effects can

be

23

dismissed in joint design if the intersection of the centre lines of the web members lies within the following range measured from the centre line of the chord: 25Vo of the chord depth towa¡ds the outside of the truss, and 55To of chord depth towards the inside of the truss (Figure 4).

-0.55
(5)

< e/h" <0.25

If a given lap joint does not provide . adequaæ efficiency, then either (l)
change member parameters to achieve a stronger gap joint, or Q) change the connection to a lap joint with at least 25Vo overlap (Figure 5).

With

a lap joint the forces are

100x100x8

transferred directly between the web members, thereby eliminating local chord wall failures. Consequently, Figfure 5: Use ]$$rmirnitnrmoverlap joints if agap lap joints have both a higher static and joint will not wor*. fatigue life than gap joints. However, lap joints require two preparation cuts and a tighter fit-up, both cost-adding features. To simplify fit-up, place the narrower tension member onto the wider compression member. AIso, the bottom inside a¡ea need not be welded (Figure 6).

Given the almost infinite number of

member size, thickness, and orientation, alternative gap joint designs with equal or higher
combinations

periphery,

of wall

efficiencies are readily attained at the design stage.

(6)

In web members that are inclined to
the horizontal by 60 degrees or more, the welds can be classified as fillets (Figure 7).

should be readily apparent that Figrre 63T0€ of overlapped member is not designing in HSS is very much atríal- welded. and-error process. However, the methodology is straight forward and designers will readily discover the great versatility of tubular sections. The same unit weight can be attained by a multitude of available

It

sections.

24

POTEI'ITIAL PITFALLS
there are The number of potential pitfails can be infinite; however,
discussion.
a

few that merit

sPecial

(l)

HSS Redesign First, do not redesign ¿rn existing structure bY merely substituting HSS members of equal load carrying capacity. The results are not likely to win many accolades, as the fabrication costs may set new records. For examPle, when a "Fink" tnrss (Figure 8) was redesigned in HSS some Years ago @Y the author), the number of different sizes, lengths,

0r", = 120o

peripherals, web orientations, laP joints, etc. was indeed a Poor advertisement for mY comPanY's product. The lesson learned, of
course, was that HSS structures must be designed from "scratch" to take the inherent adva¡tage qualities.

Eigrure 7:
ir

The angle of HSS mernber

is

full

of

nportant design feature.

(2)

Ice Damaee While studies have shown that there is minimal chance

for corrosion on the interior surface of tubula¡ structures, it is usually prudent to seal or cap all open connections. If water gets inside a tube (during the erection perid or if exPosed to elements while in service), the tigure E: A "f"rk" roof truss - not well suited for damage wrought bY the freezing of flss. even a small amount of water can be quite depressing (Figure 9). "drain" Whereuer the potential for such a disasl er exists, provide a
the geometry Minimum Weigùt Competitive HSS constn¡ction is driven by optimizing this of the .onnõñ* and úy simplifying the fabrication process. Having satisf,red total pounds off the criteria, there is little to Ue gaiìø by attempting to shave a few example, weight. Use as few sections as possibie - this will standardize production. For whenever possible; to procure a for a group of web members, use the same section solely for virtual kaleidoscope of members having a different width, depth, or thickness The extra handling the purpose of reducing wight would negate purpose of using HSS' and tracking problems would definitely increase costs.

(3)

25

(4)

Gussets & Stiffeners With a little manipulation of HSS sizes, the designer should be able to eliminate gusset plates and stiffeners (Figure 10). These items add extra material and cost. However, such chord member reinforcement provides excellent results when fabricated and welded according to the empirical methods developed by Korol et al (1982).

(5)

lVeld Efficiency The angle of the web to the chord directly affects the efficiency of the weld. For angles where 120" > 0 > 60o, use simple f,rllet welds all around the outside. For angles where 6ü > 0 < 3V, the weld on the heel must be considered a PJFG weld. For angles less than 30 degrees, the heel weld is not considered to be effective in
resisting the applied member force.

COMPETITTVE IR,USS DESIGN The "Wa¡ren" tn¡ss (Figure 1l) is particularly well suited to take full advantage of HSS. Such designs, ¿rs outlined below, have consistently proved competitive in the market place; where tenders for both an HSS and an equivalent, traditional design (Tees & angles) have been called, the HSS has been the clear winner.

in high quality, economically competitive HSS truss designs. The
The following criteria result
same criteria

IISS lVarren Truss

will

also result

in

higher joint

resistances and load carrying capacities.

o o o o o o o o o o

web members having the same single cut end preparation (say 60) continuous, parallel chords
gap

joints

fillet welds design based on F, 50 Ksi reduced "kl/rn ratio for compression members (0.9 for chords, 0.75 for webs) high ratio of web-to-chord width (no weld on corner radius) thick chord walls high ratio of chord wall thickness-to-web wall thickness member sizes kept to a minimum

:

Figure 9: FrozED sater cracks aud ðeforus EBg colr¡¡¡.

26

HSS DESIGN REFEREI{CES

t*.*ttt i" scattered among different
It o¿.tát, countries,

h6d",l"f"rma-tion

for the design of HSS is still difficult to find: references

ä"t"J

authoritative source of useful data' information vacuum represents a serious explain hurdle to designers, and may partially There is no their reluctance to use HSS' in the current frovision for fatigue design
This
Canadian Standards.

publications'

codes' organizadons' and There is no single'

\. ./

^

Figure

chorô vorlrs wel1.

1o:

Reinforced

Bga

truss

(1) CIDECT

^ CIDECT(fhelnternationalCommitteefortheStudyan.dDweJor of the early design for much was Structures), a major sponsor for research, "tpontiuttmost Canadian engineers' ut"t"ibl" to material. Howevef, its work is not readily
---.:a^^
+ha cnrrr., en¡l f)eveloDment

.

r^-

of

Tubular

(2)

ñtit

Stelco Inc.

the CIDECT research and disseminated several company the knowledge Design Manuals. At the time, these

-tggZ, Stetco assimilated

in

were a Primary source of HSS design information in Canada' UnfortunitelY, being a commercial oublication, these excellent manuals ïere not widely distributed and many designers were unaware of their

tanutl,

figure

11: A nWarrenn

trr¡ss is well suited

existence. (3)

HSS construction.

IIlV

ftt.

on HSS is now at the UW (International Institute of Welding) Subcommifteeof Codes based on its number forefront on HSS reseatch, with an increasing Ue obtained from the Welding ãray recommendations. CoPies of IIW Oo.ut"n,t Institute of Canada.

(4)

ffio"ralsteelweldingcodeissimila¡toCSAw59,theCanadianweldingdesign groups is devoted solely to HSS' Two code. Section 10 of nWSbt .çg4 and earlier
of
shaPes are covered:

o .

rectangles (conform to IIW) circula¡ shapes (apply only to offshore)
squares

&

27

(s)

CISC Handbook of Steel Construction. FÏfth Edition Section 3.0 þage 3-83) covers HSS connections, having numerous diagrams and an excellent summary of design parameters (based on IIW"). Tpical welding details are also provided. The required length of weld for different wall thickness and periphery at given angles is provided in tabular form. However, the Handbook is not a Code, and rnany designers are unaware of the information on tubular steels. CSA Standard tV59 As with CSA Standard S16.1M for stn¡ctural design, the tJ/59 welding code has no section qpecifica[y devoted to tubular steel. However, the next edition, CSA W59-1966 (this year) will for the fi¡st time have a separate section on statically loaded HSS. CISC Pr¡blication
Section Comccrtons provides engineers with a practical and comprehensive 'state-of-the-art" text. The design examples conform to CAN/CSA 516.1-M89. This book covers the common and the noþsæommon. It is consistent with IIW, but writæn to suit the Canadian context.

(6)

(7)

Jeff Packer and Ted Henderson's Design Guídc for Hollow $nrcnral

CI,OSING REMARKS
HSS offers the designer an alternative that, when appropriaæly designed and applied, produces welded structures with high strength, quality, aesthetics, economy, and proven in-service performance for many applications. Although major producers such as Stelco Inc. have successfi¡lly used this product in a wide variety of applications for many years (roof tnrsses and bracing; pedestrian walkrvays and handrail; bridges and towers; conveyor supports in corrosive environment; lighting standards), HSS has not yet received the same acceptance throughout
Canada.

Some early designs proved to be costly, and the anticipated aesthetics did not match expectations. One can list numerous factors for these shortcomings, but I believe that the following were the most significant:

(l) (2) (3)

Although guidelines were available, they were not published in a single CSA approved document. Therefore, they have not been readily accessible to all designers.
HSS structures that are not built to appropriate guidelines can quickly alter a good design concept into a fabricator's nightmare.

The fabricating industry had liule practic¿l experience with HSS, often learning by trial and error.

28

in more favourable light. Hopefully this paper h¿s been able ro porrray the design of HSS a op"914l' in Canada' the ettî,oogt the design tools may still be Jomewhat widely dispersered: HSS aesthetics, high ,o4or rif"r"n"r, liave been cláarly identifred and can be readily obt¿ined. have Proven to be competive over a wide strength-to-weight ratio, and vast range of geometries growing emphasis on co-ordinaæd global research, range of service applications. Along with the the fuure bodes well for tubular stn¡cn¡res'
To emPhasil thit point one last The designer is the key player in successful HSS constn¡ction. Thus, the need for proper ,i-.-the-designer's iniùar-decisions can make or break a project. raining and education is underscored'

As a f,rnal reminder to designers when using HSS:
,,Sel¿ct

nemben and evøhutc joínt effæicncy sinalt¿neously."
REFERENCES

1.

sections, Design cran J. A.; Gibson E.B.; Stadnyckyl s. 198l,Znded. Hollow Stn¡ctural Manual for Connecdons; Sælco Inc' packer, J.A.; Wardenier, J; Kurobane, Y; Duna, D.; Yeomans, N. 1992. Desien Guide For

J.

CIDECT, Germany. ISBN 3-8249-0089-0 Fraær,G.S.; Packer, J-4. 1990. Desisn of Fillet W -ðn;tcf

;ä;;

REpoRr

ffio¡727;s70-2.

universitv or

4. 5.

Toronto. packer, J.A.; Henderson, J.E. Igg2. Desien Guidg-for HouoY SjrycJural Section onta¡io. ðã*.",ionr..cISc. ISBN 0-ggg11476-6. universal offset Limited, Martham' HgUo* Section TKoral, R.M.; Mirri, H.; Mtrzu F.A. 1982. Plaæ Reinforced square pp' 143ioino of Une4ual Width, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol.9, No.2, rwelding subcommission XV-E, Design Recommendadons for Inærnational Insúrute of Doc' xv-701Hollow stn¡ctral Joints - nedominantly statically Læaded,2nd ed., Irw
89.
148.

6.

7.
8.

Cmn, J.A.; 1982 W

usineRe"tanzult-õhoi-ilM"mbels=rf!it4^P:tl:2^2: jæt3o]n¡'
(Final Draft) Part D' PP.22'29òlSC Handbook of Sreel Constn¡cúon, Fifth Edition, 1993. Aws D1.1-1994 Stn¡ctural welding code - sæel, section 10 CSA Standard S16.l-92 Limit Staæs Design of Sæel Structures

9.

i0.
11.

29

APPE¡TDX A

Gap Joints - Maximum Allowable Venical Component of Force IV, in a Web Member (krps) Rectangular Chords and round or box webs.
These joint efficiency Tables were based on early resea¡ch by W. Eastwood and A.A. Wood in 1970, University of Sheffield, England.

30

Table 4.3-1 gives theralues of cæes toã¿ (wu) foi tne maioritY in desisn. BY enterine.the ;är;;; ä* *'ra;e chorã width and wall web ìü"*"ttì rJt.nd T)' and the averaç member wrdm

of working

.. ¡6,+d3), '--

of force the allowable vertical component lf the ì*iltl ," theweb svstem is obtained' tn of f orce ìt l"",u.r vertical component ;ö;;.;;mber is sreater than since -tn1 " ;"j;;,; *"io s"P is not acceptable'
would occur in the "r"ä*"'o.tolrmation ultimate load' An face at

"ittJi..o"r (section 4'3'2) st¡ould then ä"ãtoo ìãt",
be considered'

Fy = 5o ks¡
TaHe 4.3.1

of force (Wv) in allowable venical component Gao Joints - maximum äãi;;ì;t chords and round web members

a

web member (kips)

I""r.n.

Diameter of web

ttt6sr

(in')

3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.50 3.50 3.50 3.50 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00
5.00 5.00
6.O0

0.1500 0.1875 0.2500 0.3125 0.1500 0.1875 0.2500 28.29 35.36
47.14

o.3125
0.1875 0.2500 0.3125 0.3750 0.4375 0.1880 0.2500 0.3120 0.3750 0.4375 0.4500 0.1880 0.2500 0.3120 0.3750 0.4375 0.4500 0.5000
11.28 15.00 18.72 11.28 15.00 18.72 11.28

58.93 28.13 37.50 46.88 56.25 65.63
18.05

36.56 48.75 60.94 73.13 87.75 24.82 33.00 41.18 31.58 37.60
50.00

i 24.00 i zg.gs I so.oo
I ¿z.oo as.zo I I

42.æ
52.42 63.00 73.50 75.60 22.56 30.00

49.50
57.75 59.40
16.92

62.50 75.00 87.50 g0,oo
28.20 37.50 33.84

I

6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00

15.00
18.72

i

11.28 15.00

I re.zz

22.50 26.25
27.OO

22.50
26.25
27.OO

22.50 I zz.so 26.25 I za-zs
27.OO

22.50 28.08 33.75 39.38

37.4
45.00 52.50 54.00 60.00

46.80
56.25

45.00 56.16 67.50
78.75

30.00

30.00

I zz.æ 30.00 ì so.oo

40.50
45.00

65.63 67.50 75.00

81.00 90.00

RESISTANCE TABLFÆ FOR WELDED HOLLOTV STRUCTURAL SECTION TRUSS CONNECTIONS

J.A. Packer', G.S. Frater* and S. Kitipornchait
ABSTRACT

In recent years recommendations for the design of planar, welded, Hollow Stn¡ctural Section (HSS), truss-q¡pe connections have appeared in a number of 'structural steelwork specifications or design guides around the world. These recommendations have been in the form of extensive sets of formulae for each connection shape, with limits of validiry attached, and occasionally with graphs showing the influences of some principal paramaen. To engineers unfamiliar with the jargon, failure modes and nomenclature, designing with HSS often has the appearance of being formidable and the potential for error. This paper aims to ameliorate those concerns by tabulating the limit states (LRFD) resistances of several connection shapes in many popular member sizes. Designers will be able to gain confidence by checking their calculations, perform approximate interpolations for other member
combinations, and accelerate the selection of members.

KEYWORDS

Hollow Structural Sections, structural steel, tubes, connections, joints, trusses, design resistance tables, LRFD, limit states design
INTRODUCTION

aids,

One of the most popular applications for Hollow Structural Sections (HSS) is in truss construction. Unlike structural design with open sections where it is easy to provide stiffeners at critical points to strengthen connections, the closed section of an HSS is best left unstiffened - whenever possible - at a connection. This produces a very clean and aesthetically-pleasing appearance as well as a low-cost connection too. However, this entails proper selection of the HSS members and performing the connection design at the member selection stage. Thus, for HSS construction connection design should be performed by the rather rhan the fabricator. This is not a difficult task, as very detailed structural "ngin""r now available from the Canadían Institute of Steel Construction (CISC) design guidance is tnef. f i and elsewhere (Ref. 2). This CISC Guide has been used to generate the connection resistance tables presented herein, which are directly applicable to either the Canadian limit
stares steel design specification (Ref. 3) or the American LRFD steel specification (Ref. a)-

-D"p*.""*f Ct"tl Engineering, University ot Toronto. 35 St. George Sr, Toronto, Onta¡io M5S lA4, Canada +Hatch Associares Ltd., 2800 Speakman Drive, Sheridan Science and Technology Park, Mississauga. On¡ario
L5K 2R7, Canada #Depanment of Civil Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia

32

HSS TRUSS CONNECTIONS

in mind Some general tips that designers should- bear HSS to HSS welded connection ¿re as follows:

in order to maximize the

strength

of an

than thin walls .chords (or ,'through members") should generally have thick walls rather walls .web members (or ,,branch members") should háve thin walls rather than thick However' this is .web members should be as wide as possible relative to the chord member' not be the same width as rsctangular HSS offset b1, the fact that HSS web members should as this presents an awkward fla¡e-bevel weld chord members, (except in Vierendeel trusses), joint at the corner of the chord section' A situation (possibly wiih backing bars) for tne than the chord to permit the web member preferred afrangement is just su-fficiently n*o,i", "flat" of the rectangular HS-S- chord. member' The and some of the frllet wðl¿ to sit on the generally cold-formed rectangular HSS member is outside corner radius of a North American the csA siandard (Ref. 5) allows over 3r taken as rç,o úmes the wall thickness (r), alrhough for some thicknesses. welded truss connections are given in The factored resistances of some popular, standard, covered: 90o T connections' K gap connections Tables I to 12. Th¡ee connection shapes a¡e subject to predominantly axial loads' and K l0o7c overtuf "onn..tions, wiìh the members tabulated for popular HSS These three conneclion configurations have resistances round-to-round members' The tables are combinations. for square-to-square members and of versions to facilitate design with either system arso produced both in m.rric änd imperiar yield strength of guaranteed minimum units. The steel grade assumed in these tables has a

350MPaor50ksi,andcanbeeithercold-formedorcold-formed'stress-relieved'The represent the ones no, an exhaustive list of atl available' but merely section sizes shown in Refs' I and 6' ^r. used. Further sizes available in canada are given
more coÍrmonly

If 4). No additional resistan-ce (ô) factors n.à¿ b. added.by Allowablethe connection facto¡ed dividing obtained used, a connection allowable load can be for a specific web member angle (45") and a resistance by 1.5. The K connections are whereas in practice a huge number of particulü gap size tgi o, amount of overlap (O"), will enable the designer:
possible parameter .àäUinut¡ons is possiblero get a veñ' quick estimate of slightiy differeni connection' and

in conjunction with either the As noted previously, Tables I t9 12 are for use directly (Ref' (Ref. 3) or the American Lnrp specification canadia¡ limir states desi-sn specification Design (ASD) is Stress

ïn t. tables, however'

(i)

a connection factored resistance' even for

a

(ii)toconltrmthatmanual'orcomputer-codedcalculationsforconnection
can use these- tables to select HSS members For truss-type connections a structurur O.Jign.r astutell,andtherebvavoidanysubsequentneedfor.connectionreinforcement. Blank sPaces in these tables indicate that either: (i) a particular combination of members is outside the range design formulae available' or
correctly' resistance formulae are being performed

of validity of the

(ii,¡theconnectionisimpracrical(forexamplewebwidthgreaterthanchord

33

width), or the connection is not recommended (for example web member widths equal to the chord member width, for square HSS connections). Where such bfank spaces arise the combination of members may still be possible, and recourse to the CISC Guide (Ref. l) is recommended for more detailed and definitive guidance. In some tables, for example those for K gap connections, one should realize thæ the specification of a particular parameter size (such as I = 30 mm) has severely restricæd the number of possible connection combinations.

(iii)

The subscript 0 refers to the chord (or "through") member, the subscript I refers to the web member in a T connection or the compression web member in a K connection, and the subscript 2 refers to the tension web member in a K connection. In overlapped connections the subscript i is used to denote the overlepglng web member (usually the smaller or thinner web member) and the subscript j is used to denote the web member which is overlgppgg[.

In Tables

I to 12 most symbols are defined in the accompanying connection illustrations.

The factored connection resistances tabulated usually need to be reduced by a conection factor,fln) or fln'), if the chord member is loaded in compression. where:

HSS: f(n') For Square HSS: f(n)
For Round

= =

l+0.3n'-0.3n'2,and
1.3 + [O. bo

lb,ln

, but not greater than 1.0.

For axial comprcssion load in the chord, n and n' will be negative numbers. n is the axial force in the chord (the larger for either side of the connection) divided by the chord member squash load (area times yield strength). n' is the additional axial force in a truss chord at a panel point, other than that required to maintain equilibrium with web member forces (or the "prestress force"), divided by the chord member squash load.
REFERENCES

l. 2.
3.

Packer, J.A.; and Henderson, J.E. 1992. Desisn euide for hollow structural section connections. lst. ed., Canadian Institute of Steel Construction, Willowdale, Ontario,
Canada.

Packer, J.A.; and Kitipornchai,
Canada.

S. 1996. Guide to the hollow structural section guides and codes. Proc. International Conference on Tubular Structures. Vancouver, 8.C.,

4. 5. 6.

Canadian Standards Association. 1994. Limit states design of steel structures. CAN/CSA-S 16. l-94, CSA, Rexdale, Ontario, Canada. American Institute of Steel Construction. 1993. Load and resistance factor desisn specification for structural steel buildines. AISC, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. Canadian Standards Association. 1992. General requirements for rolled or welded structural qualitv steel. CAN/CSA-G40.20-M92, CSA, Rexdale, Ontario, Canada. Canadian Standards Association. 1992. Metric dimensions of structural steel shaoes and hollow structural sections. CAN/CSA-G312.3-M92, CSA, Rexdale, Ontario,
Canada.

34

T.CanadianStanda¡dsAssociation.|gg2.Structuraloualitvsteels.cAN/cSA-G4o.2IM92, CSA, Rexdale, Ontario' Canada'

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS the "pre-engineered" connections presented herein Financial support for the development of s"rlocnJwan' Canada, the Natural Sciences and has been provided by lpsco Inc., of_Regin", ^Council of Canada (NSERC)' and the Australian Institute of Steel Engineering Resea¡ch
Construction-

'i

,i
I

35

Table

1: T Connections Between Clrcular HSS Memäg,rc
Gnde:
35Ow (Accor(ting to

steet
Chord
do (mm) 60 60 60 60

cAll/csA G¿'O'n/402''Mg2)

Factor€d Connsslion Ræislancos 60 89 t1¡t

(Nr') in kN forWeb wnlth (dt in mm) ol:
2'r3
3,21
¿t06

ro(mn)
3.2 3.8
rl-B

t68

219

508

610

f¡.
t31

r&t

,r{ t4l
212

8.4 3.8 4.8
6..1


78
117

4i

æ æ
89
89 114 114

t9t
291 89
1¡l8

331
¡149

t
r

8.0
¡1,8

r50
250 375
96

z3
3'n
558 132
241


I

.6.4
8.0 4.9 6.¡l 8.0 9.5 4.8
6..1

'll¡l
r68 r68
168

22.
66
110

r60

21
gl1
4!i9 flg

402
603
8:X¡ 167

t64

2&
3I3
77 128 192
266

r68
219
219

27
58
97 145

zil
121

f66

278
417 578

219

8.0 9.5

dts
881

2r9 2r9
273t

201

u

tt
6-¡l

2U
9t
136

350
112 168

¡153

760

1f60
311
¿166

138

2r3
319

43
664

2î3
27.3 27¡3

8.0 9.5

206 286
376 179

1Ãt 219
317

æ3

43
58¡t

6¡16

9ã)
1210

fi
r3
8.0 9.5
11

97
391 156 217

850 1080

273

742
268 371
¡188

t34{'
521 6t8l 952

91
æ1

r84

375

É5
336 128


68tt

72
950 1210
5¡lO

91 p1
4{¡6
¿l0o
¿t06

285

1zfi
tÊ00
69¡l 913

r3
9.5

3dt
æ1
268

62
307

8'n
¡106

m
302 385

996

tt
t3

4Gt 514

5Ít5
681
¡139

711

r3to
1670

g2 i

906 557

r160 69Íl
881

5{)8

It
13

2U
361

35t

957

r370

5()8

47
¿113

s59
4f¡¡l

709

1irlo
969

I

r75o r350

6r0

r3

ñ2
Þy teduclion

726

r8t0

CORRECÎON FACTORS:

1. ll lh€io

¡s corflptæsivo

þ¡d

in

ctÛd' munity

lacþ' lln'l
0'266Ár

2.1'thewoÞm€mb€'É¡ncoíp'æsþn'th€ñarifîump€fmilledcon߀clþn'as¡sbnce..vr..islimttedlo: ¿¡5 50 40 35 Fú d,l,tof, 30

¡v,'-"i.i. trr.¡1,
ïñete Ár

o.sas¡, o'3ogAr o'æ8ilr 0'273ù
rxn2'

¡s lh€ web mgmbgr cross'ssclional arsa in

36

! I i ì
I

connecüon":,?Y::#::tï'Y;'J:åtr"
Fadore'd Chord
xô (in.)

Conne


e.ezs

nc€s

n

,

<
10.75
12.75
16.0(

ro (in.) .123

2.37s
21.2 29.1
¡¡1.1
l

r-so

|

1'5ol

! t't1

\

-^^ | I

2/t.oo

--{l

2.374
2.371 2.37

tr{
N

.r50

t! .t'
/h þ#j
to

.r88
.250
.150

I
,

sa.7
17.1

z.sts
3.50

31.7
47.6

350
3.

t4
I ï

.188

ú.2
13.7

f
I

79.6
101

----'a' 4.50
¿.æ

3.5{t

r3

65.5
19.9

-f

3ß.õ 56.1
8¡1.0

50.

----ri

-1¿F
I

I ¡so I
I I L-I

zsc 31: r88

33.3
49.8 14

125 29.8
19.7 s4.1

21.5

6.625
6.625

-/50
.313 .375 1n8 .250 '313

24.6

36.9

6.625
6.r
I

8. rzs
8. 625

i

ls: :-).^ I ,s.o\ ¡z\ =r 2E'u
I

t3õ

90.4
136 188 37.5 62.7
57.1

71.5

1o3

,o

i -L---

I

e5.3

21.7

i

t6.0

sg'91
130

i .625'
.oes

3,2.6

--a 198
?62

'37'

45.1

103

172
48.0

i
I

59.6 20.5 30'7 25.2

70.0

99.6
'149

31.0

lo.?5 io.us

\ -1919 ñIs ì gzs
10-75 .438 .500 .313

E

.--.1'r.s i
-----j-

I I I

I
64.3 85.0
1og 39.6

r05 t45

37.8 R23 6s.2
ß7.8

207

1v
167

t'q
|

273
947 154

r17
162

r0.75
12.75 12.75 12.75

I

==Lg-l 1,
¿5.8 60.6

41.5
51 5

60.ó
83.5

ztt4 283
359
I

117
!

215

.375
.138

-tîiì lä
Iz:s
'æo
600
20.00 .500 .438 .500
.5,o0

\

ão . zo'o ãr.z i --sj
76.9

110 r40
68.9
91.1

iq6

272 r21

224
206 261

296 376 216
?15-

ì

51.6

12',1 (11

160

68.3
86.7

203

r16 ?9.3 99.u

309 39q

64.r 81.3

+- _W\ - ræ
.tâ F
I

r5ô

59

ï-

gog

407

æ.qt
2a.00

93.0
loed in ch

)-

I

rdion rioN bY ledt
rt0 in

lactor

rj:],^"
SO

resiíañce,

N,'.

i

lim¡led to:

coñProssivo
CORREGTION FACTORS:
',l

I Hiåru;.is * Ëoiäii,"t'

in corn'ress'on'

marrißumPermrßi'-"''-

38.58 Ar

a'"a 'n' ii'J,tii""äüi ", x,lrii :,'": ;^','i* äl;"' ""1'åo'øl

^'

*:#;'1:**

37

TabteS:KoverlapConnectionsBetweenCtrcularHsSllemberc lO = lAÙloand0, =0o=45o) Grade: ssòvi ¡nccoøing to cewës¡ G4o2o/40'21'M92) steet
Chold
ds (mm)
60 50
,o (mm)

(lV¡' or ¡t/21 in hN lor wob Wdltl (dr ¡n Factorod connêcüon Ræisances
60 124 8f)

rm) ol:
508

t14

r6a

219

273

æ1

¡106

6ro

3.2 3.8 1.8
6.4

r68
239 378
,2

60 60
89 8!t 89 89 114 111
114

3.8
4.E 6.¡l

l¡t9 æ8 3ã)
¿158

206


¡l¡11

8.0
¿1.8


266 ¡l{x¡ 5€8

196

æ7
¡196

6.4

æ7
¡tf 9

8.0
¡1.8 6.¿l

699 306

r68
168 168 168

1E2

252
369

&1
615
8,15
1 I


385 503

u7
615

8.0 9.5

fi7
663 255

g)4 g)5

t10
413 515

219 219 219 219
219

1.8

rqe
281

Sdt

19
586 755

s88 793

733
988 1270

8.0
9.5
11

379
¡t89

4st
6¡t1

1t20 f280
581

eog 2C2
3A7 491

761 36!)
¿t8!)

912
¡tÍ¡6

273 273 273

6.¡l

7't9 95:¡ 1210 15oo
1810 941 r18{)

864

8.0
9.5 t1

578

771

rl5{)
r46{¡
I 800

621 767

735
908

980

n3
)74 æ1 æ1
321

606

r2to
1470 767

t3
LO
9.5
11

7g


¿t98

tl(x)

21æ

tlg)
11æ 17gt
2080 r39()
1690

1300 1630 2000

â9ß 766 921
6¡19

7U
898 1080
751

lts5
11

8{t

r4f{)
'1710 1180

94
406
¡106

13

t4A0
f¡69

2410
r6{X)
19¿10

1gþ

9.5
11

7AE 93¡l

908

r170

1420

7W
27æ

¡loo 508 508 610

t3
11

t080
ft45

t400

r700
1430

2010
168() 198()

2æO
1920

rãx)
ro
1450

2m
2710

2no
3270
I

13

r690

2t)
n70

r3

172î

20æ

itæ

æao

i

37æ

coFREcTlon¡FACToRS:t.llth€'åiscompfÊssiveload¡ncho'd.muniplybyredudionlaclo'/(,J 2.Forlhecompfessimlveb'"-o",,,n",',",imump€nnnedconnedionfesßtance'N,..rsl¡mitedlo: 50
area rn mm2' whele A! is lhe web memÞet cross-sectional lhe oveflapped membet as lolloìys: ¡rl, s t.o. where 7 telefs to ¡s limitod The th¡Ckness ratio between weÞ members

¡¡i:-"1"i.ì'.Hl' o.34ltAt o'3o8ár 0'298Â! 0'273A1

Fot

dt!\ ol:

30

35

¡10

45

0-266Át

NOTE:

38

i
I
)

rabte4:Kovertap'i;:îËr:ìfiÏ^ËÅFt¿:,-:j.::: to cerur
sivÜ 4ccord¡ng , Eet Grade:
connecton
^oore'd
ro (in.) .125
.150

=z-

M,' Resis þnc ts
8.1

cnoto
(¡n.)

2.373

-,

---1i25 I to.zs f
or

'WebWrdth N2') in kiPs lot

tt.tt

16
I

;l--,* I *',Ð*
,n

(dr in inchBs) or

3.50

29.7 37.7 53.7

¿.375

z-375

2.375 íz.s7s
I

I2n
.1

I-j-o,,
T-

85.0 33.6
i15.6

50

3.59

188

ú.2
aq-1

)

3.50

2n
313 .188

72.o
103
14.1

h
73s
112

i

142 59.7 90.5 1¿8

#

s.o
¿1.50

4.50

.2æ

66.8
94.1

!19
6.625 6.625 6.625 6.625 8.625 8.625 8.625
.188

43.0
62.9 86.5
113 ÁÀ.1

fi1
s2.9

68.8
101

9/r.6 138

.2W
.313 .375 .188

138

149
5:1.2

181

249

68.6
97-8

92.9
32 178

116 165

.2æ

63.3
85.3

81.5
110

132
170

?2

359 162
194

â25
8.625 10.75 10.75

.37s
.438

110 137

112
177

ry
98.2


'r31 173

t6ß
.313

65.6 86.9

8¿.9
110

tæl
æ1

211
272

257 327 405 490

.37s
10.75 10.75
12.75 12.75 12.75

'rt0
137 165

1¡lo

I
.500
.313

173
209
1'12
1 ¿t1

21

,l 13 ;T

, T-,:

273
33o

337
¡¡Og

212


318
391

æ2 æ7
451

375

173
.438

ã

zez z¿s reg
2e5 213
I I
I

|

327 392

1215 16.æ
16.00 16.00

207

3æ ,18

469 313

511
35S ¿¡fl6

434


3æ 3æ
323
379 387

518 379 43:l 508
45()

.¡¡38

.5æ
.438 .500

210

314

519

6,25

213
?51

270
317

735

æ.æ

5tl

608

849

mm
24.æ
CORRECTION

.@
FAGTORS:

I iiï: :"#'"':ili"r'*''-# ""'lä'
weo memUers
follows: rs timit€'d as

î*fr ' "'i"i#ir;;" Ë,À.i::å,ii;ïå',"1i"1 ::": ['J:*, sa' -"li:å' ";1;;-';i;:1i::ïi:; *"ïï,1ÏË'-"'i".i' "ïi;: I ::"il;,
50

ñutripry byr€-dudion load in dìord'

1"":::#"'"

is limiled to: ,esisrance. Nr"

:"

overrapp'ed re,ers ro rhe

member)

NOTE

ratio b€lwe€n The thickness

39

Tabte

5:

steet Grade: 350W (According to cAî't/csA G402U40-2','M92)
Chont Factorod Connec{¡on Ræbtancos (JVr' or JVr')
80 8Í) l1¡¡

K Gap Connections Between Clrcular HSS llemberc (g = 30 mm and9, =02= *5o)
h ld{
for Web WttÙt

(dr

¡n mm) oft

do(rm)
e0

,o (mm) 3.2 3.8 a.8 6.4 3.8
¡1.8

t68

2t9

273

æ1

¡f{r6

508

6lo

60 60 60

-Y,r

]1à-r
0l

,r'fi¿ r)

dt
89

æ

6.¿l

8.0 a.8 6,4 8.0
¡1.8

rlr
114

142

2a2
365 121

tt¿l
168

r60 271
174

193
3íMl

r68 r68 r68
219 219 219

6.¡l 8.0 9.5 4.8
6-¡l
E.O

208
314

fi2
693

1g
112

s72
111 250

t72
299


,t{xi 612

'tfx
293

378
521 679

152 624 812 279
4z,3
5ۃt

2r9
219 273

9.5 1f 6.4
8.O

&
s26

w
tlcx) 372
56¡l
¡¡60


358
¿193

273
273 273 273 321 321 321 321
¡t06
¿106

698

9.5

TN
1010

96t
125o 1570 659 900
1180

tf
13

640 804 348 479
621

757
951 ,lO8

1270

8.0 9.5

sgt
739
95€ 1200 706

562

fl
13

728 912

7fa

1170 656
1110

9.5
11

97
706
881

rû20

1170

9fl
tl¿l{l
890

r3f0
t6¿to
125()

r510
1880

¡106

13

r380
1070

508 50€

t1

1¡lilo

1710

't3
13

tt10

13ã)

r5€o r520

lTfo
17æ

2130 2050

610

r3t0

21æ

CoRRECÎION FACTOFS:

r.
2.

ll lhcrr
Fot

.

iS Corfþf€ssiv€ load in cfiord, munÞ¡y by tedt clk)n facrot /(¿') For tho co|rÞræsion uæò ñËmb€f. lhe mâximum perffúned conneclion f€sjsta¡c6.

¡vr"

is limiled to:

dtl,1 oa: 30 IVr'max. (kN): 0.3¡13Ár
whcrc

0.308Ár 0.298/tr 0.273At 0.266Ár
in mm2.

3:t

Q

¿¡5

l)

A, is lho wcb tñambst ct6s-s€ctilnal a¡aa

40

Connections BeWeen Taþle 6: K Gap "^""

Cirlltar
o

HSS lllembers

Ï-,gi l
3.50

: ¿;:'za\
(Nt'
I

o'

o' o o

-Chord do (¡n.) 2.375 2-375
2-373

Resislances Faclored Connection

^!l:nl
,l

"'

n

(dr in ¡nches) ol: in kiDs for web Width

"

r. u",
.125
.150

I

2's75

¿.50

'

.,z.ts

rl

oszs

I

8.6¿:

|

'16.00

zo.æ

|

z4.oo_

t_

.t88
.250

-_|

476 3.50

.r50
.188

g

3.50

r

I

.3t3
r88
.250 .313 .188 .250 .313 .375 188 250 31.9
54.¿t

t-

¿¡.50

4.50
¡¡-5{¡

9r-9
27.2 46.8 35.8 61.7

439
71.9

â)E 6.625 6.625 6.625
8.625

--r
I

zo.e

i

93.1

1r3

I

v:
25.1

l!1
32.3
56.2
.l 7

52

43.6

67.3
102 140

sl_1
138

I

i
i I

I

8.625 8.625

.313 .375

6sJ
90.8

99!
117
I I

tr9l
24s
83.8 1?7 175

i I
I

1f9
10.75 10.75 10.75

153
53.1

J I

lt---r-----l ir It ii r
I

I

.250
.313

62.9

r03
157

I

80.5
11r

a5¿
t31

216 282

375
.os8 .500

*zs I
tozs
12.7s
I

1/¡4
181

tzr 'I
ge.o

!

228

x¿ | -l
-^- I
ros reg
160

285

ssz
t¡18

!

i

.grg
.375
.438

!::
108 140 175

i I
I

rzt
tA.ß

2U
265

t2.75
12.73
12.75

216

33t
159

500 .375
-438 .500 438 500 .500

r92
310

22L
296 36
2A3 350

261
3:19

r6.00
r

6.00

422

16.00

?o1

241
298
:

322
3S9 388

387 a78

t553
À,

20.00 20.00
21.00

i_

293

v2
Þy reducrron

162

laclot

/(n')

^.--^-

. .is limited is

to

T.uro, Iti';-:li';*,, 13.10^, cross'secrio¡r¿¡r 'u^,. in '' area in lläi *"0 "-*t i;.ii:

3e'5eÁr 38'584r

41

Table

7: T Connections

Between Square HSS Membe¡s

steel Gnde: 350w (Aærding to cAìacsA æ0.20/4021'M92)
Chord
óo (mm)

Fado¡ed Connedbn ReÉsnncæ (IVt') in trN br Web

Wül

(ör h mm) ot:
20Ít

to (mm)
3.2 3.E

5l

6¿

76

89

1ù2

127

152

29

305

5r

5l
5t
64 6¡l 64

I
60

4.8 3.2 3.8

86
136

t.8
6.4

æ
76

239
39 56 87

32
3.8

70
101

*'-'---'-'-t

h a

to

fl

76
76 76

l-å.J

4.8
6.4

r58

t54
31
¡15

2T'

dt
89 89 89
1V2 1ú¿

32
3.8
¡1.8

u

t(x,
176 35 50 78 49 70
111

70
124

6.4 3.2 3.8
¡¡-8

27
39
61

1V2
1Û2

6.4

r08
169

t38
217

r96

1t2
10i2

8.0
9.5 ¡l-8
6.¿t

{7
411

213
52 92

312
61

127
127 127

75 132 206 296

96

137

r08
169

r69
265
3EO

212 380
5.15

8.0 9.5
¿t.6

114

27
52

æ7
47

213

sl
9¡¡

6t
108

72
127

08
156

t60
243 443 636

s2
52 52

6.4 8.0 9.5

ü¡
131

148

170

N
287

245
3!i1
€'¿4

r86

212

24
¡133

s2

t3
6.4 8.0 9.5

gì3
75
117

sn
81 127

5to
97
152

fl30
r39 219
314
197

æ3

88
139

10f,

M
zxt
2qt
231

170

æ8
113 747

r68

182
æ,1 117

rgft
354

2r9
389
134

r3
8.0 9.5 13 9.5

æ8

24 1g
14a

5s8

125 179 318

i

169

æ6 æ5
525

371
s37

2g

r68
298

r92

zot
368

|

213 432 212
376

2g
305 305

3¡lt lT7 3r5
¡n chofd,

9Í¡
3¡15

r68

t88 I

213 (11

628
1120

r3

æ8

3g
mul b€

6r5

coRRECTtON FACTOR: il thefe is compressiv€ toad

mullÞly by roduclron

ledof /(n)

NOTE:

The widlh to th¡ckness ralio lot wab members

5 35

42

Table

8: T Connections

Between Square HSS Members

steel Grade: 50w (According to cAN/csA G4o.2o/40.21-92)
Chord
ì

Facto¡ed Connection Res¡stances

1Nr') in tips for Web Width (ö, in inches) of: 5.(þ
6.00

òo {in

,o (in.
125 .150

2.æ

2.50

I

3.OO

3.50

4.00

I

i

a.oo

I

ro.oo

r2.00

2.æ 2.æ 2.æ

r88
.125
150
13.4 19.4
I

2.9

2.fi
2.9
2.æ
3.00
3.O0

r88

æ.4
5:t.8
8-7 15.7

¡

.29
125 r50
.188

12.5
19.6

22.6 35.5 62.8 9.9
14.3

3.00
3.OO

L

.2n
125 .'r50
.188

u.7
7.O

3.50 3-50 3.50 3.50
¿1.00

r0.0

15.7

i

22.4 39.6 7.8
11.3
11 .1

.2æ
125
.1

zz.a
6.1

i

4.00

50

8.7
13.7

16.0

4.æ
4.00 4.00 4.00 5.00

188

17.7

zs.t
14.4 69.6

i
I


.313

24.3
38. r

31.3
49.1

¡

.375
.r88 .2æ
.313 .375

I

U.7
11.7

70.4
13.7

ooo
16.7

¡

21.5 38.0 59.5 85.4
16.1

30.4 53.8 84.3
121

5.fi)
5.(x)

20.6
J<.J 46.4' 10.6 18.7

24.3
38.1

29.6
46.¿

5.00

6.æ
6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00
10.00 10-00

r88

il.7 'i 12.O |
21.1

66.6
13.7 21.3
38.1

rs.e
34.7 54.3

|
I

3s.5
62.8

.2æ
.313

28.5 44.7 64.2
114

29.3
42-1

33.f
47.6 84.6
18.2

98.5 141 251
I

.375
.500

54.7 97.2 19.9 31.1 41.7 79.4

ta.o
139

71.9 16.8 26.3 37.7

.2fi
.313

21.9
3¡1.3

za.s
38. r

I

3r.3
19.1

4/ta
eg.e
99.9 178

I

28.5 40.9

I

.375
500

49-2 87.4 30.0
43.1

54.7

70.4 125
38.

67.1

i

|

72.8 za.s 37.7
67.1

97.2 32.3

28.0
40.2

t

¿a.q

.375
I

cø.q

I
i

s.7
97.2 47.6 84.6

66.6
118

t :

84.3
121

ro.æ re.æ rz.æ |

.500

71.5
37.7
67.1

76.6 39.8 70.8

82.5
42.1

215 zs.o r39
141

I

375 .500

il.7 I

74.9

97.2

251

coRREcrloN FAGToR: ll there is compressive

load rn chord. muttiply by reducrron

NOTE:

lactot t lnl

The wrdth to lh¡ckness rat¡o lor web memòers must be s 35

43

Table

9: K Overlap Connections Between Square HSS ltrembers
(O, = 10O7", 0, = 02 = 45o and æme web members) steel Grade: 350w (Aæo¡ding to cÂl,t/csA G/n.20/40.21-M92)

Wehs

Fadorsd Conn€clk¡n Resistancs

(.¡Vr'orwz1 ¡n kN
ô,, ô, (mm)

tr, å (rrn)
3.2 3.8 4.8

5t
5t

r9t

to

2U
g)3
233 245
367 508 I{OTES:

5l
64 6¡l

32
3.8
¿1.8

l--u"J
(t)

ffi
l


64 76
76 76

6.4

Thc witû to thaclorrss torircò mcnùen must b€ 3 3aL Also. ça,lp .cÉrs¡on $rrùs rfitÉl be CSA-S16.1 C¡ass t.(Êælb de*¡n) s€dþns.

3.2 3.8 1.8 6.¡l

276
335 ¡l30 593 310 386
4f¡¿l

(2) Tho w¡dû tô lhiJgleõs rat¡o tor tha chord meßrba? must bc f 40, (3) Thê w*tth ratio bttrvr.n wcb m€nrb€rs an chord rrü¡st be ¡O25.

76 89
89

32
3.8 4.8
6.¡l 3.2 3.8

89
89 102

677

362
439

102 102

4.8
6.4 8.0

560 765
984 121l)

t02

l02
102
127 127

9.5 4.8 6.¡l 8.0 9.5
4.8 6.¡l

685 93r

t27
127

ilfx)
t480

r52

8rl
1tfi) r4m
r710 2370
t¿t4O

ts2
152
152 152

8.0 9.5
13

2o3 203

6.4 8.0 9.5
13

r83{)

203
203 251 254 254
305

2220

æ50
2250 2730 3730 3240
4410

8.0 9.5
13

9.5

æ5

r3

M

Tabte 10: K Overtap Connections Between square HSS Members (O" = 10iOy", 0t = 0z = 45o and same web memberc)
steel Grade: 50w (According to àAN/CSA G40-20/40'21-92)
Webs
ö,,,

Fadored Conneciþn Resislanc€ (IV'' or lfr') in kips
úr, t2 (¡n.)

ô, (in.)

2.æ
2.OO 2.OO

.125
.150 .188

42.8

to

52'5
68.O

2.50

.125
.150 .188

52.3
6¿t.0

2.æ

ffi l-'J
NOTES:

2.9
2.æ
3.00 3.00 3.00
3.00 3.5()

42.3
114

.250 .125
150 188

(1) The wicnh lo lhid('less ral¡o tor web mottlb€ts mu$ be 3 35. Also, compr€ssion w€bs mul
bo CSA-S16.1 Class 1 (plasüc d€sign) s€clions.

61.9 75.4 96.7

(2) Thc width ro thi{:l(noss ratio fottà€ cùord
mombef musl b€ 3 ¡Í1.

(3) Thê widlh tafto b€twa€n w€b msmbers and chord must b€ ¿ 025.

.2æ
.125
150

r3:]
71.1 86.8
11r

3.50
3.50

r88

3.50
,1.00

2fi
.125 .r50 r88

152 80.9 98.2 125
171

4.00
¡1.0O 4.OO


.3r3
.375
188

4.00
,1.00


271
15¡l

5.(x)

5.00
5.O0

.2æ
.313 .375 .188

20s 268

5.æ
6.00
6.OO

328

1fft
217 316 385 53i¡

.zfi
.313

6-(x)

6.00 6.(x)
8.OO

.375
.500

.2fi
313 375 .500 .313 .375 .500 .375 .500

321 ¡ll
1

8.00
8.OO

500

8.00

685
506 61¡l 838

ro.(xl ro.oo
10.00 12.00

728
9{X)

12.æ

45

Tabte

HSS Members mm,0t =02= 45o and egwl widû webs) steel Gnde: 3501u (Aærding to cA¡'llcsA G¿t0.2u&.21'M92)

1l: K Gap Connectlons Between Squarc
(g = 30

Chord
ôo

.

Faclo¡¡rt Comsctirn R€sbtattcæ
7E

(ivr'

orJV21 in hN fotW€b W¡dû (ôt in

rm) ot

(rrn)
51

to (rún)

5l

{.

80

1@,

1Zf

t52

æ3

&

3CH'

32
3.t¿

6a 6¡l 76
7A

38
3.8
3.8 1G¡

t3!i
t89
95
119

trK
er

.(

b,

öx

76 89

4.8

32
3.8
¡t.8 3.2

ë,
æ 1ül
1ú¿
1@,

125
175 89
117 16¡l

r56
219

Í1
1,16

13(¡

3.8
¡t.8 6.¡t 4.8

171

L

æ5
313

215
375

251

ln
1tî 1n
15¿

m
3ft6
471

257
3g¡l 551

2!Xt
¡149

6.¡l
E.O
¿1.8

6ãt
268 410 575 335 513

r52

6.4 8.0
9.5 6.4
8.O

l5:t
15¿

719
944

7g

2ût 2dt

sCt
717
981

zct
ãx,

9.5

r3
8.O

1510 889

H
251

9.5

t170 r80o

29

t3
9.5

s5
305

r3Ílo æ50
is comø¡ssivc bad in chotd, muniply by feducrioalacTo. widül lo Üickmss ralio lot wrþ rîcnù€rs must bo 3 35

r3

coRRECnON FACTOR: lf üìcrc

l(n,

NOTE:

th.

46

Chord
(in.¡ 2.00

ffiorN2')inry

2.Ð
2.æ

I 3.oo
3.00 3.00 3.50 3.50

I

3.1)

¡l.OO

4.00

5.OO

5.00
5.OO

6.(x)
6.OO

r

6.00

8.00 8.00

Ì
r

10.m
10.00

10.(þ
12.00 12.00

.500
by redudion lactot f(n) load in chord' mulliply ll there is compressive must be 135 ratio lor web membeß

COBRECTION FACTOB: NOTE

#'î;h;t;.|(ness

47

WELDED CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTION TRUSS CONNECTIONS
by Peter W. Marshall *

ABSTRACT
This paper discusses the following elements of the subject: Architecture Characteristics of Tubular Connections Nomenclature Failure Modes Reserve Strengrth Empirical Formulations Design Charts Summary and Conclusions

ARCHITECTURE
"Architecture' is defined as the art and science of designing and successfully executing structures in accordance with aesthetic considerations and the laws of physics, as wellas practical and material considerations. Where tubular structures are exposed for dramatic etfect, it is often disappointing to see grand concepts fail in execution due to problems in the structural connections of tubes. Such "failures" range from awkward ugly detailing, to learning curve problems during fabrication, to excessive deflections or even collapse. Such failures are unnecessary, as the art and science of welded tubular connections has been codified in the AWS Structural Welding Code (Ref AWS D1.1-96).
A well engineered structure reguires that a number of factors be in reasonable balance. Factors to be considered in relation to economics and risk in the design of welded tubular structures and their connections include: (1) static strength, (2) fatigue resistance, (3) fracture control, and (4) weldability. Static strengÊh considerations are so important that they often dictate the very architecture and layout of the structure; certa¡nly they dominate the design process, and are the focus of this paper. Many of the other factors also require construction; these are discussed further in sections of the Code dealing with materials, welding technique, qualification and inspection.

early attention in design, and arise again in setting up QC/QA programs during

CHARACTERISTICS OF TUBULAR CONNECTIONS
Tubular members benefit from an efficient distribution of their material, particularly in regard to beam bending or column buckling about multiple axes. However, their resistance to concentrated radial loads are more problematic. For architecturally exposed applications, the clean lines of a closed section are esthetically pleasing, and minimize the amount of surface area for dirt, corrosion, or other fouling. Simple welded tubular joints can extend these clean lines to include the structural connections.

@ystems

Engineering, Kingwood, Texas

(713) 358 &+15

48

Althouoh manv different schemes for stitfening tubular connections have been devised surface ?ffiääú. ïgdä1, inè simptest is to simply weldlhe branch member to the outside(D/t less ig ¡et3!y9ly c_ompac-t mãlnü iór ðr¡ord). Wherbihe main member 16 õi âol, añã tt\ã orancr¡ member thickness is limited to 50o/" or 60% of the main rãrUð,, tn¡cfñ'ess. ano a prequalified weld detail is used, the connection will develop the conditions are ilií';t"¡";äp*¡tv'of the ri-renioers joined. Where the foregoing (or joint can) is not met, inserted ;.ä.-ùiù{ rãöe o¡ámeteitubês, a sn'ort length of heavier material i"ìË ti.rälnoio to ióòally reinforce the connõction area. Here, the design.problem reduces stLe!"tgtf', and ió'il;i;ãiãcting the'right combination of thickness,,yield. in this design notch toughne.ss process are the yrãJoinl tân." rnL ãeta¡ted considerations involúed ior subject of this Paper.

üìÏã';ä; ttä

NOMENCLATURE
Non-dimensional parameters for describing the geometry of..a tubular connection are oiven in the folroñ¡ng'iisr get", èta, thetá andzeta déscribe the surface top.ology(not shown) ¡-s-el öñ;ä¿¡ã iãü;;e ñró "et imþortánt thicknes.s parameters. Alpha for span length in ón bad pattem (it was formerly used ovalizino Darametéi, àependíng beams lóáOeO via tee connections).

P

is branch diameter/main diameter

4

is branch footprint lengrth/main diameter

0 is angle between branch and main member a¡<es
Ç is gap/main diameter (between batancing branches of a K-connection)

Y

is main radius/thickness ratio is branch thicknesd main thickness

T

ln AWS Dl. 1, the term "T-, y-, and K-connection" is used geneTcally to.describe structural joints., â l"ttgt gf tle alphabet connections or nooËr, ar'oprjol"ã to co-a¡<ial butt and laþ of what the node subássemblage looks like. 0-, V, K;ijlJus"Jto buóräå þicture

FAILURE MODES
A number of unique failure modes are possible in tubular connections. ln addition to the must check usual checks on rãlå-rä"és, prou¡oéd ior in rnost d.esign codes, the designer tË'iãiô*¡ng ät-r;¿'mõä-e;, ¡ìsæo rogether with ihe relevant AWsDl. 1-96 code sections:

f-

Local failure (Punching shear) General collaPse Únzipping (prbgressive weld failure) fr¡áiäriadp rob éms (f ractu re and de lam Fatigue
I

i

n

ation)

2.40.1.1 2.40.1.2 2.40.1.3 2.42, C4.12.4.4, and 2.1.3 2.36.6

49

Local failure. AWS design criteria for this failure mode have traditionalfy be.e¡ formulated in terms of puncihinq shear. The main member acts as a rylindrical shell in resisting the concentraied radiã line loags (l)l/mm¡ delivered to it at the branch member footprin-t. Although the resulting localized stresses in the main member are quiteconiplex, a simpli-fied but still qúite useful representation can be given in terms of punching shear stress, vp:
acting vp =f6

r

sin 0

where f¡ is the nominal stress at the end of the branch member, elthe¡ a"xid of bending, which aib treated separE¡tely. The allowable punching shear stress is given in the code as a function of main membdr yield strengrth and gamma ratio, as well as Qq, reflecting. connection type, geometry, ãnd load pattgm.. lnteractions between branch a,xial and bending loadéi aó úeil as bianch and ch'ord loads, are also covered. Since 1gg2, the AWS code also íncludes tubular qonnection design criteria in total load ultimate strôngth format, com.pat¡ble with an LRFD design code.formulation. This was derived from, ãnd intended to be comparable to, the earlier punching shear criteria.

General collapse. ln addition to local failure of the main member in the vicinity of Fe branch membdr, a more widespread mode of collapse may_occur, ê.g. general ovalizing plastic failure in'the cylindrical'st¡el¡ of the main member. To a.large extent, this is now bovered by strength criteria which are specialzedby connection type and load pattern.
For design purposes, tubular connections are classified according to their c.onfiguration ff, Y, K,X, ätc.). For these "alphabet" connections, different design streng(t formulae are 'Until recently, the research, testing, and.analysis leading to appfêO lo each'different type. tÉése criteria dealt only viith connections tiaving their members in a single plane, as in a roof truss or girder.
Many tubular space frames have bracing in multiple planes. For some loading conditions, thesä ditferent planes interact. When they do, crite¡g for the "alpåabet' joints are.no longer satisfactóry. ln AWS, an "ovalizing párameter" (alpha, Appendix L) may beused to severe ovalizing in going trom K to

estímate the beneficial or deleterious'effect of various branch member loading combinations on main member ovalizing. This reproduces the trend of increasingly

useful guidancé in-a númber of mop .adyers.e planar.{e.9.. doublecross,-Marshall & tuytiesigS2) and multi planar (e.g. hub, Paul ,1988) situations. However, for similarly loáOeO members in adjäcent þlañes, e.g. paired KK connections in delta trusses, Jâpanese data indicate ihat no'increase -iñ. iapacrty oygr_lhe coresponding uniplanar
coirnections should be taken (Makino 1984, Kurobane 1995).

Tl/

toX-connections, and has been shown to provide

The effeA of a short ioint can (less than 2.5 diameters) in reducing the ovalizing or ðrustinõ caóaðity of cross conndctions is addressed in AWS section Z.qO¡.2(2\. Since óvãlønó ¡s ieês éevere in K-connections, the rule of thumb_is !ha! the. joint can need.only extend õ.ZS to 0.4 diameters beyond the branch member footprints to avoid a short-can
penalty. lntermediate behaviorwould apply to

Tl/ connections.

A more exhaustive discussion would also consider the following modes of general

ôollápsã, in aããNòn to ovalizing: beam bending of the c..frord {in T+oñnection.tests),. bealn ;h¿äji; inã gáp of K-conneclions),.transverée. crippling of the main member sidewall, and loial UucfÍinþ due to uneven load transfer (either brace or chord).

50

tne we'lO ¡ñ a trinutãr connection is highly non-uniform, with the peak line load often bein¡ a factor of two higher than that indicated on the basis of nominal sections, 9.pomq!ry, ant statics. Some loïal yielding is required for tubular connections to redistribute this ant reãch their design caþacity.-lf the weld is a weak link in.the system, il T.y."ul?ip" befon this redistributioln can hafpen. Criteria given in the AWS code are intended to preven this unzipping, taking advâhtage of the higher reserue strength in weld allowable stresse: than is the nõrm elsõwhere. Fbr mild steeltubes and overmatched E70 weld metal, welc effective throats as small as70o/o of the branch member thickness are permitted.

Unzipping or progressive failure. The initial elastic distribution of load transfer âcros:

branch to máin membðr, ¡ñ tne worst region of localized plastic deformation.

Materials problems. Most fracture.control problems in tubular structures occur in the welded tudular connections, or nodes. These require plastic deformation in order tc reâch their design capacity. Fatigue and fracture problems for many different node geometries are b-roughi into a common.focus. by use oJ the "hot spol" stress, as would_be ñreasured by a straiñ guage, adjacent to and_perpendicular to the toe of the weld joininç

Charpy impact testing is a method for qualitative assessment of materid toúghness. The methbi1 häs been, añd continues to bé, a reasonable measure of fracture ,safety, wher employed with a definitive program of nondestructive testing toeliminate weld area flaws Tne AWS recommendations Ïor material selection (C2.42.2.2) and weld metal impacl testing (C4. 12.4.4) are based on practices which have provided satisfactory fracture experi"eÀce in offshóre structures loóated in moderate temperature environments, i.e-.40' Oet-f (+SC) water and 1 -deg-F (-10C) air exposure. For environments which eithel more dr lesó hostile, impact teðtingìempêratureé should be reconsidered, based on LASI (lowest anticipated service temperature).

ln addition to weld metal toughness, consideration should be given to. controlling. the properties of the heat affected ãone (HM). Although the heat cycle of welding s-ometimes imjroves hot rolled base metals of low toughness., this.regiqn will more often have deþraded toughness properties. A.number of éarly failures in welded tubular connecti'ons -propagated through the HAZ, often inv"olved fraciures wn¡in either initiated in or obscuring the identification of other design deficiencies, e-.9. inadequate static strength.
Undemeath the branch member footprint, the main member is subjected to stresses in the thru-thickness or short transverse direction. Where these stresses are tensile, due to weld shrinkage or applied loading, delaminatiqn. ma.y occur -- either. by opening. up.preexisting lamin"ations,'dr by laminaitearing in which miôroscop¡.. itl"_lr"-!-ons link up.to give a fracturé having a woody appearance,-.uêually r¡. .or_l-ear the HAZ. Th"qg problems are addressed ¡n Ãpl ioint cãn'sieel specification-s 2H, 2W, and 2Y. Preexisting laminations àre detected with'ultrasonic testirig. Microscopic inclusíons are prevented by restricting sulfur to very low levels (<60 ppm)ãnd by inclusion shape control metallurgy. in the steel making ladlé. As a practìcd rñättér, weldinents which sÛruive the weld shrinkage phase usudlf perform satiðfactorily in ordinary seruice Joint can steel specifications also seek to enhance weldability with limitations on carbon ãná oinàr alloying elements, as expressed.by.carbon equivalent or Pcm formulae. Such controls are increäsingly important'as residuâl elements accumulate in steel made from scrap. ln AWS Appeñdix Xl, the preheat ¡equired to avoid HAZ cracking is related to carb'on equívaleni,'base metal thi'ckness, hydrogen level (from welding consumables), and degree of restraint. Fatigue. This subject is discussed in the companion paper on tubular offshore structures (Marshall 1996).

51

RESERVE STHENGTH
While the elastic behavior of tubutar joints is well predicted by shell theory and finite element analysis, there is considerable reserve strength beyond theoretical yielding, due to triaxiality, plasticity, large deflection effects, and load redistribution. Practical design criteria make use of this reserve strength, placing considerable demands upon the notch toughness of joint-can materials. Through joint classification (APl) or an ovalizing parãmeter (AWS), they incorporate elements of general collapse as well as localfailure. The resulting criteria may be compared agains-t the supporting data base of test resufts to fenet out biãs and uncertainty as measures of structural reliability. Data for K, Tl/, and X joints in compression show a bias on the safe side of 1.35 beyond the nominal safety factor. Tension joints appearto show a larger bias of 2.85; however, this reduces to 2.05 for joints over O.12-in, and 1.22 over 0.5-in, suggesting a possible size effect for tests which end in fracture.
strengrth, but also fhe load-deflection behavior. Early tests showed ultimate deflections of

For overload analysis or tubular space frame structures, we need not only the ultimate

O.ffi lo 0.07 chord diameters, giving a typical ductility of 0.10 diameters foi a brace with weak joints at both ends. As more different types of jointg were tested, a wider variety of load-defl ection behaviors emerged, making such generalizations tenuous.
Cyclic behavior raises additional considerations. One issue is whether the joint will e*perience a ratcheting or progressive collapse failure, or will achieve stable behavior with plasticity contain-ed at local hotshots, a process called "shakedown]' (ag ¡rl shakedown ciuise). While tubular connections have withstood 60 to several hundred repetitions of load in excess of their nominal capacity, a conservative analytical treatment is to consider that the cumulative plastic deformation or energy absorption to failure remains constant. When tubular joints and members are incorporated into a space frame, the question arises as to whether computed bending moments are primary (i.e. necessary for structural stability, as in a sidesway portal situation, and must be designed for). or_ secondary (i.e. air unwanted side effect of deflection which may be safely ignored of reduced). When proportional loading is imposed, with both axial load and bending moment being maintained regardless of deflection, the joint simply fails then it reaches its failure enveloþe. However, when moments are due to imposed lateral deflection, ald then a,rial load ís imposed, the load path skirts along the failure envelope, shedding the moment and sustaining further increases in a,rial load. Another area of interaction between joint behavior and frame action is the influence of brace bending/rotation on the strengrth of gap K-connections. lf rotation is prevented, bending moménts develop which permit the gap region to transfer additional load. lf the loads remain strictly axial, rotation occurs in the abèence of restraining moments, and a lower joint capacity is found. These problems arise for circular tubes as well as box conneôtions, ànd á recent trend has been to conduct joint-in-frame tests to achieve a realistic balance between the two limiting conditions. Loads which maintain their original direction (as in an inetastic finite element analysis), or worse yet follow the deflection (as in testing arrangements with a two-hinge jáck), result in a plastic instability of the compresõion braõe stub which gr.ossly undêrstates the actualjoint strengrth. Existing data bases may need to be screened forthis problem.

52

EMPIRICAL FORMULATIONS
Becauseoftheforegoingrgseryg-s]rengithissues,AWgde¡io-1-9r!:llllÎ*beenderived co-mparison with the data base base ðtïn¡ñate strengtñ'iiüËïilii¿:F from a data

iläüärr"r"tvîlää'äî'ã6õrqiäi*Ïï:i jj,?ï"ï"Fjj*:?',?Ulî'"""äi'"lLiËjËë
sarety marsins

nã:gU¿l**g*t"'."[i3ifñ!!þ;äãmoãi.n";dä;'i;¡"tî"ñ,in"ðnã¡cècítsaretv áher than the higher ,Jinä ;.=.äi; äiã¡üläinéi structurai rãríroéi", werds or bo*s' index is simirar items iike
,Jriär"ff;.äå#-h¡pi;Ëiú"Ë'ö;nõt¡on
in the.context of Atsc-LRFD' with a resistance shear altowable when the ultimate axial load are.used factor of 0.8, nWS ,riimate strength-is"nffiil?ÙyËq..lüidiiopunchiirg load' LRFD falls boø livã H"ilî';o%'dã+g it;åää;ã load' Alsc stress desisn fnsbi, tór structurds ro*äiiôb;t'T-gldead equivarency side óí'nso ror structuiéö Ë"u¡ng " on the safe mem¡eré appeãi tã naue made theappear to be criteria for tension'and compress¡oî g¡"en ov nws would trade-ofr at 25o/oär,äo conseryative for

niJä;'îh';ihä [ãËit;t¡t;ñä
pã-ri of

"iãrü slightly different load factors, a 4'2"/" using these resistance factors with 1984)' ln canada, ðãíiËia:i¡än ätîut"w (Packer et al ¡n overärlsafety factor ,"Jritr*-l*itñ¡n difference
DESIGN CHARTS

the population of structures.

Research,testing,andappliqati-onghavepr.oglgssedtothepgintwheretubular stnictuääèróñir frn¡"n desiqners deal are áËbrt as råriabre":,i'hé õth"i connections oe unfamitiaritv' To of theãrincipat bars to üåïã*ìËd'""d-üä;;;Jto with. one in a Appendix to this papen nãu" been

þresenæo a'eviate this proolËå, i"ldühàñr ,,DesigningTubularConnec.tionswithAWsP-l.l,,byP.W.Marshall,originally pî6ìËliää1n,ìíi" i¡¿" Wrng Joumal, March 1989. is given in terms of punching of simpre direct werded tuburar connections The capaciw shear ehicieñcY, Ev, where allowable Punching shear süess main member allowable tension srtress the charts in practical truss design a step-by-step procedure for applying There is also situations.

53

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
This paper has served as a very brief introduction to the gubject of designing welded tubulär ðonnections, for circular hollow sections. More detail on the backgróund- and use of AWS D1.1 in this area can be found in the autho/s book on the subject (Marshall, 1ee2). REFERENCES
AWS D1.1-96, StructuralWelding Code - Sfeef 1996 edition, American Welding Society,

-,
Kurobane, Y. (1995) Comparison of AWS Congress, Atlanta

vs tntemational Criteria, ASCE Structures

Makino, Y. et a (1984) Ultimate capacity of tubular double-K joints, Proc 2nd 1 1W Conf on Welding of Tubular Structures, Boston

Marshall, P. W. (1986) Design of þtemally_stiffened tubular joints, Proc llWlAlJ lntlGonf on Safety Criteria in the Desþn of Tubular Structures, Tokyo

P. W. Marshall (1992) Design of Wetded Tubutar Connections: /. /, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam

Basis

and

IJse of AWS D.

Marshall, P.W. (1996) Otfshore Tubular Structures, Proc AWS lntl Conf on Tubular Structures, Vancouver
Marshatl, P.W., and Luyties, W.H (1982), Allowable stresses for fatigue design, Proc lntl Conf on Behaviour of Off-Shore Structures, BOSS-82 at MlT, McGraw Hill
Packer, J. A. et al, Canadian implementation of CIDECT Monograph 6, 11W Doc. XV-E-

84.072
Paul, J.C. (1988) The static strengrth of tubular multi planar double T-joints, 11W Doc. XVE-88-139

54

SIMPLE BEAM CONNECTION TO HSS COLUMNS

D. R. Shermant
ABSTRACT
Nine different types of simple connectiorìs rypically used for l-shaped beams are examined for use with HSS columns' The only failure limii states identified wit¡ ttre Hss are punching shear when a thick shear øb was used with a thin walled HSS and shear adjacent to welds. The shear tab also produced the largest wall distortion. However, column tests show that this distortion is not detrimental to the column strength as long as trrå HSS is not classified as thin-walled. Therefore, the economical shear tab can confioently be used with HSS columns as long as a simple punching shear criteria is met, and all of tire other connections can be used without concern for the
HSS.

INTRODUCTION
In ¡ecent years, the use of square and rectangular hollow stn¡ctural sections (Hss) as columns in building constnrction has become increasiigly popular For connecting wide-flange beams, desþers have adapted many of the standard ri-pl" ôonnections typicatty rîsed with wide-flange columns, even though liftle data is available r.g;ditg their use *itt, Hés colum¡rs. However, concerns are still raised regarding these connections. The concerns are whether there is a limit state in the HSS that could govern the connection design or if local disrortion of the HSS wall could reduce the column capacity.
This paper presents an overall discussion of nine different fypes of simple framing connections used with HSS columns. These are listed below an¿ strown in Figure l.
shear tabs

through-plates double angles tees with vertical fillet welds tees with flare bevel groove welds single angles with L shaped fillet weld single angles with two vertical fillet welds unstiffened seated connections shear end plates

In all but the shear end plate, the connecting elements are werded to the Hss column and bolred to the web of the wide-flange beam, with tñe exception or the seat angle where the flange bears on the outstanding leg' For the shear end plare, the plate-is welded to the beam web and bolted

l- university of wisconsin-Mir-waukee, Mirwaukee, wr 5320r., usA
55

SHEAR TAB

THBOUGH.PI.ATE

DOUBLEANGLE

SINGLE ANGLE

SEAT

SHEAB END PLATE FIGUBE 1 . TYPES OF CONNECTIONS

56

(Ref. 2, Ref- 3) to the HSS column using blind expansion bolts (Ref. 1) or a flow-drill process that produces a tapped hole which replaces a nut in blind connections'

l. There are two categories of weld positions on the HSS for the connections shown in Figure vertical fitlet welds have welds at the center The shear rab, through-plate and single angle with of the HSS face, *hil. the others have welds near the edges. Center welds will tend to distort provides stiffening the wall of the HSS more than edge welds, excepr for the through-plate which of the wall.
The connections are classified as simple (negligible end moment in the beam-) Rotational flexibility is provided by distortion of the connecting elements, particularly the column legs of described for angles oi R"ng"r of teei. Mosr of rhe connecrions are standard shear connections Construction (Ref. 4)' Two use with wide-flange columns in the AISC Manual of Steel angle with exceptions are the through-plate, which is unique to hollow members, and the single \ilhen a single angle is welded to the flange of a wide-flange column, a vertical fillet welds. vertical weld at the heel would be in line with the web and rotational flexibility would be lost. at the toe Therefore, the standard welding pattern is an L-shaped weld with a vertical segment leg of the angle and horizontal segment across rhe bottom. This permits distortion of the column column, however, flexibility so that the connection can be classified as simple. With an HSS angle is provided by the HSS wall in a manner similar to the shear tab. Therefore, a single connection with two vertical welds is considered-

with wide flange columns, due to restricted rotational flexibility. Distortion musr come from local yielding of the tab combined with slippage and when the tab is bearing ãistortion of the bolts in their holes. Additional flexibility is provided wall. Hence used wittr an HSS column, but some designers fear excessive distortion of the HSS through-plate are somerimes specified to reinforce the wall.
The shear tab is a special connection, even

verify that the connection producing the highest strain levels in compact HSS columns does not reduce the axial load capacity'
and data is presented to

Ho*ever, tests design of the connections. These were studied in a series of test programs involving 24 of sinple connecrion to HSS columns (Ref. 3). Potential limit states in the HSS are discussed HSS wall and eväluated. Strain measurements indicate the relative degree of distortion in the

of connections' The paper begins with a discussion of the relative economics of the various types thã primary focus of the paper is a discussion of the limit states considered in the

RELATTVE CONNECTION COSTS

costs. Relative costs the same time, an excellent opporn¡nify was presented to determine relative

In order to put the discussion in a good perspective, information on the relative costs of the and tesæd at connections ls desirable. Since a number of connection types were being studied

for 3 bolt connections are liired in Table I based on the least expensive (single angle with L material and shaped fillet weld) being given a value of unity. The costs are for the connecting web in the the labor to fabricate thi ionnecrion, including welding to the HSS or to the beam bolting or case of the end plate. The cost of the end plate is somewhat uncertain since blind

57

flowdrilling the holes are not routine operatioris at this preparation of the beam or field erection.
TABLE

time. The costs do not reflect

shop

I

- RELATIVE CONNECTION COSTS

SINGLE ANGLE, L-shaped Welds

SINGLE ANGLE, Vert. IVelds

END PLATE

The high cost of the Tee with the flare bevel weld is due to labor and consrmable electrodes required for the multipass welding. Vertical fillet welds are much more economical. For a simple shea¡ connection, there is no behavioral advantage for the flare bevel welds. In a moment connection where horizontal tees are used between beam flanges and the column, flare bevel welds provide a good transfer of the tension and compression forces ino the.side walls of the HSS and, therefore, may be warranted.

It may also be noted in Table I that the through-plate connection is more than twice as expensive as the shear tab. This is due to the labor involved in laying out and sloning the HSS to insert the plate. In addition, there are interference problems if connections for perpendicular beams are required. Consequently, considerable research has been conducæd to justify the use of
economical shear tabs.

CONIYECTION LIMIT STATES
The connection strength is governed by limit states associated with the bols ro the beam web, connector material, welds and the HSS. Possible limit sates are listed in Table 2 with an indication of which apply for various types of connection according the AISC Manual (Ref. a). After applying the appropriate resistance factor, the lowest value govems the strength of the connection, or the criteria can be used to establish a size limit so that a particular limit srate will not control. The eccentricities are the result of the small distance berween the bola and welds and do not imply that a significant end moment exists in rhe beam. Since rhe criteria for various connections were developed from different research programs that may have been separated by several years or decades, there are inconsistencies in the present state-of-the-art. For example,

58

weld eccentricities are evaluated by elastic vector analysis in some cases and by an inelastic ultimate analysis in others.
Connection design is somewhat simplified since it is unlikely that beams would be coped at the top flange. Therefore, the bolt edge distance limits in the connecting material can be met and no bearing reductions are required for less than minimum edge distance.

TABLE 2- LTMIT STATES FOR THE CONNECTIONS B C D&E F G H CONNECTIONTYPE A
BOLTS Shear with no Shear by ultimate

I
X

eccentricity analysis X

X X X X X

X
X

X X X X
X

X X X
X X

Boltbearing,L.,>1.5d X

CONNECTOR MATERIAL

Grossshearatyield X
Netsectionshearfracture

X

X X X X X X

X X X X

X
x

X X

Blockshear

Flexural yield Flexural rupture

X

X
X

WELDS Shear with no eccentricity Shear by vector analysis Shear by ultimate analysis X TUBE WALL

X

X X

X X X

X X

Shearatweld
Bolt bearing
Punching

X X

X
X

X

Shear

x

A - shear øbs B - through-plates C - double angles D - tee with vertical fillet welds E - tee with flare bevel welds F - single angle welded at toe and bonom G - single angle welded at toe and heel H - unstiffened seat I - shear end plate
Table 2 indicates three limit states associated with the HSS column. Bolt bearing applies only for the shear end plate which requires bolting to the HSS. When the connector is welded to the HSS, shear in the wall adjacent to the weld may control the capacity of the weldment. One way

59

to consider this is to determine the maximum th¡oat dimeruion of the weld for which the weld material will govern.

(throaÈ),**=a$ffi+*

(1)

where F" is the ultimate strengltr of the material For flrllet welds where the throat is 0.707 of the weld size and the nvo resisance factors are the same according the AISC Specification (Ref. 5), the maximum effective"weld size is
aeff -

{2
-i-'

Futnsst
u(wE[,Dl

-ËsS

(2)

When the acu¡al weld size is less than w.6¡, the weld dictaæs the capacity while for larger welds, the effective weld size controls.

The other limit state associated with the HSS in Table 2 is punching shear. This is a tearing through the thickness of the HSS wall adjacent to the weld. This cao occur in shear tab and single angle connections with vertical welds where tension in the material ¡ssulting from eccentricity pulls directly at the upper part of the weld. It can be prevented by a simple criæria that keeps the maximum pull as determined by the yield strength in a unit length of the coonector material being less than the shear fracn¡re capacity througb the two secdons of the HSS wall on either side of the weld or pair of welds.

F"tr*t tr"ø (
or

2 (0 .6

Fut
"l

) Ë"""

(3)

t.* . L.z?ßs' +ss
'Y(cab''

(4)

Punching shear will not occur in through-plate connections where the HSS wall is reinforced or in other connections where the pull is transferred to a perpendicular element of the connector.

One limit state for the HSS that is not shown in Table 2 is that associated with a yield line mechanism. In all the tests that were conducted with the beam simply supported at both ends, there was never enough distortion of the face of the HSS to develop a yield line mechanism. Therefore, the limit states associaæd with the HSS can be prevented from controlling by determining a maximum effective weld size and by limiting the thickness of the projecting connection material when it is directly welded to the HSS wall.
The experimental strengths reported in Ref. 3 generally match or exceed the strengths predicted by the limit states criteria. Distortion due to gross yielding was usually observed at loads less than the corresponding limit state, but this did not represent a loss of load capaciry in the connection. Actual failure modes do not always match the theoretical critical limit stare. However, the designs were well balanced so that several limit states have nearly the same

60

capacity, making it uncertain to clearly discern the failure mode in the tests. The conclusion is tbat the AISC tables for connection strength (Ref. 4) can be conservatively used for HSS columns provided that the weld does not exceed the effective weld size determined from the HSS thickness and that the punching shear criteria is applied for shear tabs. The economically attractive shear tab connection was tested to a greater extent than the others. It was determined (Ref. 6) that the shear eccentricities were generally between the weld and bolt line and less than those used in the AISC tables (Ref. 4), except for combinations of HSS with very low width/thickness ratios and flexible beams. However, in the latter cases the experimental eccentricities reasonably matched those used in the AISC Manual. Since a smaller eccentricity leads to greater capacity in the bols and welds, it is conservative to use the AISC Tables for shear tabs.

I

I

HSS

WALL DISTORTION AND COLI.JMN STRENGTH

1

i
I

In order to determine the effect of the connection types on local distortion of the HSS columns in the 24 comection tests, strain gages were mounted at the center of the wall one inch below the connecting elemenr. The transverse strains measured or extrapolated at a common 50 kips shear form the basis for comparison (Ref. 3).
Connecdons such as tabs and single angles that have load transfer through a weld at the center of the HSS have the highest transverse strains. These will typically exceed yield even at service Ioads. An exception to this is the through-plate that inherently reinforces the center of the wall and the rransverse strains are negligible. Connections with welds near the sides of the HSS have significanrly less transverse strain at the center of the wall. The end plate and seat angle connections produce little transverse strain. Longer connections with five bolts produce less transverse strain than 3 bolt connections and HSS with thinner walls or higher b/t tend to have

larger strains.

In order to address the question of

whether

local distortion of the HSS has a detrimental effect on the column capaciry, a series of tests were conducted to compare the influence of shear tab and through-plate connections. These rypes of connections represent the extremes of inducing transverse strain into the HSS wall. A previous paper (Ref. 7) presented test results leading to a conclusion that there was no significant column strength reduction between shear tab connections and through-plate connections. However, this conclusion was based on only four tests using HSS with a b/t ratio of 16. Recently similar column tests were conducted with b/t ratios of 29 and 40 (Ref. 3). This study with eight tests included symmetric

t_ FIG.

2 -

COLIIMN TEST SETUP

61

of the HSS and unsymmetric connections on just one side. Both snug and tight bolts were included in the originel four tests, but only snug tightened bolts were used in the eight laær æsts.
connectionr¡ on both sides

The æst setup for all the column tests is shown in Figure 2. In these tests, the beams were loaded to about 70% of the connection capacity and then a load was applied to the top of the column until a buckling failure occurred in the lower portion.
Table 3 presents the column strengths as ratios of the maximr¡sr experimental load divided by the yield load given by area times the satic yield strength from a tension coupon taken from the . wall of the HSS. The nondimensional wall slenderness of the HSS is defined as

(s)
In the U.S.,
a thin-walled tube is defined as one having

a

less than 0.67.

TABIÆ 3 - COLUMN STRENGTHS FOR TABS vs. THROUGH-PI-4,TE TESTS

blt

d.

CONNECTION

Pr,/P,

TWO SIDES
15

ONE SIDE

1.39

Through-Plate, Tight Shear Tab, Tight Through-Plate, Snug Shear Tab, Snug Through-Plate Shear Tab Through-Plate Shear Tab

0.53 0.51

0.s0 0.49
0.63 0.61 0.58 0.45
n

29 40

0.89 0.60

0.42 0.46 0.42 0.42 unsymmetrrc tests

The tests connectron on two failed gradually in bending.

The conclusion from Table 3 is that shear tab connections used with HSS column rrat are not thin-walled will develop essentially the same column snength as those where the wall is reinforced with a through-plate. With thin-walled HSS, shear tabs may have a detrimental effect on the axial column capacity. For connections on only one side of the HSS column, there is no strength reduction for using shear tabs. It is safe to assume that these conclusion hold for other types of simple connectioris that have smaller transverse strains.

SI.]MMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
The test programs have shown that the variety of simple framing connections typically used in

62

steel constn¡ction can confidently be used with HSS colum¡¡s that are not classified as thinwalled' The tabulated connections capacities and criteria for evaluating .àr.""tions that appear in the AISC Manual (Ref. a) can be applied when HSS columns ui"d. The limit states that must be considere¿ are ã simple thickness criteria "r. punching only addirional for shear of the HSS wall when shear t¿b connections are used anã a limit on maximum effective weld size based on the HSS thickness. connections that involve welding at the cenrer of an un¡einforced HSS wall will produce local strains that exceed yield. However, the resulting wall distortions are urr.ly noticeable and not nearly as great as the distortions of the conn"cting elements. The local distortion in the HSS wall has negligible influence on the column capaci[ as long as rhe HSS is not walled' This applies to connections on one side oi the HSS or synmetric classified as thinon both sides.

careful consideration should be given to the type of connecrion specified in a design, since rhe connection cost can vary by a factor of 2t/2.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The connection and column tests programs were supported by the steel rube Instirute of North America and additional funds for the shear tau invästigarions were provided by the Society of Iron & steel Fabricators of wisconsin and Arsc. The HSS maærial was provided by the Tube company of America. Special thanks is due to Dave Mathews of Ace Iron & Yd9"9 steel company of Milwaukee who fabiicated the connection material and provided the cost estimates for fabrication. The work was conducted over several years by four graduate students; steve Herlasche, Joe Ales, ch¡is Haslam and Homyan Boloorchi.

REFERENCES

Korol, R.M.; Ghobarah, A.; and Mourad, s. 1993. Blind Bolting w_Shape Beams to columns. J. of gtpctural Eneineering AscE, ll9 (12): 3463-34g1. ) : A New Manufacturing process, Flowdrill bv, utrecht Netherlands. 3. Sherman, D'R' 1995. sirnple Framing Connections to HSS Columns. proc. Narional $teel construction conference: 30-t to 30-16. American I^rilr;;s;"iä*rruction. 4. American Institute of Steel Constn¡ction 1994. edition. LRFD Vol. 2: Chicago IL. 5. American Institute of Steel Construction 1993. [or Strucrural Steel Buildings: Chicago IL. 6. Sherman, D. R.; and AIes, J. M. 1991. The Design of Shear Tabs With Tubular columns. Proc. Nationar steer construction conferãnce: 23-7 to 23-14. American Institute of Steel Construcrion. 7. j_^Y t.1"d Sherman, D. RBeam connections ro Recrangurar Tuburar
1.

H-SS

l:,r,'.T1r' Columns.

19!9.

Construction.

:

1-7 to l-22.

63

FATIGTIE OF HOLLOIV STRUCTURAL SECTION lryELDED CONNECTIONS
A. M. Yan VYingerde', J¡ A. Packer'

ABSTRACT
An overview of the two currently-available fatigue design methods is givèn. The preferred method for fatigue design of connections between hollow stn¡ctural sections is the'hot qpot stress method, rather than the classification method which appears ii mosi curent tru.*J .od; ;; specifications. Recommendations for S**- Nr lines are given for aII welded HSS connections, together with thickness colrection factors and references to parametic formulas for the

deærmination of stress concentration factors (SCFs), wherc available. The design philosophies are supplemented by a practical design example, to show the use of the fatigue desìgn tools pìresented in this paper.

SYMBOLS AND NOTATION

A F M
N,
S Sril*

Cross sectional area of member considered.

b h

r
t p

bt
e

o,
a

Axial force in member Bending moment in member Number of cycles to failure. Elastic section modulus of member considered. Hot spot stress range: SCF.o, External width of member considered. External height of member considered (for square sections: h - b). Corner radius of member considered (for square and rectangular sections only) tl/all thickness of member considered. Brace to chord width ratio - br/bo. Width to wall thickness ratio of the chord: b/b. Angle berween brace(s) and chord Nominal stress range (stess range according to beam rheory). Brace to chord wall thickness ratio : t/to.

Subscripts Member
Loading

0: chord I : brace a: axial stress m: in-plane bending stess

'Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto,35 St. George St., Toronto, Onta¡io M5S lA4, Canada

64

INTRODUCTION
Falisue is the process by which fluctuating loads cause local stresses and strains which are sufficient to induce localized micro tt*.turul changes resulting in the development of cracks. ln principle, all structures subject to variations in live lãad stress should be checkèd for fatigue.

A few major differences exist with regard to static srength: Failure occurs slowly, by cracks growing with each load cycle. This allows for inspection and repar. o Failure occurs at sress levels which a¡e often an order of magnitude lower than the static

o

o o

ultimate stess. The local sness disribution is of major importance, unlike static behavior where the ductility of the material allows major favorãble srress redisributions. Th"r"f"*-,h; il;;, 9l"n cannot use simplified skess disributions due to yielding as a basis for fatigue design. l¡¡ a previous AwS announcement for the 7994 conference on fatigue of stuctures, approximately 90vo of stn¡cn¡ral failures were claimed to be caused by fatigue.

In spite of the frequent occulrences of fatigue failure, the amount of fatigue-related design rules, fairly limited. Existing HSS fatigue design rulei given by the IIW (Ref. 1), or in Eurocode 3 GC3) (Ref. 2) or the Aws Dl.t design coãe (Ref. ã¡, .r" all based upon research results for circular hollow sbr¡ctural sections only.bther design spåciRcarions, such as the general steel building design codes by the AISC (Ref. a) and CsÀ fn"r. sl and the bridge design codes by the NCHRP (Ref. 6) an¿ tt¡e MTo (Ref. 7), only contain a general classification method' Even the best existing fatigue design rules a¡e fairly cruãe .o-p-rã to the overall level of modern sbr¡ctural codes. These rules are based often on the nominal sness approach, or contain inconsistent hot spot sFess defînitions, inadequate thickness correction and no (or primitive) SCF formulas' As such, these codes no longer reflect the current knowledge on the subject, which has been extended by r€cent and ongoing tesearch programs, especially within the European community (e.g. Refs- 8,9,10). As a reiult, a more prJ.ir. hot qpot ,i.r, method can now be established to rePlace the previous inaccurate nominal stress and hot spot stress approaches for the fatigue analysis of welded HSS connections.
research and education is

PRINCIPAL FATIGUE DESIGN METHODS
This method simply uses the so-called nominal srress, which is determined f¡om simple beam theory (or: F/A * without taking the uneven stress distribution around the perimeter of the Yfì, weld into account- This stress is than plotted on the S,.- N, line of the class of the connecdon considered' to arrive at the number of cycles to failure. Its great advankge over the hot spot method is its relative ease of use. It is most useful for consrructional details ior which the fatigue behavior does not vary considerabry with the actuar geometry of the connection.

However, for connections made of hollow stn¡ctural sections, with widely varying fatigue behavior, either very many classes and rules have to be defined or the rules must be based on the

65

connections in the group with the lowest fatigue resistance, leading to excessively conservative results for other connections. The classification methods in both AWS (Ref. 3) and EC3 (Ref. 2) grouP connections together, such as in the design example in this paper, which based upon the hot spot stress method have a factor l0 difference in allowable stress for a certain number of cycles to failure. In other cases, ttre classification method has been found to be unconservative (Ref. I l).

Hot Spot Stress Method
stress, but through the so-called hot spot sEess, which is the maximum geometrical stress occurring in the connection wherc the cracks are usually initiated. The ratio between the hot spot süess and the nominal stress which causes this hot spot stress is called the stress concentration factor (SCÐ. kl the case of welded connections between hollow stn¡ctural sections, the hot spot sEess occurs at the toe of the weld. k¡ principle, one Sru- Nr line can now be used for all t¡pes of connections, since the SCF incorporatcs the differences in stress distribution around the perimeter of the weld.

In the hot spot stress approach, the fatigue life is not directly related to the nominal

problem with this method is the determination of the SCF. In the past rwenty years, many inærnational investigations have been carried out, leading to S¿.*- Nr lines, together with a number of parametric formulas for determining the stress concentration factors (SCFÐ for various qpes of connections. However, if parametric formulas do not exist, or the pammeters are outside the range of validity of the formulas, expensive numerical analyses or measurements on experiments have to be carried out. Also, the various design guides do not have the same definition of the hot spot stress, some definitions yielding at least a factor of two difference with others. It would not make a difference for the design if both SCFs and S,¡...- N¡lines in one design guide were a factor of two lower than in another, but it can cause errors if the SCF is based on formulas from one design guide line and the S*.r.- Nrline from another. Therefore, it is important that S'¡.r.- Nrlines and SCF formulas come from the same source, or are verified with each other.

A

HOT SPOT STRESS DEFINITION TO BE USED FOR HSS CONNECTIONS
In order to be able to determine the effect of combined loadings, it is necessary to establish fixed positions where the SCFs a¡e determined. For circular HSS these are the crown and saddle on the chord and brace, whereas for rectangular HSS the stresses should be considered at five positions A to E on the chord and brace (see Figure 1) (Ref. 8). kr order to exclude very local weld defects in the case of experimental measurements, or numerical singularities in the case of Finite Element analyses, the stress at the weld toe should be determined by extrapolating sEesses measured at a given distance from the weld. As the stress increase is generally non-linear with respect to the distance from the weld toe, a "quadratic extrapolation" is recommended. The procedure is described in (Refs. 8,12).
The hot spot stress is thus defined as the extrapolated stress at the toe of the weld, along the lines of meâsurement considered, (see Figure 1). In case the angle between brace and chord is not 90", the brace is no longer symmetrical ourof-plane of the connection, and lines A to E will have to be considered at both toe and heel. For K-connections with overlap, four more SCFs occur in the braces in the overlap area (lines A and E in either brace), resulting in a total of 14 SCFs.

66

The total hot spot stress along a line of measurement is the summation of all nominal stresses in all members of the connection multiplied by their respective sress concentration factors. h the case of HSS T- and X-connections, loaded by member axial forces and in-plane bending moments, the total hot spot stress can be determined at all lines of measurement of Figure 1 by

(Ref.8):
S,¡...: o.¡.SCF,, + o.r.SCF.,

+ o'o.SCF',o + o.o.SCF.o

(l )

As a consequence of using fixed positions for SCFs, the hot spot stresses found may underestimate the true hot spot stresses in each member if the direction of the principal stresses deviates from these lines, especially if the stress concentration is small. In that case, the stresses at other positions, or in other directions or at the inside of the members, may be higher. Therefore, a minimum value of 2.0 is specified for SCF., and SCF,, in the proposed design recommendations.

Circular HSS

Rectangular or Square HSS

Figure 1. Fixed positions at which SCFs should be determined for HSS connections.

PROPOSED DESIGN RULES FOR HSS CONNECTIONS Basic S*"-N, line to be used for circular HSS An eÍtensive'investigadon on fâtigue by the UK Departmênt of Energ! has been ca¡ried out recently on the basis of 400 welded circular HSS connection test results (Ref. l0). The resulting S^,.- N, line has been proposed for inclusion in the new DEn design guidelines and is also the basis for the proposal in this paper. As the DEn line runs at a 1:3 slope until 10 million cycles and then at a 1:5 slope until 100 million cycles, the general shape of the line is very similar to the EC3 S^,.- Nr lines. To enable future inclusion in EC3, this line has been translated into an EC3 classification of I 1'4, which means that a hot spot stress range of 114 MPa (16.4 ksi) is specified for a fatigue life of two million cycles. This revised S.,.- N, line, which only differs from the proposed DEn line in the high cycle region (> 5 million cycles), is also suggested for the AWS Dl.l code (Ref. 8). The recommended S*..- N,line is shown in Figure 2. Basic S*,. -N' line to be used for rectangular HSS A statistical analysis of test daø based on welded square HSS connections, together with a thickness correction, resulted in an EC3 classification of 90 (Refs. 8, I l). The slope of the S*,.- N, line is l:3 until 5 million cycles. For higher numbers of cycles the line becomes horizontal for

67

constant amplitude loading (no fatigue damage). For variable amplitude loading, it runs at a slope of l:5 until 100 million cycles as adopted in EC3 and then becomes horizontal (see Figure 2).

Correction factors for wall thickness The basic S*-- N,lines (EC3 class 90/l 14) are for a wall thickness (t) of 16 mm only. l. For 4 S t < 16 mm, a positive correction factor is applied to the basic S,*- Nr lines benveen N¡1,000 and Nr5 million. This is because thin HSS connections will exhibit a longer fatigue life than thicker HSS connections, for a particular hot spot stress rÍtnge. For N,larger than 5 million (variable amplinrde only) all lines are parallel to ttre basic lines in Figurc 2agan. 2. For t < 4 mm, the influence of the root might be governing, thercby reducing the fatigue stength, so these thicknesses are outside the range of validity of the thickness correction. 3. For t > 16 mm, the correction factor of the new DEn guidelines is followed, since the rcsearch program on square HSS connections (Ref. 12) did not include specimens wittr >l6mm. The equations of the S**- Nr lines arc given in Refs. I and I l. However, the resulting S*-- N¡ lines for various wall thicknesses, shown in Figure 2, are easier to use for the designer.

6 À

6' o.
¡l(x)

-.
vt
EO

= -.400
_a
a

lD

Æ2ú
6 .D o
ct,

Ê

(D EO

c

Æ
6
tt, c¡ a/,

2oo

att
!

ã ct
o

1(x)

U'
!

Ë Êt
o

roo

l0-

l0
Nufnber ol qrdes to Failure Nt

Numbet of Cìdes to Fallure t{,

Figure 2. Recommended S*-- Nr lines for welded circular and rectangular HSS connections, with various wall thicknesses.

SCF Parametric formulas to be used Formulas for circular HSS are given by Efthymiou (Ref. l3). The combination of these formulas and the S^n.- Nr lines of Figure 2 for circular HSS has been verified by van Delft et al. (Ref .9). For connections made of square HSS, SCF formulas are available for T- and X-connections and given in Table l. By means of a tentative correction factor , they can also be used for non-90" connections (Ref. l4): Lines B,C,D : SCF is the lesser of : SCF¡ormutaeoo and l.2.SCF¡or,'.,urr.-sin2(O) Lines : SCF is the lesser of : SCF¡ormuraeoo and l.2.SCFr"*,ur.m".sin(O)

A,E

68

No data is available for rectangular hollow sb:uctural sections with h*b. However, it is believed that chords with 0'5sh/bs2 would not show considerable differences in their scFs, so rhe formulas given in Table I can be used for such connections too. Formulas for square HSS Kconnections have been developed (ref. 15). These formulas ¿¡re as yet not verified against test results and further simplification is necessary since the designer now has to use about 100 complicated equations for the anarysis of a singie K-connection.
Table I SCF formulas for 90. T- and X_connections ular hollow structural sections for lord.d b !Çft "onn..tionr Line B SCF=(-0.0 1 I +0.085.p- o.ot Line C SCF:( 0.952-3.062.þ+2.382.þ2+0.0228.2ry).Zlt-0.øso+s.Btl.F-4.68s.þ4.r0.7s Line D SCF=(-O.05 +0.332.þ-0.258.F\.2^y Q.o8+ t.062-þ+0.s27.F\.f 0.7 s Lines A,E SCF=( 0. 3 90- 1 .05a. p+ I .t 1 5.þr.Z^y (-0. I s4+4.ss5.Þ-3.sor.p2¡ Minimum SCF: SCF,, > 2.0 Fillet welds: Lines A,E: SCF,,:1.4g.SCFr*h (if F = 1.0, line A cannot have a fillet weld) SCF fot loud"d "onn".rionr, Line B SCF:( 0.1 43 -0.20a.þ+O.06 a.F\.2.y Line C SCF:( 0.077-0.129.F+0.061.F2-O.OOO¡ .2^l).?.y(t.s65+r.874.p-r.028.þ2).ro.ts Line D S CF:( 0.208 -0. 3 8 7 .þ +O.209.F\.Zl Q.e25 +2.3e8.p- ¡ 88 ¡ p2). r 0.75 Lines A,E S CF:( 0. 0 1 3+0. 69 3. m+ t .8s8.þ -2. t @.F2) þ -0.27 B. F2¡.2y Q.7 Minimum SCF: SCF., > 2.0 X-conn. ,p:1.0: Line C: SCF=0.65.SCF,*, and Line D: scF:0.50.scFf*h Fillet welds: Lines A,E: SCF.,:I.40.SCFr*r" (if F = i.0, Iine A cannot have a f,rllet weld) loads on trr" "r,ori Line C s cF:O. 725 Q1 0.2a8.F.a o. t s Line D s cF: I .3 73 Q7 0.20s.F., o.za

z.gz¡.zy@

r@

.

.

@with
of

rscnffi

4*g"

validiry:
12.5< 2y <25.0
0.5< ho/bo<2.0
þrms for line

0.35< Ê sl.0 1.0 < rltS4.0

0.25<

¡

<1.0
1.9

)*i:::Tib:i:lt 27
terms (excePt the

h,,õ,:

c)

and is no reflection of the accuracy or sensitiviry of the formulas.

-

69

DESIGN EXAMPLE
In a Vierendeel truss, a T-connection is loaded as shown in Figure 3. The loads shown are actually load ranges. Chord is 200x200x8 mm, Brace is 100x100x4 mm. The corner radius is nvice ai large as the wall thickness and a partial penemtion groove weld is used. Required fatigue life:2 million cycles.

J F:4O kN

M:l4kNmí.
Case

|
Figure 3

)

M-r4kNm

I

Chord: 200x200x8 mm, Brace: l00xl00x4 mm -) F-0.5, Znl:ZS,r:0.5. Ar:1495 mm2 and 50-362163 mm3 1A¡, So calculated from member dimensions, taking corner

radii into account). Nominal sEess ranges: o¿¡-p/{¡: 26.75 MPa, ono:lvflSo- 38.66 MPa. Determine the relevant SCFs for lines A to E using the SCF parametric formulas of Table l: SCF"r A: t 4.33, SCF"r B: I 8.55, SCF"TC- I 6.56, SCRI D-8. I 4, SCF.oC={.95, SCFToD: I .62. Note that the SCF of line E is equal to that of line A (same set of parametric formulas) and that the SCFs due to bending moment in the chord are 0 for all lines except for lines C and D. No axial forces on the chord or in-plane bending moments on the brace occur, so these SCFao and SCF ¡ do not need to be determined. The total hot spot stress in lines A to E follows from Eq. l: S,¡,.4 :14.33.26.75-384lvPa,highest hot spot stress r¿rnge in the brace. S,¡,.8 -18.55.26.75-496 MPa, highest hot spot stress range in the chord. S,¡,.C : I 6.5 6.26.7 5.+0.95.38.66-480 MPa S,,,'D - 8.1 4.26.7 5+1.62.38.66:280 MPa. Brace: see Figure 2, rectangular sections, t:4 mm, S*,".: 384 MPa :> Nr= 300,000 cycles. Chord: see Figure 2, rectangular sections, t-8 mm, S*,.:496 MPa:> Nr= 30,000 cycles. Therefore, the fatigue life of the connection is, determined by chord failure, only 30,000 cycles.
Case 2

I-et's double the wall thickness of the chord: 200x200x16 mm and keep the same brace: Ê:0.5, 2t¡=12.5,t4.25,4r:1495 mm2 and 5o:607638 ñffi3, aar26.75 tvtpa anà omo-23.04 Mpa. SCFaTA-6.19, SCRrB:2.84, SCF.TC-2.46, SCRID:7.54,SCF.oC-0.76, SCF,¡6D-1.28. S,¡.4 :6. 1 9 -26.7 5 :l 66 MPa, S.-B :2.84 .26.7 5 -7 6 lvfPl a S,¡*C :2.4ó.26.75ú.76.23.04:83 MPa, S,¡.D :1.54.26.75+1.28.23.04:71 lvpa. The highest hot spot stress range in the brace, 166 MPa is less than 50Vo of the previous example, even though the nominal stress range in the brace has not been changed. h the chord, the highest hot spot stress range is 83 MPa,less than 20vo of the value in the firsr üy. Brace: see Figure 2, rectangular sections, t:4 mm, S*,: 166:> Nr> 5,000,000 cycles (the fatigue limit for constant amplitude loading). Chord: see Figure 2,rectangular sections, t:16 rnrn, S,¡".: 83 Mpa Nf = 2,000,000 cycles.

-t

70

Just doubling the wall thickness of the chord results in about 70 times longer fatigue life or, for the same fatigue life,4 times the load.
Case 3

I-et's instead double the wall thickness of the brace: l00xl00x8 mm and keep the chord from case I at200x200x8 mm. F:0.5, 2y25, r:r.00, Ar2779 mm2 and 5o:362163 mm3, o"r:r 4.39 Mpa and o'o:33.66 MPa. SCF"TA:14.33, ScRrB:31.2, ScR¡c:27.85, SCF"TD:l3.69,SCF'6C:1.0g, SCFT'D:1.91. 56,.4 :l 4.33.14.39 :206 MPa, S¡,..8 :31.2.14.39 :449lvlt:a S,¡..C:27.85.14.39 +1.08.38.66:443 MPa, S,¡..D:13.6g.14.3g +1.91.3g.66 :Z7l lvpa. The highest hot spot stress range in the brace, 206 MPa, is about 50Vo of case purely l, due to the change in the nominal stress range in the brace. In the chord, the highest hot spot stess range is 449lvPa, almost the same as case 1. I-ooking at Figure 2 for wall thi.k r.rr.s of g mm for the brace and the chord results in a fatigue life of 60O,000 cycles for the brace and slightly over 40,000 for the chord, so there is hardly any improvement in iatigue life, compared to case l.

Analyzing this geomerry: F:l .0,2yr2.5,t:0.50, Arl495 mm2 and so:214621 mm3, o^r:26.75 MPa and 0.o:65.23 MPa. The nominal stress in the chord is higher than in the first geome¡ry, but due to chord and brace having the same width, Iow scFs occur:. SCF"¡A:1.85, sc&rB:0.27, sc&rc:I.38, scF"rD:0.68, SCFrec:1.19, SCFToD:1.95. Since SCF.I has a minimum value of 2.0, SCF",:2.0 for lines A to E. S*. A :2.0O.26.75:54 MPa, S,.,. B :2.00.26.75:54 Mpa s*. c :2.00'26.75+1.19.65.23 MPa, S*,. D :2.00.26.75+1.95.65.23:tgl Mpa. Brace: see Figure 2, rectangular sections, t:4 mm, S*,.:54:) Nr) 5,000,000 cycles. Chord: see Figure 2,rectangular sections, t:8 rnm, S*".: lgl Mpa:> Nr= l,OJó,000 cycles. This connection is almost OK (a factor of two in fatigue life means about 25vo difference in stress range), despite a smaller chord than in case l. The higher fabrication costs for this connection may well be justified by the improvement in fatigue strength.

of l00x200xg mm (bo : 100 mm) with a brace of l00xl00x4 mm. This chord has smaller cross sectional area (about T3va) compared to the original chord of case l,whereas the brace has the same dimensions as in case l.

Case 4 lnstead of just increasing the wall thickness, let's nry a chord

:l3l

Case 5 Staning from case 4, let us again double the wall thickness of the chord, although such a large increase seems hardly necessary here. Try a chord with 100x200x16 mm, 50:3361õg mm3, 2t¡=6-25 (this is ourside the range of validity of the formulas), r:0.25, omo:41.65 Mpa. All SCRr are still 2.0, SCF,6C:0.88, SCF.6D:1.43. S*,. A :2.00'26.75:54 MPa, S*.. B :2.00.26.75:54 Mpa s^". c :2.m.26.75+0.88.41.65 :90 Mpa, S*". D :2.0o.26.75+1.43.4L65 l3 Mpa. Brace: see Figure 2, rectangular sections, t:4 mm, S*.,.: 54:) Nr) 5,000,000 cycles. Chord: see Figure 2, rectangular sections, t:16 mm, S*.,.: I l3 Mpa Nr= I,000,000 cycles. No improvement over case 4.

p:i;,

:l

-,

71

Conclusions from the design example Compare cases and, 2: a doubling of the chord wall thickness leads to a 70 fold increase in fatigue life. On the other hand in cases 4 and 5, a doubling of the chord wall thickness yielded no improvement in fatigue life, the lower hot spot stress range being completely negated by the lower S*,- Nr line due to the thickness effect. The designer has to strive for low stress concentration factors: l.arge values of p (above 0.8) lead to a direct force transfer from brace to chord and hence lower stress concentration factors. One can use rectangular sections to obtain favorable p

I

o

values.

o a

Very small values of p would also help, due to an even stiffrress disuibution around the brace. For many connections this does not have a beneficial effect until P<0.3, which is outside the range of validity of many parametic formulas. Increasing the chord wall thickness causes lower nominal stresses in the chord. More important are the lower values of 2T (yielding lower SCFs in the whole connection) and ¡ (lower SCFs in the chord). Increasing the chord wall thickness is often effective in raising the fatigue strength of a connection. But if the SCF is already low, as in case 4, the SCFs remain the same and the thickness effect will often negate the effect of lower stress ftmges. Increasing the brace wall thickness is generally less effective. The main aim of the designer is to obtain low SCFs: with SCFs of about 20 or more, as in cases I and 3, the allowable nominal stress range of the connection will almost certainly be too small for practical application. CONCLUSIONS

It should be noted that the position of the S*.- N, line is dependent on the definition of the hot spot str€ss, so it is important to use a specified combination of S*.- N, line and parametric formulas rather than picking them from different sources. The use of a S*.- N line without matching parametric formulas, as is currently the case in AttrS D1.1, is therefore not
recommended.

The new S**- Nr lines, as presented in this paper, were determined in conjunction with the parametric formulas recommended herein. The recommended design procedures are backed up by extensive tests as well as numerical analyses and are expected to avoid the current excessive over- or underestimation of the fatigue capacity. In addition, fabrication costs can be lowered for smaller wall thicknesses yet still utilize their inherently higher fatigue strength. Clever choices of the members will result in low SCFs, which is by far the most effective way to increase the fatigue life of a connection.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The research was carried out with the financial support of CIDECT (Comité International pour le Développement et l'Étude de la Constn¡ction Tubulaire) Programs 7K and 7P, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and NATO (CRG No. 930101).

72

REFERENCES
1.

I¡ternational lnstitute of Welding, Subcommission XV-E. 1985. Recommended fatieue design procedure for hollow section ioints, IfW doc. XV-582-85, IfW Annual Assembly,
Strasbourg, France. European Committee for Standardization. 1992. Eurocode no. 3: Design of steel strucrures - Part 1.1: General rules and rules for buildines, ENV 1993-1-l:1992 E, British Standards

2.

4.
5

6.

7.
8.

9.

10. 11.

t2.
r3.

t4.

15.

lnstitution, London, UK. American Welding Society. 1994. Structural Weldine Code /Steel, ANSVAWS Dl-1-94, 14th edition, Miami, USA. American Institute of Steel Constn¡ction. 1993. Load and resistance factor desi8¡ specification for stn¡ctural steel buildinss, 2nd edition, AISC , Chicago, USA. Ca¡¡adian Standards Association. 1994. Limit states desim of steel stn¡ctures, CAN/CSASl6.l -94, Rexdale, Canada. National Cooperative Highway Research Program. 1993. Draft LRFD bridse design specifications and commentary, NCHRP 12-33, Modjeski and Masters Inc., Consulting Engineers, Harrisburg, USA. Ministry of Transportation of Ontario. 1991. Ontario hiehwav bridee desisn code, OHBDC-91-01, 3rd edition, Downsview, Canada. \ü/ingerde, A.M. van; Packer, J.A.; and Wardenier, J. 1994. Cnteria for the fatigue assessment of hollow structural section connections. Journal of Constructional Steel Research,35: 7l-1 15. Delft, D.R.V. van; Noordhoek, C.; and Da Re, M. L. 1987. The results of the European fatigue tests on welded tubular joints compared with SCF formulae and design lines. Proc. Steel In Marine Structures (SIMS '87), eds. C. Noordhoek, and C. de Back: 565-577, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd. Thorpe, T.W.; and Sharp, J.V. 1989. The fatigue performance of rubular ioints in air and sea water. MaTSU, Harwell l-aboratory, Oxfordshire, UK. V/ingerde, A.M. van; and Packer, J.A. 1994. Fatigue design of connections between hollow structural sections. Proc. AWS-WIC lnternational Conference on Fatigue, American Welding Society, Miami, USA. Wingerde, A.M. van. 1992. T\e fatigue behaviour of T- and X-joints made of square hollow sections. Heron 37 (2): l-180. Efthymiou, M. 198S. Development of SCF formulae and generalised influence functions for use in fatigue analysis. Proc. Offshore Tubular Joints Conference (OTJ '88), UEG Offshore.Research, Englefield Green, UK (with subsequent colrections by Shell Co.). Wingerde, A.M. van; Packer, J.A.; Strauch, L.; Selvitella, B.; and Wardenier, J. 1996Fatigue behaviour of non-90" square hollow section X-connections. Proc. 7ù Intemational Svmposium on Tubular Stn¡ctures. Balkema, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Wingerde, A.M. van; Packer, J.A.; and Wardenier, J. 1996. Determination of stress concentration factors for K-connections between square hollow sections. Proc. 6ù ISOPE Conference, International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers, Golden, USA.

73

'lI
I

t t
EARTHQUAKE.RESISTANT DESIGN PROVISIONS
FOR TTJBT]LAR STRUCTT]RES

L

Yoshiaki Kurobane* and Koji Ogawaf ABSTRACTS
topics like earthquake forces closely Essentials of seismic design are outlined first referring to differences in design methodology related with the enrigv-"uiãoing capacity Jrtto"torãr and forbuilding.str.uctures' Then three main subjects between American *î¡up*,"i"ão¿Jpt*isioni

t
r
ä'.iiiffi :lô"-i

jäf i:l';rråf ifjåT;fh
secúon

t
{

,eiatioo t" the Kobe LessonJþamed from

girder.o*".tiãorln

"H'ïîH:xf:*n:lig,'r'";"å'iå"rl;l:i'f frames; and 3' ¿t"tiúl*quiremens for moment resisting
earthquake'
.

ESSENTHI,S OF SEISMIC PROVIS|IONS a-p$reg{arluitting stn¡ctures' Many seismic design codes provide static seismic forces for simple oii.g"t than ordinary br¡ilding stnrctures, the dyqamic^ However, when strucü¡res ¿ue irregular Two representative examples of analysis is the only *.ihod to deþãnine dl-sifr-seismic forces. statiô design forces are shown below.
base of a building is called the base The total lateral force due to earthquakes assumed to act at the (Ref. l) can be calculated by shear. The base rtt"*ïá..";dúË 6 the Uniform Building Code

t
t r
L

v_zICW rR.
where

(1ì

r t

Z = seismic zone factor | = importance factor. C = base shearcoefficient. W = the total seismic dead load supported at the base' R = ieduction to.ï* tã u".o*t roi äirr.renr energy absorbing capacities of various stn¡cn¡res w
in cyclic loading.

t
L,
I

(called the Japanese building code The Building Standard Law of Japan and its subsidiary laws he¡eafter) specifies the base shear as ¡rt\ \z) v = DrFesZ C W where

L
r'
I I

I

þ- = í:.=

reduction factor having a function similar to 114*' äiriprìäã":,iãliã"tot ioïcounr for vertical stiffnëss inegularity and horizontal torsional

l.
a
i

inegularitY. formulas follow Editorial modifications of the original formula are made in Eq. 2 so that the two the same format as much as possible. ZC' The intensity and nature of ground motions assumed in these formulas are rePresentedby x Professor, Faculty of Engineering, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860, Japan

!

I

:
74
L

Tabte

I

Comparison of Rn ÞllDr) Values for Special Moment Resisting Frames and Braced Frames between UBC and Japanese Building Code Provisions
REQUIREMENTS FOR BRACED FRAMES

Dr=l1R,
0.083

l,< 1890/tî

0.083

0.25

),,s

4giljí
< 1.3
or
891/\,-F"

0.25 0.25

4gyJl
Japanese

0.3<p3
x

0.7

3.3

0.3 0.35 0.3

Building
Code

ßilt+E s Sglt\tl

2.9
3.3

< À<1981/r,T

0.3<ps

0.7

2.9 2.5 0.4

a) 4 = specified minimum yield stress of steel being used. MPa NL = no limit À = slenderness ratio b ) Ê = rat" of lateral force resisted by bracings to the total design lateral force
When p = 0, frames concern the special moment resisting frame.
concern rhe dual system consisting

*hen

p>

0. frames

of a SMRF plus bracings.

which is expressed
1.2 1.0 0.8

as an acceleration response spectrum of a single-degree-of-freedom elastic system with a damping capacity of 5 Vo critical.

The values of ZC for Zone 4 (the zone of highest seismic risk) calculated from the two formulas are compared in Fig. I This figure
shows that the ground motions assumed in the two codes roughly coincide.

N

o

0'6
0.4
o.2

-s,
-S' 012345 I
seconds Specified Ground Acceleration Spectra for Design (S,J'SrJo denote the site coefücienl Soil becomes softer in this order.)

-St

A great difference between these two codes lies in values of R =llD. These values for two typical buildiirg strructures, a moment resisting frame and a braced frame in steel,
¿ue compared

in Table

s,

figure, the Japanese building code is
recommending more conservative design than the UBC. The UBC. however. uses the allowable stress design criteria to proportion structures. In addition it specifies design

l.

As is evident in this

0.0

Fig.

I

details to ensure sufficient ductility of the structures. Therefore, R,, serves more

7s

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 o.2

0.6

o.5
0.4

0.3 o.2
o.1

Es: rel¡

RANK I RANK II RANK III
:

0.1

bet fol,

0.0

5

10

15

0.0

15 (b) coLUMN MECHANISM

tnr
sec

(a) BEAM MECHANISM

N

I-e:

Fig.Z D, Factor for Monent Resisting Fra¡¡es according to AU
Table 2 Rantrs of Structures Vùicd with their Ductilitr

ßet

2)

ßef.2)

Ma

PLASTIC DEFORMATION FACTOR OF MEMBERS FAILURE
TYPEA REQTJIRED FOR STRUCTTJRE OF
C

Ho anf sta Th'
she

RANKI
3

RANKII
0.75 r.5 2.75 3.9

RANKIII
0 0
",

ductile

6

bnrtle

5 8.4

2.4

wh

Th'
her

Note:¿¡ The ductile failure shows a gradual load decay after reaching the peak load owing to plastic insability like local buckling of plate elemenrs. The brittle failure shows a sudden loss of load-carrying capaciry at the peak load. See Fig. (a) below. When ductile failure occurs, the energy absorbed in the decaying branch of load deformation curves is taken into account for evaluating hysteretic damping capacity. b) The both beam and column mechanisms form a panel mechanism sustaining plastic hinges either at beam ends or at column ends. respectively. See Fig.(b) below. The girder to column connection should be detailed to have a sufficient strength capable of developing plastic hinges either a¡ girder or column ends. c) The plastic deformation facror is defined as the ratio of õol6,on the fictitious perfectly elastic plastic load deformation curve, which has the area under the load deformation curve OAB' equal to that under the actual load deformation curve OABC. The cumulative plastic deformation factor of a story under cyclic loads a¡e calculated based on the plastic deformation factors of members and connections. The stn¡ctures are classif¡ed in Ranks I. II, and III depending on their ductility. See Fig. (c) below. DUCTILE FAILURE

wh

Ed:

the Th,
DEFORMATION
(a)

DEFORMATION

.F

la.)la-.'....+l

lô"1 õe
(c)

I

76

The selecrion of R*. values factor ro reduce the base shear. than just a physical reducdon functions mannerbased on rhe pasr experences'
have been made

in. ä¿#äñ;;;äiã"¿¡"äg."enhl

design criteria to the contrar¡" uses the ultimate-strength -t'tr-e-ráauction far as sreel The Japanese building code, on in responses io"ground-motio-ns' so is -in p, by considering the barance structures. D, *äny .ur"r.tr,îiãl-uä or i, determiñed äeformations of stn¡ctures .on..r,i"d. struc$res ¿itiipä"J;;;i;$; anã inelasticmoment res-isting frames is "r. of the energy input,".r,ä.*äïä¿iñ" ãi.*-pl.orproporäJ;;i¿ñi9t *uüiiiotv of D' as functions of the dwine earthquakes titt uãfi"t i6i fnef, Zi. ît"r.'f,g*"s show i'ustiated in Figs. 2, ãr.tt.ottures' and ínclude (a) moment beams' number of stories N;;äîË ì,iäilrc õilñ;:iÑith weak columns and suong (=l/R*') with suong Naturally, D. frames or"*u*pìîriurir'i'-" ã"nneðin Table 2' The prastic ¿"ror,outiol'.ãp*i,v ¡r.uui" áamases (namelv'-inelastic itä Ëräi;'"*;i ,n* iãiit'. iãÃ"ion"r becomes srearer ones' on fewer stories in the latter deformations) tend,äT""à""*à " by the story drift limitations' according to the uBC are governed Most of the buildings designed In consequence buildings thos. i'"",iri¡ãl"i'"t.-u""iloinfcoaä. are a riure moie strin-gent than which tt" same safety lever against ¿inerent cf¿e. iËn¿ ro have á-uãut according; designed in R*. factors between the two' earthquakes, in "onrräiä;".e';;tãiff"r"n""r function of the in inverse-prop^ortion to an-exponential The frequency of earthquakes increases specifies sêrviceab'itv limit siate criteria for moderare Th. building'

proportion

linr?åä;"Iñ"

¡" iö;d ¿"r";ä*" ;ä;iv .fiä;"iä;;"ù;#;;ää

.,

il# *"

magnitude.

earthquakes ,nu, ."'Ëïiä-.*ã'iã-õ3"u, The a'owabre desisn crireria only

story ãriüii*¡t"tions.menìioned bv requiring rhat structures remarn r9r rai.e i"iå"rã criteria. oesigning struätures thesã ""nh-quakgs irouáuitity of such an occufrence' fiom the nea¡rv elastic i, gr";öi"å.äîãøä -¿ ""¡rî,n^ul. äåti uet v uv tne- gnlrgv di s s ipati on q',jårî " Re sp-onse s,o ttår'¿r"adv been discussed tully in connectron "unr, rendered uv in"l"rtiJääårirî"iiä,i*rr*;;;;'ririr aamages io buildings due to yielding during it*"tu'ul with the R... factor. The both codes allow' reading io loss of life is .uä,^r"pil;.ãiiupí.

Jd;,"Ëî;ilffi;;4; f"."fi;ï;i;;; õ;úõä siruice period of each th" Úriõ óo¿. spêcifies the serviceability srress ãå'rign is used *ith ;;;.ri,";;. abou" are one example of
implicitly. rire

ä;ffi ;; ñ"*:i; ;;ä;ñ;ä

severe earthquakes,

à" .ã"¿i,ion rhat a

oii*.ror.i

avoided.

Designershavetopredictfailure.modes.oftheirstnrcturestoevaluateseismicforcesfordesign' ilñ the designof structures against other is an essenrraä'"iä;;;ãr in. t"i;;;;;ry"ih" subje*ofltnãplastic deformation capaciry This *tã^il;;;' loads tike gravity "r;;;-'";t-¿ in the following Sections' discussed *oiã tfttifically

will

be

SEISMIC DESIG¡{ OF TRUSSES
than seismic l-section girdersìn general' Loads other Lattice girders afe sÛonger and lighter-than there exist trusses seriouslv ñ;;es' Ho-üeuer' forces frequently gfîïråìirJä";;ö;i Ë.'-;o* rp""å;"ì"Ñdü;r:,h trussed frames damaged during the affected by earthquakes. High-rise structures are more difficult ^fo, recenr Kobe earthquake are oñe outstandüñ;öi;ïä;11¡^frussed owing to. a greater difficult-v- in èarthquakes to-ã"iign than special ,nom.r,tì.sisring rram.s f- ,f,. t?lt*. desigir-of hollow section trusses' however' rs predicting faiture ,";ä;t:'ïËï"ii,o¿ several .*,înt-iä:lLlì:íJese stu¿ies include tests of or with now advancrng rapidty based on ,..rn, slabs well as compositt t*tttiãither with concrete proposed by complere steel trussei(Refs. 4.5) as háve recently been conirete-fired chords (Refs. o,zl. reni'a;'";ä¿ñ;ild.li;;;guidelines are now in progress ano r.íitiõn of the îunt.r Architectural Insritute of Japan fRef. 8).. in the nea¡ future (Ref' 9)' The i";;1ii'R"commendaìions tt¡at wilr be t.uläa w'r be incruded

77

following part of this section first reviews the behavior of planar, triangulated, directly welded

will

sreel trusses under cyclic loads. Then, be discussed.

AII

proposals for the seismic design of SHS lattice girders

Behavior of Circular Tubular Trusses under Cyclic Loads

-j

An example of load vs. deflection curves of tn¡sses under cyclic loads, extracted from a series of tests of 15 complete tn¡sses (Ref. 5), is shown in Fig. 3. The tn¡ss was a Warren type cantilevered tn¡ss under a cyclic shear load applied at the loading end. The tn¡ss first sustained out-of-plane buckling in one of the braces, accompanying a sudden drop in load. The buckledbrace is indicated by the B symbol. After this, the deflection increased at a nearly constant loa{ showing a stable hysteretic curve, because the chords carried a pan of the shear load as beams. The small open dots in the figure indicate formations of plastic hinges. Ar this stage, the K-joints sustained a shell bending chord failure at positions denoted by the S symbol. This was caused by a redistribution of loads in members. Axial forces in members framing into K-joints were balanced before braces buckled. After a brace buckled, however, the axial force in the brace was quickly lost. Then the K-joints ca¡ne under combined inplane bending and axial Ioads and failed at a load lower than the capacity of the K-joint under balanced loads. This sequential failure of the K-joint wz¡s confirmed by drawing a load path of the measured axial forces in the two braces framing into the K-joint. An example of such load paths is schematically shown by the path A in Fig.4.
The load path of the axial forces in the two braces first follows a 45 degree line because the two braces make the same angle with the chord. Compare the load path A and the K-joint on the left hand side in Fig. 3. The axial force in the compression brace suddenly increases while that in the
r50 P(k AMLYSIS

-ïEST
,' -0.03
-0.0 R(rad.l
0.04

0.03

-r50

Fig.

3 Load rs. Deflection

Relationships for Truss

78

Another example of sequential failure is sheñ bending chõ¡d failu¡ã åi; Kj;i;ï?orro*in! iãieiui buckling of a chord, although the test results are nor ri¡ãrn ¡ere. The braces iustaine¿ out-of-plane bending loads after the chord buckied laterally.. The K-joinr failed ar a load irg"ii=r.-uv lower rhan the capaciry of the K-joint under balanced ¡oa¿s because ãf comuined load
The P symbol in Fig. 3 denotes punching shear cracks in the joint. The C symbol denores crack initiation and extension in the brace wdlJdong the wel¿ ioes.'rnese cracls úãiãiouna only after the joints sustained significant shell bending a''enection walls, either due io shell bending failure of the chord wãus or local bucklingäf tn. "iiuur ut^ð. i,g. 5iì These cracks appeared to be ductile tensile cracks accoñrpanying shåarilip_planes fS.e ùur.iæî¿"å rapidly under cyclic loading, frequently having led to a conipleíe sõpatation äf a brace from a chord. The material at hot-spots along the weld toes sustains.larle plasti.ìttàiniwell into. rrráin-t-¿ening range. The material's toushness deteriorates owing ío i.p""iLã .ãiã-*otting. rtriiitroül¿ u. rhe reason for quick developrñentt or.tuóLi,ã,iã"ghîo c¡ie¡on nái u".n identified to predict initiation and extension of ductile cracks at weld toes.

tension brace suddenly decreases as soon. as the other compression brace immediately adjacent to the tension brace buckles. As the.load path reaches the ultiriãte capaciry polygon shown by dashed lines, a shell bending.failure of the joint occurs. The ultimare-capacity polygon for K-joints has already been discussed by the authori (Ref. l0). when tne axi¡ forôe in íi,å t.iíion brace decreases, the K.-joint capacity decreases afo-ng the line. segmenlfreaain! ior trre vJoini.ãf^"ìij,

i"

compression.

"îr""t.'

.;;p;r;i;n

The dashed lines in Fig. 3 show the ¡esults of a point-hinge frame analysis, in which the plastic deformation over a Ie¡efh of a member is in-corpoíat.Jin täoial and rorarional deformations of a plastic.hinge. The elastic and inelastic deformationr ãr¡ái*r a¡e also taken into accounr in the llaJrsis' The figure shows that the analysis represents aótual behavior observed in the test well. Although the analysis s.ho¡v1 herewere nlrrgrmLa i" iõ8ilhr method of point-hinge anatysis has since been improved to include strain-haràenin_g effecis, *iìån ã"¿e possiblË ió å""urit.lv reproduce the post-buckiing behavior of tubular struts (ñ.ef. I I ).

In the tests of l5 trusses' some of the joints failed before members buckled. An example of load paths observed when K-joints failed beÏore buckJing ir

o¡;;;b;;t

ill*tiãü üvì¡.

p",¡, B in Fig.

N2M

\/

GOVERNING CRITERIA
K

K.JOINT XP.JOINT
Y-JOINT LOCAL BUCKLING

XP Y LB xN

¿

¡1N

s.

@
rNs xNt

puNcHrNG
CHORD WALL FAILURE DUE

'HEAR

@?

TO PALSTIFICATION

OR PUNCHING SHEAR

Fig"l

Load Paths of Axial Forces in Two Braces Framing into one K-Joints and ultimate Capacity Pol-vgon for Joints

79

4. After

the load pa¡h reached rhe ultimate capacity polygon, the a,rial load in the com-pression brace remained constant while that in the tension brace increased further along one of the line

segmenrsofthepolygon. Inallthesejoints,thecapacitiesobservedintn¡sstestscoincidedaccurarely wiìh those predìcted by the ultimate capacity formulas derived from the results of isolated joint rests. Namèly, no significant effects due to different boundary conditions be¡veen actual jointsin rrusses and iiolated joints (e.g. secondary bending moments and end restraint) were found. The uidmate capaciry of the K-joint is governed , unless tensile fracmre occurs, e-itherby localized shell bending deflection of the êhord wall or by local buckling of the compresfion brace in the reglon adjacent to the joint. The ultirr-rate capacity *N V which are most accurately predicted by the formulas of Kurobane et al. (Refs. 12,13), can be represented by the equation

t{u=
where

min(f,¡fs, xlv¿)
(3)

rìL

= the capacity of the joint determined by chord wall shell bending failure.
the caPacitY

iYt =
Fig.

of

the Jornt cleter-

5 Failure of K-Joints under Cyclic Loads Showing Cracks at \{eld Toes

mined by brace local buckling.

Proposed Design

Criteria

Conclusions drawn from the t5 rn¡ss tests may be summarized as follows: l. When trusses are under static loads like graviry or snow loads. existing capacity equations based on isolated joinr rests are effective to predict the ultimate bebavior of joints in tn¡sses. There is no need ro consider sequential failu¡es ofjoints following buckling of members. Trusses may be desi_ened either to have stronger joints than members or vice versa However, appropriate values for the resistance factor should be assumed with due considerarions on failure modes. K-joints with an excessively small _eap size may sustain prematue tensile failures with insufflrcient ductiliry (See Ref. l4). Trusses may fail more suddenly than the example shown in Fig. 3, when failures are soverned by buckling ofslenderchords. 2. Two merhods are applicable to the seismic design of trusses. The first method is to desi-sn the trusses to have suffrcient strengh so that both the joints and members resist the maximum possible load effects. However, the crack growth along the weld toes under cyclic loads must be avoided. One of strategies to prevent these cracks is to keep a reserve ofstrength forjoints so that chord shell bendin_e or brace local buckiing failures do not occlu at the maximum seismic loads. It is tentativelv proposed, from the 95Va confidence limit in verv low-cycle fatigue test results for T3. The second merhod

joints(SeeRef. 15),todesi,rnthejointstobe25Vc sfongerthanthemrximumloadeffects. of seismic design is to desi_en the trusses to have sufficient ductiliry so that they w-ili not collapse under the most unusual external excitations. In this latter case, joints should be designed againsr sequenrial failures includin-s tensile f¡actures. The rest results indicate that such sequenúal failures couid be avoided. rvhen thejoin$ are 25Vo stxonger than the buckling

80

Table3PlasticDeformationCapacit¡ofLstt¡ceGirdersandLimitingDimensions RANK
PLASTIC DEFORMATION FACTOR
I

n
2.75

III
2.00

5.00

x
T

x¿ll8

ll8>x¿lll4
i.s0.23+-t

x>1120

)'s0.23+2x

l{"",

"

=

L/L:

I

the total Length of the end segment divided by length of lower chord : slenderness rario ofthe lower chord

loads of members. In order to Perform the second design method, however, the energY absorbing caPacity of tn¡sses have to be evaluated based on buckline and post-buckling hvíteretii behavior of tíusses. The Pointhinse frame analysis meihod is one of the feasible waYs for this
purpose.

ALI Desisn Guidelines
rrusses' g-) definite crireria for the anarysis and design of The recent Au guiderines (Ref. propose design method for above lttre sirengttr which are applicabþärhJ ñ;r d;;igi úñä;;ntioned truss members *ere derived on the r.nÀtt i"rtors for joints are earrhquake loads). ñrË;ã-;ir".t"in" tt rtt"ngtr, design method requires that assurnption tnat¡oints åËf,;;ä "Ë-riäry.-îñ;; " effãctive lãngth factors-can be used in the rÑ 25 va sûonger rhan ,hä;ñ-uãloui'"nä,i: sEength design.

TheAlJguidelinesProposesaductilitydlsiencriterionfortrussesbeingusedashorizontalmembers in¿ir"te thai rattice girders under antiin soecial moment ;:üJn!Ë"*Ë;. Þ;rï,;;T;;ruji, aefolmarions of chords concenrraring at ã1ial svrnmetrical bending roads usua'). sus,ui;';Ëstic girders' Further' óf ine chor¿s goverm the capacity of th-e their end porrions,..il iîî;r*"IîJ.ffiË by floor systems. It is .tr srippüéd the upper chords oruuiiv do not buckre "ïiü;"-ä;*iiing "n ttrat ttrê loweichord buckles in the ãiul"rti.e firder possibre ro assume ,$'i.ï"äià,î;Ë;;;ã. in tõnsion ar the orher end (see Fig' 6). The end segmenr ar one JnJ,iril. the rower 9I"ø viãros ;itó*er chords are resrrained by concrete slabs' duct'iry is further i";;;;ã;nen tarer¿ u',*iJrif tn" ¿.îotmätion capacity of lattice girders can be g1l* 1: When this failure *;ã;-it "t;umeq, 3 conespìnd to those for brittle stnrctures ln Table 3. The pf"rti.-ã"fãr.ution factors in Table load decay after local buckling starts to occur at Table 2, because tuúuøt it*rs show a quictc flexurally buckled sections'

when the ductility design is performed using the

tiHI }iÏ:;Ï:.:Ï:iäT.ï"Ääi'iìfi¿i;iü;ü;'**{T¡:::::::Ì";1îil3:*ïî:,3:'Hå#lli; ät";;.qtitements Te: Both thé upper th:It T9 Ïltt"t
d:llySli:i::p-":i:iî:,:1?Il'll?lli,?;
1.

il;;Ñ;ki.lä. Âil tte joints are iuong enough; and.3' rensire ihe lo*er ciiãtot t u'. an *, 1f1i::,:d,1f?yi:îÎ:p,1il i,îË;; i i i ;r:' t.'j:ll, ::: : J:,'j -ql.::'l'. l,"f ll iîl'if b;.kli;ti;ad. The last requirement imp'o':: i t",tl:l ãiu*.,rt to thickness ratio ón chords. Less

,

e

I

T

lh

Lii"î."1i'"*ing

ri¡"Ëã"t design-criteria for Iess ductile latdce girders are
now under deliberation.

(emax - ey)

I€

>tag L"

When the girders are designed t-o þe. stron-ger- than the t: ll! columns, tñe strength desig'n metho-d is applicabl.t sho'*'n ln I aÞle lattice girders. In this latter case' D, factors fÁã2"ã"¿ Fig.2 can be used becãuse plastic hinges form

Fig.

6

Plastic Rotations at Girder Ends

inìft.

.ofumns-- The latter design is more popular than the

81

ductility design, especially in low-rise large-span buildings. The UBC also recommends the latter
design method.
i

-l

The dynamic analysis is the only method to proportion more comp.lextruss structures. The API recommendationJ(Ref. l6) a¡e proposing dynamic analyses for the design of offshore n¡bula¡ stn¡crures. The point-hinge frame analysis can be combined with the time history respons€ unqly{: for this purpose. Emphasis is placed on that joints should be designed to be strong enough to fulfill the suength or ductility requirements mentioned previously.

RESPONSES OF MTILTISTORY FRAMES 1VITH RIIS COLT]MNS TO STRONG EARTHQUAKES More than 90 per cent of steel multistory building frames in Japan use box-section colurnns due to their excellent crosssectional prop€rties to resist biaxial bending loads. Coldformed sections are cheapest and used most frequently. These sections are classified in two types by manufacturing process. When plate thickness is greater than about 20 mm, plate is bent at 4 corners and welded longitudinally by submerged or gÍìs metal arc welding. Lighter sections a¡e manufactured by continuous cold rolling and electric resistance welding. Hereafter, the former type is called the pressed section, while the latter is called the rolled section. Cold-rolled RHS sections experience cold working in both the longitudinal and transverse directions, resulting in final material properties with a high yield stress and high yield to ultimate tensile strength ratio (of about 90 7o). Pressed sections experience cold working only in the corner regions.
The Japanese building code requires that girder to column connections in special moment resisting frames are strong enough to wa¡rant formations of plastic hinges at the girder or column ends. The most rypical details of girder to column connections designed to fulfill this requirement is shown in Fig.7. These connections have through continuity plates (called the through diaphragm hereafter) at the positions of grrder flanges. Recently these connections are fabricated by

welding robots, resulting in a significant reduction in fabrication cost. However, the amount of weld deposits is

considerably large.

In 1987 a test performed at the Universiry of Tokyo revealed that pressed RHS sections with artificial notches on the
corners sustained brinle fracture under bending load reversals of a few cycles. Later tests of RHS columns with the through

l6ml6ml6ml6ml
Fig. E Example of Frames

diaphragms showed that brittle fracture could start from ductile thumb nail cracks that developed at the weld toes on the corners of columns during as early as the first or second half cycles of load reversals (Refs. 17, l8). Material deterioraúon due to cold working and high heat input during welding

82

alose developments and-grow$,of cr19!¡' ^Disputes were idenrified as lwo main causes lo1-?rly resisting frames' nH9 ,J.rion, ai columns in-special momenr about the suitability;'f ;Já:iorrnãã that discuss the ductiliry
The fottowing

;ñ;;ilË*dng

inu..tigaãä,i(iùï;. 8, rgl

is

Jn; ãithãìôt"*ortt'y

írames with RHS columns'

"tþt"t's

AseriesofdynamicanalyseswereperformedonseveralmultistorybuildingframeswithRHSbv p-¿aa"neáts *"t" taken into accounr
columns and r_secrio";;j;: using a ooint_hinge ;ålË;il1'rrïã.'îrËl*,iå-rn"tã"ror*"tions rh"

ù"ìå,íJ"o;ü;;;ry;ã
10

ããoä¿,i"¿. on.
5

;r,lÍidpiÈ

i#i;ä;liffi;J;
STORIES

Ëis

I.

**Y;¿i:i:ï"1';,ff ? iffi ::
All the girder to column
connections are designed as

of connection panels were also

STORIES

15 STORIES

shown in Fig.

7.

The

frames consist of three tYPes as follows:

tJ-

a
t¡l

t.L

l-

o uJ I
0
1

J-

o
0.01 0.o2
F¡ (rad)

E I
0.03

donðd by the Plastic design method in acco¡dance with the Japanese building code
0

l. Type O frames Propor-

0
1

0.01 0.02
F¡(rad)

0.03

0.01 0.02
B¡(rad)

0.03

l-

o
J-

F
JI

E

I ul
200 :
COLUMN

lI o
tr
J-

a D., factor of "ssuming 0.25. Member ilimensions are determined just to fulftll strength requirements reeardless of the dimensiõnal standard' The drift
Iimitations are i gnoredZ.TyWD frames in which

the bending strength of
sirders are increase arc JT íim"s; the shea¡ strength of

20

t-

l-

:
'

connection Panels are increased to 1.2 times, the

r Vvbv.rrt COLUMN

t.L

o
tu

J-

o tr t

--.i----i----!-'-

o ú J.
20

strengths of members and connection Panels, resPectively, of TYPe O frames. TvpeD frames are designed frames when the direction

tó'see the behavior of

r
l-

10

20

,r
l-J.

1o

n1o
l-

20

of horizontal ground

r o
u,
:E

i

-ietnoer

.i

IGIRDEF

---;----i.----:----

I
-

.JIJJ

o
)-

UJ

_-:----:-------rl

f

+---.i----i---

-"i-" i

-'

10200

1

10

20

0n1020
TYPE R FRAMES

TYPE O FRAMES

TYPE D FRAMES

motions makes an angle of 45 degrees with the girders (oblique earthquakes). 3. Tvbe R frames designed accõtding to the allowable stress design method with a D-factor of 0.2 as sPecified in' the Japanese building code. Members are ProPortioned following the normal design practice. The drift limitations a¡e considered.

Fig.

9

Responses of Example Frames to Strong Earthquakes

83

maximum velocity of
ground motions is equal to 50 cm/sec). The artificial

The ground motions used forthe analysis are the 1940 El Cenuo NS component, the 1952 Taft EW component and artificial ground motions. Thetwoobserved ground motions are scaled to conform with the desþ specra shown inFig. I (the

ground motions show a smooth velocity response
sPectn¡m curve at 120 cml sec over the period range greater than 0.6 second for 2per cent damping.

The results of analyses are shown in Fig. 9. The height of stories from the base is shown as the ratio to the total height of frames. The 3 graphs on the first row show the story drifts R, for the 3 types of fra¡nes. Story drifu of Types O and D frames lookthe same. Story drifu of Tyþ R frames exceed 1/100 slightly.

Fig. 10 Cracks initiated at a root of the cope hole ran acnoss the lower flange in a brittle Eânner.

The graphs in the second to fourth rows plot the cumulative plastic deformation factor at each story, which is the sum of plastic defonnation factors in the positive and negative directions, sustained during the earthquakes- The response plastic deformation factor defined in the above is denoted by 4. As seen in these graphs, plastic deformations occur mainiy in the connection panels, with the maximum 4 values being less than 20, while plastification of columns and girders is less. This statement is applicabie even to Type D frames that have the suengthened girders and connections. Plastic deformations in the columns concenrate only on the lower ends in the first story, with the 4 values being less than 10 in Type D frame and less than 6 in the other frames. These values of 4 can easily be accommodated with by Rank I columns specified in Table 2. Plastic deformations in the girders ¿ìre greater than those in columns. This fact, combined with extensive yieiding in the connection panels, helps avoidin-s concentrations of damages to the columns on a few limited stories. LESSONS LEARNED FROM KOBE EARTHQUAKES The Kobe earthquake recorded ground motions significantly stronger than those assumed in the design spectra shown in Fig. 1. One of the most unusual damage patterns found in steel multistory building frames after the 1995 Kobe earthquake is a tensile fracture of lower flanges of girders. Cracks started from roots of cope holes (See Fig. 7), at toes of girder flange to diaphragm welds or at notches formed by welding steel run off tabs on the both sides of each girder flange. These cracks frequently changed to low-energy fast failures as they grow (See Fi-e. 10). Although rensile fracrure at the welds between RHS columns and through diaphragms were found in manlr low-rise buildings, lack of penetration existed in all of these cases. No tensile failure rhat was expected ro occur at the weld toes on the corners of cold-formed pressed RHS columns was wirnessed. as fa¡ as sound full penetration welding was performed.

84

The damage parrern described above, however, is found reasonable from the numerical analysis results deõri'UeA in rhe previous section. Bending moments at the column ends are bounded by yielding of panel zones in the connections unless panel zones-are reinforced. The increased yield rtt"rs oirn"i.rials in cold-rolled RHS sections also helped avoiding tensile failures in these columns, because more energy was dissipated in girders. Since girders are frequenlly weaker than columns, details causing stress concentrations at the girder ends should be avoided. REFERENCES

l. Uniþrm Building Code.199l.International Conference of Building Officials- Whinier, Ca. 2. Il¡i¡nate Strength and Deþrnation Capaciry of Buildings in Seismic Design.1990. Architecn¡ral Institute of Japan, Toþo, Japan (in JaPanese). 3. ReconnaitsoÃr" Ràport on Damage to Steel Building Structures Observed Jrom the 1995 Hyogoken' Nanbu Earthquake. 1995. Steel Committee of Kinki Branch, Architecrural Institute of Japan, Osaka,
Japan.

Inoue, K., Yamamoto, K., Matsumoto, K., and Wakiyama, K. 1987. Nonlinear analysis to tubular truss tower subjected cyclic horizontal force. Safet-,r Criteria in Design ofTubular Stntctures. eds. Y. Kurobane, and Y. Makino: 47-56: Kumamoto Univ. , Kumamoto, Japan. 5. Kurobane, Y., and Ogawa, K. 1993. New criteria for ductility design of joints based on complete CHS rn¡ss tesrs. Tubular Structures V. eds. M.G. Coutie, and G. Davies: 57G581: E & FN Spon, London, UK. 6. Kurobane, Y., Ogawa, K., and Sakae, K. 1994. Behavior and design of composite lattice girders with concrere slabs. Tubular Structures V/. eds. P. Grundy, A. Holgate, and B. Wang: 69'76: A.A. Balkema, Ronerdam, The Netherlands. 7. Matsui, C., and Kawano, A. 1988. Strength and behavior of concrete filled tubula¡ trusses. Proc. Int. Speciatry Conf. on Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Structures,.4SCCS: I l3-l19. 8. Recent Research Developments in the Behavior and Design of Tubular Structures. 1994. Architectural

4.

Institute ofJapan, Tokyo, Japan. (in Japanese). Recommendations for the Design and Fabrication of Tubular Structures in Steel. 1990. Architectural Instirute ofJapan, Tokyo, Japan. (in Japanese). 10. Kurobane, K., Ogawa, K., and Ochi, K. 1989. Recent research developments in the design of rubular structures. J. Constuct. Steel Researcå l3: 169-188. I l. Ogawa, K., Kurobane, Y., and Maeda, T. t 995. Post-buckling behavior of circular tubular struts. J. Struct. Construct. Eng., AH 475:137-144 (in Japanese). 12. Kurobane, Y, Makino, Y., and Ochi, K. 1984. Ultimate resistance of unstiffened rubularjoints. J. Struct. Eng., ASCE I l0: 385-400. 13. Kurobane, Y., Ogawa, K., Ochi, K., and Makino, Y. 1986. Local buckling of braces in tubula¡ K-joints. Thin-Walled Structures 4: 234O. 14. Kurobane, Y., Makino, Y., and Ogaw4 K. 1990. Further ultimate limit state criteria for design of tubula¡ K-joints. Tubular Structures. eds. E. Niemi, and P. Makelainen: 65-72: Elsvier, London, UK.

9.

Y. 1989. Recent developments in the fatigrre design rules in Japan. Fatigue Aspects in Strucrural Design. eds. J. Wa¡denier, and J.H. Reusink: 173-183: Delft Univ. Press, the Netherlands. 16. Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Consrructing Fixed Ofrshore Plarforms. I 993. API RP2A-LRFD. American Petroleum In stirute, rù/ash in gton DC. 17. Kuwamura H., and Akiyama. H. 1994. Brittle fracrure under repeated high stresses. J. Construct. Steel Research 29:5-19. 18. Toyoda, M., Hagiwara, Y., Kagawa, H., and Nakano, Y.1992. Deformability of cold formed heavy gage rectangular hollow sections: Deformation and fracture of columns under monotonic and cyclic bending load. Tubular Structures V. eds. M.G. Coutie, and G. Davies: I43-150: E & FN Spon, London, UK. 19. Inoue, K., Ogawa, K. Tada, M., and Yanagihara. H.1994. Earthquake responses of member plastic deformation of rigid frame with RHS column , J. Construct. Steel 2, JSSC: 9- I ó (in Japanese).
15. Kuroba¡re,

85

FIRE PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE-FILLED TTJBUI"AR COLT'MNS T.T. L¡e end V.IiR. Kodur'

ABSTRACT
The fire resistance performance of concrete-filled hollow stn¡ctural steel coh¡mns is presented for tbree types of concrete filling, namely plain concrete, bar-reinforced concrete and fibrereinforced rooct te. Results from experimental and theoretical sn¡dies indicate that any required fire resistance, in the practical range for most buildings, can be obtained for hollorr steel columns through the three types of concrete filling. The important pararneters that determine the fire resistance of ¡þs sqlnmns are discussed. A fire resistance design equation, zuitable for general application and incorporation into codes is presented. Also presenæd is how the ãesigner can select various parameters to satisfy fire resistance requirements.

KEllilORDS:

Fire iesistancc design, HSS columns, Concrete-filled

INTRODUCTION Steel hollow structural section (HSS) columns ÍLre very efficient structnrally in resisting compression loads and are widely used in the constn¡ction of fr¿Ined structures in inúsnial builåings. HSS columns. like other structu¡al members, are to be designed to satisff the requireãrenrs of serviceability aud safety limit states. One of the major safety reçirements in UuitCing design is the provision of appropriate fire protection to structural members.' The basis for this rcquirement can be attributed to tbe fact that, when other measures for containing the fire fail. stn¡cn¡ral integrity is the last line of defence.
HSS columns are often filled with concrete in order to achieve increased load-bearing capacity. Concrete filling also increases fire resista¡ce. Through the utilization of a concrete core, external fire protection required for the steel can be eliminated, thus increasing the usable space in the building. Further, properly designed concrete-filled hollow steel columns can lead, in an economic ,""y, to the reaùzaiion of architectural and structural design with visible steel without any restrictions on fire safetY.

For a number of years, the Nationat Fire Laboratory (NFL), Institute for Research in were Construction, National Research Council of Canada, has been engaged in sh¡dies, whicb
supported by the Canadian Steel Construction Council, aimed at developing guidelines forthe design and construction of concrete-fìlled HSS columns. Both experimental and theoretical concrete studies, using numerical techniques, were carried out to investigate the influence of filling on the fire resistance of HSS columns. 'National Fire l¿boratory. Insritutc for Research in Construction, National Resea¡ch Council of
Canada, Ottawa, Canarja

KIA

0R6

86

EXPERIMENTAL
Test Soecimens

ST I.JD

IES

Fiffy-eightconcrete-filledHsScolumns*t*lî::1.1:*ttuttbvexposingthecolumnstofire' of tj?es cross sectioñs and wóre infilred with three The corumns were of circurar and square fibre-reinforced plain concrete (Pq; bar-reinfo¡ced- concrete (RC) a¡d
concrete; nanrely, was provided for the steel. concrete (FC). No åtemal fire protection

(width) of plate to end prate. The ouside diameters corumns were 3gl0 mm long, from end 4'8 mm to 406 mm and the walr thicknesses varied ftom the columns varied from l4l mm to conditions, concrete strength, load intensity, r2.7 mm. parameters investigate¿ ¡orjuJrl end -rigure shows erevation and cross-sectionar details of tlpical aggregatc and reinforcement. concrete' H-lS ãolumns fitled with three tlçes of

A'

l

ã.

o*-*Þ g
Ñ"^ ã"A4ntr¡ll.
O 295Ír1

./mÅ*

(t)

Colutîn PC

(b)

Coù.úûri

FC

(c) Cohíln

Figurc

I

t¡sod in firc Tests concre¡e-Frlled srecl columns asd cfoss section of Elevdion

87

The hollow steel columns wcre filled by pouring concrete into the colu¡nn througb the top opening and vibrators $¡ere used to consolidate the concrete. The average 28day cylinder strength of concrcte varied from24 to 49 MPa, while the corresponding sFength on the test day, which was four months or more later. varied from 24 to 59 MPa.
The reinforcement for FC filling consisted of steel fibres, with the percentage of steel fibres in the concrete mix being 1.77% by mass. For the RC-filling, lateral and Eansverse reinforcement The main bars and ties æ required was provided according to CSA-423.3-M84 (Ref. placed inside the HSS coh¡mn. spacing, were tied to form a steel cage which was

l).

Test Conditions
The tests were c¿rried out by exposing the concrete-filled gslumns to heat in a furnace specially built for testing loaded columns. The test funrace was designed to produce conditions, zuch as temperature, sün¡cffal loads, heat transfet to which a member might be exposed during a fire. It consists of a steel framework supported by four steel coh¡mns, with the fi¡mace chamber inside the framework. The hydraulic loading system has a capacity of 1,000 t. Full details on the characteristics and instn¡mentation of the column furnace are provided in Ref. 2.

Most of the HSS columns tested were subjected to a concentric load. Only three columns were tested for eccentric loads. The applied load on the colurnns varied from about 600/o to 140% of the factored compressive resistances of the concrete corc and about l0 to 45o/o of the factored compressive resistances of the composite column calculated according to the specifications of CSA/CAì.I3-S I 6. l -M89 (Ref. 3). The load was applied approximately 45 min before the start of the fire test and was rnaintained until a condition was reached at which no fi¡rther increase of the ærial deformation could be measured. This was selected as the initial condition for the æcial defonnation of 1þs çshrmn. During the test. the column was exposed to heating controlled in such a way that the average temperature in the fumace followcd, as closely as possible, the standard temperature-time curye of ASTM El l9-88 (Ref. a) or CANÂJLC-Sl0l (Ref. 5)The load was maintained constant throughout tbe test. The columns were considered to bave failed and the tests rvere terminated when the hydraulic jack, which has a maximum speed of 76 mm/min, could no longer maintain the load. The furnace, concrete and steel temperatures, æ well as the æcial deformations and rotations, were recordedat} min intervals.
Results

Full results of the fire tests on HSS columns, filled with PC, RC and FC are given in Refs' 6' 7 urd 8. Results from the fire te.sts indicate that the fire resistance of PC-filled HSS columns is about I to} h, as compared to about 15 min for unprotected HSS columns. For RC-filled columns and FC-filled columns fire resistances as high as 3 h were obtained.

88

The failure of the columns varied from compression to buckling depending on the size of the column and the type of infill. The majority of the PC-filled columns failed by buckling. Buckling was significant in columns with sectional dimensions less than 203 mm. Generally, the failure of PC-filled columns was by sudden contraction, while RC-filled and FC-filled columns failed by gradual contraction. The behaviour of concrete-filled HSS coh¡mns under fire conditions is illustrated in Figure 2, whicb shows the variation of the ærial deformation with time for the three types of concretefilling (Ref. 9). These three columns had similar characteristics and were subjected to similar load levels. As expected, thc columns expand in the initial stages and then contract leading to failure. The deformation in these columns results from several factors such as load, thermal expansion and creep. rWhile the effect of load and thermal expansion is significant in the early stages, the effect of creep becomes pronounced in the later stages.
can be seen from the figure that the deformation behaviour of the FC-filled steel column is similar. during tbe later stages of the test, to that of the RC-filled steel column. The initial higher deformations in fibrc-reinforced concrete-filled columns might be due to the higber thermal expansion of fi bre-reinforced concrete.

It

NUMERICAL MODELS
Tbe main objective of the experimental studies was to generate fire resistance data for immediate use by the construction industry and to provide information for the development of general methods of calculating the fire resistance of concrete-filled steel columns.
æ

û

Petm¡g

FClll¡ttg

nÞt¡l¡¡og

cu.
(ssú

llts

a a E 'ro o

Eto E c'o o

r G¡)

Clr. Hgg

(!2. r C¡l

to
a

E{o
t00

\
*r,ta \

l+ HtC FAr6r,

Tlnq mlnutlt

Egure

2

Comparison of Axial Deflections for Comete-Filled Hollow $¡¿sl Çslrrmns Exposed to F¡rc

Figr¡¡e

3

Conparison of Fr¡c Resista¡ce for Conc¡eæFilled Hollow Steel Coh¡m¡s

89

Mathematical models were developed for predicting the behaviour of PC, RC and FC-filled steel columns in fire (Refs. 10, I I , 12, l3'r. The steps associated in the developrnent of the models involved the calculation of the fire temperatures and the temperature, deformation and strength of the concrcte-steel composite construction. The calculation procedure was incorporated into computer programs. The validity of these computer prograns has been established by comparing the predictions from the models to test datå. The models can accormt for the important parameters that influence the fire performance of concrete-filled IISS columns.

The computer programs were used to carry out detailed numerical studies (Ref. 9) to compare the fire resistance of HSS columns with three ttpes of concrete filling. The fire resistance of similar circular and square columns, as obtained from computer models, is corryared for three types of concrete filling in Figure 3. The fire resista¡ces ofthe PC-filled steel cohrmns aremuch less than the fire resistances of the RC and FC-filled columns. The fire resistances of the FCfilled HSS column is almost the same as that of the RC-filled HSS column. Although it is possible to use the mathematical models for fire resistance design, the calculation procedure is elaborate and requires considerable skill and effort. A method more nritable for general application and incorporation into codes, is the use of design formulas in line with ionventional design procedures. The development of zuch design equations for calculating the fire resistance of plain concrete-filled HSS colunns, is illustrated in the following sections.

FACTORS IIVFLT,]ENCING FIRE RESISTANCE
The computer programs developed above were used to carry-out deøiled paranetric studies to generate a large a¡nount of data on the fire resistance of concrete-filled HSS columns. The lnfluence of various factors on the fire resistance of concrete-filled HSS columns was investigated through computer-simulated fire tests. The effect of various parameters on fire resistance for PC-filled HSS column is presented in this section. The influence of the variables wÍrs assessed by comparing the fire resista¡ces calculated for the various conditions sn¡died, with that of a reference column (Ref. l4). For this pl¡{pose, a column, with an intermediate diameter of 273.1 mrn a steel wall thickness of 6.35 mrU an effective leng¡h of 2.5 m and siticcous concrete filling with a strength of 35 MPa" was selected as a referencè column. Two refercnce loads were selected for the fire resistance comparisons, nanrely I 150 kN which corresponds to a fire resistance of the reference column of 60 min and 330 kll which corresponds to a fire resistance of 120 minThe influence of the various study variablcs is shown in Figures

49 and discussed below.

Outside Diameter of the Steel Section

In Fig. 4, the fire resistance of the columns is shown as a function of the steel outside diameter for thi wo loads of 330 kN and I 150 kN. It can be seen from the figure tbat the colurnn outside diameter. which is a measure of the column section size, has a major influence on the fire

90

resistance of the column. The curves in this figure indicate that tbe fire resistance increases more than quadratically with thc column outside diameter.
ThickTress of the SteelWall

The influence of the thickness of tbe steel wall on the fire resistance of the columns is shown in Fig. 5. It can be seen that, for thc smaller colum¡ diameters, the fire resistance tends to increase Ñ, for the larger sizes, ro dccrease with increasing wall thickness. The influence of the wall thickness is smãll, however, in comparison with that of the column section diameter. For practical purposes, it seems warranted to neglect the influence of thickness of the steel wall on the fire resistance of the column.

toül (30

kN)

l¡¡¡t

(1150 kN) e,

Ê25o
E g;

E
q;

160

Ê 6
6

200

0

Et* o
: ¡¡
100

9 g
0

E

120

eE) t¡.
0L
350
0

o

-ffi
-3s€-r, 4681012
Wallthidgless. mm

3?arñn

T3Íñ

i EÍr ;il-ttt* l¡al
16

100 150 ã)0 250 300
Outside diarnoler. mn

Figr¡re

4

Fl¡e Resista¡ce as a Function of Column Outside Dianeær

Frgure

5

Fl¡e Resistæce as a Function of HSS Wall

Thickness

Lo¡d
In Fig. 6, the fire resistance of the columns is shown as a function of the load for tbe reference co¡¡rirn, the smallest column and the largest column considered in the paranretric stt¡dy. For fire resistances abovc 45 min. which lie in tbe practical region, the fire resistances of the sslrrmng increasc sharply with decreasing load. Tbe influence of load on fire resista¡ce is relatively higher for thè iurg.r columns. For the colu¡nn with an outside diameter of 406.4 mm' for r*-.rpt.. a rcduct-ion in load of about 35% from 3000 lcl'{ to 2000 k}'I will double the fire resistance of the column from approximately I to 2 h. For the reference column, which has a diameter of 2ß.1mm, the loaðhas to be reduced by about 70o/oto double the fire resistance

fromlto2h.
Effective Leneth

In Fig. 7, the fire resistance of the columns is shown as a function of the effective length of the colu¡in for the two selecred reference loads of 330 kN and I150 kN and two strengths of the

91

concrete filling, namely,20 MPa and 35 MPa. The curves show that in the range of effective lengths of 2.5 to 4.5 m, the fire resistance is approximately inversely proportional to the effective length. The influence of the effective length is somewhat greater for low loads than for high loads. The influence of the compressive strength, howeveç is relatively grËter for the higher loads. It can be seen in Fig. 7 thaL for low loads and higbervalues of the effective length" the influence of the compressive strength on the fire resistance of the column becomes very small.
300
'l¿10

?fi

d¡rll.r d¡n* ln3.l ¡rút l O¡¡¡i¡a¡¡r: (4OA,llrrn)
O¡¡ilr
(ta1.3 rlrn,

o|¡td¡tr

120

35l¡Fr

Eæo
o' (,

_E
É,

100

20lPr


6

c

iso
roo
50

.9

t80 g

o'

g

l¡.

E


o
4{t

3!lMP¡

rr\\\
'a ______ì.

tr

2ori'r

æ

t¡d(3!!¡tl) t¡d(fisorto

o

æ00

,O(Xt
Load, kN

60æ

0 8000

O

LO ZO 3.0
Efieaivs len$t' m

'+.0

5.0

Figr¡re

6 Flre Resisance as a Function of Load

Frgr¡re

7

Flre Resis¡ance as aFrmction of Effective I-ength

Concrete Streneth
The influence of tbe concrete strength on the fire resistance of the column is shown in Fig. 8 for the two selected reference loads of 330 kN and I150 kN. The curves show a moderate influence of the concrete strength on the fire resistance of the columnThe influence of the compressive strength is greater for the higher loads than for the lower loads. For the lower loads, the fire resistancã of the colum¡ increases by approximately 40Yo if tbe concrete strength is roughly tripled and for the higber load by about l00o/o.

Tvoe of Aeeree¡te

In Fig. 9, the fire resistance of the reference colurnn is shown as a fi¡nction of the load' for a 9 show siliceous aggregate and for a carbonate aggregate concrete filling. The curves in Fig.

than that that the nrãieslstance of the column filled with carbonate aggregate concrete is higher of the column filled with siliceous aggregate concrete. In the practical regior¡ namely, for fire and resistances above 45 min, the diffeiencã in fire resistance between carbonate aggregate to 4O%- The difference in siliceous aggregate .on.rrt, filling varies from approximately 20o/o or higher fire resistañõe provided by the two tlpes of concrete tends to increase with lower loads f¡re resistances.

92

t \ ----I ì

siliceous aggr€gar' Carbonate aggrsgats

c c c
250 200
150 100
I
I

I

E

d o

o o
6
3t

c,
ttt
@

Ilt

c ao

@ @

o
l.L

l.L

þad

(330 kN) Load (1150 kN)

äño
Frer¡re I

Goncrete strength' kN

'so

2oo ?so

3oo

Funcüon of Ftre Resistance as a

Concrete

F¡sure

n

ff"ffiï^ï#"#fi"åiJ#åt"t

Suength

RESISTANCE DESIGN EQUATIONS FOR FIRE
were develo¡ed for the calculation of from the parametric studies, expressions shown Based on the data .äturnor fiiled with pläin coDcrete' As resistance oi circ,rfa, *a ,quur.îa's the fire resistanõe of hotlow steel columns parameters ,ú ñt-tne tue fire above, the most important filled with Plain concrete are:

o o o o .

width of the column The outside diameter or the outside The load on thc column The effective length of the column Concrete strength Type ofaggregate

Based on the relationships between_the

found in the fire resistance and the above paraneters, pc-filted Hss colurnn for the fire resistance of studies. thc iollowing. ro*ulu paramctric (Ref' I5):

ffiËä;";i;iild;s, *" "iãbtitt'"d empiricallv

R=rffi;o'
where:

(l)

= zL-day concrete strength in MPa; resistance in minutes; f. = specified R = fire of the column outside diameter length of tbe column in mm; D = length factor; L = unsupported

K

effective

93

in mm; C = applied load in kN; and f, = a constant to account for the t¡pe of aggregate and the crcss-sectional shape of the HSS column. For circular columns, the value of f, is equal to 0.07 for siliceous and 0.08 for carbonate aggregate concrete, while for coh¡mns with square cross-section, the corresponding value of {, is 0.06 and 0.07 for siliceous and carbonate
aggre1ate concretes, respectively.

. r r o o

Equation (l) is deemed to be applicable when the following limits are set on the parameters that determine the fire resistance of the column: Loads are not greater than the factored resistance of the concrete core deterrrined in accordance with CAN/CSA-SI6.I-M89 [Ref. 3]. Firc resistance not greater than 2 h. Specified compressive strenglh of concrete at 28 days in the range of 2040 MPa. Effective lenglh of column (KL) in the range of2000-4000 mm. Outside diameter (width) of the column in the range of 14&410 q¡n (l't0-305 rnm). Width (D) to thickness (t) ratio not to orceed Class 3 section according to CAN/CSA-S.16.lM.89 (Ref. 3).

¡

In the above equation, the fire resistance is expressed in terms of structr¡ral desig parameten¡. This offers a convenient method of integrating the fire resistance design with stn¡ctural design.
Using these equations, a designer can arrive at a desired fire resistance value by varying differefit stn¡ctural parameters, such as length, load, diameter (width), and concrete strenglh. The r¡se of these equations leads to an optimum design that is not only economical but is also based on rational design principles.

I h Bstlng Tpo S ConctÊtt l'(¡S.Cr r:a t-.

,rrs¡s¡-ã€

,,""**t<r^rn

.",eli
ER3ãFgg3ãã t¡ngü, KL
Efætiva
mm

RELù
FR:ËËsB3ãã L€îgñ
Eísctit€ KL n¡m
Souare Hollov Steel Colum¡rs'

Round

t

Hollæ Sleel Columns' h Fire Resistarice

'

thFireResistanco

Figr¡re

l0

Fre Resistance Design Graphs forconcreæ'Fiued Hollow coh¡mns

94

incorporated into the National The fire resistance equations evolving from these studies are (l) is rearranged so ¿ls to Auitaing Code of Canäda (NBCC, nef. tO). In the NBCC, Equation the required fire ¡esistance rating of a calculate the mærimum load carrying capacity, c*, for pc-filled HSS column. In order to make the âesign process simpler, the NBCC contains design ploned as a function of effective charts, for different fire resistance ratings, wherãin C* is lengttr for various column dimensions and concrete strengths'

pc-filled HSS columns and Figure 10 shows two such design g,uphs for circular and square commonly available in having a I h fire resistan"" rriing. For hollow structural sections of 30 MPa and 40 MPa can be read from the design C*"å, the C-, for concret" ,t
charts.

"rrgths

SUMMARY
protection to hollow structural steel Concrete filling offers a practical solution for providing fire .*"-al protection. Results from the experimenø] and numerical studies columns without of fire resistance, in the practical range for building constn¡ction, can indicate that any "-oun, filling. The use of fire resistance be obtained for HSi columns through three t¡pes óf concrete only economical but is also based on design equations reads to an optimim design that is not rational design PrinciPles-

-v

REFERENCES

l. canadian
,)

3.

4.
5. 6.

7.

8.

structures for buildings' Standards Association. 19g4. Design of concrete CAN3-423.3-M84. Toronto, Canada' columns' canadian Journal of Lie, T.T. 1980. New facility to determine fire resistance of Civil Engineering 7(3): 551-558' of steel stn¡ctures- cAN/cSACanadian Standar¿s Ássociation. 1989. Limit state design S 16. l -M89. Toronto, Canada' methods of fire tests on American Society for Testing ar¡d Materials. 1988. Standard P{, USA' Lritaing ro*t u.iion and matãrials. ASTM El l9-88. Philadelphia, methods of fi¡e endurance tests of Underwriters' Laboratories of Canada. 1989. Standard Canada' building construction and materials. CAN/IJLC-S l0l' Scarborough' fire resistance of hollow steel Lie, T.T.; and chabot, M. 1992. Experimental studies on the 6l l, National Research Council columns filled wittr;i;ir concrete, IRC Internal Report No. Canada. of Canada, Institute ior Research in Construction. Ottawa, the fire resistance of hollow steel chabot, M.; and Lie, T.T. 1992. Experimenøl studies on Report No- 628, National Research columns filled with bar-reinforced concrete, IRC Internal Ottawa, Canada' Council of Canada, Instirute for Research in Construction' 1995. Experimental ludies on the fire resistance of circular Kodur, V.KR.; -¿ lù, IRC Internal Report bollow steel columns frlled with ,t.ól-fibr.-reinforced concrete, Research in constnrction' No. 6g l, National Research council of canada, Institute for Ottawa, Canada.

f.f.

95

g.

Kodur, V.KR; and Lie, T.T. 1995. Fire resistance ofhollow steel coh¡mns filled with steelfibre-reinforced concrete, Proc. Second Univemity-Indr¡stry Wo¡lahop On Fibre Reinforced Concrete fuid Other Composites. Toronûo, Canadæ 289'3V210. Lie, T.T.; and Chabot, M. 1990. A method to predict the fire resistance of circula¡ concrete filled hollow steel columns. Journal of Fire Protection Engineering 2(4): lll'126. ll.Kodur, V.ILR.; and Lie, T.T. 1996. Fi¡e resistance of circular steel coh¡rnns filled with steel-fibre reinfo¡ced concrete. ASCE Journal of Strucn¡ral Engineering (in press). lZ.Lie,T.T.; and lrwiri" RJ. 1995. Fire resjsance of rectangular sæelcoh¡mns filld with barreinforcedconcrete. ASCE Joumal of Strucn¡ral Engineering l2l(5): 797'805. Performance of concrete-fitld steel coh¡mns etçosd to fire. t3.Ifudur, V.KR; an¿ tie; Joumal Of Fire Protection Engineering 7(2): l-9l4.Lie,T.T.; Invin, R.J.; and Cbabot, M. 1991. Factors affecting the fire resistance of circular hollow steel colurn¡s filled with plain concrete. IRC Internd Report No. 612, National Resea¡ch Council Of Ca¡ada, Institute ForResearch In Constn¡ction. Onawa, Canada. 15. Lie, T.T.; and Sfinger, D.C. 1994. Calculation of fire resistance of steel hollow structural steel columns filled with plain concrete. Canadian Jor¡rnal of Civil Engineering 2l: 382-385. Fire Performance Ratings. 16. National Building Cods of Canada. 1995. Appendix National Resea¡ch Council of Canada Ottawa' CaraÅL

tt:

D.

96

TUBULAR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES
by Peter W. Marshall

ABSTHACT

The following aspects of tubular offshore structures are covered in this paper: -fabri'cation & erection sequence, early failure/survival lessons, design functionality, forces, simþle joints, fatigue, fracture, weiding, inspection, bigger & better, and structural integrity.
INTRODUCTION Offshore structures are usually designed by teams of e_ngineers, involving several different technologíes. Althougñ the téam leàder is usually a structural engineer, the
environrnental loadings (wind, wave, and current), oil field operations and topside.safety considerations, economic venture and risk evaluation, foundatíon design (e.9. laterally loaded piles), construction oPerations, inspectíon and repair.

following other spebialties are álso ínvolved:

Guidance for þlanning, designing, and construction fixed gffs.hgre platforms can be found in API RP 2A, which-is the deJacto international standard, incorporated into the first edition of ISO DIS 13819 Part2. Marshall 1992 gives a broad introduction to the subject. Many other key references can be found in prôceedings of the Offshore Technology Conference (OTC).

Design is usually governed by considerations other llan in-place gravity loading. Conitructíon opeiaiíons often dÏctate the layout and architecture of thes_e^lqç^e lubular space frames,'which may be transported and launched in modules of 50,000 tonnes.

FUNCTIONALITY
The most common type of offshore platform is the fixed, steel, pile-supported qtructure. Over 3,000 of theseÏave been built-worldwide, in water depths up to 400-m. These are permanent structures, built to support up to 60 oil 4 gq.ç wells, together.with the ässociated drilling and production e{uipmerit, over a servicé life of several decades.

'

MHP Systems Engineering, 1711 Woodland vista, kingwood, Texas 77339

(713)358 641s

97

Mobile offshore drilling units, such as jack-ups, semi-submersibles, or ship-shape rigs, are used for exploratdry Oritling (to proVe oil ilep.osits.large enough to justify permanent platforms), or tb drill isblateO éâteli¡te wells which will be tied by pipeline to a nearby platform.

FABRICATION

& ERECTION SEQUENCE

Fixed offshore platforms consist of the following major elements: 1. jacket 2. piling 3. deck

The main structure is a welded tubular steel space frame, also calted jacke-t or template, which extends from the seafloor to just above the water surface. This is designed to. reslst the lateral loads imposed bV wind, wave, and current, as well as vertical gravity loads. The jacket is assembled oñshore, usually lay.ing on its side. Tf¡e tubes are custom fabrióated to size, and wetded together iñto ilafplanar bents. These are lifted into a vertical position a¡iO t¡eO together w¡tn aAO¡tional bracing to complele.the space frâme.. lt is then d¡<¡OOeO onto a bargè in one piece, torryed offshore, launched at sea, and set 9n thg sea floor by ballasting, often with the assistance of a large seagoing crane or derrick barge.

The platform foundation is established by driving tu.bular steel piling through the.jacket legs (or in deep water, through sleeves wh¡ch exténd only a sh.ort distance above the sea no-o4. The pilðs penetrate 3b to 120-m into the sea floor, and are attachedJg t|1e jacket legs'by weläing åbove water (or to the sleeveg.by gtoyling.the annulus). Veûical and, ovértuining loals on the struiture are resisted b.y axial loads in the piling. Lateral.and torsional lõads at the base of the jacket are carriled into the soil via portal action of the
laterally loaded piles.

A superstructure, or deck section, is set gn lop to complete the structure. lt carries the functional; loads ior which the structure is built,'keeping-men and equipment out 9f harm's way, above the waves. The superstructure is.typicâlly a composite of tubular, plate girder, and wide flange beam and truss construction.

EARLY FAILURE

/

SURVIVAL LESSONS

The first steel offshore platform in the Gulf of Mexico was built in 1947. Its construction was described in the motion picture Thunder Bay, slarnng Jimmy Stuart. ln.the hap.p[ ànding, he defuses environméntal opposition, sulvives a hurricane, gets a gusher, and of course the girl.
Hurricanes Audrey (1957) and Carla (1961) caused great destruction and death onshore, but only minor damäge óffshore, aloirg wiÎh usefulðgta-pl pile performance and wave foices. 'Hurricane Hilða (1964) cáusedihe failure of 22 offshore piatforms, many.of which completely disintegrated due io failure of their tubular joints. No lives were lost because of a'políóy of delmanning the platforms when theie was. warning. of an imminent hurricäne.'However, the eniuing investigations led to the modem punching shear.criteria for tubular joint desi(¡n, and the fìrst use óf improved steels in joint cans (Carter, Marshall et al 1969).

98

lmplementation of these _de.sign ìmprovements led to platform designs with considerable reserue strength (Bea & Marshall, 1976). ln hurricane Camille (1969), a platform designed tor 57-ft waves survived an 80-fl wave. ln hurricane Andrevù (1ggj), a'number of older pç-] 964 platforms were again weeded out; more remarkable, howeúer, was the surviv.al of platforms which were exposed to 2 to 3 times their allowable desijn loads, including some which were completeiy overtopped by waves (see OTC 7470-74i5).

DESIGN FORCES
9nSq a platform site has been selected, experienced specialists should be consulted in defining the met-ocean conditions from whibh operatinçj and extreme design criteria will be drawn. Wind forces are important to designing above water porlions of the platform, and for the the drilling and production equipment. A turbulent atinospheric boundary layer near the sea sudace has a rather co-mplex structure in space and time. Wind speeôs increase with ng¡gl,t above the w_ater surtacg,. and gusts can be up to 1.7 times the hourly mean speeà. wind contributes 10 to 20"/" o'nthe totál lateral load ón a pratform. Empirical relationships for estimatìng significant wave heights, given the wind field, were develo.ped during the second world war, to assist in planñing a-mphibious landiñgË. l; ã natural sea state, wave heights vary ¡q1Qomly, as. de'scribedly tfie Rayleigh d¡stiiOution. The.most likely extreme wave out of .100_0 w_aves (about a 3-hour storm) Èi.eO1imeînä slgnificant wave height, or 3.7 times the RMS water surface fluctuation.

theories,. e.g. Stokes Sth, must be used to.describe water particÍe üelocities and accelerations, requiring the use of a computer.

Water particles ín deep water waves travel in circular orbits, rotatinq in the direction of waYe travel, with.the, magnitude of motion decaying.with depth. Horizóntal velocity peaks at the wave crest, while horizontal acceleration-an-d pressuie gradient peaks So-rJegreeé (1/4 wave lengtl¡) ahead of the crest. For steep extieme storÉr waves, n¡gh óioði"wã"e

ln addition to wave action, tidal currents, wind-driven currents, and ocean circulation currents contribute to the total water particle velocities.
When a vertical cylindrical (9.g. jactet leg).is subjected to a horizontal pressure gradient, lateral forces analog,ous to buoyancy result; furtfiermore, since the boäy partiall"y ¡tockj the flow, an "added mass" eff-ect creates additional forces in phase'r,iritn ü¡é lateral pressure gradient and water particle acceleration. A turbulent ivake behind the bodv creates a drag force. which is proportional to water parlicle velocity squared. lt has beeíl empirically.observed that reasonable-design forces äre obtained by suþerimposingthesà effects, us.!g the'Morison eguation for eãch incremental length ót eácn mãmOei ñ thé platform. The drag and inertia coefficients in this equation hãve been calibrated on iuil scale wave force measurements. Forces increase in the presence of marine growth.

Although there are .many,-computer -programs for analyzing space frames, special fe_atures,are required for ófrshorb platfbrmé. Wave theory'is uËualty integráteã'w¡if' ne structural analysis, to avoid having io manually transfer huþe volumes of däta. Distributéd gra)/lty, þuoyancy, and wave forces along the members are collected into fixed-end forces and moments at the. nodes, prior to solving the. structural matrix. During stress recovery, these same distributed forces must be recälled in order to get correct ËenOing moreÁíd along the entire length of the members, as the critical momeñt is often near

mij-spil.

99

Since the behavior of the laterally loaded pile foundatio¡t is highly non-linear, special techniques are required to actiieve compatible solutions for both structure and
foundation.

ln some areas, otfshore platforms must also be designed for the effects of floating sea ice, earthquakes, or mud slides.

SIMPLE JOINTS
circular tubes. These have been extensively reviewed by the Underwater Engineering Group (1985) and by the present author (Marshall 1992a). Most connections are made by simply welding the-branch member (e.g. bracing). to- the main member (e.g. jacket leg). ln the US, welds in T.-, Y-, and K+onnections, made from one side withoi¡t óa'cfing acõbrding to AWS prequalified practices, may be presumed.to develop the full strengthõf members joined. _Mogt design problems aripe, not in the weld, but in ihe main merñber, which muðt transfer loads from one member to another via óuncning shear and shell bending stresses. A locally lhickened section of the main ñ.tËrOãrlol¡oint can, is usually prÑiOeO for this purposé. Typically, this is about twice as thick as the attached braces.

ln offshore structures, most of the structural connections are tubular io¡nls involving

The static strength design of such connections is described in a companion paper
(Marshall 1996) ãnd the Aþpendix thereto (Marshall 1989).

FATIGUE
Fatique may be defined as damage which results in fracture after a sufficient number of streõs fluctúations. Fatigue performance or capacity.is characterized by S-l¡_99rves, plots of total stress range (óeak+o trough) versu-s cyðles to failure (at say 97o/o lur_vival). Referring to Figuré l,'fatigue anatysis for offshore structures includes the following elements:
Long term wave ctimate is the starting point for estimating the demand.side of cyclic tbáOing.'fhis is the ensemble of all seã states occurring yearly (or for the structure lifetime).

(1)

cybtic membér stress for each sea state of interest.

(Z) Global space frame analysis is perfo-rmed to obtain

structural response in terms of

stress concentrations at all potential hot spot locations.within the tubular must be considered, since fatigue failure initiates as a localphenomenon. òonnections

(3) Geometric

(4) Accumulated stress cycles are then counted, and applied against suitable S-N òúrves, using Mine/s rule of cumulative damage.

100

ìi;Ëä'äùoulo'o'" rããrrrãð
Ëääãåiñ;, jib

äläiriãtã'¡å1'r,"'iõt"t

artei shakebown by a. strain gaugg..adjacent to and oeroendicutar to tñã ¡ntJrsection weld. Hot spot stress places mãnyïifferent connection äffiäi;i"î.oñ ä-cöärrrón uat¡s. tre rhicroscopic l''o!.cþ effecls, .metallursica.l
Hot spot stress can be derived from nominal member stress using a parametric SCF Kellogg: lèireãä concentration factor) formula, such as Alpha

å'3ål:?"î,î"1"?å1'J3,ï'å::?Ëül:!'-ä,"'Fl"f;l'!Éy"l'iü'd3 Filt?:"r"?'f#ffi ranle to stíess or strain, on the outside surface of the intersection

¡nc¡p¡enf ciácks at the toe of the weld'are built into the S-N curves, which ãi"'brpír¡ãä¡ry OaseO on a large data base of tests on as-welded haró¡vare.

SCF-1.8atsin0vt
where T ¡s the ratio of branch to main member thickne.ss, 0 is.the angle between member parameter 99 given in aré, T is ma¡n rLr¡ãi mdius/thickness, and a is thg,oyqll-=ing lpg. and 1.5 for.-oPÐÃwS ol.l-go r"Ër":ã.e (i:o for k, t.7 lor'TN,2.4tor X. 0.67 toi S-N Âúèmãt¡uety, cr rãv oË ,èø q"giqqtaJe effectivg.cygl¡ç punching shear for use with of AWS Dl .1-96 Table 2-6). tilÑåJxt aírd t<z (éee Note 5

2 compares Atpha tfllggp with othe.r morg scPhlsticated.parametric offormulae þo!.spot áäanãVtical ápprããctiãslo Sdr_"té,g. finite elemg!'¡l). ftre ordinate is the ratig with Alpha õ'Ëñ;ñ¡ís lnË.i Èigrre s stïows how well tiot spot strg¡s, calculated as well as does "rõ"d Ëiãdúãáiòts i"t¡guã peñormance of tubutar conneit¡ons. ltscatteraboutbias on the and with similar
Figures méà;-uîdd not spot êiie!ð ¡n the original database, safe side (Marshall 1993). The foregoing sc F reflect the overall ge.ometry oj lhe tubular connectiot¡I¡:TgÏ[" notãf,lftËct o:t tne weld itseff is not expäcitly cal-culated, it does enter inlo the cholce ot sñãruË. rtiJ upp"iðurväãxl áo kf appiy to joints in which the weldsnersg il-Tihy ivrti irrð aojoiniñg tase meial, for joints niifn oranch members up to.2S-mm thick. Lower sthicker'weldments, a size gfecJ Ñ';ñ;;-åpöiy-¡itiã *elOs'are not sc profiled.. For effect of thickness and profile i: Th'e combined lào-ùóúóñ ¡riial¡glä ãtiåáõn ãppries. ;hõñ iá riguie?. This salme apþróach to fatigue, SCF, and S-N curves appears in API RP 2A and ISO DIS 13819 PartZ.

FRACTURE
or Most fracture control problems in offshore structures occur in the tubular connections strelgth, tþe hot spot.repiqp exoerience triaxial inéi utt¡rate nodes. As these "uónding, "p-prãrén f+tg" defiect¡on.eifects, and.load stresses, loca¡iz$Ëldil'g; iüiy Ëi"rtíð ðñ"lr in the presence of ùeld tóe notches place extraordinary iå¡ði¡¡^itión. rnesé occunences on the ;"t;ñ rõrgf'ness of thä main member at tubular cohnectio¡.s.Typi$l p*e¡"" ¡siã,]åe-ñ¡gi quality heat treated steel for the joint can, e.9. API Speç 2H'

õ-rãã; d;¡d

2W, or2Y.

101

Conventional practices for the control of brittle fracture are based on Charpy jmp?cl testinq (AWS D1.1-96 sections 2.42 and C4.12.4.4). These are admittedly qualitative, but may O'e correlated empirically to more definitive.éngineering^lqProaghês, such as the NRL fracture analysiö diaqiam (Carter, Marshall et al 1969). ln order to avoid catastrophic propagätion of s-mdl ciagks at stresses approachi¡g the UT.Ç, anÇ to prwide crack ar'rest for lbcá brittle zones in the H{Z,joint cans and other critical locations should have the Nil Ductility Transition 30-deg-C below the Lowest Anticipated Service Temperature (NDT below l-ASÐ. ln addltion to this high level of notch toughness, struciural redundancy is used as a secondary level of defense.

Weld metal and heat atfected zones should have notch toughness requirements
compatible with the base metal in which they occur, enforced via consumable selection and procedure qualification.
Marshall (1990).

More advanced fracture control procedures, e.g. dA/dN and OTOD , are described in

WELDING
ln the USA and most of the rest of the world, bent fabrication is the preferred method of ãsðemOty for offshore jackets (Marshall,.1984). The intersection welds in Tl/- and Kðonnectións are made from the òutside only, as the entire brace, point-to-point, is brought into position. AWS D1 1-96 section 2.39.2.2 describes.prequalified gogrplete ioint oeneiration oroove weld details welded from one side witl"rout backing in Tl/- and Kbonnections.-The joint geometry and welding position vary.continuously _as o.le prgceeds around the connéction with çjroove dimensions being defined as a function of local à¡hedral angle. Braces áre give--n a saddte-shaped cope éo that the lD weld root conforms to ne OD-of main membär, with a properroot gap all around. Special.proc_edure qualífication requirements, inctuding sainpie joints.o-ia tubular nlog|-uPr are described in ÄWS D1.1-96 dection 4.12.4. Speõid wéldei qualifications, includingthe 6GR test and acute angle heel test, are presö¡bed in AWS.D1.1-96 sections 4.26 (5) and 4.12.1-2, iespectivé[. Less oneroui provisions for. partial penetration and fillet welds are also givån; thesê are particularly useful tqt-"_ta!!"ally loaded trusses in onshore applications-. Éárliér (g7Z-94) editions'of the AWS Codé had these tubular provisions grouped together in Chapter 10. ln the nodal method of fabrication as practiced in the UK, nodes are prefabricated qs¡f.g pressure vessel practices, including'repositioning the work piece, welding.from both b¡des, and PWHÏ. However, this is much more onerous and expensive tha-n the practice OescúOeO in AWS, and single-sided closure welds are still required as the nodes are
into the space irame, and service failures emanating from root defects in the closure welds have been rePoñed.

¡ñãrp"r"ted

INSPECTION
Three nondestructive inspection methods are routinely used on fabricated structures. These methods include visual, ultrasonics (UT), and radiography (RT). The magnetic oäñi"1" inspectíon technique (MT) and thd liciuid penetrant ieihnique are generally
ðonsidered as enhanced visual inspection techniques.

102

All these techniques have procedural requirements which should be followed if they are used. An approüed quality control plan,.with procedures for each inspection method, should'be developed for each job application.
or as an integral pãrt of other ND-E techniques. Visual inspection should.be co.nducted..by qualified inspectórs, for inspection of w-orkmansþlp anO technique prior to and during the ri,èlOing proéess, and for in'spection of final weld for completeness, size, contour, cracks, and other discontinuities. detecting discontinuities such as craiks, porosity, etc. that are open to the surface.

Visual. Visual inspection is always required. The visualtechnique is used either by itself

Penetrant technique. The liquid penetrant inspection technique (PT) is useful for

oroceOuie for MT should conform to ä written procedure which follows ASTM F-709 ãnO npl RP 2X (third edítion, when issued), ôr similar national standards which provide gu¡ãance specifiòally for the inspection of as-welded components, including provisions for ihe resolutibn of indícations by light grinding.

Magnetic Particle Technique. The magnetic pafticle technique. (MT) is useful for deiõcting discontinuities that are open tolhe su'rface o.r.a.re- slightly subsurface. The

Radiographic Technique. The radiogrqphic technique {RT) is useful for detectinq buried-or'thru-thicknesð discontinuitíes ¡h butt welds of simple geometry. The RT þrocãàures in AWS D1.1 cover qualification of insp.ectors, standard practices and ïechniques, image quality control via penetrameters, film and source tYPgs: geometric
limitatións (e.g. õOgé bloóks), and disposition; as well as providing.appropriate separate criteria for non-tubu'iar static,'non tubuiar dynamic, and tubular structures.

Ultrasonic Technique. The ultrasonic technique (UT) is also.usefulfor detecting buried or thru-thickness dis'continuities, and is particularly useful in identifying and.s.izing planar discontinuities. lt is the only method apþlicable to internal inspection of welds in tubular T/Y and K connections, due to their complex geometry. All UT should be in accordance with an approved written procedure which describes the appl¡caOle range of geometries, acceptäñce criteria for each type and size of weld, sbäcific UT insirumeñtation, transducdr characteristics (frequency, size, shape-, beam áñgle, etc). surface preparation and couplant, calibration test block and reference iétieciors,'instrumeni cá¡¡bration methodé and interval, base metal checking,. ygld geometry determination (e.g. indexing root location), scanning pq¡grn and sensitivity, t?ãnsfer'correction, coriec-tion for õurvature efféct on skþ distance,, method.of O¡scont¡nuity length ând height determination, and protocol for defect verification during excavát¡on ánd répair. Sepairate procedures for tubular and non tubular structures should be considered.
ln addition to the usual national certification schemes, UT technicians should be required to demonstrate their ability to execute the full scope of these testing procedu.res, using a p}ãciical test or mock-úp which incorporatei.weld types, local dihedral .angles, ih¡cknesses and discontini¡ity sizes of inierest. Their pedbrmance assessment should consider false alarms as well as defects found. Aòceptable level of performance (pio¡ãoii¡tv ótã"1eðtioñ) shoutd be evatuated in the contexi of structural reliability issues, e.g. fractuie criticality vs. structural redundancy.

.1

103

The foregoing procedure and qualification requireme¡ts,- as well as repofting of results, should bé in the context of applicable standards. Techniquqs a¡d reject criteria are different for non-tubular (AWS D1.1-96 section 6?6)_an4-tubular (section 6.27) applications. Other applicable standards include API RP 2X tor tubular structures cöñstructed by the beni or point-to-point method, and A.Çft{E for prefabricated nodes which are welðed from both-sides and stress relieved as if they were pressure vessels. Note that for API RP 2X, the user defines the accepUreject criteria according to the service requirements of his structure.

Reject Criteria. For simple (unstiffened) tubular joints in bent-fabricated structures, the weids are made from oné side without backing. Fortunately, the hot spot areas at tubular Tll and K intersections occur at the outside surface, with reduced stresses at the root of the weld. ln view of the difficulty and undesirability of repairing innocuous root defects in this situation, both AWS D1.1 añd API RP 2X provide separate criteria for the root area of welds in tubular Tl/ and K-connections. These allow somewhat larger discontinuities, based on experience-based fitness-for-purpose consid.erations (Marshall 1984a)..No such relaxatión is allowed for the root area of butt joints (i.e. closure welds), nor should it be applied at footprint crossings in stiffened nodes.
ln the acute angle region of simple T/Y and K-connections, the first root passes are. so narrowly confined thai sound quality weld cannot be assured. These are.designated.as the "ba-ck-up" weld, and excll¡ded from the theoretical weld throat. Nondestructive inspection is'not applicable to the back-up weld, any more than it would be to the root land in a partial penetration weld.

BIGGER AND BETTER
The worlds deepest fixed offshore platform is "Bullwinke," in 490q water depth in the Gulf of Mexico (Digre et al 1989). ln water deeperthan 400-m, floating platforms arè-being introduced'tol¡ll the traditiónal role of fixed platforms, such as tension-leg platforms, spars, jumbo semi-submersibles, and turrèt-moored ships. -fhq"g are high-tech väntureõ, with higher unit costs per well or per ton of payload than fixed platforms. Where there are targe -numbers of w'ells and high payloads, th-e ec_o_n9.mic.s of scale make compliant towérs (which share many desqablecharac-teristics with fixed platforms) viable in water depths up to 900-m (Marshall & Smolinsk¡ 1992).

STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY
Designers must be involved in assuring lifetime structural integrity for his designs, for seveial reasons. They know the structure better than anyone else, which parts ore

seleötion, welded joint design, welder and proceduie qualification, fab.rication quality control, ând inspâction. These issues háve a humän side as well as technical consíderations. Bôth receive detailed coverage in the AWS StructuralWelding Code.

of performance (e.g.'ófìo¡ce of faiigue S-N curv-e in relation to weld profile. To Þq corhprehensivety'in-control of his pioject,.the designer must be involvéd in material

redundant of secondary, and which parts are primary of critical, as well as assumed levels

144

SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS This oape
introduction to the r can onry give a very briefprovide more depth. subject of tuburar offshore iollow ;iñtüä.:'nä r"läiänËei which

BEFERENCES
1.APl(1993),FìecommendedPracticeforPlanning,Designing,andConstructingHxedoffshore washington Dc ptaflorms, epi-nÞ zÄ-inro ano epr nÞ e¡-wsD,-Ame¡cän Èetroleum lnstitute,

2.Bea,Fl.G.andMarshall.P.W.(r9]Q,-fa!greModes.forotfshorePtaflorms'Proclstlntlconton 8055-76' Trondheim
eãñåùórt ot ón-snore Plaflorms,

3.carter.R.W.,Marshall,P.W..-e!qll]9-89),MaterialsProblemsinoffshorestructures'Proclst õtrtñoie tecir cont, Houston' oTo 1043 Plafform, Proc 4_ Diqre, K.A.. Brasted, L.k., andlvlarshalt, p.w. (1989), Design of the Bullwinkle OtfËñåte f"ch Conf, Houston, OTO 6050

5.lso(1994),DrafilnternalstandardlsolDlsl3Slg,PetroleumandNaturalGaslndustries Pa¡ 2: Fixed Steel Structures' -Offshore Structures, Part 1: eãnãrãl Requimments, and
lntemat¡onal Standards Organization' London

Tubular structures' 11W Houdremont Lecture' Marshall, P.W. (1984), connections for welded

Peçamon Press, Boston
7. 8. o

Tubutar Stwctures,

ultrasonic Reject criteria for Marshall. P.W. (1984a), Experience B^asgd Fitness-lor-Purpose in Welded Construct¡on' Atlanta

präÀñõWñönrrróãnt

on FFP

with AWS Dl '1, welding Joumal' March Marshall, P.w. (1989), Designing Tubular connections

Procedures for Deepwater otfshore Platforms Marshall, P.W. (1990), Adyq¡ce Fracture control Janualy ãnO Compl¡ant Towers, Welding Joumal'

10.

11.

¡1 Constructional Steel Design:'an Marshalt, P.W. (1992), Offshore Stluctures, Chapter Q'A ' London. i Åiàäîii)i G u ia;, eËävie r Ápp tied science Publishers, "i' Connections: Basis and IJse otAWS 01'1' Marshall, P.W. (1992a), Design of Wetded Tubutar Elsevier Science Publishers' Amsteruam Marshall.P.W.(1993),APlProvisionsforStressConce'ntraliorrFactor(ScÐ'S.NCurves'and 71s5 õìlåipr.]ii¡å Ët¡äòs,-p-i* offshore Tech Conf, Houston, oTc Proc AWS lntl cont on welded Marshall, P.w. (1996), welded circular Hollow Truss Connections,
ol All Rqsjlient structures: Fixed Base Tower Marshall, P.W. and smolinski, s.L. (1992),The Mother nsÓE conf on civil Enss in the ocean' in 3ooo-fr water, and'ðä;äö;Ëia;ãrõ rrä"áålËióbËn Austih (3 vols), underwater Engineering uEG (1985) Design of Tubular Joints for offshore structures Group, ClRlA, London

12.
13.

Tubular Structures' vancouver

14.

,

105

.750', wALL
BRANCH
NOTCH STRESS

at

Hof SPoT c6

go xs¡ G¡

30

r ,750
-50
KSI G) HoT sPoT

BRAN.CII

1.50'WALL'
JOINT CAN

(c)
I

(b)
(a)
GLOBAL CONNECTION AS A STRUCTURE

LOCAL OR
MICROSCOPIC

l
I I

Ft

4u Kg

HOT SPOT STRESS IN CHORD a Hs/vp SIN e sc:

/r

20

c)

108ø 4.00

ï o o u,
f,)

q

(f

o :r o n (f
-l
o

108ø 2,75

I z

z rrl

€> ---l -p
I;¡

2\--\

U)

a n
-{ õ

C)>

OX 3rn Tl r

û 74

n
à ñæ

q

a
il

=b UC)
r.i c>

%.

p

\t
108ø 1.00

t¡ l¡r

n
-l

lc
ta

(scF)chord

'

|

'8 d'

f 'ff

sln

g wlrH ø( = l'o

(scF)b'c..1.0
,--ì¡[ôr-Â

+ 0.6 q,.

r_t
'-¡ù-á
,-ô tA
I

Ir0+{F'lscr).¡'o¡a]

vt o( v lr' tþ H

H

l-a

â'-t

Øu| tO
o æ
É. o4 t-- ttl v,

b

Éx l-- u
v,

î3d-:oo

:-ìp-clt{-o o \o

r_l'
F.Â-"

t¿l fft À

:co U

5 l- o. o¡c

lL lr, Ut lÞatlt^.fìol¡

þ on

API-X

,-otË O--t

[ IT

,luutÊl Çrtod rr]¡ûT]t lr¡ttþttf)

-

dt$lt

,tol{T,

r - (¡rdltJ'ráo
a - ovtßtåF

rt4utL+Ø

IMPROVED PROI.ILE

CJ Øv)

J ü< I.LrJ

Z

l()
LLJ X

ï

BASIC PROFILT X'

lr l¡n

o \0

tr

tr

()J

fO

SECONDARY

INFLUENCE OF CIJORD THICKNESS
NEGLECTED

{-l

.zs

1/4

3/B

5/B

2

6

B

10

BRANCH THICKNESS

INCHES
FIÇ URE (Ð

DESIGN OF HSS COLI,JMNS AND BEAM.COLI.JMNS

D. R. Shermanr
ABSTRACT
The developmenr by AISC of a specification specifically for the design of stn¡cnual rubing provides an oppornrnity to reexamine design criteria for HSS columns and beam-columns. Comparisons with other national standards are also possible. The emphasis is on the use of multiple coluru¡ curves based on method of manufacture and design criæria for thin-walled sections. In addition, the results of a pilot test program on the cyclic behavior of ærially loaded HSS braces illustrate the requiremeût to limit the width/thickness raúo in seismic applications to prevent local buckling and subsequent fracture.

INTRODUCTION
Structural steel design specifications for buildings have historically been developed for hot-rolled open shapes and built-up plates members. Even though circular n¡bes were used in some of the earliest steel stn¡ctures, the trend for widespread use of tubular members and the development of specific design requirements for n¡bes began in the 1940s. In the case of round n¡bes, the motivation came from the offshore industries where the circular shape was effrrcient in minimizing the forces on exposed frameworks in a flowing fluid environment. Manufacnrring technology also produce efficient methods of mass producing square and rectangular ubes as well as circular without the expensive mills required for hot forured shapes. As a result, a considerable body of research on the behavior of tubular members has been generated and design criteria for n¡bes have gradually appeared in specifications. However, in some cases for the sake of simplicity, conservative criteria for other shapes were applied and the full advantages of n¡bular behavior were not always achieved. The AISC has initiated an effort to produce a specification specifically for the use of strucn¡ral tubing in building applications. The consolidation of this material will simplify the design of n¡bular members and permit the most eff,rcient use.

Stn¡ctural nrbing can be manufactured by several different processes which can i¡lfluence properties that affect structural behavior. Consequently, design criteria for different rypes of i.rUing can vary. At the same time, the designer must be aware of availability so that the criteria used ln design is for a type of tube that the fabricator can obtain. Another complication in tubular member design is that many of the standard sizes are classified as thin-walled, so that a comprehensive design criteria must consider local buckling and not assume tha¡ sections will
be compact.

This paper presents the current state-of-the-art of design criteria for both round and rectangular

1 Universit,y of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wf 5320L,
110

USA

colunns' beam-columns and beams (square tubes are included in the rectangurar Ianer is included since beams are-o:e category.) 1 anchor oranj interacrion;ì;;i* for beam-corum¡rs. brief background is presented on tube manufacrur¡nä ,n¿ The emphasis is on the criteria u*.Jin-rli'ü"iä'öilt"s, how ir influences sructurar behavi< arthough some comparison with national or regional sandards are orh made. More à.ør, on ,n.ou?""rJrìng ano the data base f design criteria are contained in Ref. il;-;;Aäron or ru¡ui"r-rr,rmber 1 design criteria specifications from different parts of n. **rãlñ;;r, in Ref. 2.

MANUFACTTIRE AND AVAILABILITY
Both round and rectangular sm¡ctural ubes can be manufacn¡red seamress or with one or mor continuous seam welds along the length. eot uon rypes, the tubes u, further hot-formed or cold-formed' cold-formø impllsì¡rii ar reast trre nnais¿ing and crassified a "rn place at ambient temperaturesshaping taker ln.trot-foÃä;br;, the sizing and shapíng elevated temperatures to reduce are performed a the sriffner" of trr; materiar. cord-formed tubes that are stress relieved at temperature of approximately 450'c classified as hotåffiäily

*"

"lr"

iäiri:tåtriiåff"htness'

In addition to affecting the yield and, ultimate strengths, the method of manufacture infruences the level of residual sfesses-in the rube, t¡e uariat-i-oiî yierd srrengh and thickness around rhe ro some exænr, a, or,i,.r. prop"ïi"rl'inu"n . rhe structurar

Jiilffiò*::#i.i'asured

Generally hot-formed tubes have negligible residuar sûess whire through-thickness residuars cold-formed tubes are very high, in especially for à.tangurar rube-s. Tubura¡ products are out-or-straien,"Á rubes in the ranse

*.uJ

i"'äå-r"'*?¿L.ã"órar

il#å,i:ff 1i:'H;iïË,1*;';x*i'ffihlä;ffiî,',åu.ing,r,,,*."e,¡
Seamless rubes will have some variation in thickness around the perimeter. welded tubes made from plate or strip resulting are in very uniform thickness.;..p, corners of cold-forrned rectangulai ;;; a thickening ar the n¡bes.'l-.:r ;;rr'"î¿ strip can u. thicknesses, it is common practice åuäin.d *g1g u s. prod;."r, ,o make Þbes near with precise thickness permined in the the minimum Ëryil*. rp".in..rio", r0äo berow the nominar thickness. momenr or inertia, etc shourd ) be

Even though hot-formed and cold-formed rubes may have the same chemistry, members will have higher yields the cord-formed and ultimate. rr ,, roun¿ea stress-strain curves due to cord working' cold working alio cause some variation irryirrd srength formed tubes' especialfu at the perimeter orcor¿l of recranguií rì.rio*. Heating ro 450"c w'l rerieve

**.r,

".;;;rh.

trå'ïiiiiïî:iåï*lmt:$"oiäo*'ä"'('.ïJ,

il;-ü;

The information on the.four types of round tubes (welded, seamless, hot- and four types of rectangula, ruúËs i, irpon nt in a gtobai sense. However, cold_formed) and from a regional

111

a par¿ìmount consideration. For example, in the U.S. produced as cold-formed welded. A design specification that included recøngular n¡bes are only criteria for hot-formed rectangular tubes would be misleading. The designer who based a design on provisions for hot-formed tubes would be embarr¿ssed to find that these sections are not available. On the other hand, recent practice in Canada was that producers could provide a degree of stress relief so that rectangular tubular colurnns could be designed in accordance with more favorable provisions for hot-formed members. This raises the problem of insuring tbat the fabricator obtairs the correct product. Hot-formed seamless rectangUlar tubes are produced in Europe and, therefore, a justification exists for a wider range of design provisions in that region
viewpoint, availability becomes of the world.
Again considering U.S. practice, round stn¡ctural tubes are produced under the 4500 coldformed specification (Ref. 3). However, there are large quantities of hot-formed pþ available in distribution centers. Currently U.S. design specifications do not distinguish be¡*,een the pipe and 4500 tr¡bing, so that there is a poæntial problem of acçisition of the t¡.pe of material inænded in the design or insuring that substin¡æ materials do not require a redesign.

ROT,'IYD TT.JBES

There are three considerations in design criæria for round tubes in axial compression. 1. column buckling curves or equatioris 2. local buckling equations 3. inæraction between local and column buckling Specifications that contain multiple column curyes assign hot-formed n¡bes to the highest and cõld-formed rubes to the next highest curve. The basis for this is the extensive series of column tests conducted in the CIDECT (Comite International pour le Develppement et I'Etude de la Constn¡ction Tubulaire) program in the 1970s. In the U.S., a decision was made by AISC to use just one column curve. This was to simplify the design process by having only one set of column load øbles and to avoid potential problems of a design being based on the higher curve while the material obtained for fabrication is cold-formed. These considerations apply not only to n¡bes but also to other shapes that could be assigned to various column curyes. The tests data indicates that the AISC column curve (Ref. 4) is conservative for round n¡bular sections, and slightly more so for hot-formed members. Elastic local buckling of circular cylinders is known to be highly imperfection sensitive and the strength drops rapidly with the diameter/thickness ratio, D/t. U.S. practice of excluding round rubes that would buckling elastically from building specifications stems from the 1968 AISI specification (Ref. 5) or the earlier edition. This is accomplished by specifying a maximum D/t oi O.++Aemr. Although inelastic local buckling is not as imperfection sensitive as elastic buckling, thére is still considerable scaner in test data. A number of empirically based equations for predicting the strength have been proposed. The AISC (Ref. 4) equation is based on the allowable rrés crireria of Ref. 5. This equation is a reasonable lower bound to post 1950 test data on the local buckling of round tubes under axial compression'

Àxial Compression

112

D

H,

-l

D/t s o.rr4E/F..
2

P Pv
-l

E--3'

0.03798/F,

0.TI E/Fv s D/t s o.44gE/Fv

(1)

some specification consider an interaction between local and column while others just use the lower of the two critical loads. AJSC,uses rh. by modifying the yield srress bv a local buckling re¿ucrion-iaoL;, q, which is trrá equivarent of p/p, il ::,'Hi.equation

¡;;;;îppr*rr,

ff

P", = As(o .6}sa^2)

eFy, for
for

À"1fis l_.5

P",=WÞ",
À^= "

À"1õ> 1.5

Q)

KJIE
rtrl
E

À.

one modification- to this approach that appears capacity is applied only to thè critical colu'mn

in some specifìcations is that the reduction lo.J"nJnot ro rhe corumn srendernesse par¿rmercr,

Bending when criteria for round tubes first appeared in specifications, the format was atowabre design' The allowable bending stresses stress in compression were specified to be the same as for axial compression' After postlelastic strength was recog nizedin codes, the ly%increase in allowable stress for compact shapes was extended to include rubes that mo n, local buckling Iimit in Equation 1' rni rcn increase was based on rhe minimum ,t"p. rãrr"r for wide flange sections' even though the shape factor for compac, rã*ã sections .*..Ëd. 1.30. when urtimare strength criteria were developed, circular tuues rrao t" ur reexamined to determine if the same compacmess limit would apply to develop the full pl*i. .paciry of the round tube. There was also a question as to whethir the locai uucni"g rri""in roi a tuue i" oiãi.ompression wourd apply to a member in bending where a sress gradient exists. The resurts of severar experimenar programs (Ref' 1) were used m develop'ne Tusc for the urtimaæ bending momenr.

T, = a,
Mu.0 20 7E/F, . iJ, M t "v Mu- 0.330

Mu

"qu.iìo* for D/t ¿ 0. 0714 n/Fv
O.O7r4E/Fy
0

t

for for

.D/'t s 0.3ogE/Fy
D/T s o.44BE/Fy

(3)

Mv

D/t

.3098/F,

<

113

short range of D/t for elastic buckling is included in order to maintain the same maximum limit for D/t as for axial compression and still be consistent with the test data. As with any criteria that is based on empirical results, other equatioru for bending capacþ have been proposed for other specifications. Some specifrcations do not provide for a transition berween

A

the plastic moment and the yield moment and, therefore, contain a significant discontinuity in strength at the D/t which defines a compact shape. No lateral-torsional buckling criteria are required for round ubes.

Combined Compression and Bending The rezults of over a hundred beam column tests (Ref. 6) indicaæ that the inæraction equation used in the AISC Specification (Ref. 4) reasonably predicæ the capacity of round n¡bular beamcolumns even when local buckling is considered. A linear interaction equation used in other specifications is conservative.

RECTANGTJLAR TTJBES

Axial Compression The difference in the normalized column strengths benreen hot-formed and cold-formed rectangular tubes in the CIDECT programs is more distinct than for round tubes, causing coldformed übes to be assigned to lower column curves in specifications with multiple curves. The high levels of residual stresses is a major factor for the lower strength. In the U.S. where a single column curve is used, much of the data falls below the curve, indicating somewhat unconservative design. However, this situation is not as severe as accepted practice with heavily welded open shapes, where normalized test data is even lower than that for cold-formed rectangular hrbes. As noæd earlier, only cold-forrred rectangular tubes are produced in the U.S., and with a single column curve, there is no design benefit for speciffing any stress
relieving operation. The unconservative design of cold-formed recungular columns is not as severe as it appears. Much of the test data was normalized by the offset yield of the section obtained from sub coluÍrn tests. This reflects the ir¡herent high yield stress in the corners of the tube resulting from cold working. U.S. practice is to determine the yield strength with a coupon taken from the middle of a side of the finished nrbe. The yield load calculaæd by the material yield strength times the gross area will be less than the weighted average that includes higher strengths in the corners. Some European specifications perrrit the yield to be determine from a weighted average and other specifications base the design on the virgin yield strength of the plate or strip prior to forming the tube. Thus the appropriate column curve depends on the method of determining the yield strength. With all these refinements, U.S. practice does not result in design suengths that are significantly different than those of other specifications.

Local buckling of rectangular tubes is almost universally treated with the effective width concept. This concept was theoretically proposed by von Karman and later empirically modif,red by Winter (Ref. 5) to account for inelastic action and imperfections. The concept pertains to the force carried by a long plate supported on two edges parallel to an axial force. A uniform srress, which has the same magnitude as the true stress at the edge, acting on the effective width

114

will result in the same post-buckling force using the true stress distribution. The effective width
equation for the case when the side supports have the same thickness as the buckled plate is used by AISC for local buckling of a rube wall.

b"/t = r.rrrlrft11 - o .3s!{l/r (b/t)l = ot,

(4)

In this equation, b is the flat width of the side of the tube and f is the average stress based on the total gross area, usually the critical stress for the column. A reduction factor Q is the ratio of the remaining effective area divided by the gross area and Equation 2 is used to determine the column buckling load, which reflects local buckling interaction. Since AISC bases f on the full section properties of the section rather than the effective properties, iteration to determine the critical load is avoided.
In other specif,rcations, both the effective width equation and the column curve may differ from AISC, producing different critical column loads. However, using the concept of effective width to provide the interaction between local and column buckling is the same.
Bendine Thin walled rectangular tubes in bending are designed with the effective width concept of Equation 4 for the compression flange. In this case the stress, f, is taken as the yield stress since failure occurs when the yield suess is reached in the corners. Using just the effective width for the compression flange causes a shift of the neutral axis away from the flange, as well as a change in the moment of inertia and the section modulus. The limit moment is determined by setting the bending stress calculated with the effective section modulus equal to the yield
stress.

as the yield stress and sening Equation 1 equal to the full width, the width/thickness ratio that defines a thin wall section is I .4}JF,/Fy. For sections that have b/t less than l.L2JElFy. AISC permits the full plastic moment. rrt/hen b/t is between these limits, the

Using

f

moment capaciry is based on a linear transition between the plastic moment and the yield moment. Other ultimaæ suength specifications have similar provisions. The limits defining compact, noncompact and thin walled sections are nearly the same in various specifications, although the definition of width may be the outside dimension, inside dimension or the flat
width.
Square tubes are not subject to lateral-torsional buckling and, therefore, do not require lateral bracing. Rectangular tubes bending about the major axis could buckle laterally and AISC currently has provisions for the unbraced length. However, for tubular sections the unbraced lengths are so large that realistic designs would be controlled by deflection or the reduction of the section moment capacity caused by lateral-torsional buckling is negligible. Therefore, the new consolidated specifrcation will not contain lateral bracing provisions for elastic analysis, although provisions will be included when a plastic analysis is used for the moment distribution and some hinges must sustain finite plastic rotations to develop the failure mechanism. The maximum unbraced length from the hinge is

115

LN=

ryrrzo.rc

r!-rr,

(s)

In Equation 5, M, is the plastic moment of the section, M, is the smaller moment at the end of the unbraced length, and r, is the radius of gyration about the minor axis.
Combined Compression and Bendine AISC uses the same interaction criteria for axial compression and bending as for any other section. There is some recent evidence (Ref. 7) that this criteria may be slightly unconservarive for rectangular beam-columns with eccentric end loads when the eccentricity is the same at both ends and produces single curvature. For unequal eccentricities and reversed curvanrres, the criteria may be overly conservative. Cyclic Axial Loading
Rectangular nrbular braces have been know to fracture catastrophically in earthquakes. A pilot program consisting of nine tests of members zubject to æcial end displacement reversals was conducæd to investigate the failure mode (Ref. 8). The nvo tubes sizes had bit of 36 aú23, with the former being classified as thin walled. Initial column tests showed that since the slenderness ratios of the test members were the same, the two sizes buckled at the same end displacement but subsequent local buckles formed at substantially different end displacements. The cyclic test progr¿rm was planned so that there would be no local buckling in one tests while local buckles would forrr in all other tests. Test variables were the axial displacement range, the mean axial displacement and the rate of loading as determined by the period for a cycle. Tests with local buckles follow a similar pattern of behavior. Column buckling is followed by a local buckle which leaves "horns" at the corners. After several cyclés with tension excursions, cracks initiate at the HSS corners on both horns and propagate through the thickness and away from the corners in subsequent cycles. As section is lost at the cracks resulting in an eccentric load, the lateral deflection reverses during the tension pan of the cycle but returns to the original direction during compression, producing a snap-through behavior. Eventually the crack pops across the local buckle, resulting in increased lateral deflection that creates a large enough eccentricity to reverse the direction of column buckling in the subsequent compression.

Although it was possible to make conclusions regarding the influence of the variables, the over riding conclusion concerned the effect of local buckling. The test with no local buckle was stopped after 50O cycles and all other tests fractured between 18 and 41 cycles. This justifies the AISC provision (Ref. 9) that n¡bular braces should have b/t < 0.65V8/F, (about 15) in seismic applicatiorrs. This would preclude the formation of local buckles even under extreme axial distortion. With further study, it may be possible to relax this restriction to some extent if axial distortion levels can be predicted.

CONCLUSIONS
Sufficient information now exists on the behavior of round and rectangular tubular members to

116

formulate reliable design criteria rhat will take advantage of the properties of the closed shapes' AISC is preparing a specifrcation that will consolidate provisions for tubular members and, hopefully, simplify the design process. This specifications will reflect the tyPes of rubes .uãinulè in the U.S. as well as rhe general philosophy regarding steel design. other specifications in differenr parrs of rhe world may differ considerably due to the availability of diff.t nt types of tubes and the acceprance of refined design concepts, such as multiple column
curves.

REFERENCES
1.

3.

4.
5. 6.
7.

8. g.

Sherman, D.R. 1992. Tubular Members. Constructional Steel Desien-An International Guide eds. P.J. Dowling, J.H. Harding and R. Bjorhovde: Chap. 2.4,gL-lM. [,ondon: Elsevier Applied Science. Kato, B. and Sherman, D.R. eds. 1991. Tubular Structures. Stabiliw of Metal SuucturesA World View ed. L.S. Beedle: Chap. 9,495-536. Structural Stabiliry Research Council, Bethlehem, Pa. : I-ehigh University. American Sociery for Testing and Materials 1993. 4500 Specification for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Shapes in Rounds and Shapes: Philadelphia PA. American Institute of Steel Construction 1993. l,oad and Resistance Design Specifìcation for Structural Steel Buildinss: Chicago ILA¡erican Iron and Steel Instin¡te 1968. Comrnentary on the Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members: Washington, D.C. Strr.tn*, D.R. 1990. Cyclic and Post-Buckling Behavior of Tubular Beam-Colum¡s. Tubular Structures eds. E. Niemi and P Måikeläinen: 388-395, Elsevier Applied Science. Sutty, R.M. and Hancock, G.J. 1994. Behaviour of Cold-Formed SHS Beam-Colum¡s. Proóeedings 12th Specialtv Cor¡ference on Cold-Formed Steel Suuctures eds' W-W. Yu and R.A. I¡Boube: University of Missouri-Rolla. Sherman, D.R. 1995. Stabiliry Related Deterioration of Structures. 1995 Theme Conference, 1-9. Structural Stability Research Council, Bethlehem PA: I-ehigh University. American Instirute of Steel Constn¡ction t992. Seismic Provisions for Stn¡cn¡ral Steel

Buildines: Chicago IL.

117

GTIIDE TO TITE HOLLOW STRUCTT'RAL SECTION GT]IDES AND CODES

J.A. Packer'and S. Kitipornchait
ABSTRACT
The principal reference sources or specifications which guide or govem the design of onshore structures with steel Hollow Structural Sections (HSS) a¡e reviewed. This contemporary (1996) overview of available codes and recommendations is intended as a directory of authoritative resource material for the practising structural engineer. The scope of the review is international and covers both multinational and national documents, with the latter concentrating on literature published in the U.S., Canada, Japan, Germany and Australia.

KEYWORDS Hollow Stn¡ctural Sections, tubes, standards, codes, specifications, design guides

BACKGROTJND

Hollow Stn¡ctural Sections (HSS) were first produced by Stewarts & Lloyds Ltd. in the U.K. 'n L962. Most and one of the first guides for their use in design was by Abrahams (Ref. 1), research on HSS connections in the 1960s took place at Sheffield University under the direction of Eastwood and Wood (Refs. 2 and 3) and the results of this were quickly implemented in Canada and publicized by Stelco in the world's first HSS connections manual in l97l (Ref. a). Stelco maintained the pre-eminent marketing role for HSS in Nonh America throughout the 1970s and 1980s, and the popularity of the product in Canada now is largely a result of this company's efforts. Eastwood and Wood's connection strcngth formulas were also included in the Canadian Institute of Steel Constntction (CISC) Liru¡ States Design Steel Manual in 1977 (Ref. 5), but have not appeared in later Manual editions. large amount of research and development work on HSS took place during the 1970s, particularly with regard to connection behavior and static stren$h. Much of this \ryas coordinated by the Comité International pour Ie Développement et I'Etude de la Construction Tubulaire (CIDECT), which is a group of HSS producers with the aim of collectively developing the market for manufactured tubing. The CIDECT Technical Secretariat has recently moved to Paris, France, but readers interested in purchasing CIDECT documents (referred to later) in 1996 can most easily do so from Mr. D. Dutta, CIDECT, Marggrafstrasse 13, 40878 Ratingen, Germany. Alternatively, most CIDECT member companies carry a reasonable library of CIDECT technical reports as well as design guides. The only North American member is IPSCO Inc., P.O. Box 1670, Regina, Saskatchewan S4P 3C7, Canada#Department of

A

*Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, 35 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario M5S I44, Canada Civil Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Ausualia

118

A new "state-of-the-aft" approach to welded HSS connection design was under continually was being l9B0 by CIDECT (Monogiaph No. 6) (Ref. 6), but its publication of its second connections publication deferred so stelco in the meantime proceeded with the guide was expressed in a Limit states Design (LSD), or Load manual in l98l (Ref. 7). This was the first englishlanguage HSS design and Resistance Facror óesign (|RFD) formai, and of resea¡ch knowledge and guide to do so. The 1980s then saw a period of consolidation v/ardenier in 1982 (Ref' 8)' soon experience commencing with the landmark treadse by

preParation in

and construction in 1984 (Ref' 9)' afterwards followed ',tt," cloEcr book" on HSS design design in 1986 (Ref' 6)' and GIDECT Monograph No. 6 on welded connection static

of Wetding (llv), a learned group comprised of -national welding ln Þa¡is, has played a major role in societies from around the world with headquafters dso into specification format' This assessing and assimilating HSS connection åesign knowledge XV-E on Welded Joints function is executed Uy Jotunt"er members of IIW's Subcommission body for drafting ISo in Tubular srrucrures. IIW is cunently approved as an official influencing international play a key role in srandards, so subcommission XV-E will'ükåþ the two principal connection design standards relating to HSS connection design. To ãate,
Tlte International Institute

and fatigue to static (Refs' 10 and documenrs which this subcommission has iisued relate which are predominantly (Ref. 12) design of welded, truss-type connections. IIW documents, General, International Institute of in English, can be obtained from lr¿fr. M. Bramat, secretary Cedex, France' Weldirg, c/o Institut de Soudure, B.P. 50362,F95942 Roissy CDG

ll)

CATIONS COI.ïTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL GUIDES AND SPECIFI

ilw

welded' planar' The current, second edition, design recommendations for statically-loaded' consensus and have since truss-rype, HSS connections (Ref. ll) achieved a wide international and guides, for square and been adopted worldwide by all national or regional specifications except for the U'S' (Ref' 13)' rectangular sections. For circular sections, tñe same is true (Ref' l2)' are based on the modern The fatigue design recommendations, published in 1985 the classification method' and are approach of using the hot-spot stress method rather than recent' valuable' IIW scheduled for updating in the near future (1996197). Another - although publication dealing witlifatigue definitions, analysis methods and recommendations Niemi (Ref' l4)' edited by nor limited solely to HSS co-nnections - is the IIW special report

CIDECT disseminating its wealth of CIDEC]T has recently adopted the poticy of promoting and various asPects of HSS accrued advice by publishing a series of design guìdts on To date the following construcrion. These iuides suiersede all previous õpËCf [terature' have been published, in the following order: .Design Guide for circula¡ Hollow Secdon (cHS) Joints under Predominantly static Loading, by Wardenier et al., 1991 (Ref' 15) ,étructural Stability of Hollow Sections, by Rondal et al., 1992 (Ref' ló) static .Design Guide for Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS) Joints under Predominantly 1992 (Ref' l7) Loading, by Packer et
^1.,

119

.Design Guide for Structural Hollow Section Columns exposed to Fire, by Twilt et al., 1994 (Ref. l8) .Design Guide for Concrete-Filled Hollow Section Columns, by Bergmann et al., 1995 (Ref. l9). (This is based on Eurocode 4 for Composite Steel and Concrete Structures). These five guides have been published in Germany in separate English, Frcnch and German edirions and can be purchased either directty from the publisher (Verlag TUV Rheinland GmbH, Köln, Germany) or specific steel construction organizations (e.g. Australian Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), P.O. Box 6366, North Sydney, N.S.W. 2059, Aust¡alia Fax: +61-2-9955 5406). Spanish editions should also be forthcoming very soon too. Two ft¡rther design guides are planned for the near future: .Design Guide for Structural Hollow Sections in Mechanical Applications .Design Guide for Circular and Rectangular Hollow Section Joins under Fatigue Loading. Another recent initiative has been to produce a comPuter Progfam for perforrring checks on rhe LSD/LRFD resistance of planar, welded and bolted, truss-tyPe, statically-loade4 connections made from circular, square or rectangular HSS. This program, called CIDIOINT (Ref. 20), follows the rules set out in the two relevant CIDECT design guides above (Refs. 15 and l7). It is available in DOS and Windows vl.l editions, is in LSD/LRFD format, and has a choice of different secúon databases for different countries. Sales to most countries are now being handled by a software vendo¡: Computer Services Consultants (UK) Ltd., New Street, Pudsey, Leeds, West Yorkshire LS28 8YS, U.K. (Fax: t4'1-l 13'236 0546).
Eurocode ¡urocode 3 for steel structures (Ref. 2l), to be soon adopted throughout Western Europe, will prove to be a very influential force in international standardisation. Like the CIDECT design guides for statically-loaded, welded, connections (Refs. 15 and l7), it conforms closely in Ànne* K to rhe recommendations set out by IIW Subcommission XV-E (Ref. I l). On the other hand, for fatigue design of HSS welded connections, and for the practical wall thickness range of up to l2.5mm, the current version of EC3 permits the use of both the classification an¿ tt hoi-spot stress methods. This generates some serious inconsistencies in the EC3 rules " (Ref.22), so this specification should be treated with caution for fatigue design.
Research

etttrougtr not in the coherent form of a guide or specif,tcation, advice and guidance resulting from new or innovative research in HSS construction can be best found in the Proceedings of the International Symposia on Tubular Structures. This series of symposia began in Boston, U.S.A. (1984) and have since been held in Tokyo, Japan (1986), Lappeenranta, Finland (1989), Delft, The Netherlands (1991), Nottingham, U.K. (1993), Melboume, Australia (1994) and Miskolc, Hungary (August 1996), under the organization of IIW Subcommission XV-E and the sponsorship of CIDECT. The single-volume proceedings from each symposium acts as an excellent collation of the latest, leading-edge, research on HSS worldwide. The Proceedings of the 5th. Symposium (Nottingham) were published by E. & F.N. SPon' London, U.K. (ISBN O 419 18770 7), and the 6th. Symposium (Melboume) by A.A' Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (ISBN 90 5410 520 8).

120

CONTEMPORARY NATIONAL GUIDES AND SPECIFICATIONS
U.S.A. there has been little direction given to Surprisingly. considering the size of-the market, and technical marketing and promotion designing onshore ,,ru.Iur., with HSS in the U'S., welding Society (AwS) Dl'l code (Ref' have been very modesr. Ar presenr, the American - in both LRFD and AsD 13) covers the static design of welded truss-type connections HSS) and tubular sections' As formats - between "box sections" (square and rectangula¡ rectangular HSS generally conform to mentioned previously, the connection design rules for design is also covered, by both owcIDECTlEC3,but those for circular HîS ¿o not. FatiguJ comparison between these two the hot-spot stÍess and punching shear methods' but a recent can have very different allowable force design merhods in AWd Dl.l shows that connections

(orstress)rangesdependingonwhichmethodisused(Ref.23). (for both unfilled and concreteFor the design of members, ties, columns and beam-columns Construction (NSC) filled sections), are covered by Íhe American Institute of Steel in the process of (Ref. 2Ð' . AISC is now Specification for Structural Stee-l Buildings iouctural Tubing, which is being drafted by producing a separate Specification on and connection design and may be Subcomminee ll8. Thii will cover both member mainly consisting of safeload tables and available in 1997. Some HSS promotional material, American Institute for HoIIow case studies, has been publis'hed by the Pittsburgh-basód American tube maufacturers Struuural Sections (/IIHSS). This Institut" '"p'"'"nted several by the Cleveland-based Steel but has now been closed. Its role has been iargely assumed support of many tube manufacturers Tube Institute of North America lsIl), which has the fromsTl have not yet been generated but across the u.s. and canada. structural design aids AISC LRFD Specification on St¡uctural a connecrion design guide conforming to the"pending
Tubing is planned.
the geometric properties of one should aiso be aware of the American specification regulating (Ref' 25) permits a hollow section cold-formed HSS used in the U.S. ASTM dr*¿"t¿ 4500 without specifying any wall thickness as much as lOVo below the nominal wall thickness, can have a major negative effect on mass (or weight or cross-sectional area) tolerance' This HSS manufacturers now tend to the assumed (nominat) structural properties (Ref. 26). Most ASTM tolerances' produce undersized sections, but still within these excessively-generous by adding supplementary Conformiry to nominal member dimensions can be ensured grades is produced to ASTM 4500 specifications to contract documents. A range of HSS HSS and from 250 to (Ref. 25), with yield stresses ranging from 2ã8 to 317 MPa for round 345 MPa for square/rcctangular HSS' Canada is the CISC Guide by Packer and The prime resource for HSS connection design in C¿nada and is sold by both GISC (Fax: Henderson (Ref. 27), which follows canadiaã specifications

+1416491-æ61)andtheu.s.AlsC.Originallypublishedinlgg2'thefirsteditionwas in an¿ a revised second edition is due reprinred with some minor improvements in l-ate l-99S, chinese and this edition is also late 1996. This book has also recently been translated into (Ref' 28)' scheduled for publication in Beijing in 1996

121

The design of unfilled and concrete-filled HSS members is covered by the CSA Standa¡d for sreel structures (Ref.29). HSS in Canada is produced to CAN/CSA-G40.21-M92 (Ref. 30) with a specified yield strength of 350 MPa. These products conform to CAN/CS A-G4O.âO' M92 (Ref. 3l) Class C (cold-formed) or Class H (either hot-formed to hnal shape, or coldformed ro final shape and stress relieved), of which Class C is now the more popular. One very imporrant fearure of the CAN/CSA-G4O.2O-M92 specification, especially with regard to the fa¡ more liberal American ASTM 4500 counterpart, is that it specifies that the mass (or weight, or effectively cross-sectional area) shall not differ from the published mass by more ¡ha¡t -3.5%. In addition, therc is a -SVo tolerance on wall thickness, but the mass tolerance will generally govern. Japan
Aesign of tubula¡ stn¡ctures in Japan is regulated by the AII (Ref. 32). It is notable that Japanese standards for cold-formed HSS permit a wall thickness tolerance of -107o, for the cornmon range of thicknesses between 3mm and l2mm, with no masVweight/arca tolerance (Refs. 33,34,35 and 36).

ftre

reference source has been the handbook in 1988 by Ðuna and Würker (Ref. 37)' atthough the recent CIDECT Guides (Refs. 15, 16, 17, l8 and 19) have been very popular in Germany. There has been a German standard for steel structures made from hollow sections (Ref. 38) but, like in most other Western European countries, this is destined for replacement

Germanv

A

pt"*i*nt

by parts of Eurocode 3 (Ref.

accompanied by a mass tolerance of -67o. Considering the broad influence that these EuroNorms will have, this mass tolerance is still far too liberal, especially in view of today's' modern manufacturing capabilities.

mar¡r¡facturing requirements of hot-formed and cold-formed hollow sections (Refs. 39 and 40)' and these allow for local thickness tolerances of up to -lOVo (depending on size) but are

2l).

Draft European standa¡ds a¡e already in place for

the

ftr"¡oign of HSS members (for wall thicknesses of

3mm and greater) and rypical steel stn¡ctures specification (Ref. 41). compon"n6 is prescribed by the national limit states As än aid to HSS connection design, the Australian Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) is currently in the process of producing a "pre-engineered" connecúons manual. This will be publishéd in rwo volumes, ihe f,irst dealing with "Design Models" which is imminent (Ref. 42) and the second dealing with "Design Tables". Cold-formed HSS are produced in Australia to minimum specified yield strengths of 250, 35O and 450 MPa, with a permitted local thickness rolerancé of -lOVo but accompanied by a mass tolerance of 4Vo (Ref. 43). The 450 MPa yield strength is only available at present for square and rectangular HSS with perimeters up io a00mm. This grade (C45O1C45OL0) is manufactured by Tubemakers of Àustralia Ltd., by in-line galvanising to a mechanically (shot-blasted) and chemically-cleaned, bright meral (Rei. 44). Innovative products such as this, combining high strength steels with ,urfu." pre-treatment, plus being aðcompanied by inclusion in relevant national or regional structural specifìcations, will quickly increase the popularity, market share, and export potential for Hollow Structural Sections.

Australia

122

REFERENCES

l.
2.

Abrahams, F.H. 1962. The use of steel tubes in structural design. Draughtsmen's and Allied Technicians' Association, Richmond, Surrey, U.K. Eastwood, V/.; and Wood, A.A. 1970. Welded joints in tubular strucrures involving rectangular sections. Proc. Conference on Joints in Structures. University of Sheffield, U.K.: Session A Paper 2. Eastwood, W.; and Wood, A.A. 1970. Recent resea¡ch on joints in tubula¡ structures.
P¡oc. Canadian Structural Engineerine Conference. Toronto, Onta¡io, Canada.

4. 5.

Stelco.

l9Tl.Hollow structural

sections

-

Stelco Inc., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

design manual for connections. lst. ed.,

7.

9.
10.

IL
t2.

International Institute of Welding, Subcommission XV-E. 19g5. Recommended fatigue design procedure for hollow section joints: part I - hot spot stress method for nodal joints. lst. ed., Irw Doc. xv-582-85, Irw Annual Assembly, strasbourg,
France.

recommendations for hollow section joints - predominantly sratically loaded. 2nd. ed., IfW Doc. XV-701-89, IfW Annual Assembly, Helsinki, Finland.

International Institute of Welding, Subcommission xv-E. l9gl. Design reco¡nmendations for hollow section joints - predominantly statically loaded. lst. ed., Irw Doc. xv-491-81 (Revised), Irw Annual Assembly, oporro, portugal. International Institute of welding, Subcommission xv-E. 19g9. Design

Canadian Institute of Steel Construcúon. 1977. Limit states desien steel manual. CISC, Willowdale, Ontario, Canada. Giddings, T.W.; and Wa¡denier, J. (eds.). 1986. The streneth and behaviour of staticallv loaded welded connections in structural hollow sections. CIDECT Monograph No.6, British Steel plc, Corbl', Northants., U.K. Stelco. 198l.Hollo* structural seciions - desien manual for connections. 2nd. ed., Stelco Inc., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Wa¡denier, J. 1982. Hollow section ioints. Deift Universiry Press, Delft, The Netherlands. CIDECT. 1984. Construction with hollow steel sections. British Steel plc, Corby, Northants., U.K.

13.

14.
15.

t6.

17.

18.

American V/elding Society. 1996. Structural V/eldine Code - Steel. ANSVAWS Dl.l96, l5th. edition, AWS, Miami, Florida, U.S.A. Niemi, E. (ed.) 1995. Stress determination for fatisue analvsis of welded componenrs. Abington Publishing, Abington, Cambridge, U. K. 'wardenier, J.; Kurobane, Y.; Packer, J.A.; Dutta, D.; and yeomans, N. 1991. Desien euide fbr circular hollow secti ircular CIDECT (ed.) aird Verlag TüV Rheinland GmbH, Köln, Germany. Rondal, J.; wurker, K.-G.; Durra, D.; wardenier, J.; and yeomans, N. 1992. structural stabilitv of hollow sections. CIDECT (ed.) and verlag TüV Rheinlund c*ffi] Germany. Packer, J.A.; Wa¡denier, J.; Kurobane, Y.; D.; and Yeomans, N. 1992. Desisn Ia¡ hollow section (RHS CIDECT (ed.) and Verlag TüV Rheinland GmbH, Köln, Germany. Twilt, L.; Hass, R.; Klingsch, W.; Edwards, M.; and Durra, D. lgg4. Desien euide for

123

19.

20.

2t.
22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

structural hollow section columns exposed to fire. CIDECT (ed.) and Verlag TUV Rheinland GmbH, Köln, Germany. Bergmann, R.; Dutta, D.; Matsui, C.; Meinsma, C.; and Tsuda, T. 1995. Þign guiAe for õoncrete-filled hollow section columns. CIDECT (ed.) and Verlag tÜV Rtleinland GmbH, Köln, Germany. Parik, J.; Dutta, D.; and Yeomans, N. 1994. User suide for PC-proeram CIDJOINT for hollow section ioints under predominantlv static loadinq. CIDECT (ed.) and Ing.Software Dlubal GmbH, Tiefenbach, Germany. European Committee for Standardization. 1992. Eurocode No.3: Desim of steel structures - Part l.l: General rules and rules for buildines. ENV 1993-l-I:L99?5,, British Standards Institution, London, U.K. Wingerde, A.M. van; Packer, J.A.; and Vy'ardenier, J. 1995. Criteria for the fatigue assessment of hollow structural section connections. Journal of Constructional Steel Research.35: 71-115. Wingerde, A.M. van; Packer, J.A.; and Wardenier, J. 1996. New guidelines for fatigue design of HSS connections. Journal of Structural Ensineerine. American Society of Civil Engineers, 122(2). American Institute of Steel Constn¡ction. 1993. Lo-ad and resistance factor desim specification for structural steel buildines. AISC, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. American Sociery for Testing and Materials. 1993. Standard soecification for coldformed welded and seamless carbon steel structural tubine in rounds and shaDes. ASTM 4500-93, ASTM, Phitadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S-A' Packer, J.A. 1993. Overview of current international design guidance on hollow structural section connections. Proc. 3rd. International Offshore and Polar Eneineerine Conference. Singapore, IV: l-7. Packer, J.A.; and Henderson, J.E. L992. Desien suide for hollow structural section 'Willowdale, Ontario, connections. lst. ed., Canadian Institute of Steel Construction,
Canada.

28.

29.
30. 31. 32.

33. 34.
35. 3ó.

Canadian Standa¡ds Association. 1994. Limit states desim of steel structures. CAN/CSA-Sl6.l-94, CSA, Rexdale, Ontario, CanadaCanadian Standards Association. 1992. Structural qualiw steels. CA}I/CSA-G4.21M92, CSA, Rexdale, Ontario, Canada. Canadian Standards Association. 1992. General requirements for rolled or welded structural qualitv steel. CAN/CSA-G40.20-M92, CSA, Rexdale, Ontario, Canada. A¡chitectural Institute of Japan. 1990. Recommendations for the desier and fabrication of tubular structures in steel. 3rd. ed., AU, Tokyo, Japan. Japanese Industrial Standards. 1988. Carbon steel tubes for general structural purDoses. JIS G3444-1988, JIS, Tokyo, Japan. Japanese Industrial Standards. 1988. Carbon steel squa¡e pipes for seneral structural purposes. JIS G3466-1988, JIS, Tokyo, Japan. l"pãn"r. Society of Steel Construction. 1988. Cold-formed ca¡bon steel square and iectansular hollow sections (box section columns). JSS n-10-1988, Toþo, Japan' Architectural Institute of Japan. 1991. Japanese architectural standard specification JASS 6 steelwork. AIJ, Tokyo, Japan.

Packer, J.A.; Henderson, J.E.; and Cao, J.J. 1996. Desien suide for hollow structural section connections - Chinese edition. Science Press, Beijing, P.R. China.

124

37.
38.

TÜV Rfreinland GmbH, Köln, GermanY' DeutscheslnstitutfürNormung.lgS4.Stahlb?qlenl!¡'4e}'eßeaushohlprofilenunter DIN l8 808, DIN, Berlin, GermanY' (Draft Doc' No'
92146922)'

39.

40.

Institution, London' U.K. 1992' European Committee for Standa¡dization'

'
41.
I

92146923)' British Standards

42.

rnctitrriion- I-ondon. U.K. Institution, London, U. Steel structures' AS4I0O-1990' Standards Standards Association of Australia. l99O' Australia' Áusu¿ia, North Sydney, New South Wales' 'sì.", -ðîirt u",ion. Lsss. pre-ensineered eonneetþns ror a ^. ^.a A tan North lst. ed., AISC, Nnr.fh

iïìiliil;"il;;ä";i'

43.

SyO*y, New South Wales, AustraliaStructural Stpçl hollow sections' 4S1163Standards Association of eustralia. 1991. New South Wales' Australia' 1991, Standards Australia, North Sydney' 1994' Desien capaçitv- -tables for Tubemakers Structural and Engineering Products' Australia Ltd" Newcastle' New South Ourue"l ,t."1 r,oilo*lrciiont iuU"miL"rs of
Wales, Australia.

125

CONCRETE.FILLED HOLLOW STEEL SECTIONS
Eelmut G.L Priont

ABSTRACT
Concrete-filled steel tubes are shown to be an efficient means of carrying comparatively high ardal An loads and moments and are a viable construction method for both buildings and bridgesoverview is given on the application of concrete-filled steel nrbes as columns with a brief steel description oñ"arious coae deiign approaches. The topic of connections to concrete-filled Va¡ious columns is discussed with referãnce to low rise and high rise building applications. connections that connect to the steel practical methods are described, ranging from simple shear rtt tt onty, to connections that transfer large bearing loads and moments into the concrete core-

A brief overview is given on the use of concrete-filled tubes as a rebabilitation method for joints. Strong emphasis is placed on deficient reinforced c,Jncrete columns and beam to column
the suitability of this method for applications in high risk earthquake zones'

INTRODUCTION
Engineers long ago realized the potential

for combining the tensile capacity of steel with the of coñpressive streãgrh of concrete in the construction of composite structurd members
including exceþtionalty high load carrying efficiency. Several construction methods have evolved, conventioná t"infot ed concrõte and pre-stressed concrete members, composite floor systems, in concretg which and composite columns. The latter generally consist of steel members encased not odylfficiently utilize the two materials, but also produce fire-resistant structr¡ral members.

After hollou/ structural steel sections became more readily available, engineers realized the complement each advantages of filling these with concrete. The two components of the member laterally, allowing it to develop its other idãally, in thát the steel casing confines the concrete in the optimum cómpressive strengt[ whilã the concrete, in turr¡ prevents elastic local buckling
saving in steel wall. Another advantate ís that formwork is not required, resulting in a significant resistance construction cost and time] Athough the concrete core somewhat enhances the fi¡e above an empty tube, steel reinforðement is typically added favourable fire resistance of encased sections.

to the concrete core to retain the

Since the For beam to column connections, many proven connection methods can be employed. unfilled sections, load carrying capacity of concrete-fiileâ tolumns is significantly higher than for of however, .nd ,inr. most of the a,xial load is carried by the concrete core, the design These connections to transfer the high beam shear forces into the columns remains a challenge.
I
-l
I

Dept, of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia' Vancouver,B-C.' V6T

lZ4, Caruida

l

.I
I

126

i

probrelsl't:o',î,*:'iï'.:ffi"]i'|,üîffiTöTJ;i'"l'1'Hi le
minimalguidance,,;;;u"ingprouidjinJ,,igncodes.iii'"l'inii'iA
1981; Dunberry'

rngenera,.o::l1Hii"åiïJ:ä"il1"ï*.ii*"i:î"î;å'fffiïj
members in much
t

rall within lt"îïä ,ilr,J"öüio*I':l^Î" not Questions beam-corumn, ." dËsign specifications' imphd, or the limits, specific "urr"ni i::ïl##îï."iitrl"äo"' ffi.Jîiîäxr;ix$'*'git#Ïrn'"::"m'Lffi phase' ::iflt:ïideifo;il" i" tr'" post-ultimate steel with concrete-filled hollow
o-r

when dearing are n9t consistent at all' white others are codes over the world Design type or.o,nooíi " section ot J..r siröhs and/or section slenderness members. Many available itrñied amount of test data often very *nr"*ui',JJ "r¿',*ãr: pårceived;, different design u" "r,rr. the steel casing. '¿¿ition iactors are applied to enable coae *riie'1o stress;;tg; ri"s, safety în uorrnaule resistance in different ohilosophies exist factors.i" tñ" i"r¿sand/or.member "ountri"r, Resistance Factor level wherear,nurri¡*,ion ät oe materiar strength t.r'ã "arãLoad and bound criterion a lower æe appried ," "pplv resistance factors' Ëol Design). Also,.*i,å;;;*"lr; value ,o ,o*, d"tiu"r different levels of to the data pornts, whefeas these tw.o ænt-*ti"t-"of test results, considering the Depending on the scatter ¿itrerent"iä;;;;åt; without îãi ur, ,*tion.a reliability uno a.r,gn.r, codes' of ciibration of the

,"ää;, rr;i.-

i,i'î¡r, ilil;;" p'ôp"i:j^:'ä *,';ï*;"i*;;"',,tï, ;;:;"eriar

l"

#öril;;õ;v *u*r'i*rï;;';-*ot,iniä"'ld ffiFj;;;* t. ;iilt* ur.î;,;;-

-¿

"täï"ããr"l

COLUMNS

in low to ærially loaded columns holrow sections is as successtullv in high - of concrete-fired The most common use ,tî, l" a few.cases, ,ttr aim of increasing the medium rise buildiner concrete, ur. of higr¡ _streruth Foot, lese)' rise buildingr, ,.ki,,ig

:î;;;;;:$
and

;;;;;"sed *jrät'*iii

stiffiress and

(characteristic with¡ormal strength concrete structurar sections filled especially in the case previous research on ho'ow puurã'itä;;i;t turther developments' 40 Mpa) tu, strengh of less than

controrilirï.ä ålie-¿-.ll

127

of

(1969, lg7Û),Neogi been investigated since 1957 (Klöpper and Goder), while Knorvles and Park chen (lg7o¡ ri..inrally addressed the relationship between slenderness and et al (1969) confinement. Since the concrete has to reach about 95Yo of its compressive strength before the confinement is activated, only stocþ cotumns tpicatly achieve this state before overall buckling

circular sections, where considerable strength can potentially be gained from triærial has co¡¡finement of the concrete. The interaction between the concrete core and the steel casing

-d

dictates the ultimate strength. such an increase in compressive strength was observed experimentally as the slendeñess ratio of the column was decreased, but no consens¡¡s has been reached to define a limiting slenderness ratio.

To achieve full confinement, the steel is best utilized in the circumferential direction and should preferably not be loaded longinrdinally (Knowlesand Park 1969). In practice, howwer, this is Aim*k to achievg sincã bond stresses a¡rd frictional forces between the concrete and steel ""ry longitgdinal straining of the steel, thereby reducing the yield strength in both the was "",tL circumferential and tongitud¡nal directions (Furlong 1968, Virdi and Dowling 1980). This in demonstrated in t."6 ãy Gardener and Jacobson (1967), which have shown no increase and strength when only the concrete was loaded, compared to full load application to the concrete
steel.

the Consequently, most equations for the ultimate load of composite sections assume that (1969, 1970) and Tomii (1977) component materials ."t ind"p"ndently. Knowles and fark to the columr¡ but assumed that the steel and the concrete interact by adding ductility and stabilþ a"tial collectively do not add strength to the column beyond their individual contributions. The assumes strength oithe column is modelled by using a summed tang€nt modulus approach, which -buckling; the concrete. The due to the lateral s¡¡pport of the steel to reach full yield before rt.il *d conøete strengths, ignoring both the 'triardal ultimate strength is thus the sum of the effects and bond.

For circular sections, confinement of the concrete through hoop stresses in the steel shell resr¡lts in a significant increase of the concrete strength. The steel itself will, however, experience abiTaking axial Jress condition and a reduction of the sieel resistance has to be taken into account. the above into account, an expression of the following nature is tlpically found in the design
codes (CanadiarL 1995):

Po=crÇ5+pCc
is where c¿ represents a reduction in the steel capacity Cs, while the concrete capacity Cc (D/t) and increased by a factor p. The factors cr and p depend on the diameter-to-thickness yield and concrete lengrh-to-diameter (L/D) ratios of the tube and the ratio of the steel sections coripressive strengtùs. They both remain unity for rectangular sections and for circular with length-to-diameter ratio UD > 25-

To address some of the concerns and extend the existing knowledge to more slender steel tubes filled with high strength concrete, an experimental program was initiated which employs steel MPa' filled tubes with diameter-tõ-thickness ratio @7t) of 92 and yield stress of F, = 262 - 328

128

1994)' A full raîge 73 '92lvPa(Prion and Boehme of characteristic strength f "= the road capacities with concrete r"", (axial load versus "ppriàJïo "ttrr"o"rize subsequently been of road combinations urtimaie.-Further work has up ro test results with anal¡ical and load-deformation ùehaviour (tggz), *io-íur"rsstullv done by Rangan predictions

;;;"t;.

åorlri -äî;;tíu

t";;;;

BEAMS
most columns will are serdom used as beams, that reliable concrete-filled holrow sections Although ;h" a¡<iar forJe--ä'it thus important interaction bending in combinationï;i some amount of available, to be used in appropriate experience expressions equations-

ro, tr,"--iã*ent resistanr; b;

up to 720i{Gr), Lu and Kennedy sections with flange wall slenderness and in the concrete' For rectangula¡ hollow are deveroped in the steel shown irru, *' plaslig ur.lîio"tr (1994) have ti;;roposed T?gtl'based on zuch *., ""f,iä""d br*;;rãri t*tltt -d i. Excellent io thevield value, Fr' and the in ttr-]i.;ñ;;i.k"" t" "gr**"n, i"r"t "q,i¿ time of testing' The stress blocks, when;;;;** concrete urã"Ëi i" , at túe was taken to be equal to the the concrete, increasing concrete stress level ,"rtt1i1,r ã7 , ,upfoi ã*, other in-tttlärr""r "onnn"r in reinforced concrete rwo compon.n ;;rh* than 0'8i of it' as used wall' thus increasing compresri.,,. ,"riTluî;""ä;;;'À;tiil; steel its concret';;;t*t' inwa¡d Utdti"g tithe exceeding the slenderness theory. At the same time, the brrkli"J;;;.-';ht"f";;, rãrtiont moment resistance' the steel strain at *r,¡.i'ro.¿ ã"".lop tulr plastic
requirement,

1994)' who ho'ow sections @rion and Boehme' although been achieved for circular it was found that, Similu results have with r,igt, ur.ogtr, very thin steel tubes fiÏed "on.r.irl tested the bond between a smooth P steel tube and the concrete P buckling the D seems to be unreliable, generated during

orcnïrï;;;r, in u.nliöîT"ur.i"

när"

ã;,i."

bending ihrough Pinching was su-fñcient to develoP the combined section strengÍtU
using the steel Yield strength æd the concrete characteristic strength (Fig' 2)' Since

ruPture

(c")

t¡picallY onlY a small Portion óf ttre concrete is relied uPon to provide a balancing compression bloclq the moment resistance is not very sensltive to the exact shaPe of the concrete stress block'

T arm lever
_tI

a concrete-filled section Figure 2: Internal forces in

129

BEAM COLUMNS
The interaction of moment and axial forces on a concrete-filled steel column is not much unlike the behaviour of reinforced concrete beam-columns, with a distinct "nose" in the low arial load/trigh moment region. This is based on a plane strain model assuming perfect bond between the concrete and steel. Since considerable slip can occur between the two materials, various codes have adoPted different design approaches. .-.i¡¡_¡.-. In lapan one can design according to an elastic metho{ which is uzually strength or STEEL SECNON stiftress governed, or consider the ultimate strength which is ' rp : .¡o'þ l tlpically the case for earthquake resistant design. In the '2r'12.1 .qB=Cr+C.-T, latter case it is left uP to the í- -N'A' d:-: Mu= M. + M. designer to decide how the q lç { loads are divided uP between concrele glfeates CONCREIE SECT¡ON the concrete and steel, which implies that strain compatibility Figure 3: Superposition of intertal forces to resist applied loads between the concrete and steel is not required. This is shown a Boshme,1989 in Figure 3 as the suPerY Boehme;1988 which rePreposition model A Tldy,1988 sents a band of accePtable superposttlon model Ca=Q solutions, the most beneficial

-+

f***\

:,: à !,I,o

interaction being when the steel tube does not contribute in carrying the a,xial load. Test results (Prion and Boehme, 1994) have shown that the
compatible strain model more realistically represents the concrete-filled behaviour although a relasteel tubes, tively wide scatter of results more indicates that research is required (FiS. 4).

= o. x

CL

È

o

o o
superposltlon model Cs=Py

x
o ]U
N

of

still

o

=

cE

The Canadian code (Canadian, 1995) is more conservative in that, for rectangular sections, it

NORMALIZED MOMENT lMexp/Muol

Fiqr¡re 4: Moment-a¡ial toad interaction

130

uses an approach not much unlike that for compact l-sections, where a modest increase in the interaction diagram exists with a limit on the moment component

to the pure moment case. For those sections where the moment is
equal entirely carried by the steel tube (e.g. circr¡la¡ sections), a linear interaction is recommended (Fig.a). The benefit of the a¡rial load to expand the moment capacity beyond the pure moment resistance is thus not permitted.

Npl. Rd
Npm.R
I I I

The European code @urocode 4) has adopted an approach not much unlike the reinforced concrete model. Roik and Bergmann (1984) have introduced a
procedure where the interaction curve is determined by calculation of a few critical

Npm.Rd

I
I

I
I I

points through a plastic plane sections analysis model (Fig. 5), resulting in a Figure 5: Compatible strain plane secfion interacfion curve similar to that of the compatible (Bergmann,1990)
strain model.

model

From the above it is evident that the moment-axial load interaction has not been fully accepted in anl final form by va¡ious codes and that continual change in the codes is to be expected in ñ¡ture revisions.

CONNECTIONS
Connections to concrete-filled hollow sections typically range from standard steel connections for small loads to elaborate details that are requiréd to transfer loads into the concrete core. The level of complexity depends to alarge extent on the purpose of the concrete in the steel tube. the concrete has been added for stiffness, fire ptot""iion or to prevent the tube from crushing at the connectio4 standard connection details since the load in the member is primarily carried by.the tube. "ppropriate

If

."

when the concrete, and possibly additional reinforcement, a¡e called upon to carry asubstantial part of the axial (or bending) load, it must be assured that a proper load transfer ossurs from the adjoining beams into the concrete core. Since the concrete is ablä to carry a suUstantiA load in an efficiently designed member, the required wall thickness of the hollow structural section is often a slender (class 4) element, with limited capacity to accept targe shear and moment forces. Multi-storey concrete-filled sections, although carrying a significant load in the bottom storeys, do not experience very large connection forces at each-storey level, as the total load is graáudly

131

introduced over atl the storey connections. For such moderate moment a¡rd shea¡ loads, it is often possible to design a "skin connectiori" with no direct load transfer to the concrete. lhe usr.¡al steps must be taken to assure that the steel wall will be able to carry the conc€ntrated loads. Since local buckling is largely prevented by the concrete core, it is tlryically acceptable to use the full yield capacity of the steel wall. The amount of friction between the steel wall and the concrete core is uzuqlly adequate to transfer the load into the concr€te over the height of a storcy.

For low-rise buildings where the majority of the arial load is transfened into a column through a small number of connections, it might not be sufficient to connect to the steel wall only. A direct load transfer to the concrete core through bearing will be required. This obviousþ requires the penetration of the steel wall, which adds to the complexity of the connection. Several methods
have been proposed in the literature.

Breit and Roik (1981) have proposed a method where vertical steel tabs pass through the steel tube, often with cirq¡lar holes cut out of the steel plates to enhance the bearing area on the concrete core. This method is especially sr¡itable for simple connections where only the web of a beam is connected to the tab. Becar¡se of the relatively long vertical cr¡t into the steel u¡bg confinement of the concrete in this critical region will be lost unless the tube is welded to the steel
tabs along the slot. One way to avoid the loss of confinement is to use circr¡lar ba¡s to penetrate the steel tube, thus leaving a significant part of the tube intact for confinement of the concrete (Maclellaq 1989). The steel bars are then welded to whatever connector element is required, uzually a vertical tab for connection to a beam web. In both cases mentioned, it has been shown that concrete bearing stresses far in excess ofthe concrete cylinder strength ca¡r be generated, due to the confinement of the concrete by the steel tube. concrettfilled HSS

The through-bolt connection method has been shown to be very effective, especially when moment forces have to be transmitted. In this method, ordi-

pass through the column section (Fig.6). The concrete prevents crushing of the steel section and thus permits the bolts to be pre-tensioned which increases the stiffness of the

nary steel connestion details are used in combination with long bolts that

extended endPlate

connection endplate connection

connection, especially when subjected to moments. Confinement of the concrete through the steel shell and the pre-tensioning greatly enhance the steel beams compression strength, enabling transfer of the vertical shear loads by bearing of the bolts on the surrounding concrete. Figure 6: Through-bolt connection for concrete'filled columns

132

't

I

load carried by the steel shell and the additional friction resistance generated by the bolt pretensioning.

Tests have shown @rion and Mcl-ellan,1994) that failure tlpically occurs by shearing of the bolts will have to be assured through detailing of the beam connection hardware. Slip of the concrete in the steel tube very seldom occurs because of the relatively small
and a more ductile failure mode

I

RETROFTT
The concept of concrete-filled steel tubes presents an efficient means of repairing or retrofitting reinforced concrete structures. V/ith the advancement of knowledge about the respon* oi

earthquake motion" the requirements for confining reinforcement have increased significantly, leaving thousands of buildings and bridges without Ihe necessary reinforcement to withstand a strong earthquake. Encasing such members *ittt circr¡la¡ (and sometimes rectangular) steel tubes and filling the gap with cement grout has proven to be a cost-effective method of upgrading such deficient structures (Fig.7). The same method has been used ercensively to repair strustures, mainly bridges, after moderate damage was encountered during earthquakes in North¡i dge Q99a)
and Kobe (1995).

reinforced concrete structures

to

shown to be an effective method of retrofining beam-to-column rein-forced concrete joints (Hoffschild et al., 1993; Prion and Barak4 1995), which often were constructed without any tie reinforcement at all. Round and square retrofit were both shown to be adequate to strengthen the joint beyond what was required. Although the round retrofit exhibited more favourable strength and duaility characterisrics, the significantly higher cost to fabricate such complex joint sections is probably not justified by the somewhat superior performance. If necessary, local reinforcement in re-gions ofhigh sress experienced with the square retrofit, was shown to signi-ficantly
improve the per:formance.

This method of retrofir has recently been

beams and

Figurc 7: Retrofit of ddicient reinforced concrtte columng joints with grouted steel tubes

Iink in the system. Since, during an earthquake, forces are generated through motion" the weakest links of a structure will experience displacements that will cause forces beyond yielding. If such

fur important issue when retrofining beam-to-column joints, and for that matter, any deficient structure, is to consider the effect of strengthening part of a structure on the remaining members of the structure. Since the original steel reinforcement layout was designed for certain moments and shear forces, the parts of a structure just outside of the retrofit no* right become the weak

133

newly created weak links are not detailed for a ductile response brittle failures might occur, rezulting in full or partial collapse of a structure. It is thus prudent to incorporate weak li¡tks or deliberate plastic hinge locations u/ithin the retrofit scheme. An effective means of achieving this ¡¡O is to cut gaps into the steel shells, Ê z preferably more than one, to åzo ¿Nsure a ductile energy dissipating Þ z hinge location. The remaining t¡¡ strips of steel shell were shown to o =o provide adequate confinernent to = ff 'zo the concrete to prevent spalling À and loss of strength. Experimental rezults show that excellent ft.o ductile behaviour ca¡r be achieved so by repairing weak joint areas and 0s o {.qt -o.l JOlt{TROTAnOil c[radl incorporating plastic hinge zones in the retrofit (Fig.8).
Figure 8: Eystereticbehaviour of retrofitted reinfo¡eed conctttc sect¡on (Eoffschild et eL, 1993)

SUMIì{ARY
Concrete-filled nrbes have been shown to be an efficient construction method for several applications, but primarily as columns in buildings and bridges. Although this method has been used successfully in China and Japan for many decades, its introduction in North America has been very slow. The major reason for the reluctance of designers to use concrete-filled steel n¡bes can primarily be ascribed to the lack of expertise and familiarity in the construction industry and wittr designerq regarding both member behaviour and connection methods. The lack of knowledge about the topic and its absence in typical Universþ curricula also play ari importarit role in the lack of its application.
A¡rother reason for the difference in popularity of concrete-filled tubes is the relative cost of labour and materials in various parts of the world. In North America it might be more costeffective to increase the wall thickness of hollow steel sections instead of engaging in another step and ñlling the tubes with concrete. In some countries steel is a relatively expensive commodity, whereas concrete and labour are cheap and readily available, which makes concrete-filled tubes a prefened choice. summary, it remains the desig¡er's decision, whether to use concrete-filled hollow steel sections or whether unfilled sections would be as efficient. Most important is a good understanding of the behaviour of concrete and steel as these two materials interact to resist forces in a combined manner. Not only the elastic behaviour is of importance, but frequently the response of members and structural systems under actions that result in excursions beyond the proportional limit, requires designers to consider factors such as ductility and cyclic response.

In

134

REFERENCES
Bergmanr¡ R. 1990. Composite Columns, IABSE Short Course, Composite Steel-Concrete Construction and Eurocode 4, Brussels, 39-68.
Boehme, J. 1988. Behaviour of Circular Steel Tubes Filled with High Strengrth Concrete Subjected to Bendin-e, Bachelor Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering University of Toronto. Boehme, J. 1989. Strength of Thin-Walled Circular Steel Tubes Filled with Higùr Strength Concrete, M.A.Sc. Thesis, Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, l70pp.

Breit, M. and Roih K. 1981. Momentenfreier Anschluß an Betongeftllte Hohlprofilstätzen Experimentelle Untersuchung. Project 52 der Studie Eisen und Stahl, Düsseldorf.

Limit States Design of Steel Structures, National Standard of Canad4 CAII/CSA-SI6.l-94, Rexdale, Ontario.
Ca¡¡adian Standards Association,. 1994.

T. lg76.Theory of Beam-Columns Votume Dgstg4 McGraw-Hill, New York, pp.413417.
Chen, W.F. and Atsuta,

l: In-Plane Behavior

and

Dunberry, E., Leblanc, D. and Redwood, R.G. 19S7. Cross-section Strength of Concrete-Filled HSS columns at Simple Beam connections, can. J. civ. Eng., vol 14, pp.4o}4l7 Eurocode 4. 1990. Design of Composite Structures, Technical Paper R65, Annex Simplified Calculation Method for Resistance ofDouble-symmetrical Composite Cross-Sections in Combined Compression and Bending", Bochum, Germany.

d

Furlong R.W. 1968. esign of Steel-Encased Concrete Beam-Colunrns. Journal of the Strucn¡ral Division. ASCE, 94(ST I ), Proc. Paper 57 61, 267 -281 .
Gardner, N.J., and Jacobsen, E.R. 1967. Structural Behaviour of Concrete Filled Steel Tubes, ACI Journal, Proc., &(7),404413.

Hoffschild, T.E., Prioq H.G.L., Cherry, S. 1993. Retrofitting Reinforced Concrete Joints with Grouted Steel Tubes, Proc. Tom Paula]¡ S]'mp., Univ. Southern Calif, La Joll4 Sept. 1993 ,403431. Johnson, R.P. 1975. Composite Structures of Steel and Concrete Vol. l:Beams. Columns. Frames and Applications in Building, Constrado Nomograph, Crosby Lockwood Staples, Granada Publishing L¡d., London.

135

Knowles, RB. and Parh R. 1969. Strength of Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns, Journal the Structural Division, ASCE, 95(STl2), Proc. Paper 6936,2565-2587Knowles, RB. and Parh R 1970. Ardal Load Design for Concrete Filled Steel Tubes, Journal the Structural Division, ASCE, 96(5T10), Proc. Paper 7597,2125-2153.

of
of

Lu, Y.Q and Kennedy, D.J.L. 1994. The Flen¡ral Behaviour of Concrete-Filled Hollow Structural Sections, Can. J. Civ. Eng., 2l(l), I I l-130.

Mclellan, AB. 1989. Behaviour of Beam Connections for Hollow Circ¡lar Steel Tube Columns Filled with }figh Strength Concretg B.ASc. Thesis, Dept. ofCivil Engineering Universþ of
Toronto.

Neog, P.K., et al. 1969. Concrete-Filled Tubular Steel Columr¡s Under Eccentric Loading; The Structural Engineer. 47 (5), I 87- I 95. Priorl H.G.L., Boehme, J. 1994. Thin-Walled Steel Tubes Filled q,ith HiSb Strength Concrete, Can. J. of Civ. Eng.. V.21,pp.207-218 Prioq H.G.L., Baraka, M. 1995. Grouted Steel Tubes as Seismic Retrofit for Beam to Column
Joints, Proc. 7th Can. Conf. on Earthquake Eng., Montreal, Que., Jun. 1995, 871-878.

Priort H.G.L., Mclellar¡ A"B. 1994. Through-Bolt Connections for Concrete-Filled Hollow
Structural Steel Sections, Proc. Strucn¡ral Stability Research Council Annual Tectrnical Meetine. fune 1994,239-250.
Raridall, V. and Foot, K. 1989. tügh-Strength Concrete for Pacific First Centeç Concrete International. pp. 14-16.
Ranga¡U
'

B.V. and loycg M.1992. Strength of Eccentrically Loaded Slender Steel Tubular Columns with High-strength Concretg ACI Structural lournal. V. 89, No. 6, 676{,81.

and Bergmann, R. 1984, Composite Columns - Design Examples for Construction" 2d US-Japan Sem. Compos. Struct., Seattle, July.

Roih K.

Tomii, M., et at. 1977. Experimental Studies on Concrete filled Steel Tubula¡ Stub-Columns
under Concentric Dvnamic Loads, ASCE, 718-741.

Tidy, M.S. 1998. Hollow Circular SteelTube Columns Filled with High Strength Concrete. Bachelor Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering University of Toronto.

Virdi, K.S., and Dowling, P.J. 1980. Bond Strength in Concrete Filled Steel Tubes, IABSE Periodica, Internat. Assoc. for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 125-139.

r36

STEEL FT.JNDAMENTAL CRITERIA FOR WELDING TTJBULAR R. M. Bent"

ABSTRACT
commonly used to Although weldabitity has no universally accepted definition, the term is joined. Physical factors such as base metal describe the relative ease with which a steel may be design aspects such as chemistry, preheat, and filler metal must be selected with care. similarly, must receive electrode consumption, joint configuration, weld type, and general accessibility designer must ensure that the equal consideration. To áchieve the above criteria with HSS, the joining members satisfy the geometric parameters (relative dimensions and wall thickn¿ss) to joints welded äpti*iä¡oint efficiency ano lú¿ capacity. The design will thus feature accessible of minimum frllets, a competitive edge that car¡not be easily surpassed by the
wittr simple
be appreciated: (1) not all structures lend themselves to HSS, weig¡t. îwo points, however, seldom succeeds, even if the and (2\, an arbitrary substituiion of one itSS member for another engineer's choice of member substitute has an equivalent load carrying capacity. The stntctuml economy of the final weldment' size and joint orientation will predetermine both the quality and

ruti

_concept

INTRODUCTION
General Properties The 350" ln car¡ada, the most commonly used HSS conforms to csA G10.21-350W, class H' good weldability (carbon indicates a yield strengrtr or¡io Mpa (50 Ksi), while the flt"indicates is made by: (1) a equivalent mean of 0l¿0, with a ma:rimum of 0.44). Cf* H tubular steel (2), a seamless or såmless or continuous welding process and hot formed to final shape, or final shape, then automatic welding process ptøuðing a continuous weld, and cold formed to give the chemical subsequentty stress relieved at 850;F., cooling in air. Tables l and 2 .o*poìition and physical properties of "350'W" and several other grades'
processes: The majority of welding on HSS structures is done with the following three covered shielded MetaiArc Welding (sMAlV) -- a conventional manual process with as the rod melts. electrodes; the weld metal is protected by gases and flux produced with each Although the rate of weld deposition is somewhat low and varies considerably welder, the overall versatility over a wide range of applications and the relative ease of set up maintain the popularity of "stick welding''

o

.

Flux Cored Arc lvelding (FCAW) -- another semi-automatic process that uses a hollow by an continuous wire f,rlled with flux and other chemicals; the weld is protected either the electrode extemally applied gas (commonly COr) or a self-shielding gas generated as

" Senior Welding Engineer, Welding Institute of Canada, Oakville, Ontario

137

melß. The deposition rate of FCAW is about riple that of SMA\ry, generating a high heat input. On thicker walled HSS, this process is extremely effective.

llSS-Chcrnic¡l r.gu¡r.rn ln¡
Ctrartlcal rrqul'lmcnts

-

hcaf aneryst€ tpêrën0

sl¡nr¡nl
sÉ{¡¡.U.e¡-MBt

I o*t
I ssow sætt' I 35{¡WT I
I
¡

I

3X¡W

rrr"t. I Mî "0.26 030,l¿o
o.2.

P

ílar

S

nrar

Sr
O.¡lO'lt.r. 0.¡lOmar.
O.¿lO'rl.r. 0.t5,O.¡¡O 0.15r0..l(l 0.r5¡0.¡10 0.15r0.¡l{,

I

lGre¡nrclümg

.lùn.lüS.ù

fu¡¡t

o.a o.a

o.o.
0.04 0.oa

ASlì¡

A50O
,fSOî

I 350r"' I ¡sor¡"

gsoun

o.2

0.50,r.50 oson.i50 0.80rt.50

0.05 0.0!t

0.æ,t50
0.73r.35
0.75n.35

0g¡
o.Gt o.G! 0.txl o.oa
0.0a
0.0.3

0.05
0.04
O.O¡¡

0.f0nìar
0.10 rnar.

o.toì,o

t_ t_
0ã)o.6{)
020/0.60

t:

¡¡Ð

Ct¡

I :

: I

o.c
-

cr.g

Gr.A

oã oâ 0:6 oâ

0.æ

o.oa
O.O¡l

0.t0mü.
0.lO mâr.

tb-go

b-mnrt TOnnr

m¡¡

,7Oma¡.

o2a

r35 ma¡.

0¡5
o.o5

0.05 0.0t¡

0.20dñ.6
0¿Onh.'â

0¿0flit.'¡

0.oa

0¿0ntì.6
E r ffi Fr. rt E ffi
rErt.

îræ ffi E tffi ry Ð G t t¡''. t. æ É D ÞE lE t'ct D l' m h Eæ r dr o. l¡ m. tr 9ñrtrr æaæ fi¡Ctædo¡Offi @ rÐ É,qrDyñffi ot gË l¡l firæEcffid E EÞO{O,åÉ 'EffiüÐ lat!brEG.SËr.
f

ll

Fñaa nEÈ G ¡¡t Ð Eñ æ

E

..ñt

r

ñ

ætø lrúrn

D

c

rr DÞ

Table 1: HSS Chemical Requirements
Gas Metat Arc Wslrling (GMAIV)

- a semi-automatic

æ

2
21

z¿
z1
21 21

zÐ'l
26gD æt¡

8t

3l¡" 28
¡lt;bæE! raSoDæ€rç¡¡rE ¡¡IYluúæ ralslæ ffi E æffi lstsææ E!ÐEE.æü t6lSÞ.tÉ¡lErrS¡Ery

3174

æ
2;' a
'!ørrdlt ñæF E

3.ga

a continuous solid wire electode. The weld is protected by externally applied inert gases such as lñVo Argon or Helium, or, mixh¡res such ¡rs Argongl%o I Oxygen 5Vo. The deposition rates are almost ¿ts high Írs FCAW; however, p,roductivity is sensitive to changes in operating parameters such as wire feed speed, amperage, etc. The quality is excellent, but the process is demanding on the
welder. the soon be released CSA Standard tV59-

process similar to FCAW, with

In

to

É

d m@ ll F mc.@rÇ@¡ãìg.

1996, Welded

Srcel

Table 2: HSS Mechanical Properties

Corutntcdon, GWAÌW will
become a prequalified process.

Prequalified welding procedures and joints translate into substantial savings because no qualification welds, subsequent æsting, nor PQR's are required (Figure la) however, a written WPS is mandatory. Not only are the savings to the fabricator substantial, but there is now one less thing to worry about. The joints are detailed in Sec.l0 of CSA W59 (Figure lb).

-

138

Procedure Test
Two methods of support Written welding procedure: WPS . WPDS

.

Prequalified joints plus procedural requirements

Figure la: Prequalified Procedurcs Thus, with three proven welding processes using prequalified procedures on the highly weldable "350W" HSS base material, the fabricators begin the job under conditions that not only offer flexibilify but also an opportunity to reduce capital costs. Now, if
the stnuctu¡e has utilized the special design guidelines for HSS member selection, the prospects will also bode well for:
. 6 ñm mrn. lot -V
'

o high joint efficiency o high qualify o high production

Fïgure JOINTS AND WELDS

lb: Prequalified Joint

General Clhservations
welds (usually without a backing bar) are commonly used in HSS

Fillet ar¡d/or groove

fabrication. Either weld qpe can easily develop the fuX capacity of the HSS wall. For example, the two fillet welds in Figure 2 just match the maximum load of the member
this balanced design sets an upper boundary on the weld size. A misconception held by many designers is that "a 100% weld' must be a CJPG weld, when in realiry a parr of simple fillet welds will likely suffice.

-

Figure 2 : Balanced Design

139

Fillet lVelds Ease of welding and minimum joint preparation and fitup requirements make the fillet weld the first choice, Fillet welds are used almost exclusively in web-to-chord truss connections. They are frequently used in T-joint configurations of Vierendeel truss€s (Figure 3). Researchen (l) have established that unreinforced equal widttr HSS connections can in some instances achieve full moment transfer. For an unstiffened connection both strength and flexural rigidity decrease as bo I to increases nd \ I Q
decreases.

Connections
and a low bo

with bt=bo
/

to agproach full rigidity, but all other unstiffened connections shall be classed as semirigrd Ø. Joints with unequal chord widths may be reinforced to improve

performance: several methods have been
evaluated (3), with the flat plaæ fillet welded to the chord being especially favoured. more economical to substitute a combination groove and reinforcing fillet the required fi.llet size l2.7mm ('h"), as shown in Figure 4.

It is

generally

if

Figure 3: Vierendeel Tn¡ss lÞtails

Groove lVelds
Groove welds a¡e classified as either complete penetration or partial penetration. CSA W59 has strict criteria of what constitutes a CJPG weld (Figure 5) and a PJPG weld (Figure 6). A groove weld welded from one side only must be done by a welder with a valid 'T" ticket. The procedure is not prequalified. Deails for prequalified groove joints in circular tubular steel may be found in A}ryS Dl.l Structural Wglrling Code, Section 10 (prior to 1966 rærganization of the code). ln general, the material preparation and fitup is often time-consuming, making groove welds very expensive.

140

1/2 in.
(13 mm)

Groove welds are sometimes used in place of filret werds in the following circumstances :

To achieve the required weld throat when precludes using a fillet (Fîgure Ð.
deposited weld mehl on a

,n. ¡orn, geometry

To reduce weld weight. For example, the weight of
WELD AREA

(l6O mmzl

= 0.25 in2

l2.7mm would require a 1" f,rllet at l.9Z lb/ft. However, a l2.5mm groove weld with a 12.5mm reinforcing fillet would use only half the weld metal
(similar to Figure 4).
2.

of

T-joint having a wall thickness

ll3

1/2 in.
mm¡

WELD AREA = 0.13 in2 (8O mm:¡

To make bun joint splices between two HSS members, preferably with a backing bar (Figur€ E). Splices utilizing flange plates should usê a groove/fillet, especially for highly stressed tension members (chord of truss). See Fïgure 9: the tube has a groove reinforced with a fillet, providing extra strength and a bener overall joint contour.

Figure 4: Reduced Arca

wekled lrom on€ s¡d€ wlth steel bactcing

wetct on

ftsl

(preDarod)

ide

rnoE|l

bæk gcugÚìg to go¡Jnd trorî oúìor sEa

cÉ¡îÞþtim of w?ld

sosrd

fÎfit

s¡da

Fþre 5: CJPG Welds

141

t,

prepafed 10 lacilitate tusion ¡nto vert¡cal wall ard develop larger throal

ptaneofnoat

/
0=

íiernber bu¡ld up

9f

(PJPG)

Figurc 7: Contour Radfu¡sed Cotrer
Flgr¡re 9: Reinforrced Groove lVeld

ngr¡re 6: PJPTG lVelds

a) penefaüon tess

üan compteÞ

b)

welcted from one skle

withoutsteet bactdng

c)

welcled from boü sides wiüout bad<gouging

Racking Rars Backing bars are generally not required. They are difficult to fit and do not add strength. Two exceptions would be:

1. 2.

Butt joint qplices, Íts
noted.

already

\

\

Omin

When both the web and chord
have the same width, especially

if
Figure

the gap is large at the radiused corner of the chord. @gure 10)

t: Butt Splice With Backing

142

Preferences From the preceding discussion, the welds in order of preference are:

. o o o

Fillet welds
Partial penetration groove welds (PJPG)

Complete penetration groove welds
(CJPG), with backing
Special PJPG weld made from one side without backing, in accordar¡ce with Appendix L, CSA \ry59, which defines it as CJPG weld under static loading @gure 11).

Iïgure 10: IVidth Mismatch

3e s
'I
i

t< gfr
whant)r/.":
9 ' t/tclo 7/ç

Opcn Side

6æ < a< 90"
Acute S¡do

whent=

*"tn=

|l?n"

Fìgure 1l: HSS CJPG Weld, Appendix L of CSA W59, Static I¡¿¡ling OnIy

143

OPTIMTJM JOINT CONTTGI,JRATION

Gap.Ioints
The Gap "Ioitt¡ shown in Figure 12, connecting the truss chord and web members, illustrates an optimum fabrication. The gap joint here requires only a single cut, a single pass fillet weld around the web, no gr,ove preparation or backing bar, no gusset plate, with easy fitup and ample access. Note that the webs are thin- walled, marginally less wide than the chord, two essential factors. Compare it to the conventional joint configuration in Figure 12a.

\ileight of Iìeposited lVeld Metal
Besides

ì
t

optimum joint minimizes the amount of
deposited weld

of

easy fabrication conditions, the

metal. There a¡e at least three

l. 2. 3.

factors that can influence this objective. Angle between web and member. Thickness of HSS wall being welded. Method of design used to size the welds

.Ioint Angle
welds are used elsewhere. The ratio between weld size and throat size varies with the weld angle, as shown in Fïgure 13 (SectÍon 3 of the CISC Ilandbook of Steel Construction). For the same resistance, larger welds are required for obtuse angles than for acute angles. On the same page, CISC Figure 3-f 1 has a Table that shours the minimum 90" weld Itigure 12: Optim¡¡m Ç¡p Joint leg size for the given ranges of wall thickness getween 60-90", which is useful for comparing the throat sizes of skewed fillets. Note: Heel welds at joint angles less than 30' do not contribute to the load sharing.
llE.l

tE-iì r+

Fillet welds vary from 60o to 120';

PJPG

\i

I

IISS lVall Thickness In CISC Table 342 the minimum weld size is æt according to the wall thickness (Figure 13a). This can result in a weld leg that is significantly oversized, having a capacity considerably greater than the web member being joined. However, the Code also specifies that the weld næd not exceed the thickness of the thinner part being joined. This criteria is obviously an advantage for
welding thin walled HSS.

144

hernative to OPtimrrm HSS Joint

COMPETING DFSIGN CONCEPTS prequalified Weld Si'e

,-.^--.^t:c^)¡nn¡mr fnr cizins finet werd that l,*,s apreqwwconcept for sizing a For 350 Mpa tubes with gap joints, the Irw the web thickness' The Canadian the ,n*ã qøto matches the capacity of t¡'. *.u; set in ar¡ ¿.æ,'inø uy various thickness mnges, would result Codes, using the minimum leg sizr^ equivalent throat value of L46t'

r'i'ito

Calculated Weld Size In theory, - -,^weld size needed to carry the actuar roadThe arternative method is to carculate the required weld bnstharound the tube todetermine the simply divide the member load by n" nlu accounted for' as per sides o1the web member should be resistance per unit length. The sloped Figure 14.

ffinthattheactual,oreffective,w9ldlengthvariesaccordingtotheweb effective rength óonsists of the rwo longitudinal

the angle. when t¡e cnord angle is 60o or trál weld shourd be considered completely ineffective' sides and the width along the toe, butttre on the and the necessary weld size calculated effective weld length can now be calculated, The
basis

*ãi*

of aPPlied loading'

Transversely I oaded fillets to the resistance of filtet welds varies according In the current øition of csA s16.1M-g4, the in tension transverse to the weld axis increases orientation of the apptied stress. The resistance no (Figure l5)' This is a 50Vo increase' There is the angle, attaining a maximum .i 90' with

145

change

in weld strength when

loaded parallel to the weld

axis. The new formula allows the

designer to poæntially reduce weld sizes for advantage weld/load orientations. The effects of the new equation occur between 50' and 90". For T-joints, CSA values would possibly approach or surpass the II1V values. The equation is given by:

I

V,=0.67Q ¡\nX,( I .00

+Q.

5Osint'50)

(l)

WELDING DÉTAILS FOR HOLLOW STRUCTURAL SECTIONS
Eltcüavr Thro¡t:Effectivc

T-5mmlo¡ 0-3Ooro44o 1- 3 mm lor g -45o to 59o

Thro¡t:-

T>0.7075
as per TaUe 4.2

in W59'M89

e

-eelseJiL*
T = O.7O7S

- r's'
Detail B

Dctail A
d - 30o to
59o

á = 600 to 9Oo

Effecrive Throa¡:

-

Effec¡ive Throar
S

-

T

1X,¡-

Add¡tio.ì!l

ils
Chord Mcmber Built Up

Prap¡r¡tion to Dcrclog lrrgnr

Th¡o¡t
I \

cnoø
lVlcmþcr

Euilt Up

Dct¡il

C
T=

Detail D

0 -9Oo
Eflec¡ive Thro€t:

g-90"

-

0.707

¡ F¡
¡

S

r-¡\

Tctloc0= 1360to
T>t for 0=

Effec¡ive Throat:

T=

t for0 = l35o

1sOP

121o to l34o

rsoe
F

I
10r-106
107.1

91-100

o.95

0.90

r3 r r4-t20 0.85 0.80

TY x
Dctail F
H

Dctril

E

r-i

0

-

91o

ro 1200

=

121o

to t50o

Figure 13: Prequalified Joints, CSA W59

146

HSS CONNECTIONS 90o Fillet Size þ Develop Wall Strength Table g-42
E480XX Fillet Welds
Wall

Fy = 350 MPa
Filter Leg Si¡e

Thickncss {mm)

lmml
Wall in Sheer Wall in Ten!¡on

3.8r 4.78 6.35
7.95 9.53 t 1.13 12.70

r0
12
14

I

6

l0
14

I

r8
20
24 26

r6
r8

Frgure 13a: CISC Table of Minimnm Fillet Wetd Sizes

LENGTHoFw€LD=20-

#

Figure f4: Iængth of lVeld Includes Effect

;f St"p"

FLARE BEVEL FLARE GROOVE WELDS
Nasty Prohlem Flare bevel groove weld¡ formed by setting an HSS member against a flat are not prequalified in canada' The poor tolerances on tne ,"diu, of square and rectangular sections precludes a
147

added cost

measurement of the penetration. Thus, there is an

direct

Tron¡vc¡sc Lood

that the required throat can be attained by appropriate welding procedures. At present, CSA W59 is working on statistical data mathematical develop relationship benveen visible dimensions in terms of the HSS radius. Not being prequalified, one must pay for procedure qualifications.
procedure, ensuring

to qualify the

using

to

a

Fïgurc 15: Transversely l,oaded Fillets are Stronger

CIJOSING REÙíARKS
This short paper can only touch on a few topics with respect to the welding of HSS. One should remember the fundamental distinction between the resistance of welded joints and the resistance of conneaio¡ts. The connection has a resisance (as a function of the geometric parameters) which is often less the capacity of tt¡e member. That resisance cannot be increased by adding additional welding because the extra weld will not be effective in transferring load through the connection. Such extra weld is wasteful, and could cause harm through the unnecessary introduction of extra heating, shrinking, and restraint.
Thus it is somewhat ironic that the design guidelines for choosing connection and joint efficiencies also result in conditions that a¡e ideal for an optimum fabrication, both in terms of quality and competitiveness.

REFERENCFS

l. 2. 3.

Cran J. A.; Gibson E.B.; Stadnycþi S. 1981, 2nd eÅ. Hollow Structural Sections, Design Manual for Connections; Stelco Inc. Packer, J.A.; V/ardenier, J; Kurobane, Y; Dutta, D.; Yeomans, N. 1992. Íresign Guide tror Rectangrrlar Flollow .section (RF{.S) Joints lInder Orertominantly Static I oadin& CIDECT, Germany. ISBN 3-8249-0089-0 Frater,G.S.; Packer, J.A. 1990. l-tesign of Fillet Wetdments for ÉIollow Structural Section Trusses- CIDECT REPORT No. 5AN/2-90173; ISBN 0-7727-7570-2. University of Toronto.

148

4-Packer,J.A.;Henderson,J'E'1992'rresignGuideforFlollowstructuralsection
_l
'I
I

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Limited, Markham, Ontario. 1982. Plate Reinforced Square Hollow Section TKoral, R.M.; Mitd, H.; Mirza, F.A. Joins of Unequal Width, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol.9, No.2, pp. 143Connecrions. CISC. ISBN G.8881147G6. Universal Offset

International Institute of Welding Subcommission XV-E, Design Recommendations for Hollow Stn¡ctral Joins Predominantly Statically loaded,2nd ed., IfW DOC. XV-70189. Cran, J.A.; 1pg! Waren and Pratt Truss Connections, Weld Gap aFd OverlaP Joints Using Rectangular Chord Memhers. Technical Bulletin 22, Stelco Inc. 1: CEN/TC l2lts1 4/WG 6 No 24; Welded Connections - Part Steel 'Structures' (Finat Draft) Part D, pp.22-29. CISC Handbook of Steel Construction, Fifth Edition, 1993. AWS Dl.l-1994 Structural Welding Code - Steel, Section 10 CSA Standard 516.l-94 Limit States Design of Steel Structures CSA Standard W59 rù/elded Steel Construction

148.

-

149

BENDING, BOLTING AND NAILING OF EOLLO\ry STRUCTURAL SECTIONS
J. E. Henderson

ABSTRACT

Hollow structural sections (IISS) are bent by rolling or by mechanical means to create curved sections for aesthetically pleasing structures. Smaller radii are increasingly attainable with improved bending techniques. Bolting other structural members to HSS sections has long been constrained due to the inaccessibility of the interior. Various blind bolting solutions exist, but only recently have products with promising stnrctural and economical
performance emerged. For some applications, an alternative to welding or bolting HSS may be power-driven nailing a method that has recently been demonstrated to be practical.

BENDING HSS Introduction
Curved HSS are used by designers to create a wide variety of original and aesthetically pleasing structures. While architects and engineers have been taking greater advantage of this potential, industry has been developing increased capability for curving HSS.

Hollow structural sections can be bent either cold or hot. Rolling or mechanical bending is used for cold curving while induction heating is generally preferred for hot curving.
Cold rolling square and rectangular HSS with conventional three-roll machines was studied for CIDECT (Comité Internatiotnl pour le Développement et I'Etude de la Constntction Tubulaire) in 1988, and reported in the Packer and Henderson guide (Ref. l). Curvature was limited by wall distortion of the sections, which quickly became excessive. Howeveç with custom rollers that better support the section, much smaller radii are presently being rolled. WhiteFab Inc. of Birmingham, Alabama reports that they have newly patented equipment that holds and bends the HSS by means of hydraulic grips and cylinders, a
process they find more precise and more economical than rolling.

When cold forming a given size HSS, tighter curves are possible with increasing wall thicknesses. Some slight concave distortion of the wall that is next to the inside of the arc usually occurs, but the other three walls generally remain true. Mechanical properties are altered by the cold work associated with rolling, so that ductility after rolling is less than
Principal. Henderson Engineering Services. Milton. Ontario, Canada. ted.henderson@canrem.com

150

before and ultimate strengfh is higher. The stress-strain relationship below yield level is not significantly affected.

Induction heating is used to produce precise complex bends in large and heavy shapes as well as in conventional structural sections. Examiles are2 to 12 inch diameter pipe with walls up to 1.5 inches thick bent to radii from 5 io 60 inches, and lz to 66 inch diameter walls up to 4 inches thick bent ro radii from 40 to 3g4 inches, {ne- ¡tttr as quoted by
NAPTech Inc. of Clearfield, Utah.

BENDING HOLLOW STRUCTURAL SECTIONS
Section
ROUND HSS d

Radius
(m)

Process

Sect¡on

Radius
(m)

Process

xt

(mm)
Rolling Rolling Rolling Rolling

60.3 x 5
114.3 x 6.3 168.3 x 10

RECTANGULAR HSS (bent about y-y axis)

0.4 0.7 0.9
1.1

219.'l x 12.5 SOUAREHSS
CUXCUXþ

hxb xt(mm)
0.6
1.2
1.1

Rolling Rolling

76x76x6.4 100x100x6.3 102x102x6.4 102x102x9.5 102x102x9.5
127

152x51x6.4 152x102x6.4 203x51 x6.4 203x1O2x6.4 254x102x9.5 304x102x9.5 406x102x9.5 406x203x9.5

1.8 2.1
3.1

Mechanical
Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical

2.4 2.4 2.4 3.7
10.4

Rolling
Mechanícal Rolling Mechanical Rolling Mechanical Rolling Rolling Rolling Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Rolling Rolling Rolling Mechanical Rollino Rollino Rollinq Mechanical

1.8

RECTANGUI-AR HSS (bent about x-x axis)

1.5

102x51 x6.4

1.8

Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Rolling Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Rolling Mechanical

2.8
1.8

x 127 xg.5

152x152x9.5 152x152x9.5 150 x 150 x 10 150x150x12.5 152x152x12.7 203x203x6.4 203x203x9.5 203x203x9.5 200 x200 x 12.5 203x203x12.7 254x25ax9.5
254 x25a x 9.5 254 x254 x 12.7

2.0
2.1 1.4

3.0
2.1

52x51x6.4 152x102x9.5 203x51 x6 4 203x152x64 203x152x9.5 254x51x6.4
250 x 150 x 12.5

1.8 1.8

2.4 2.3 2.9
3.1

9.0 3.8 7.5 3.5 4.9 9.2 8.6 19.9

4.9
3.1

4.9 2.0
3.7 7.0

15.3
9.2 12.2

250x102x9.5 254 x203 xg.5 305x102x9.5 305x203x9.5 305x203x12.7 406x102x9.5 406x203x12.7

Rolling

305x305xi2.7 356x356x9.5

23.5

Table

1: some representative radii of curvature for cord bent HSS
151

Examples of HSS Curvatures

It

is difficult for companies that bend steelto provide a complete range of minimum radii for

curving HSS because of the number of variables involved. They can however provide examples of curvatures produced in the past and opinions as to what is likely feasible with a particular section. Table I gives a representative listing of some recent cold forming results that have been reported to the author.

EUCK
Introduction

INC.

HIGH STRENGTH BLIIYD BOLTS

Huck Internæional Inc. market a high strenglh blind bolting (HSBB) assembly with structural performance intended to match A325 bolts. Figure I shows the unit inserted into a holg both before and after tensioning. The tensioning operation consists of a hydraulic gun being used to pull on the pintail while the gun $pages a collar onto the threaded bolt. At the end of the operation a sleeve under the bolt head has deformed to prevent the head
from pulling back through the hole, and the pintail has snapped

off

Figure

1: Huck HSBB

(a) before

tensioning

(b) after tensioning

Due to geometry, a 20 mm HSBB unit (actually 21.5 mm) matches a f inch (19 mm) diameter A325 bolt, and is used in a 22 mm hole in the HSS. This is less clearance than is customary with 4325 bolts. The actual bolt within this HSBB is about 15 mm diameter. Huck International reports that the 20 mm HSBB has minimum specified tensile strengÍh, clampingforce,andshearstrength oî 192kN, l30kNandgl kNcomparedwith 178 Iò1, 125 kN and 98 kN (threads intercepted) respectively for I inch A325 bolts.

152

that erectors wi, find than the original HSBB. i¡"-inrtull"tion sequence is shown in Figure 2' Independent tests have confirm-ed that ¡""u.ä pltension and ultimate rension of ultra-Twist %, % and r inch fasteners exceed the requirements of A325 borts.

it a more attractive product

Huck International recently announced commercial availability of a re-designed known as the ultra-Twist blind boii HSBB wr,icn is installeJ with a ,t"na"r¿-.Ëctric wench (as used for. twis.t-off type bolting uoitg rather tnan w¡tt¡ a hydraulic wrench. The ultra Twist is used in holes ft6 inch-íarger that the ourer ¿¡a.Lt", of the unit, which provides conventional clearances for fit-up. w¡tr:. these features, it is expected

Japan seems to be the-biggest potential market for the ultra-Twist, and Huck are expecting approval there that will mean tire product conforms ,o r.pun', high tension bort standard.

The U-TRA.TV/¡ST btino ¡3¡ ,g ¡nstat¡ed lrom one srde oí lhe slfuclure by a srnole opefatof.

lhe

¡ns¡al,ation loot is

The bacKrde buto is fuily formed rn the ai lo a uniform diameter regardtess of gflp.

As the instaltaton ¡oad
increases. a spectal ¡ntern¿l

he

standard eleclric shear rrrench tooling used for rnslaltatron ol
Twist.olT Controt f¡-C.| tv0e fasteners. The f¿stener ¡s

washef sheafs ailorMng the backside bulb lo come tnto conlact with the work surface
and

Conlinued torquing of the unit develops the required clamp and

the lorque pintail snears of. completing the instailat¡on.
Us;ng a standard S60EZ shear wrench. ¡nslal¡alron l¡me for a 3/4- faslener is agpror¡mately 30 seconds.

lot

All Clamp load

to go rnto

the work slructure.

insenec and lne toot sng¿qs6

Figure

2:

tnstallation sequence for Huck ultra-Twist blind bolt

Experimentation

f#!j íå írfå::,ÍÌ::""

HSBBs both individuarv and in end prate momenr conne*ions

In tension tests of rigid-butt plate connedions, 20 mmHSBBs and 3/ inch,\325bolts both allowed separation-:Iht plates to begin at a load about equar to the -¡n specified pretension. Thereafter' the HSBBs blhaved ror. ductile manner (as the Hsng components deformed) than did the A325 uolts. eli.xceeded specifieJ urri,n.r. tension strength.

I

Moment connections using w360x33 beams bolted through I g mm end plates to 203x203x 12'7 Hss were used to tãtp*" moment-.otation behavturs of connections with 20 mm HSBBs and 3/ inch 4325 úott' results were essentiaily identicar rd¡'¡y ru'nrlcal we¡ beyond well nominal plastic moment capacity the of the

iî.

beams.
153

mm walls were When similar moment connections using 254x254 HSS with 9.5 and punching shear of the HSS wall around the HSBB tested, it was demonstrated that deformed sleeve under its bolt head becomes a consideration for ultimate strength. (Howeveç one suspects that overall deformation of the connection would govern.)

ll.l

A¡rother report by the same authors (Ref. 3) includes resutts from the testing of trvo additional 254x254xll.l HSS specimens. One had a 6 mm doubler plate welded to the HSS face at the connectiorl and the other was filled with concrete after the connection was complete. Both (especially the concreted one) showed increased initial stiffiress and far greater post elastic stiffiress compared to the previous specimen of the same sÞe,
Tabuchi et al (Ref.4) also tested Huck HSBBs, both individually and in full scale moment connections using either tees on beam flanges or end plates. Connections incorporated four angles welded around the HSS column as shown in Fþre 3. The HSS was 300x300x16, the angles 200x200x25 (trimmed to fit with their toes welded to the HSS and partially together), and the beam was 45Ox200 mm. Design formulae were developed and verified.

A two storey building in Japan nno bays (15 m total) wide by six bays (3S in total) long was
one of the early structures erected using the above type of end plate moment connections.

Conclusions

Korol et al concluded that the HSBB moment connections weÍe similar to those using ^325 bolts, in terms of stiffiress, moment capacit¡ and ductility
Tabuchi et al concluded that the ratio of separation load to preload of HSBBs is about 0.9; that the strength and prying action behaviour of HSBBs is comparable to Japanese high strengfh bolts; that the connections exhibited excellent hysteresis loops; and that moment connections with end plates were superior to those with tees on the beam flanges.

SHS column

Figure Figure

4:

Hollo-BOLT fastener

3: Schematic of moment connection
154

HOLLO.BOLTS
Introduction Lindapter International (Bradford, U.K.) produces expansion bolts marketed under the name Hollo-BOLT that are intended for hollow structural section blind bolting. Their con-figuration is based on a truncated cone with interior threads to accept a high strength bolt as shown in Figure 4. The 3-piece assembly is inserted into holes in the steelwork and tightened with conventional tools to draw the cone into a mild steel split sleeve that flares out to anchor the bolt within the HSS member. A collar on the split sleeve has two flats on its edge for holding if the unit is inclined to turn during tightening. Hollo-BOLT was introduced in mid 1995 as a successor to Lindapter's Hollo-fast Inserts that are similar in action to the Hollo-BOLT. The main difference is that the sleeve of the Hollo-fast Insert did not have a collar, and the sleeve with its cone was lightly hammered into a matching hole in the HSS until the outer end of the sleeve was flush with the outer surface of the HSS. Then the section to be connected was positioned, and the bolt installed through a normal size hole in that member. The increased shear strength of the Hollo-BOLT Ooth the bolt and the sleeve are in the shear plane) and the easier field installation make it a
more attractive unit than the earlier Hollo-fast Insert.

Development is continuing with various washers to ensure that Hollo-BOLT connections are watertight, a fact that suggests the installation pretension is less than that of a conventional high strength bolt.

Exoerimentation

A research program sponsored by CIDECT @ef. 5) at Lindapter International and British Steel in the U.K., and at the Universities of Trento and Genoa in Italy was undertaken in 1995 to quantify the strengfh and utility of Hollo-BOLT fasteners. It continues in 1996.
Shear tests of Hollo-BOLTs have only been completed for

Ml2 bolts (12 mm diameter), in

material from 5 to 12.5 mm thick. All results were approximately mid-way between the strength of 4325M bolts with threads intercepted by and threads excluded from the shear
plane.

Tension tests show two types of failures. For l40xl40 HSS with walls less than 8 mm thick, the material distorts and the bolt anchor eventually pulls through, but only after excessive deformation of the HSS. For thicker walls, the ultimate failure is by shearing off of the bent legs of the insert between the inside edge of the hole in the HSS and the cone of the Hollo-BOLT, apparently at loads larger than those specifìed for 4325M bolts.
Since testing is continuing, conclusions are not available.

15s

FLOWDRILLING HSS
Introduction
The Flowdrill method of creating holes in steel involves the use of a tungsten carbide smooth-sided drilling bit that tapers from a point to a diameter the size of the intended hole. Contact of the high speed rotating bit against the work generates heat to soften the metal so that it extrudes to form a protruding "sleeve" firsed to the inside surface of the tube as the bit is forced through the wall. The hole in the wall and its "sleevd' are then threaded with a rolling Flowtap tapping tool, without removal of materiat to accept a conventional high strength bolt as shown in Figure 5. In effect, the hole and "sleevd' are a nut for the bolt.
The Flowdrill bit in cross section is actually not perfectly round, but some$'hat flattened on four sides to produce four lobes as indicated in Figure 6, a shape that aids the elÉrusion process as the metal of the hole is displaced. A slight upset or boss is created on the outside surface of the material, but that is removed as part of the drilling operation, while the metal is still soft, by the use of a bit incorporating a milling collar.

Continuing research programs are presently investigating the use of Flowdrilling for structural bolting of hollow sections.

shank

17"

-,

tl
o
V

collar
pol.vgon shaped

straight

bod-v

polygon shaped cone point

Figure

6: Flowdrill drilling bit

Figure

5:

Samples of bolts in Flowdrilled holes

156

Experimentation
Flowdrilling for bolted HSS connections was examined in 1989 by Sherman (reported in the Appendix of Ref. 6), in I993 by Banks (Ref 7), and in 1995 by Éailerini, Bozz,o Occhi, and Piazz¿, (Ref 8 and Ref 9). Sherman evaluated ftinch to I inch diameter A325 bolts in HSS having wall thicknesses ranging from one half the bolt diameter to approximately one third the bolt diameter (that is, d/t ratios from 2.0 to about 3). In all cases, the bolt sheâr strengths exceede d o.Tztimes the specified ultimate bolt tension, whether the bolts were just snug tight or were pretensioned. Tensile strengths exceeded specified bott tensile resistances foi ¿i bolts excep t for l( inch ones, which were loose fitting (apparently as a result of a combination of metric Flowdrilling tools and imperial bolts).

to 12.5 mm thick.

Banks investigated Flowdrilling for M20 bolts (20 mm diameter) used in HSS walls from

5

Threads produced by the Flowtap tool matched ISo profiles (except that the crown of each th¡ead was somewhat incomplete) and were metallurgically sound with good toughness. A substantialincrease in the strength of materialaroundilowdrilled holes rJsulted frõm partial refining of the microstructure in the th¡eade d area due to heat generated by the piocess (approaching 8000 C). Thickness of the parent metal had little effect on the length of the extruded "sleeve", which was generally I I to 13 mm long. Rather, the increased amount of displaced metal from thicker material produced "sleeves"-with thicker walls.

In direct tension tests, bolts in 8, l0 and 12.5 mm thick material exceeded tensile strengfhs specified for lvl20 .^325M bolts. Those in 6.3 mm material failed at 93 yo, and those in 5 mm material failed atTl yo of the specified bolt tensile strength. Bolt shear íests in the same range ofHSS wall thicknesses all exceeded bolt specification requirements.
Ballerini er a/ (Ref 8) closely examined the Flowdrill process ar the University of Trento in Italy by making threaded holes for Ml6, Mt8 andtitzo bolts in each of HS-S having 6, g and I0 mm walls. Material was 280 to 340 MPa yield (440 to 4g0 Mpa ultimate). Hardness testing conducted on thread material gave values always within the range specified for structural nuts, confirming that beneficial hardening results from the heat generated by Flowdrilling. Optimum drilling parameters (using a ¿ iw power drill) were in the range of 700 to 1600 r-p.m. for speed, ánd 0.1 to 0.15 mm/rev. for spindle feed rate, resulting in rapid hole drilling. The average length of effective thread in å, g and I0 mm material was 72.4, 15.3 and 17.5 mm respecdv;ly and was only slightly sensitive to the diameter of the holes. Flatness of 6 mm *uik in 14ó mm square HSS was not affected, even when Flowdrilling for M20 bolts.

157

Water tightness trials of Flowdrill threads treated with a removable sealing product were conducted with a 1.5 m water head (calculated to represent a thermal gradient of about 40o C) for 30 days. This demonstrated that both water infiltration and orygen renewal inside HSS can be prevented where Flowdrilled holes are used. No leakage was observed.
I

,l

Ballerini el a/ CRef. 9) also performed a series of tests on Ml2, Ml6, Ml8 and lvl20 bolts lwitfr strengths similar to 4325M bolts) used in HSS walls from 5 to 12.5 mm thick. They examined thread stripping of Flowdrill holes, plus tension failures and shear failures of bolts in Flowdrill holes.
The only Flowdrilled holes that failed by thread stripping were those where the ratio of bolt diameter to material thickness (d/t) was2.9 or greater. It is suggested that a mæ<imum value for d/t of about 2.6 wrll ensure failure by bolt strength" not thread stripping. Tension tests were performed using one bolt in the middle of the wall of a 140 or 150 mm square HSS, both with the bolt in a Flowdrilled hole and with the bolt conventionally installed including a washer and nut inside the HSS. Loading that produced wall distortion of lYo of the HSS width (commonly accepted as the serviceabilþ limit) showed the same results for bolts in Flowdrilled holes and conventionally installed bolts. As the wall and hole distorted in ultimate tests, bolts in Flowdrilled holes pulled out at lower loads than did the conventionalty installed bolts. When d/t of Flowdrilled holes exceeded 1.5, the tensile
strength ofthe bolts was developed.

Load-slip diagrams from bolt shear testing showed that Flowdrilled connections have somewhat greater stiffiress and less ductility than do conventional connections, presumably resulting from the threaded hole being an integral part of the tube. Ultimate strengths of the Flowdrilled shear connections exceeded code requirements, but were 4 to 5 % less strong than were conventional connections. The authors suggested that design resistances be
lowered by a cautious 10
o/o

for Flowdrilled shear connections.

Conclusions
Sherman concluded that Flowdrilling has potential for blind bolting to HSS columns. He pointed out thar the fabricator would need drilling equipment with suitable rotational speed, torque and thrust, (but Flowdrilling permits bolt field installation with conventional tools).

Banks concluded that Flowdrilling produces sound threaded holes suitable for use in structural steel connections; that effective thread lengths vary from 1.8 (for thick walls) to 3.0 (for thin walls) times the original material thickness; that current design procedures can be used for predominately shear loadings; and that deformation of the HSS (not failure of the Flowdrilled connection) is the limiting criterion for moment carrying face connections.
Ballerini et al concluded that Flowdrilling allows for very simple bolted connections of tubular elements with the capacity necessary for profitable use in structural steelworks.

158

NAILING HSS
fntroduction joining of overlapping coaxial circular HSS members by the use of power-driven nails was investigated at the University of Toronto by Packer and Krutzl er in 1994 @ef. l0). The method entails slipping the end of a circular tube snugly inside the end of a larger tube, then driving special nails th¡ough the overlapping wall thicknesses from the outside. Similarly, fixtures or secondary members such as purlins can be easily connected to HSS with nails.
The

Exoerimentation Equipment used was the Hilti DX750 direct fastening system consisting of a powderacfuated gun using purple cartridges (highest power available) to fire ENPII2-LI5 nails. Penetration settings ranged from 3 to 3.5 (on a scale of I to 4) to ensure that the nail point penetrated the inside surface of the inner to two walls (up to 13 mm total thickness). Outer tube diameters were ll4 mm (nine samples), 102 mm (17 samples), and 406 mm (eight samples), all approimately 6.4 mm thick. For the first group, inner tube thicknesses were 6.5 mm, for the second group,6.5 mm (5 samples), 5.0 mm (6 samples), and 3.1 mm (6 samples), and for the third group 6.4 mñ. The fit of the first two groups was characterised as "tight", since light machining was required before they could be assembled. Fit for the third group was "loose", with a gap varying from zero to three mm (due to slight out-of-roundness of the manually fabricated inner tube). The number of rings of nails and number of nails in a ring were varied. Figure 7 shows one combination. A connection with ten rings developed the tube capacity. The distance from the end of a tube to the first row of nails varied from 6.4 to 25.4 mm. The smaller, tight-fitting specimens were loaded in axial tension, which always led to an abrupt failure. The larger, loose-fitting specimens were loaded in axial compressior¡ also to a sudden failure. More recent testing has been completed to examine fatigue behaviour and whether the nails tend to work loos'e under cyclic loading. Fatigue performance was actually superior to that of a symmetrical bolted lap splice and the nails did not work loose before cracks developed.
Results

Thefailures were all by nail shear except the six specimenswith tubes having 3.1 mm wall thickness (plus a specimen having 5.0 mm wall thickness combined with ó.5 mm end distance), which failed by bearing or shear of the tube wall.

159

Figure

7:

Nailed specimen in test rig Figure

8: The nipple-dimple effect

The connections resisted loads beyond the shear strength of the nails, about 2Ùo/o more for loose fitting specimens and 3O%o more for the tight fitting specimens, before nail shear failures. This additional or secondary strength resulted from a "nipple-dimple" effect at the interface between the tubes. A nail emerging from the inner face of the outer tube created a nipple protruding from that surface that interlocked with a matching dimple created in the outer face of the inner tube. Figure I illustrates the phenomenon. Offsetting the nails of one ring from those in an adjacent ring or having more nail rings with fewer nails per ring (for the same total number of nails) had little effect upon the shear mode of nail failure or the connection strengh. Conclusions The structuraljoining oftwo overlapping coaxial circular HSS by the use of power-driven nails was shown to be both feasible and economical. The ultimate strength for connections that fail by nail shear can be taken as the number of nails times the single shear strength of the nails. This consen'atively ignores the secondary contribution from the nipple-dimple effect.

160

is The ultimate strength for connections that fail by bearing or shear of the HSS material is at least 1.5 d conservatively given by the expression 2.4 d t n Fu when the end distance nail diameter' / the and the pitch oithe n^ilr 1"long the HSS axis) is at least 3 d, d being the HSS material. HSS wall thickness. n the number of nails, and Futhe tensile stren-eth of the

REFERENCES
1.

3.

packer, J.A.; and Henderson, J.E. 1992. Design guide for hollow structural section M2J connections. CISC, 201 Consumers Road, Suite 300, Willowdale, Ontario, 4G8. Korol, R.M.; Ghobarha, A.; and Mourad, S. 1993. Blind bolting W-shape beams to HSS columns. ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering 119 (12): 3463 to 3481. Ghobarha, A.; Mourad, S.; and Korol, R.M. 1993- Behaviour of blind bolted moment connections for FISS columns. Proc. 5th International S]¡mposium on Tubular Structures, eds. M.G. Coutie and G. Davies, University of Nottingham,

4.

5.

6. 7.

with óne side bolts. Proc. 6th International Svmposium on Tubular Structures, eds. P. Grundy, A. Holgæ- and B. Wong, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia' Occhi, F. 1995. Hollow section connections using (Hollo-fast) Hollo-BOLT expansion bolting. Second Interim Report, CIDECT program 6G'16195' Sherman, D.R. 1995. Simple framing connections to HSS columns. Proceedings. National Steel Construction Conference, AISC, San furtonio' Banks, G. lgg3. Flowdrilling for tubular structures. Proc. 5th International Symposium on Tubular Structures, eds. M.G. Coutie and G. Davies, University of
Nottingham, United Kingdom. Ballerini, M.;Bozzo. E.; Occhi, F.; and piezzl,lly'r. 1995. The Flowdrill system for the bolted connection of steel hollow sections--part I: the drilling process and the technological aspects. Costruzioni Metalliche, No. 4, July-August, ItalyBallerini, M;Bozzo, E.; Occhi, F.; and pinzzv,lvl. 1995. The Flowdrill system for the bolted connection of steel hollow sections--part II: experimental results and design evaluations. Costruzioni Metalliche, No. 5, September-October, Italy. Packér, J.A.; and Krutzler, R.T. 1994. Nailing of steel tubes. Proc. 6th International Symposium on Tubular Structures, eds. P. Grundy, A. Holgate and B' rJ[ong, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

T"^tiifffi:änu,"ni, H; ranaka, r.; Fukuda, A.; Furumi, K.; usami, K'; and Murayama, M. lgg4. Behaviour of SHS column to H beam moment connections

8.

9.

10.

161

FABRICATION AND INSPECTION PRACTICES FOR WETDED TUBUT,AR CONNECTIONS
J. W. Post*

,i

ABSTRACT Producing a simple welded tubular connection in steel consists of cutting and coping the members, fitting, welding, and inspection. However, fabrication and inspection practices for such connections and their related costs are greatly impacted by design choices. Often, these choices are made by designers without a full appreciation of the costs that will be incurred by the fabricator or erector in producing such a connection. This paper will address the major choices to be made for tubular connections and their significance to the fabricator or erector.

INTTODUCTION Tubular structures with welded connections provide architects and designers with elegant solutions to steel framing. They range from simple highway sign supports to gigantic offshore drilling platforms and include aesthetically pleasing space frames seen in convention centers, sports arenas, airport terminals, and atriums. Tubular members offer the designer an efficient cross-section relative to their inherent material distribution for beam bending or column buckling calculations. With appropriate regard for the connection details presented herein, efficient and cost effective tubular structures can be achieved.
Before we consider typical fabrication and inspection issues for tubular connections, it is best to first review several imponant design issues and how the choices designers or detailers make can impact fabrication and inspection costs.

I

For this discussion, round tube or pipe will be considered as synonymous while the family of hollow structural shapes with a square or rectangular cross-section will be collectively referred to as box tubing.
DESTGN CONSIDERATIONS

Round Versus Box Tubing

Architectural considerations or availability usually govern the selection of round versus box tubes. For larger sized members, box tubes would need to be fabricated from plate. This usuallv drives the costs high enough so that round tube or pipe are chosen. For small to medium sizes of members, there is a wide varietv of thicknesses and dimensions available

* J. W. Post & Associates, Inc., Humble, Texas

162

for both shapes.
Where box tubes can be used in orthoginal planes they offer several unique benefits over their round counterparts. Box sections are easier to handle and stack. They are easily cut and mitered with band saws or abrasive saws since no complex copes or saddle cuti are required, which always occurs when a box or round tube intersects a round tube. If branch members overlap each other in a truss assembly, compound miter-cut box-tube members can be inserted and slid sìdeways into place. With round tubes, overlapping connections prevent some diagonal members from being installed as a single piece. For those cases, stubs or "windows" (insert segments) may be required to facilitate member installation. A detailed discussion of stubs and windows is given in Reference 1 and box-tube assembly in Reference 2. Also, box-tube members can easily accept backing material, a point that wiil be discussed further in the following sections. Matched Versus Stepped Tubular Members
Matched-box connections are defined as a connection created by the intersection of rwo or more box-tube members that have a common outside dimension and arranged as shown in Figure 1 so that the sides of the branch members are flush with the sides ãf the chord or thru member. By contrasL a stepped-box connection occurs when at least one dimension of the branch member is smaller than the side-to-side dimension of the chord.

The significance of stepped versus matched-box connections occurs in several areas. First, following the AWS Di.1 Structural Welding Code - Steel (Ref. 3) prequalified detaits for fillet weld categories can only apply to stepped-box connecrions wherã the wídth of rhe branch member is less than or equal to 80Vo of the chord member width. This limitation ensures that the side fillet welds occur on a flat face and not on the rounded corners of rhe main member.

In matched connections, careful consideration must be given to wall thickness of both members. For instance, a designer selects a TS 4 x 4 x lf2" chord member to carry the design loads. Suppose some branch members are carrying small loads, so a TS 4 x 4 í l¡g,' is selected- The inherent problem here is the cornei rãdius or corner djmension of iire chord member. The ASTM standard for 4500 structural tubing limits rhe corner radius to three times the wall thickness of the tube. Consequently, the thicket the wall, the greater the corner radius- MgtJ 4500 tubing ìs produced by coniinuous forming and weldin! strips of steel into round tubing. After welding, it is drãwn through dies rolroduce final-sizåd round tube or through additional sets of forming rotls to produce square or rectangular tube. When round tube is formed into box sections, the reiulting .oin"t radii usuaîy do not merge tangentially with the side walls. This trait of box tubes is more noticeãble with greater wall thícknesses.
Figure 2 depicts the significance of the corner dimension in matched-box connections for the example cited. Notíce that the branch member musr be coped to fit the large curvature. Otherwise, a very large gap or weld root opening will o.órr ar the side -zones. For comparison, without consideration for structural loading, if the chord member was replaced

163

by a TS 4 x 4 x 7f8" member, the corner radius would be much smaller and the problem mitigated. Mismatching wall thicknesses lead to more difficult welding on the side zones using either complete joint penetration tClPlgroove welds or even partial penetration [PJP] groove weld details due to the larger corner dimension. There are however two good alternative solutions for the example given. The most obvious solution would be to reduce the size of the branch member since it is so lightly loaded. For example, a TS 3 x 3 x 3/16 might carry the same load while providing a stepped-box connection suitable for fillet, PJP, or CJP weld details. The other solution is to cut a backing plug or ring as shown in Figure 2. This plug can serve several functions. It provides backing for welding which means welder qualifîcation requirements are reduced for CJP connections. The plug also provides for variation in fit-up tolerances in both the CJP and PJP cases. This is especially helpful for field welds. For some erection sequences, the plugs can be shop installed on the chord members which facilitates rapid and precise positioning in the field.
Sometimes designers will select a common tube size for a truss for aesthetic reasons where only variations in the wall thickness occur. There is however another hidden benefit in choosing stepped-box connections over matched-box connections when aesthetics are important. With matched-box connections using either CIP or PJP details, it is difñcult to produce flat appearing welds in the side zones without a lot of costly cosmetic grinding. This problem does not exist with stepped-box connections. With stepped-box connections rhere is a natural ledge to support the weld beads of either fillet or groove weld details. The one drawback to stepped-connections is the inherently lower strength of the flat face of the chord member as determined by yield line analysis. See References 4 and 5 for further design guidance. Gapoed Versus Overlapped Tubular Members

A gapped connection is one in which two or more branch members intersect a common chord member with some nominal space between the branch members as shown in
Figure 1. By contrast, an overlapped connection occurs when two or more branch members intersect each other. Gapped or overlapped connections can occur in both round or box members in either matched or stepped-box connections. The significance of these variations is that the gapped connections are always easier to fit with better access for welding and inspection while the overlapped connections usually require compound copes or miters and provide no flexibility as to member installation sequence. With gapped connections (usually a 2" nominal gap) the branch member can be moved slightly about its work point to improve the overall fit-up and root openings. This luxury does not exist with the overlapped connections. Any slight shift to improve fit-up ïn one direction causes a worsening of the fit-up in the other direction. One significant drawback to gapped connecdons from a design standpoint is rhat all branch member loads must p¿tss into the chord. This may require heavier chords. Conversely, the overlapped branches may pass some or all of their loads directly to each other without affecting the chord member size. Knife-Edse Gussets
Some cJesigners

or detailers feel that the use of shear plates or knife-edge

gussets is the

164

has been surest solution to a tubular connection problem. Indeed, the gusset-plate approach plates used successfully for many years. However, for aesthetic applicæions, the gusset in Figure 3' make the connection appear awkward, and cluttered as shown

From a fabrication standpoinr, the gusser plate concept added to coped branch members require exrra parrs (more material and weight), added cutting costs. for both the gusset and associared slots, more welding (albeit less skilled panial penetration or fillet welds), and ,,,or. blasting and painting. Also, the fitting advantage of box tubes where coped members can be slid sideways into final position is precluded.
Open ended branch members are especially unsightly for exposed applications. They also piovide additional painting and maintenance problems'

From a design standpoint, the gusset plate approach may spare the engineer from dealing with unfamiliar design rules but, the gusset plates usually provide high stress concenffations or "hard spots". Thãse occur at the ends of the gusset where it attaches to the chord and ar the end of the slor in the branch member. Such details are particularly susceptible to cracking in fatigue as shown in Figure 4.

CIP Groove Welded Connections
With the preceding design choices made, the designer may next select the appropriate joint rypes and joint details in accordance with the requirements of AWS D1.1. The choices are CJf gtoou. welds, PJP groove welds, and fillet welds. The designer may further detail the rp..i-fi. groove angles and root openings or more often, this task is left to the steel detailer or the fabricator with a simple (but costly) note on the drawings that states, "All welds shall be CJP unless noted otherwise." However, the choices related to weld types can have a significant impact on costs of the completed tubular connecdon related to coping or mitering, fitting rolerances, welder's skill level required, accessibility for welding and
inspection.

CIP groove welds are rhe joint detail category most frequentlv selectgd, lut not usually the most-economical one. Often CJP groove welds are selected by default. That is, no detailed consideration is given ro them. It is generally felt that CJP groove welds must be better than PJP groove welds. In fatigue loading situations, this is true. Consequently, engineers or designJrs choose CIP's even for cases not driven by fatigue. Granted, CIP's using the AWS Dt.l pt.qualified details will develop the full strength capacity of the connection but, PJP groov.'*.Ídr using E7018 or E71T-X weld metals on ASTM A-53 Grade B pipe or ASTM 4500 tubing will also develop the full strength of the connections in most cases. The problem here is thãt the D1.l Code may require the designe¡ tod_o_some additionalstrength lhecks. Even on smaller projects, the costs of gearing up for CJP groove welds (e.g- 6GR tests for welders) will likely exceed any extra engineering costs.

CJP groove welds for tubular connections, whether round or box, implies open root conditions and requires more precision in fitting the members and requires the highest welder skill levels to produce a qualiry weld. In order to achieve complete joint penetration

165

I

i
I

from one side without backing, the D1.1 Code specifies that the open root dimensions must be closely controlled and the minimum groove angles must be assured. AIso, the welders must be capable of this most difficult welding and demonstrate their skills by passing the 6GR open root welder test. For box tubes, a special corner welding test is an additional requirement.
One previously mentioned benefit of box-tubes with their flat sides over pipe is their ability to accept backing rings or plugs. With appropriate backing, the open root difficulties vanish. The welder qualification requirements drop back to the easier 3G + 4G requirements which were derived from test coupons welded with backing. Also, a greater variation in fit-up ca¡ be tolerated without unduly affecting welding quality.

I

,i

The AWS D1.1 Code requires continuous backing whenever backing is to be

used.

Commercially available rings are produced for most pipe sizes. Some fabricators choose to form bar stock to fit the inside of the pipe or box tubes. Howeveç any butt splices in the rings or bars must be welded ltÙVa to prevent crack initiation from any unwelded butt splice in the backing ring or bar. In a few unique cases, a smaller size pipe or box tube can be found and cut into appropriate rings without the need for making the butt weld in the rings. Designers and fabricators should consider this option if possible as it is the least expensive wav to provide continuous backing. For instance, a TS 3-1/2 x 3-l/2 x'l.f 4" will fit snugly into a TS 4 x 4 x 7f4" member or loosely into a TS 4 x 4 x 3/16 member wirh minor grinding to remove the ID weld flash from the 4" member. Some fabricators cut plugs with a photoelectric tracing head and machine cutting torches or NC progr¿rmmable cutring machine. This provides one-piece backing without the need for lAÙVo butt welds in the rings. These plugs may be solid or cut hollow where heat sink or radiography are a consideration. In a previous paper (Ref.1), it was suggested that such plugs could be cut on a bias with a beveling head attachment added to a machine cutting torch to produce branch member backing for other than the simple 90" T-connection cases. Figure 5 illustrates some of these continuous backing types. P.IP Groove rilelded Connections
PJP groove weld details for box-tube connections can offer significant cost savings in several areas; groove bevel preparation, fitting, welder skill levels, and inspection. In preparing a branch member to fit into a truss for instance, the miter cutting would be the same for either the CIP or the PJP groove weld case. The next step is to prepare the necessary bevel angles to comply with the prequalified groove details. The PJP groove angles required are much less demanding and the differences are most notable in the heel zone where the local dihedral angle Psi ( ) is in the range of 30" - 60". In this range the CIP details require a full bevel preparation that is at least one-half of the local dihedral angle. In a common 45" case for instance, the bevel preparation angle is 22V2" which leaves a fairly thin and sharp bevel. In the worse case of = 30o, the bevel preparation is a 15o sliver of metal that is very difficult to produce and is easily melted away when trying to make a qualiry root-pass. For the PJP case on the other hand, the heel zone for any in the range of 30"

I

V

I

- 60' requires no bevel preparation beyond the natural groove formed by the intersecting members with only a miter cut. Of course, the side zone and the toe zone may require

166

some bevel preparation. but none with the very thin and pointed bevels as found in the heel zone of the CJP cases.

In the area of fit-up, whether done in the shop or the field, the PJP groove weld details offer still more advantages over their CJP counterparts. As previously stated, the AWS Dl.1
prequalified details require close controls on groove angle and minimum-to-mÐ(imum root openings in order for welders tested to a higher skill requirement to achieve complete joint penetration from one side without backing. With the PJP's, there is a ma-nimum of 3/16" on the root opening. but the minimum is zero. This means that the steel may be brought into tight contact. which is the easiest case to fit-up. Further, PJP groove welded box connections could be fit u,ith similar backing material as discussed in the previous secrion. This would aid in fit-up and alignment tolerances, especially for tie-ins or fieìd erection situations. Such cases would fall outside of the prequalified limits when the root opening exceeds 3f76", but with backing, such modified details would be easy to qualify with mockups or sample joints. Fillet-\4'elded Connections Fillet-welded tubular connections are usually easiest to product and therefore the lowest cost from a fabrication standpoint since the prequalified detail requirements of AWS D1.i are the least onerous. For pipe the branch member diameter must be no more than 1/3 of the chord diameter and coping is still required, but the only beveling necessary is in rhe toe zone r¡'hen V exceeds 120". For box tubes, only simple miter cuts are necessary. The fillet details are applicable to anv stepped-box connection provided the branch member width is less than or equal to 80% of the chord member width. Prequalified details require the branch member and the fillet weld to be kept on the flat face of the chord member. This could be a problem with thicker chord members that may have a larger corner radius or corner dimension. For heavy-wall box tubes this detail should be checked out prior to fabrication. The prequalified fillet details are permitted down to Theta ( e ) brace intersection angles of 30" which is identical to W when measured in the heel zone. This covers the vast majority of structural cases. The root opening may vary from 0 to 3f 76" ma¡<imum provided that the fillet size is increased by the amount that the root opening exceeds 7f76".

.
Cut and Cooe

FABRICATION PRACTICES

When a tubular branch member frames into another tubular member, a connection is created. TYK-connection is the term referring to any one or combination of branch member intersections. The branch members usually require some type of a cope or miter cut. For round members. the copes are more complex than for box members as shown in Figure 6. Also. compound copes in the case of overlapping members add to the complexitv. For box members, machine saw-cuts can be used to produce miter cuts to which torch-cut

167

or ground bevels can be added. Careful grinding is also required to provide smooth transitions from one groove detail to the next that always occur at the four corners of each
andf

box-tube branch member. For round members, the conventional method for coping involves creating a wrap-around template to mark the pipe and hand cutting with an oxy-fuel torch. The templates can be created using a drafting technique of circular intersection projections (Ref. 6). An individual template is required for each combination of branch member thickness and I.D. versus main member O.D. and intersection angle. Once generated, however, these templates may be used again and again. Presently, computers can be used to generate the coordinates for these templates and, if large enough plotters are available, the template may be computer drawn. Further guidance in developing accurate templates and computer equations can be found in Reference (7).

Hand cut copes from wrap-around templates generally require two cuts. The template represents the I.D. intersection of the branch member with the main member but" it is drawn on the O.D. surface of the branch member. The first cut must be made perpendicular to the pipe's surface with the torch always pointing toward the axis of the pipe. In this way the template outline is successfully transferred to the branch member's I.D. surface, which is the true intersection with the chord at the root of the weld. A second cut is then made with the torch tipped at varying angles to produce the required bevel for welding. This is the difficult step in that the burner or fitter often must sense or feel the proper bevel angle without blowing away the tip of the bevel or "feather edge" at the I.D. surface. Sometimes these angles leave a very thin edge that is easily melted or gouged. Significant grinding and touch-up work is often required to produce suitable coped and beveled surfaces appropriate for quality welding. For manual coping, computer programs have been enhanced with the aid of local dihedral angle input (i.e. Appendix G of AWS Dl.l and Reference (7)) so that the program can also give the coordinates for the entry point for the bevel cut thus taking the guess work away from the burner. If he errors on the tight side, the welder cannot achieve the weld penetration required; and re-work (gouging, grinding, or remove the member and re-cutting) may be necessary. If he errors on the wide side, very large weld grooves are produced and welding man-hours rise rapidly especially on thicker branch members.
Mechanized coping devices for pipe have been available for many years. Some machines are linkage and cam driven, while others may follow black lines on a white drum with a photoelectric cell. The more recent machines are computer driven. Most all of the mechanized coping devices incorporate automatic torch tilting, so that the proper bevel angle is cut in one pass, not two, as with manual cutting.

Common limitations of the mechanized devices are their O.D. capacity and the limits of torch tilting, wherein the torch cannot lay over far enough for the most shallow angles found in the heel regions of braces with small O intersection angles. Another limitation of the linkage and cam driven machines is that they sometimes cannot be adjusted to cut the prequalified joint details found in AWS D1.1. However, alternate details may be tested and qualified by the fabricator. The most serious limitations in dealing with the computer generated template or computer driven machine, is the knowledge of the computer

168

grasp of the 3-dimensional programmer. Too often the programmer does not have a^good how the cope is produced' it is geometry involved in tubular connections. Regardless of in mating chord or use a 3wise to check it immediately. Make a trial fit against In this manner' the accurary of the dimensional template or model of the main member' angle can be quickly checked' Be sure cope, the groove ungl.. and the branch intersection to'include the required root opening in this trial fit.

Fitting TYK-Con nections
are those simple TYK's without From a fabrication standpoint, the rowest cost connections with a two inch nominal gap the overlapping r.rU.ri. If possible, design the connection This greatly-simplifies fabrication and between the toes of rhe a jacånr branch mãmbers. about the theoretical work erecrion. Diagonal members can usually be adjusted slightly The overlapped branch point ro compensate for inaccuracies in lengtú and poiition. more .careful layout and connections always have a compound .op-. ?nd r-equire of member installation must .utting/Utveling, Jtp..iutty for length. For pipe, the sequence stubs or windows' be plinned an{controlled to minimize the need for

Welding Processes utilize the same group of welding The welding of tubular butt splices and TYK connections for long seams in pipe where processes fi*iUu, to structural shops. SAW is routinely used for tubular butt joints (girth a fabricator produces his own pipe. The process-is also used it has been used down to six welds) and, with smaller diamåtår electroães and flux dams, and greater. Below 24"' inch diameter. SÀw has prequalified srarus for diameteÍs 24" to be used in production is required' luãtin.ution resring on the smål.rt diameter have been used SMAW, FCAW (both self-shielded and gas-shielded), and GMAW The SMAW process is the old successfully for tuny years on tubular co-nnections' sizes, and operating workhorse with a íuíg.- selection of electrode types, alloys-,. cost and is very portable, but the characreristics. It i, urry"".onomical in original equipmãnt processes due to its cost of the weld metalâeposited is high õ.puréo io semi-automatic and horizontal to* o.porition effici"n.y.'GMAW in ipray tiansfer mode is rimited to flat less than threematerials alpticarions. GMAW-í(rnott circuiting trânsfer) is good for thin may be present' The short arc ;ïáilr of an inch and for root passes ih.t" poor fit-uP faces (sandblast or grind) to process does require more weldlr skill and ulira-clean bevel

rninitir"

inherent cold-lap tendencies'

metal depgsition-rates are FCAW-G (gas-shielded) is a good all position plo^.9::.and weld process and the GMAW require significantly higher than thosJ of SVIÄW- The FCAW-G welding gun to deliver gas to the an auxiliary gas shield and a gas cup on the head of the It also prevents access *.1ãing ,oü. This gas .up o.td* a visibiliry problem for the welder. Also,.the the joi-nr witL thicker beveleá members or tight inters.ection.angles. ro the root in drafty shops or field 'f gas is easily clisruibed by drafts. ancl wind, which limits its use õonstructioñ sites without providing for suitable wind breaks'

169

åi l" shietding is produced FCAW.SS(self.shielded)'ontheotherhand,has.someoutstandingfe.aturesfortubular ,h;:îtiä;-*il'"".t*ä' alibut' more importantly' the construction and däJ;;í'r"quir" bv the of -rom. of ir, .õr. ingr.d-ieîts tîtt"g"n) that iÏ Tt displaced the arc by ,t.-úurning at ö;1;;d form¡xides and nitrides' remaining u,n.,orpr.,Ji.'iäñ,"r"¡nun* ."rbì;;'f *i,h ulrr*inî,,,'to welder has equal burning action J-;;icalry ,"rir but the "r""täriär iinãr' .T.he an accessibiliry is immun¡ ;ã"r1''. r-r1ve Therefore, this prol"ss sr,¡aw;;id", ""d the ii'. or better visibilirfi;il
may ptur't stopping to cnange :1":::;.J1", saos in fit-up. Hãï.u.r, rnc tiu"p However' the process tun¿r" to electrode .*,.nr,åi, *ittt tttinner wall thicknesses' for pipe or tube

;;;;r ..î.,ï¿:':.]",iTüXtr';n'*tiÏï$.':"':"i"'"\'ï'trJ:[:: ;;"b,Fi1,:rl,-',f be too hot
-igi ö.'in
Welding Procedure 0ualification

provided in section 10 prequal,fi"-9,rrt* details_for.fiK-connections s,lw can usuallv be There is a fam'y of ró, ur. *i,r,'irüÃü,-rcnrri in Section 2 or the code' joint o-äirr of AwS D1.1 suiiabi. status ci'iîw:ð-ntu"t has prequalified done using the uppìi.uur. details ,n", Even though tn. iåint qualified by testing' and must always'be

ìJ"äilwsj
i*r¿

rTï:ri*ä';il ;.ïP;;;ä;'

requi11m"',: î:l:å;i:i.'î""tlå:ñi:, n :!î"r""T"1 rr there are orher job-speciric gre and I'ii.Ë,¡; I 1åï" ;' sroov e an ;'#;å"
angles less than grearesr groove

; i¡1i'5:: ï I n:',:'ru"'-f;¡Ëi,..,.1i.! joint
i

with grooves 3-0] or pip." g, tubular connections, exist' rt rs a structurar steer ãn werding procedures For the mosr common no other ¡"u-öããiti". îi*itutio.] *" ilì;;;;*'du specifications ror srearer, un¿ *r,Tr. " marte r,o or.pur.îää ;iä.';l if¿d rin¿ quãtitieo welders' .o îe ativery s mpre [t is, howet;;';;;;ïinitutt tubular app'caiions.
r

rs orr€rwtsc ,ri" :u'.:'1::'*'-';;"; Ërãn'*r,"n the äd,ffi;;;-t" ¿.i* even when iãi"tìr"otherwìse

prequalified'

Welder Performance Oualification

rhere are no prequarified qualified by ::1Ï'"'*'"':ï:'"i::f#"ìff testrng' all p'opt'iuîãin"o and are a;;.;:if :i,'*[:.1'ä:'f " ä,ee"i,,ri*,'::"'iå,ï*î'îif kff ñ'.t:"ir"i"ff:iË weld Progresst in seuerar importanr rore<l shape .ánr,ru.,ron .

werders'- E'u:h

iiî',ir; î:¡'j'il;.

IÌoä

]iÍtllT'ni'"ilii'fi

#r.tT

:ï:'r,ïîÏ!r'.-Lir*Uli¡"rr**iiffjäTåi::ii*ïtr.?üi"Ï:å'1tr theñ down to 15'' ff lffi i:J"-'.iå:*::if :ç*ÏåÎÎT'l':'þäTTjf îft".'"î:,ï:nt:*:'r*' Ãnel1lit;îit'i *i'ith for a cJp weld requtres p"r,,rlïïtuît
co¡¿ers

jO.,,i.

occur. Such cases trequentty

*.r¿.r-.. ärlå-*ur,

¿Z,'lzogrnnu.ängte special 1nr1.î zo.nes which are musr ars. pass thã ,"iur¡uely- sharp .nr"år'ìrunsition ai<¡uncr tn. souncr *eto meial

,",'.åäoì ,.lzs" nr"..^i",.rr"riion cJP welds in box tubes o'n þurther' *ttätit î;;lìü to deposit in the rt ,.r,.'äi, i.it .t'irr* it'rir ab'ity the areas -.1."'å"' iru.ro.t.t,

170

across the weld' of highest load transfer

l:î',J':":"ä'"î:å:,ff ö,,':iïi:'fiwelders'o Ou'i] is usuatty.mu*
alternative and

i"Î[ :iï11'äïå'îîlii:"#iil'ïJiJ:*ffi4G with ot;'il tt-dãrd 3G +
::"tJ,l'"Ji,':$lqpiåï,åiü','i
and used
e

"i:l"-;"r

backingi.u.."p*úì""íostrucrurar,'t'öä;;f
Acutc rarró¡v than 30')' then the
¡

(i #rii*;'"fffi irup*;¡å:ïr.'iiï',ri.'ïiæ1'¿îã.,u',,ii''Acu'leAng'Ie ' ri,Jrr",, qe".::Ilphp.räJ,:'frä:ïLïi:ioJåîf *n:lff':fsted
less

'---

e*q"ri?,n"-1 lt1,.iî:,l;13J,::*f':i \ high failure rate

;'äåiTi"î:i=li,ο:1""";3Ï1"í"Ρi3ïå
i

;#'

test by

.o'p"'"i i' Inã !*p"i "n'"ä'

iil' :l-*:,nïîtffi iï:lüîi'ï:Ti|Ëi
ä;ö*'ã,"ti'ru'íori'Ivcompretes conditions

for all å**::,:"m*r.:n:*r',1¡äî:lrqi'iiü',ffi ;"ï;ìil;?;' #'h"h;'; à"1rin"o'have some further can do wet¿ers is a speciric qualiricri;;;ri
production î"1àing. that might a'se during training and supervlslon'

ti

"rr"*i"i'ir'at

_ ^.,,

ns. For all posirion

;tï; ff lç::ilJï:i,."ii:iËîff lil:î:îi:5i'liî-::'ff il'i5;; it'un oo"', For these cases'
in the neet zone

:.'illi,iiååî,""î.*iñ.á"er" groove test rs
3G + 4G plate

'.'.:multiù*Ëï*ï:fiis'+ nr*firy;¡g;i};''i
;t.r'l¿:i,',',îï,:'T#ïiË:i:îi'n*"iiãcn tãic¡P box-tube welding'
ü;tõöì.ï
rypica'y ror pipe or 6GR prus
c

of the difficulties Fromafabricationviewpoint'itisclearlyb",l"l,::,usefilletconnecdonswherepermitted *he'euér practi""uî" t"Javoid-T:nu ocR iesting requirement' or pJp,s o, c¡p;r'with'backing *"to,"e'iîJ";å;;;ã#ffä".ìr''

"n.ou;,.räTirt,

INSPECTION PRACTICES

visual

Inspiction

'

jli'ï"1'åiïlo":"T'lË'¿"ïÏ'i'ä"wäi¿i'e y"îïil,'îìT'""i:TLII:äi:'.=,'l::o:::;' with tubular connectrons' îïr!"lly needs ,ô-t,*" "*pl'i"nt" Inspector, U", He can

rsoection method for

workmanship' quarity from surface can^evaluate weld workmanship requirements The comperent inspector r..ptau'irv, r"Jri"g""ir irrr pi"rnå quickly ¿.,"rrnìn" n''ncr-upllst'where specified' set bv

.î;;;;; tt. cnää';#ñ

171

be praced on inspection of more inspection effort shourd groove angles can For the cJp tuburar connecrions, i" ihi, *uy, th. prop.' 'oãi optnings and the fit-ups prio, u",*t to pu-t.!ll inspection effort beverified.Withoutgqo--dt9Ît'oråîiii-upi'-"ï"n-ttt"u'""*ãld"t'"illhauedifficultyor ot trre.exi;ää"""rtq^ 1.¡ re.quire. some random oroducing crr groou";;ld, ;ìh a good-visual inspection and perhaps tit-op insoection seldom ,ro front ano rorroJ-u-p *;rdilg. ttt" ãã Jr l"rp"ñs after easily measured and siot checking and g'oãut ãngles are the leads to controversy because verified. it is essential that all fitwerds-of^theric"trest qualiry, gl99ue øir not.or cannot be tested For comprete joint penetration iru".foJ..9nn1.19nt tnãt ups be inspected.,'ñil;*p.i,¡t, wa¡ thickness pipe or box tubes)' ttrinnli with uttrasoruc n,.riäãr'li-e.

,oï.ì;;;.

*ithîïü;;

;;äp;ng

Radiographic Examination
whe11

of higher

1'surance butt join-ts is practical T9j:::*mended cover-the entire diameter Radiography of tubular are. ,o"in'tv ute! to quality i, n"..rrufr. î;ii;t:^f^t..rînieues 10", p-o'u*it shots are practicable' contact Fo, diameters à;ú to try T used on pipe3'/2" range encounrer.á. r".-errîii:;i;? down to the relatively sharp shots are acceptabte shols t" pi"pËrry interpiet may requir" or sma'er. Box tubes "åãitional corner radii'

Ët"eht;äg**

box fiK-connectlots' Radiographyisnotpracticableforthestanda¡dTYK.connectionsinpipe.However'Some investigate portions of matched speciar

t..i,niqueï'å"y"ilï;;i;"

Ultrasonic Examination

many years in the used successfulry for have been developed and onshore' conventional urtrasonic testing methods ,u*" tec'hniques i"å"r,ry. ri. and thicker' and e offshore ptattorå to limits and should be techniques are applicable är.. reeuired^;J;;-ihese tecr,nique, -Jvaluated srearer than 30j. special prior to implementatron' ano

îrïrr""ule rn. dia."*;;;;;1.-t-:T:iå" ;;;i"rs
';;"1

Ët"p"ttv',.tt"ã

will requir e 700% Designersthatspecifyc¡pglîe.welddetailsl::-:''tubularconnectionsarelikelytobe inspection requi"il"" 1:ï where the rhe same on., ,hu, bu.r-rp".ify#äã; ó;rig"rly, there are..critical cases or the of each (ur)
experience ultrasonic Tesring i, *urru,îäîuì.ã.p.ndtöö;;-iir^:ltl:îd the rechnrcrans' among higher level or inípection oftËn leadi tä disputes this inspection Ä;ñ ur technician,

ánriu.,nts and engineers/owners'

preoared from tubular with known defecrs should be tb nit inspection of the Mockups or sample connections technici"rr'ir^ining anq -..:";"ilp1iãt productión work should ' connection, ,"'är!ir, ìn or uT indications on *urt iurther, visual .ä"ïir*"iion excavarion party consisting of a craftsman orrduction
i,e require¿.

rt ir'i, best achievea by forming an

inp.irn,*-'".,

sometimes a tol

jgil:äåf;';H¡iå;f i"åUIgi,:l*.*:îl;::::::Ï'i::'á?;
172

As the predicted ro revear the uT indication' opportuniry to progressivel,v removed presen*nãrii u" -giy:n ln which exceed ravers of metal are i; ä'p-p-;".n._L1],,ñembers ö;;;;¡ iidj-c'ations inãication depth * ,:,"::,:g t'r't n'*i.lavlr'.oiriä"tiãn' weld repairs are then observe the progrer, þiio,ur. ,n"n ,.iåä îl "ir.í"r the acceptun." ,runäår¿. u'i examined'
made and those

tå"tHË;;i;

ulrrasonic examinatio¡. pJp,s are seldom suitable for.

pJp's,-

like all^Aws D1'1 welds'
e

requirel007o'""ìi"-"*''"ii""'s"'f 'r'!'M1s1?l';'i**ruì3¡;*itîI-ff-Í1!ïË h i' i'ar cas s' as wiitr ?Y

ff{ilî F ä o'iï' with tubular connectron " T*:'"#,;'J"J.:'" î:î"::'l:i iiî"i*: r' ;ä';n;; nnrv *i.î'ã"q*rn.á i"ri"irøn wall thicknesses, äfrltiã"c. can be obtained' :^ r .Jffi 'ïä;i,îi'",',i:ìî*ï'XÏ=ä:*î'iilgiå"i::å rnspection,,",1,1,,,îä"jff spot cn^TrÌtró.:i","'-^'the ancl posse"":"T-l
" ¿^

Occasionally,

determine ,nu, iï,."'rîuät'î.lo
reason,

ir'ff'tr'.

required size required

-"^"*it;ri^,.'ç ,:ä'^räo*p"iitËti,'inä p"o'riuili.v.t

:-"å5''*:¡:f rru:*"iÌ*ll"':1"¡;,'iiËJiä'í'Ji'ni^î"ñi'e'iäFo*his tt'"tli¡i-ups prior to welding tt in'pJtiä'
"
'îo"r¿
Examination Magnetic Particle
steels that may be with 50tsi,T9_-_l:gh., vi-"19 "trngtl minimum of fortyis usefur testin'g rîJ;ld;r ao1ã 1 Masnetic particle testing t;,oroe.n .ru.l'iil su.ctr susãeptibre toderayed

paint is applied :îî1.tå"j:;xxlt;Ír,¡,':*¡¡i:ih#-Ï'#,nirîå:'":':Ëî:';;îJxil'r'l:i this c^å, . *tti* background ur".t"iuv yino
adversely to the werd

joint.

síacr< magnetic

"{.r:.ö"Ëorin u.*ut"'',;.;;;tü"'-.-1iü,:tlZîtt;itü: puäi.r",

;il;;;"in,i,ånî",ãi.;.;11::,åå.,,#tï,Jî11f, :iü:Ë,:r,Ëf h-"]-:.åi"l
we, out-of_posiïion and
drafts.

",f*lfJ:¡;ti;li:

surface' ;;,;;"tpended parriclesexcepilor *öi1 contrast and a smoother T:::lit"t"?t;ii in overhead and paint provides ur" ï"ï-ãinicult to apply iitîlni,"' particres in drafts.

::i"li:::îïilH:î';iîJhHii:'Jä;:i'i;ff:Ë"äi'u'ion' used
of a known crack'
SUMMARY
provide efficient' economical' welded tubular connections variety of choices properly c!esigned and consrrucred, Há;rver"there are a plea-sing ,,nrutinn.. tå';r*iî;ffingimpact on costs of the and aesthetica'y that hãve and .ngin;1" be made ny arci,itec-ts

ru

bu Ia

r

conne

ct t o n

s'

th

e Lt

d.
?Yl

:::-î 1Ti i: :i:Î"ït

:lä

onlY and messY and usuallY or determining the extent

to

"':;tgñiãt

,112

completed connections. The key points are:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Choose box sections over round sections for simple trusses or space frames for ease

of fabrication.
Choose gapped connections instead of overlapping connections wherever possible for ease of installation of members as well as welding and inspection accessibility. Choose stepped over matched connections amount of cosmetic grinding.

for aesthetic applications to reduce the

Choose

fillet welded connections wherever possible as the least c'ostly to fabricate.

Choose PJP groove welded connections over CJP groove welded connections for lower costs in bevel preparation, fit-up, welder skill level requirements, and inspection.

Choose backing in CIP or PJP groove welded connections wherever practicable to reduce welder skill level requirements and minimize rejected welds.

Don't over-specify inspection requirements. Rely on visual inspection of joint fit-ups
and completed welds.

For architectural and aesthetic applications, require a workmanship sample or mockup connection from the fabricator and erector prior to production work to set the standard for visual acceptance.

REFERENCES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1.

Post, J. W. 1989. Gaining confidence with the fabrication, welding, and inspection of tubular connections. Proc. AISC National Steel Construction Conference. Post, J. W. 1990. Box-tube connections; choices of

joint details and their influence on

costs. Proc. AISC National Steel Construction Conference. Structural Welding Code-Steel, ANSI/AWS D1.1-94.
Marshall, P. W. 1992. Design of welded tubular connections. basis and use of AWS Code provisions: Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Packer, J.

A. and Henderson, J. E. 1992. Design guide for hollow structural section

connections: CISC, Ontario, Canada.
Blodgett, O. W. 19óó. Design of welded structures, James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio. 5.10-9 to 5.10-14.
Luyties, W. H. ancj Post.J. W. l9tìfì. Local dihedral angle equations fortubular joints and related applications Welding Journal 67 (a): 51-60.

174

Bronch Member Bronch Member ïoe Zone Toe Zone

H

!,
Heel Zone Side Zone Moin Member

n
Fffi:Bo

Side Zone Moin Menrber

Circulor Connection
ur

Box Connection

0 =
I

member intersection ongle.

V = loc.ol. dihedrot ongle. The ongle, meosured in o plone perpendiculoi to the line of the weld, between tongents to the outside surf oces of the tubes beinq joined of the
weld. The exterioi ¿ifreOrot ongle, where one looks of o locolizedsection of the connection, such
thot the intersecting surf oces moy be treoted os plones.
Overlo pped

Motched Stepped

Fig u re

Tubulor Connection Nomencloture

,'Þ

4X4X1/2" 4X4X1/8"
! ot

I

rt 4x4x1 /8"
Y-Connection

8:ffiï"íî;flil;
4X4X1

/2"

Plug Style Box Ring po]tgr.l Burnouts .-^ I rorn 3/4', or l,; ïiotu

Attochmént

Bevelino

l.-Connection Fig u re

/// ,/// Bios-'cut

2.

Con tin uous

bqcking

pú;

f

or

box

tube applicotions

ffi TY! ÑW M.
*

rb
*
i

ffi
ffi
Figure

3.

knife-edge Tubular connections with unnecessary

gussets'

a.

b.

initiaring aÎ "smooth" 19e of Figure 4. a.,¡ Fadgue cracks åigort." added to "strengthen" a crane boom' b.) Fari_2e crack at end

weld at end of gusselt'

177

ú.¿
:

Figure

5.

Various tvpes of backing that are easily fabricated and require no welding to make them "continuous" in compliance with the Code.

Figure

6.

NC machine wirh plasma cutting torch and examples of simple (gapped) and compound (overlapped) cope and bevel preparations'

178

DESIGNoFHALF.THROUGHoR''PoNY''TRUSSBRIDGES rrollow srnucrunar' sEcrroNs' SQUARE OR RECTA¡{dULAR usING
S' J' Herth'

P'E''

ABSTRACT
and investigation which has some of the research, testing, part of this paper will outline The initial p*natity concerned wittr two items: uridges. Tï,is research is been done on harf-thróugn

t *

out-of-plane buckling problems' of the top chord of the tn¡ss considering 1. Design tr¡ss web for the "u-frame" formed by the 2. Design strength and stiftess-requirements members a¡d the bridge floorbeams' trusses' design approach to "pony" w'r-outrine continentar Bridges' approach to The second part of the paper r","-'t' i*dings' t't" p;;; oottttt õontinental's Referencing the above-mãntione¿ *ell as süength and stiftress design upp-pi"L ii-ioro* fo, ¿o'p oftn"îop "no'ã'ut detemrining of the "IJ-frame" members' of a halfthe connection design ra¡rrifications a discussion of some of The finat part of the paper is hollowitructural secúons' The labricated with square or rectang'rar floor ,*"ã,,ã through *, tn¡ss web members and the one betweto to lateral primarily discussedh.J' *iff Uå tU" '¡" connection re'uir"l"n¡ for bending moments due This connåction has design 't'*$h beams. tp chõrd in a "pony" truss bridge'

supportr"qoir"-"oä"iiut

RESEARCH AND FINDINGS
to a of a "pony" truss can be equated probreq of the compression chord for the top chord The out-of-plane buckling paner points Theiaterat support by elastic restraints corr¡mn supported and tn¡ss verticats)' The 'U";ür"-;;, t'*'äJ"'lU-to-t';1não'bea¡ns to provide the lateral support is provided by the *ã Jno.ss designed iorlotu strength fraÍres,, must be adeq'ately 'chord stabilitY' needed for toP

**Ã"*.rr.

lReprintedfromSPATIAL,LATflcEandTENSIONSTRUCTuRESProceedings,IASS-ASCE

lnternationalSymposiumTgg|,He|d"*'¡*"'*withtheASCEStn¡cturesCongressXII,
Apnl 24-28, I 99¿, Atlanta GA'

2

Alexarrdria' Bridge, 8301 State Hwy 29N, chief Bridge Engineer, Continental

MN

56308.

179

l
I

was brought to light in the- late I 800's iem of tue top chord buckling of a half tb¡ough tn¡ss ,,pony" tn¡ss faih¡.r. Th" first succèssfi.rl attempt to explain these failures and to eries of -i;.,h"á of ofLdysis was done by Engesser @ef. 1, Ref. 2). Since that time a number ,Jve investigated "pony" tnrss bridges' bridges wzs done by Edward C' Holt lhe most extensive resea¡ch and æsting of "pony" tnrss from the coh¡mn at rhe pennsytvania state colege. with sponsorship

i

Ë';, ú1,ã.r.

.,Council of Eneineering Foundadon andthe Pennsytvania State Highn"ay Deparment' Holt of fol[ ¡eports scãe testing on "pony" tnrss bridges and wroæ a series ¡"J*p"" (Ref. O gives recornmendations for design ofbridge chords with'out acine.

o

h-r"d;il;r"¿fll ;* "ä;; tI

indicate square and rectang'lar rubi"9 ßef- Ð. Their findings by the Holt bridges than'*'ere dictated more stringent require,ments for t'bular "poiy" tnrss

Ër;il;;;;
I
I

of pedesrian 'l!oly" tn:ss bridges the DeBor:rgh Manufacturing comFanY, a manufacturer scale (80' long x 10' wide) n¡bula¡ constn¡ction conducted strain gage tests on a full

tily

fr"-

kling of the top chord of the "Pony" truss
I

has

two limiting bounds:

very flexible. the chord will tend to ./ tn" uter¿ restraint provided by the "IJ-fra¡nes" is -uckle in one sinele half wave over its entire lengfh' to buckle between the Ëä;ä;;;;;;;"vided are infinitety stifr, the chord will tend nrss panel points.
ever reached in practice as either would be uneconomical. these nl'o exEemes: some nr¡mber tal buckled shape used in design is somewhere between ' la,res less than the total number of bays in the truss'
ì

he of these

exte'es is seldom if

I

I
I

"u-FRAME" srrFFllESS REQUIREMENTS
K-factors used in design' be utilized here for the determination of top chord based on the ¿"".-i"es the K-factor for out-of-plane buckling of the top chord of the top Holt's sotution for the allowable buckling load

,,proach

[.."t , Ë;;;iîî.:'u-frames,,.

i

will

"porry" tnrss assumes the following conditions:

points have identical stiftess' The tra¡rsverse frames (u-frames) at all panel
l

[e radii-of-gyration of all top chord members and end posts
to the compressive forces)'

are identical'

for the same allowable unit stress (A's and I's are he top-chord members a¡e all designed

"loportional

pinned' between the top chord and the end posts ale assumed þe connections 180

5. 6.

The end posts act as cantilever springs supporting the ends of the top chord.
The bridge carries a r:niformly distributed load.

The results of Holt's investigation are presented in Table 1, which gives the reciprocal of the effeçlivç-!_e¡gth factor K aåa fimction of n (the number of panels) and of Ql/Pc where:
C
is the funished

stiftess

at the top of

the

least

stiffnansvrol**".

(See Figure 1)

Ll
Pc

is the panel point spacing of the tnrss is the mærimum design chord stress multiplied by the desired factor of safety.

Note: Because of uncertainties involved in the analysis of the top chord of a "pony" trtrss, it is
reasonable to require a factor of safety for overall top chord buckling greater than that used when designing typicalcolumns; However, since each member in the continuous top chord of a "pony"

truss with parallel chords çannsf be simultaneously stessed to its critical buckling load" reasonable to use a safety factor of i.5 for this situation.

it

is

Various secondary effects on top chord buckling such as the lateral support given to the chord by the diagonals, eflects of floor beam deflections due to live loads, etc. have been studied by Holt and others. A full discussion of all aspects influencing the top chord stability of a "pony" truss bridge is prohibited here by the tength limit of this paper. I recommend obtaining the "Guide to Stability Dèsig¡ Criteria for Metal Stn¡ctures" (Ref. S). Much of the information on "pony" tnrss design presented here is contained in Chapter 15 of that reference. Table 1 and Holt's assumptions are reprinted from that source with the permission of John Wiley and Sons,Inc.

''U-FRAME'' STRENGTH REQTJIREMENTS
Strengfh requirements for the "LI-frame" members vary from source to source (research findings, design codes, etc.). Most approaches require an additional moment capacity in the tnrss verticals, floor beams and their connections. This moment is over and above the moment determined by classical analysis and is calculated assurning the vertical is a ca¡rtilever, fixed at its base, which carries a transverse force at its upper end. It is the opinion of this author that the most rational "pony" tnrss design approach equates the required out-ofplane bending strength of the "IJ-frame" to tUå top chord compression and to the K used for top chord design. (If K out-of-plane equals ttre number ofbays, the chord would be designed to buckle in one long half wave. In this case, no outof-plane bending stengfh would be required in the "tJ-frames" for lateral support of the top chord). The strength requirements suggested by Holt (Ref. 6) are:

l.

The end post is a cantilever which carries, in addition to its æial load, a transverse force 0.3 percent (.003) of its æcial load at iæ upper end a¡rd

of

181

TABLE

1

- I/I( FOR VARIOUS VALI.JES OF CWCAITTD n

4

6

I
3.660

10

t2
3.754 2.787 2.456

t4
3.785
2.771

16

UK
1.000 0.980 0.960 0.950 0.940 0.920 0.900 0.850 0.800 0.750 0.700 0.6s0 0.600 0.550 0.500 0.450 0.400 0.350 0.300

3.686

3.6t6
3.284 3.000

3.7r4
2.806 2.542 2.303

2.94
2.665 2.595

2.454 2.254

3.809 2.774 2.479

3.352

2.96t
2.448
2.035

2.754 2.643 2.593 2.460 2.313 2.147
1.955

2.t46
2.263 2.013
1.889

2.252 2.094
1.951

2.282

2.t01
1.968 1.681

2.tzt
1.981

2.045
1.794 1.629 1.501 1.359

t.709
1.480

1.750
1.595

1.344

1.4s6 t.273
1.111

t.694 t.465
t.262
1.088

t.200
1.087

1.739 1.639 1.517

t.42
1.338

t.236
1.133 t.007 0.847

t.2lr
t.047 0.829
0.627 0.434 0.249

t.750
1.232

1362
1.158 0.886 0.530 0.187

0.7t4
0.555

0.352

0.121

0.t70

0.985 0.860 0.7s0 0.624 0.454 0.323 0.203

0.988 0.878

0.768 0.668 0.537 0.428 0.292 0.183

0.940 0.808 0.708 0.600 0.500 0.383 0.280 0.187

{

c=
h2

E

[h/3I"

+ b/2r6]

FIGURE I-PONY TRUSS ''IJ-FRAME'' 182

2.

The moment at the lower end of each vertical may be approximated satisfactorily by the applyng atansverse force at its upper end equal to 0.2 percent (.002) of the average of ærial loads in the two adjacent top chord members'

While never going less than Holt's suggested requirements, Continental Bridge has adopteg 9: foltowing gurã" ünes based on the more conservative "German Buckling Specifications" @IM

4lI4) which

are now out of Print:

1.

For the interior "IJ-frames" use l/100K times the average compressive force in the two We adjacent top chord members as the force applied at the top ofthe tn:ss verticals. NOTE: to a have chosen to limit K for uniformly loaded pony truss bridges of nrbular construction (l/100K) times mædmum value of 2.5. This gives a minimum out-of-plane force of 0.004 strain the top chord compressive force. This minimr¡m is in close agreement with the 1989 (Ref. 7) gage testing of tubular "pony" tnrss bridges done by DeBourgh Manufacnuing which for¡nd for the stnrcû¡¡e tested that an average of 0.0027 times the top chord axial load was transmitted as a lateral load to the center vertical member.
For end frames, the same appiies except K is omitted (0.01 agrees with the recommendations of the "Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structues").

2.

DESIGN APPROACH
The economical design of a "pony" truss bridge using hollow structural sections is an iterative its process. There exists an almost infinite nr:¡nber of solutions to the design of the top chord and iateral bracing system (J-frames). The best top chord tubular section for a "pony" truss is for out-of-plane rectangular with a wide horizonal face. This section has a good radius-of-g¡nation the requirements of this face for buckting. Directly opposed to this in regards to economics wiil be chord face strengfh ã"rigp (simpte tubular connections are more economical when the "ooo.rtioo thich ha.dng a low width to thickness ratio). While the most economical design for is na¡row and large heavily loaded stnicnues may be to size the truss members for srength and stifÊress ,"qrrir"¡¡"ot , then design connections as required, most stn¡ctures least cost altemative will be ¿etermine¿ by considering steel cost verses the cost of the tubular connectionssimple span Following is the design approach adopted by Conùnental Bridge for uniformly loaded a¡e miter cut and welded bridges t¡iføi"g simfle *"1¿"¿ tubular truss connections (tubular members welded aireãtly ro the ø"" ãf tn. framed to member). These bridges will have their floor beams directly to the truss verticals (See Figure 1).

l. 2.

Detemrine the tn¡ss configuration required based on span, deflection limits, aesthetic considerations, etc.
Analyzethe bridge structure for all applied loads'

183

J.

Using a K factor of approximately 1.5 for out-of-plane buckling (1.3 to 2.0 is typically an oooð-i. range for tubula¡ stuctures) and 1.0 for in-plane buckling, detennine a tr¡be size required for the top chord based on the design loads'
Design the tnrss web members and floor beasrs for thei¡ design loads, including the ow-ofplanã bending moment required for top chord stability. Keep in mind that the vertical's 'dimension perpendicular tó the chord face, must be equal to or less tban the u/idth of the

4.

chord face.
5.

Calculate the spring constant (C) firnished by stirr',ess (See figrrre

1).

the

"IJ-frame" having the least ffinsverse

L/trl.

Calculate the value 7.

ClÆc. necessary L

t'l
\
!..

the correct Enær table I with n (the nr:mber of bays in the truss) and CIÆc and find for a comFression-chordpanel, interpolating ¿u;

t h\ \/

çI

lff valve /

8.

Determine the actual K value

and:

-

If the calculated K is less than the K value initially assuned, check the "U-frame" for it may the new out-of-plane bending moments based on the lower K value; however, I(Ur be possible to ieduce the size or thickness of the top chord based on a lower
value.

(or)

-

If K calculated is greater
mr¡st either:

tha¡r the

K initiatly

assu¡ned

in sizing the top chord you

a. b. c. g. 10.

Check the top chord for a higher KVr value and

if necessary, increase its si2e,

K value' Increase the stiftress of the "IJ-frame" members to achieve a lower or
Some combination of a and b above'

paperCheck tubular connections as outlined in the next portion of this

Iterate steps 4 through 9 to final solution'

connection design criteria are kept Bear in mind that while the "pony" truss considerations and the design of a "pony" tn¡ss fabricated from tubula¡ members sepamte here for si-fu"ity, ti. ".ono*ic and tubular connection efficiencies simultaneously' will consider both ,,Û-frame" requirements

184

CON¡IECTION DESIGN
As stated above, the economical design oftubula¡ strucflrres is highly dependent upon connection design. The most cost effective design is usually some middle ground between the least weight alte¡native a¡rd the least fabrication cost alternative.

Ifyou are doing tubular connection design, I would highty recom:nend obtaining the "Design Guide for Hollow Stn¡ctr¡ral Section Connections" (Ref. 9) published by the Ca¡radia¡r Institute of Steel Constuction. This g¡ide is a¡r excellent source of curent design infonnation on hollow stn¡ct¡ral section connections. Portions of this guide are reprinted here with permission.
The connections of primary importance in a tubular "pony" truss are:

l. 2.

The main load carrying (vertical) tn¡ss connections at each nodal members attach to the chord members.
The

joint where the truss web

joints between the floor beams a¡d ttre tnrss verticals.

well documented in the above-referenced design guide. In the United States, the same design approach found in this gurde has al5e been adopted by the Anerican Welding Society (Ref. 10)- Either of these sources may be used in checking tuss joint
capacity.

The design approach for tn¡ss nodal joints is

While a full discussion oftubularjoint design is limited here by the length of this paper, I wor¡ld like to make the following poinæ:

1. 2.

The vertical members in a tubular Pratt type "pony" truss, becar¡se of economics and "IJframe" considerations, are typically very nearly or are the same \ñ¡idth as the chord members.
The design capacities which have been developed based on have a somewhat limited "range of validity".

full

scale testing

oftubularjoints

Based on these two points, I have found that once "Ll-fizme" requirements and validity limits are met the actr¡al mein ûusis connection resistance provided is in many instances greater than that required for actual member loads; therefore, during the iterative design process, you typically need only consider connection parameters, staying within the appropriate "range of validity" for the connection you intend to use. You can then make final connection capacify checks after all members have been selected. NOTE: If staying outside the "range of validþ" established for tubula¡ connections, the designer is on his own. While connections outside the validþ range obviously have some capacity, I do not recommend their use. If using cormections outside the appropriate "range of validity", the designer needs a very good understanding of the possible faih¡re modes in

185

8.1
]

I

a

tubular connection (i.e. punching shear, chord shear in gap joints, chord face plastification, etc.) and how these factors influence connection capacity'

The second connection of importance, which is primarily controlled by "U-frame" considerations, reaction of the is the one be¡¡reen the tn¡ss verticals and the floor beams. Along with the end shear moment induced floor beam, this connection must be capable of resisting the out-of-plane bending NOTE: in the tn¡ss verticals (See previors discr.rssion on shength requirements of the "U-frame"). Secondary stresses due tó floor ber- deflections are typically quite small in a uniformiy loaded bridge and in most cases can be neglected.

tube faceSimple n¡bular connections have a certain amotmt of flexibility due to deformation of the assumed to be rigid in order to provide ln a "pony,, tnlss, the floor beam to vertical connection is hterj *ppott to the top chord. Because of these facts, p (the width ratio be¡r'een the floor be'm and vertiõal) should be approximately equal to one for this connection'

,U-ûame" members and detemrining design loads, the connection must be checked After 5izìng the (TS 8x3's, for its ,"qoir"a capasity: Tpical tubular floor beam members are deep narrow sections beam TS lOú';, eæ.) with aielatively high bending sængth about their stong axis. These efficient connections sections are r:sually outside the "range of valid.ity" cr:rrently established forplain T-type Section Connections", with in-plane benåing moments (See "Design Guide for Hollow Stn¡cn:ral Chaptei6 (Ref. 9). It is still usually more cost effective to use these efficient beam sections and design appropriate connections for their r¡se'

validity; for T-type hrbula¡ moment connections, one may conservativeiy treat the floor beam zìs are would a wide flange beam framing into a nrbular colurrn. The vertical faces (webs) of the tube w'elds- The the side assumed to carry the shea¡ load in the floor beam to the tn¡ss vertical tbrough in the tn¡ss verticals), as in the case end moment in the floor bea¡n (out-of-plane bending moment a¡e of a w-shape bearn, can be resolved into two equal and opposite flange forces- These forces

In designing tube-to-tube floor beam connections which are outside the established "range of
you

and bottom tube faces applied at the top and bottom horizontal tube faces of the floor beam. The top The "flange" can then be equated to a plate welded transversely to a hollow stn¡crural section. using existing capacities of the tubular floor beam (or w-shaped floor beam) can then be checked (See Table 2 copied from the aesign rules for transverse plates welded to hollow stnrctr:ral sections (Ref' 9))' "DeJign Guide for Hollow Stnrctural Section Connections"

de¡ifr Weld design for both main truss joints and floor beam connections shall be P.., th. applicable weld is code. Bear in mind that in tubular connections such as these, tra¡rsfer of load across the to take highty non-r¡niform. Welds must be large enough to enable adequate load redistribution ptã."'*itt i' the joint, preventing a progreisive failure of the weld and insuring ductile behavior of
the

joint.

186

CONNTCTION TYPI FACTORED CONNICTION RTSISTANCT Tronsverse Plote
r'r,

ß = 1.0

Bosis: CHORD SIDE WALL
(21

FAILURE

I

b1

-l r

NI= Fyo to

,+

loto)

0.85SDlr - t/y
Nî=
ALL

Bosis: PUNCHINGSHEAR

H_
Þ
where
B

fr&

Czt,

+ 2b"p)

Bosis: EFFECTIVE WIDTH

FU N CTION S
N

i Fy o f V,

coNNECTIoN RESISTANCE, AS AN AXIAL FORCE SPECIFIED MINIMUM YIELD STRENGTH OF TUBE SPECIFIED MINIMUM YIELD STRENGTH OF PLATE
bo

= 2lo tor, br but ( , bo/lo
'

b'

10,, b- : bo/to lYo lo p., but ( b' ve Fy' t1
bo/to (
30

RANGI OF

VALIDITY:

TABLE 2 CONNECTIONS FACTORED RESISTANCI OF PLATE TO RECTANGULAR HHS llLvrr sTATES oR uLTIMATE LoAD FoRMAT)

187

i{

ïI i

REFERENCES

1.

,)

Engesser,F' 1893' Vol.II, Berlin'

StabilitY
1'

).
4.

Hott"E-C.

1951' Hott"E.C.-1951' Bracu without Lateral

äË¡*¿* ao**

'nc'ReP'No'
chords without Stablitv or Brideç
StabititY

tr,"'"---i-HoIL il:. Þ.u- ;;Buskr i'f "r q"ry r#-#
Lateral Bracing, Col

I.s.

Cor¡nc.

RepNo. Xs:'

5.

Ð-e$gn ot o"'å^" -'='T-- Rep' No' 3' ço E.c. 1956. The Analysis aftS Holt, Bracing' column Res' of Bridge chords

*rinïffiø

Stability

6.

7. 4th ED., 8.

9. SocietY 1994' American Wetding ChaPter 10'

truc¡sa]jgeldig

10.

188
i
I

CASE STT]DIES OF RECENT TUBULAR STRUCTURES

C.M. AIIen*

ABSTRACT
Tb¡ee quite different projects are presented, in which hollow stuctural steel tubes are used as the principie structural framing. The National Aviation Museum of Canada featr.¡res an all welded space-frame roof and exterior wall stn¡cture comprised of circula¡ steel tubes. The Toronto SgOotn" is a retactable roof stadium in which the roof structue is comprised of square steel tube with a combination of welded and field bolted corurections. The ttrird case study is a t series of steel square tube tn¡ss access towers used in the constrr¡ction of the Hibemia oil platform, off the east coast of Newfoundland, Canada" Each project presented to the design tearn unique challenges in the design of steel tube structues, providing lessons for its'futr¡re use and illustrating certain areas where additional research could be beneficial leading to improvement in cr:¡rent

..i *r.r

standards and design practices

for steel tube sfi¡ctu¡es.
CASE STT]DY
1

NATIONAL AVIATION MUSEI.iM OF CANÄDA
Building Description
The National Aviation Museum was deveioped by Public Worla C-.anaÅa to store and display Canada's aeronautical collection representing Canada's involvement in aviation and qpace technology in the 20th century. The museum, located at Rockliffe Aþort in Onawa was lg}7. The a¡chitectural fooprint of the aircraft display hall is tiangular shaped to completed suit the orientation of the north-south taciway and tl¡e east-west n¡nway. The single storey joint' triangular buildi''g is divided into nvo e.qual right angle triærgles by means of an exp"ttsion

n

Structural Framing
The ñ¡nctional and architectr.ual considerations, with the requirement for a wide oPen space suitable for the display of large aircraft combined with the desire for a light weight yet economical exposed roof structure, dictated the stn¡ctural planning for tbe museumThe building fooprint is an isosceles right angle triangle with a short side of l6lm in lengfh and a clear height of 13.2m from the floor to the underside of the roof s¡n¡cture. It is divided into two eq¡al smaller tiangles by means of an expansion joint located at right angles to the hypotenuse of the larger panel, as shown in Figure 1.

The stn¡cnral framing resulted from considerations of function, architectu¡al expression, lightness in appearance and economics. The selected stn¡ctural system \¡vas a space frame with circular steel tube members and all welded joints.
* Adjeleian Allen Rubeli Limited, 75 Albert Steet, Suite 1005, Ottaw4 Ontario, Canada KIP 5E7.

189

GRAVITY COLUMN

WIND COLUMN

NORTH WING

x

Figure

1

AviationMuserm-Keyplan

The roof framing is comprised of a double layer off.set gnd in which each grid is directionally similar with the lower chords located below *â io benveen two upper chords and with the upper and lower nodes connected by diagonal members (Figure 2). The grid spacing horizontally arrd vertically is 3'30m' The offset grid system was selected due to the tcre¿sea $iffiress and lateral stability it provided together with its overall pleasing appearance
Three interior columns for each wing ofthe museum, spaced at46.2m,provided an economic roof span while permitting the movement oÏthe largest aircran in the co[åtion an¡avhere within the museum' Each of the interior columns is shaped as an inverted pyramid, 9.9m higb with a pinned bearing at the vertex of the pyramid" The contorned sbape oro" i"t provides several advantages as follows:

¡

ioi.;;,*",

o o

"

Acting as a shea¡ head' the inverted pyramidal column reduces the clear span of the space roof edd' The load transfer from the roof to the column supports is smooth and more gadual The configuration allows for a stable stn¡cture for lateral loads ûom *i"d earthquakes.

'íJ

The bearing at the vertex of the inverted pyramid tansmits vertical and horizontal loads to a concrete pedestal in the shape of an upright pyramid 3.3m high. The overall config¡x;;;rhil vertex ofthe pyramid located ¿f rhis height provides the muúl¡m ,pu.":* the wing level of an Argrrs aircraft, the largest aeroplane inthe mr¡seum collection "f*, Gig¡¡re ¡)."- "

190

BR^C'DI

;nlvl

?

Figure

2

Aviation Mr¡ser¡m - Bottom chord Pla¡r ofNorth wing

Figure

3

Aviæion Mr¡ser¡m - Interior Column

smaller columns are provided along the cladding and to provide additionat perimeter of theuuil¿ing to support th9 roof edge and þ¡itrting uraring while the balance a¡e wind stability against rateral îoads.'i portion of thise are road (Figr¡e 4)' columns *itU u sliding vertical connection at the roof

In addition to the th¡ee interior columns, a nrunber of

Secondary Framing
attached by verticat supports to the The roof stn¡cture is a metal deck supported on steel T sections nrnning parallel to the principle top chord nodes and at the mid-points of the top chord members angles to the principle diagonal are diagonal of buildi.g fooprint. The top chord members at rigbt not zubjected to secondary bending from roof pwlins'

191

GIRT
GIRT

GIRi

GIRT

I

SIDE

ELEVATION

I

t

Figure4

AviationMuserm-E:rteriorColumn

¡
The overall stabillty of the framing, with its inærior pyramid columns and exterior tiangular col 'mns, provided overall resistance to the lateral forces åu" t" wind and earrüq'ate. This primary system was augmented with a two brace finmes in each of the ¡ro comers of the base of the triangle of the overall building fooprint, ot¿.r to improve its torsional stiffiress for both wind T and eartlrquake induced forces, and thus reduce lateral deflections at the vertices of the ûiangle as well as atthe expansionjoint
!

Loading
The overall dead load of the ,tn steel roof qpace frame, including members and joints but excluding secondary framing and columns, was .sipa (ll lbvsq.ft.). s*perimposed dead loads together with the roof space fiame load resulæd in an allowa¡rce or i.e¡ lpa. The design snow load was l'73 kPa Due to the height of the building and light roof shrcture, lateral forces due to wind govenred so ttrat earthquake loads were not a considerafion. For most members, the design was contolled by gavity loads.

D

"t*l

I

¡

Space Frame Members

Theroof space frame foreach ofthetwo smallertiangles is comprised of about 5000 memben and 1300 nodes' The members are all circular steel tubesfoth a yielá shength of ¡só tñ".[; ;*; in size from l0lmm to l68mm. Column support members were also circula¡ hollow steel tubes but

192

and stress relieved with a mærimr¡m size range up to 324.mn. All steel tubes a¡e cold formed
(Class

þ.

Space Frame Joints

of the eventual joint configuration There were a number of considerations which led to the selection and connection method ¡"¡uding:

for all-welded consur¡ction due to Requirement specified by the owner @ublic V/orks Canada) the aesthetically superior appeamnce' p"rør*-rr r"q.rir"*"rrt that the joints be sEonger than the members framing into the joint to ensure member faih:re prior to joint failure' o Custom design joint that experiencedlocal str¡ctr¡¡al steel companies could fabricate and erect without relying on single sotuce prcÞrietary space frame suppliers.

o

" õ*"**l

is shown in Figrue 5' The joint detail selected after careful consideration of many configurations with a circular mild steel plate of Each chord member, consisting of a ror¡nd tube, is capped the tube using a square groove weld diameter equat to tt"t of the n¡Ui. Tiris cap plate i5 v¡slded to tongue plate is then with a cylindrical backing ring inserted iff; the end of the h¡be. A rectangular joint itself consists of a specially welded to the cap plate-witli a double V groove weld. The of each of the chords meeting at the joint is fabricated star-sirapea plate. The tongu. welds' connected to the upper tutfu"" of the star plgte by apair of fillet

!ut"

¡ON6UE PLAIE

PLÂÎÉ FOR OIAGONÂL fuge coNNÉclloN

Lr. t:sJ
"orrorl

."0.N
SECTION ]

uil,¿ tH{
=-_
BOTTOM CHORD NODE

PLAfE FOR DIAGONAL TUB€ CONHEC¡¡ON S¡AR PIAlE

PLAN VIEW

SECTION

2

Figure 5

Aviation Mr¡setrm - Joint Detail

groove welds' The The diagonal members are also capped with ror:nd metal Plates r.rsing square are specially shaped to tongue plates to be welded to the caps are, in this case, not rectangular but

193

fit the horiæntal starplate of the joint The tongue plates ofthe forn chords meeting æ the joint form a cross. Each of these plates are welded to the star plate by a pair of fillet welds. In addition they are connected together by a weld at theirjunction.
Testing was carried out on full size joints in a protot¡pe segment of the space tuss in which the overall dimensions of the member lengths were scaled dor¡¡n to l/3 to allow testing of the tn¡ss in test rigs of apractical size (Ref.l). The test program confirmed tbat the joint detail was adequaæ and that failure in be expected to precede faih¡re in a member.
I

?

a joint would not

I

Fahrlcation anq Erectior The fabrication of the all-welded qpace frame was carried out in a series of steps at different

I
!

locations, as follows:

t
I

" "

Fabrication of indiviú¡al tubes with end closne plates and tongue plates at the workshop of the prime steel fabricaûors o Fabrication of larger-size tn¡ss elements with a length of 19.8m that cor¡ld be træsporæd by truck Each tn¡ss element was tiangular in shape with one top chord and one bottom õnor¿ anã a temporary connecting angle replacing tlre other bouom chord. Assembly oftr¡ss elements on site into 13 large lifr zub.structures. Lifting of lifr zub'stn¡ctures with mobile cnrres, one by one, connecting substuctures together by welding of connections to adjoining rub..süuctures already ..."æ¿ The subsmótrnes directly zupported by the interior coh¡mns were suspended higher than 1þsir firal positions while the coh¡mns were being erecte4 they were then lowered down and connected io tl" pyramid coh¡mns.

o

I

i
t

Testing and fnspection
The original specifications called forthe visual inspection of 100%of welds, nondestn¡ctive testing for all welds be¡veen the cap plates and tubes, and atl welds between a cap plate and a tongue plæã whenever any of the two plates w¿ts over 30mm in thickness. Of all re,maining welds, 2iyn were required to be subjected to ultasonic testing. As the work progressed, thJweld çratity was obsen¡ed to be uniform with a very low rejection rate. As a resuf the requir€,ments for tãstini were revised, with testing frequency of the critical welds reduced from 100% io Z}%and the less critical welds from71%oto l}Yo. The welded joints of the interior coft.rmns and the exterior columns were tested using magnetic particle testing. Ulûasonic calipers were t¡sed to measure the thickness of tube members which could not be inspected by mechanical means due to the closure plates.

I t t
t

t

t
t
194

I

General Comments Although the overall aPpearance was in keeping with the original expectations, and the overall dead load related to the large sp"ns was stn¡ctr¡rally efficient, the requirement

roof

áf an all-welde.d joint was an issue with regard to additional costs and time delays. The need for extensive weta testing and the practical considerations of winter constnrction can cause une4pected costs and increased constn¡ction time. Another factor is the accuracy required in the fabriåtion process to ensure the mininizing of the internal stess effects of force fitting of the va¡ious elements or Iifr substn¡ctr¡¡es duing thei¡ assembling and connecfing

CASE STUDY 2

TIIE TORONTO SI(YDOME RETRACTABLE ROOF
Project Description

winter.

Tlie Toronto SþDome is the world's first major league multi-purpose stadium with a fully retactable rigid steel roof (Ref. 2,3). -Ihe SþDome converts Êorrra j¡,ooo seat football stad.ium to a 51,000 baseball stadium by means of a rotating lower seating stand system. The principle featr:re of SþDome is the roof stn¡cture which can open or close creating an open air stadium for good weather conditions and a closed roof dome stadium for bad weathL cond.itions and d'ring

Roof Description
The overall roof shape is dome-like-in appearance, approximately circular in its base plan, covering a stadium which is essentially circular in plan. The roof consists of for¡r separate panels numbered


I

.t

i

consecutively I to 4 from south to north with the roof in the closed position (Figr¡e 6). In its base plan, the panels a¡e delineated by dividing a circle into four parts with three parallel lines at the mid point and two quarter points. The two middle panels a¡e in the fomr of barrel var¡lts while the two panels at each end are in the I I I form of quarter domes. t
t

t I

@1 @1

I

I

I

t

\p_----t
Fþre
6 Toronto SþDome - Roof plan - closed

Panel 4 is a fixed roof panel, located at the norttr end of the stadium and is the lowest panel in the sequence of nested panels in the open position. This panel is shaped in the form of a quarter dome with a circular base in plan and an arch at the front or leading edge. The panel is supported on the concrete substructure by mears of sliding bearings.

195

ffi-'!í!;;.¡,'

'

ìi,
I

J

panel 1 is a quarter dome located at the south end of the stadiuq in the closed position This panel is similar in sbape to Panel 4, but is larger in size with its base located at a higher slsvatie¡ than Panel 4 to allow it to nest over Panel4 in the open position. Panel I is zupported on s'teel boges (t1cks) constn¡cted with steel wheels uihich intum are supported on a circular steel tack system. Panel 1 moves on this circular táck system, rotating 180 degrees in its opening or closing cycle.
and3 a¡e each parabolic arch panel segments supported on the east and west sides of the stadium with steel bogies containing steel uùeels on sets ofpæallel steel tacks runing in a northsouth direction. Both panels move in a north-sor¡th direction on these parallel tracls, In the open position, Panels 2 and 3 nest ôver Panel 1. Panel 2 is larger in size than Panel 3 and iæ srpport elevation is at a higher elevation in order to allow Panel 3 to nest below Panel 2.
Panels

r

l.

I

2

The roof mechanism is operated by a computer progrrim and a reúmdant control syste,m ensrning a safe and dependable operation. The roof opens or closes in 20 minutes in wind qpeeds of up to 65 lqr/hor¡r.

Roof Geomefry

\
The geometry of the foru roof panels is complex. Each of the four panels has cr¡rrafure in ¡vo directionso each are diferent in size, and each arch component in each panel is diffe'rent except for symmetical aspects about the longitudinal æris.

The geometric complexity was resolved by developing simple mathematical expressions which Tü/ith this mathe'matical model in placç, defines the cr¡n¡atr¡re in two directions (Ref. a) Gigr¡re Ð. all of the roof geometry, could be automatically generated for use in the static and dpamic analysis, CAD drafting and model studies, and forreleaseto the steel fabricator.
Roof Framing - General Conditions
The four roof panels are constructed of stn¡ctural steel arch trusses comprised of hollow structr¡ral steel tubes. The núes are, for the most par! squa.re, varying in size from 254mm square to 304mm squre for chord members and 202mn square typically for verticals and diagonals. In isolated portions of the roof, rectangular tubes and plated tr¡bes were used. All steel tubes are Class H (56rtr relieved) with a yield stength of 350 MPa With the exception of the two leading arches of Panel 1, all arch tn¡sses have a consistcnt cetrtre to cente of chords tnrss depth of 4.2m. The roof arch tn¡sses a¡e connected to the boges or other supPorts by means of pin connections. The pin connections allow for distortions in the roof geometry dùe to thermal effects and differential movements of the steel roof and supporting concrete structt¡re withor¡t generating significant membçr forces within the roof str¡cture.

196

t

qi6:È

- P^r.tL tÀ v

2=-3.¿?3110

-BL

x

sPRtñ6 P0tNi
ELEV

-

P^NEL

2

Figure

7

Toronto SþDome - North-South Secúon

aspect of the design concept for the roof is ensuring strucrural integnty should single elements fail. The test for strucûral integnty u/as to check the stucnre for stability with all stnrctural members removed within a vertical cylinder of 4.5m radirx with the centre of this "cylinder" located on any one panel point including a support. The design check for integrity was based on one half the 1/100 year design live loads with the live load factor reduced from 1.5 to 1.1 and the dead ioad factor reduced from I .25 to 1.05.

A key

All

steel tube framing members were cleaned

to SPIO followed by a prime coat of inorganic zinc

paint.

Roof Panels 2 and 3
Both Panels 2 and 3 consist of eight parabolic arch trusses spaced at 7.0m excePt for a 5.0m spacing of the first two arches of the south end of Panel 3, dictated by snow dtifting conditions. The arch tnrsses consist of double tube chords with single tube verticals and diagonals using conventional double tube chord tt¡ss technology. These arch tn¡sses are interconnected by transverse tru.sses consisting of single tube chords, verticals and diagonals. The transverse tnrsses support standard wide flange purlins which in turn support a 75mm deep acoustic steel deck. The diagonals of the ¡.ansverse tn¡sses a¡e oriented in altemate directions from tnrss to b:t¡ss so that they cornect to the main a¡ch tn¡ss chords at joints which do not have connections of the diagonals of the main arch üïsses. This technique effectively minimized congestion of members framing into any one arch truss joint. Top and bottom chord bracing, consisting of single tubes, completes the framing of these panels.

197

i

JRoof Panels

I

and 4

edge of each panel spaced at q'arter dome is framed with foru arch tn¡sses at the reading lEach radiating in a circular pattern The a¡ch trusses supporr a series of¡b trusses,

l;;;;il;ì;ã:õ;
äri ff äii

the centre point of the circular ûom the circular base in a direction to**ás the north-south centerline äl*.u by circutar t"*t no.irontat iro¡ections from the leading arch tnrsses. establish the geometry of geometry. These noãota projections in tr¡m

Ot

T:-lî::r,::

the roof prulins' ao! snan between the rib circular arrangement of transr¡erse tn$ses support A of the rib tr¡sses compretes the quarter dome trusses. Top and bottom chord diagonal bracin! 2and3' fr"-i"g. ttre steel deck and roofing ãetails a¡e similar to Panels
in Figure 8' A plan view of the roof framing is shown

Figure

8

Toronto SþDome - Roof Framing Plan

Roof Loading Conditions following load condiúons: The roof panels were arnlyzedfor the

-

Dead load 5)' tunnel tests by R.W.D-I- of Guelph, onta¡io @ef' Snow loads as determined by wind performed by RW'D'I' v/ind loads as determined from wind tunnel tests level of 8% of gravity Seismic effects based on an earthquake 198

I

Dynamic effects with a sudden application of brakes Loads imposed bY thermal effects Loads imposed by deformation of the concrete supports or rail location tolerances fsarls imposed on Panels 2 and3 due to skew effects under motion User loads suspended ûom designated points
100 year return period is provided for in the design of all live loads. The design is based on sates design with an importance factor of 1.15 applied to all live load effects

A I in
limit

Joint Details

A combination of shop welding and field bolting is r¡sed for all connections of the roof stn¡cture. Truss secrions of approximately 15m in length were fabricated in the shop with welded connections, primarüy fiUet welds, and with stiffener plates where required. After delivery by truck to the site, the truss sections were assembled by bolted connections into tn¡ss assemblies of one or two segments in \¡¡idth and n¡¡o or tb¡ee truss segments in length These truss assemblies were then hoisted into the air and connected to previously erecæd assemblies by means of a bolted connection, with 4325 galvanized joints.
Two basic types of bolt connection details were used as follows:

o

'

bolted tube end cap plates wittr bolts in tension slip critical con¡ections with end tab plates connected in double shear by bols.

Testing of Roof Joints and Steel Tubes

I

A progra:n of testing of samples of the different types of roof tn¡ss joints, constructed at l/2 scale, was ca¡ried out at the University of Toronto (Ref. 6). The testing included dynamic testing of the joins as well as static tesß to failu¡e.
The dynamic testing included 5,000 cycles of low load levels, followed by 200 cycles of higher load, follo'*ed again by 5,000 cycles of lower load. After dynamic testing, each sample was inspecred for fatigue cracks using a dry magnetic particle technique. No evidence of fatigue cracking was found.
Steel tubes for tbe roof tnsses are manufactu¡ed by cold forming and welding of the longinrdinal joint Lack of fi¡sion problems along the joint led to a testing program at the University of Toronto io evaluate the effects on the compression capacity of long columns with different degrees of lack of fusion (Ref. 6). ln addition, tests on the compression capacity of tube columns, plated with steel plates with lowei yields tban the tubes, were carried out 1o evah¡ate the effect of the two material t¡'*gthr and the effect of the build up of intemal stress due to the welding process for tubes which

Steel plating of certain tubes was required in order to are originally stress relieved (Class .o.p.o*t. for steel tubes for Panels I and 4 being supplied to the project an average of 7.8% less in average walt thickness (and mass) than specified.

þ.

199

Í
i

Erection of SlryDome Roof The nesting geomftv of the roof panels-inthe open position rilas utilized to facilitate the roof erection by using lower roof panels as_shoring pËrorrÀ for subsequent erecte¿ qpper panels. Paneldbeingthelowestpanelwasthefirsttou".o*to"æ¿
the leading edge of the panel and locat{ at the þlf point and the two quarter points, provided temporary support for the two leading a¡ch tt¡sses. Panel I was i¡ ¿ 5imil¿¡ fashion with the extension of the temporay towersconstruc,ûJ dir"rrly over panel 4 though panel 4 to support the Ieading edge of Panel Panels 3 and 2 wqethen^erecte¿ nqpectively-*ia tu" of æmporary sqpports offPanel As each series of arch trusses for Panels 3 and 2 were 'se completed they were rolled north on their boge system to allowthe tr¡sses to be eæcted.

Tbreetemporarytowersinlinewith

l.

l.

t*sJ;àruon

a

General Comments
a

appea¡ance

stuctural steel trúes were selected for the sþDome roof due to their superior efrciency in st¡pporting the large compression loads ofthe uoú tnor"r ortn i*irt"r.n*Lo tn, overall clqan

t

A

nr¡mber of issues became apparent in the design and constrt¡ction of the SþDome roof which could have an effect on futr¡re hollow steel tube dJvelopment and use and are presented as follows:

¡

o

o

As a direct result of the experience at sþDome and other projects, the canadian code on steel Design and construction (cAlI3-s16.1-M) (Ref. now requires the tube weighrs to be wirhin Ð, 3'5To or +l0o/o of the published values. other jurisdictions orll-p*Jt-,,ru* man'factr¡red with a +l0Yo wall thickness tolerance. As a'result of the experience at sþDome, it is recommended that any tubes, uåich a¡e maur¡factr¡red under a cold formed and automatic fr¡sed weld process, should be continuously monitored by ultasonic testing as part of the manufacturing process CASE STUDY3 PRIII{ARY ACCESS SYSTEM

¡

:

i

¡
I

I

IIIBER¡IA
Project Descrintion

t

The Hibemia Project is currently under consEr¡ction æ Bull Arrn, Trinity Bay, Newfoundland" canada The project is comprised of concrete base str¡cture supporting a steel fra¡ned oil drilling plaform.
The Hibernia Gravity Base stn¡cture (GBS) is consür¡cted, for the most parL as a floating, moored structure in Trinity Bay' when completed" it witl be towed out to its final resting position in the Atlantic Ocean offthe coast ofNewfoundland-

t
t

200

access str¡ctures, called the Hibemia himary Access System, a¡e used to proride a link ûom barges moored adjacent to the floating GBS to the interior concrete structure of the GBS. The Access System is used primarily for personnel access during

In order to constn¡ct the GBS, a series of

the constn¡ction period and consists
mechanisms.

of a

series

of

towers, bridges and mechanical lifting

During the moored. floæing phase of the constn¡ction ofthe GBS, the GBS progressively increases in overall depth in the se4 as the height and mass of the concrete structure incteases. The primary Access System is a modular type of steel tube framed stnrcture, which also increases in height as the construction of the GBS progresses. The structu¡al design of the Primary Access System is unique due to a number of factors related to the Neu¡for¡ndland offshore constnrction site locatior¡ the fiurctional requirements for the constn¡ction of the GBS, constn¡ction staging requirements and specific design criteria set out by the project contract requirements. Primar:v Access System Description

Figue 9 provides pian aad elevation views of the final confignration of the Primary Access System Preliminar)' versions of the design included towers fixed to the exterior concrete wall of the GBS, which required analysis for wave/current effects. Both the East and West Access Systems indicated in Figure 9 are simila¡ in design, with variations resulting from differences in the support

desþ.

details at the barge deck levels ar¡d the GBS concrete stn¡ctures.

Each of the East and \!'est Access Systems consist of eight components described as follows, sequence, from the outer service barges to the interior GBS sur¡cn-re:

in

"

fi-rçed to the service barge deck and bulkhead strt¡ctue (Towers T9, Tl0). 8m long ünking Towers T9, T10 to the Main Bridge. A Main Bridge supported at the perimeter GBS ice wall and the interior main tower assemblies. o A Main Inner Tower u'ith a mædmr:¡n heigbt of approximately 80m, tied back to in¡rer concrete wall str¡cnres at inte¡¡als of 6.4m, (Towers T11, Tl2). o A sliding 'miniyoke' assembly, a steel fiame structu¡e which allows repositioning of the Main Bridge at the Inner Tower support, and provides support for the Main Bridge at the Main inner tower. A Support frame assembly at the base of each of the main towers which provides an access platform and a base support framework for the towers at the GBS concrete base sbuctu¡e.

o A gangrvay

'

A 20m high tower

'

The main inner towers Tl I a¡rd Tl2 are consbr¡cted using modutar units 6.4m in height, field bolted in place, as the concrete construction progrcss in height. Tie-baclcs at 6-4m intervals' between Towers TIl-Tl2 and inner concrete walls provide lateral suppor! although for some consûn¡ctio¡ 5raSeS the upper tower units are free standing. The Main Bridge is supported on a moving bearing assemblrv at the perimeter GBS ice wall atlowing rotation and translation of the bridge support as the ice wall increases in height dr:ring construction.

201

di

t

il t;

!t
I

PIærView
Tower T9

1.

-

2.

TowerTl0 î Tower Tl I -¿. fower ttZ
5. Garig}vay6. Main eriaql
S. GBS

?. Service Bnoge

s MitriYolk io. suPPortFraoe

SectionView
9

Figure

Prirnas'Access

ærd Section System - Ptan

zoz

The miniyoke is guided on a rail system fixed to the exte¡ior Tl l-T12 columns. A removable pin mechanism allows the miniyoke and in tr¡m the Main Bridge support at the Inner Tower, to be positioned at increments of 6.4m along the exterior force of the to\¡/ers. As the exterior Main Bridge support at the GBS ice wall is raised duing slipforming procedures, the interior Main Bridge support is raised by meam of the miniyoke to minimize the horizontal slope of the Main Bridge. Tlpe V/T was specified for all primar¡'load carrying members. Hollow stn¡ctural tr¡bular members varying in size from l50x150mm to 350x350mm were used typically throughout. Heavy rolled'WT sections were ræed for transfer girders, at the Tower TlI,Tl2 support frames. The total mass ofthe entire Access System is approximately 900 tonnes.

Desisn Considerations The detailed s¡rucnral design of the Primary Access System required consideration of numerous combinations of design loading and geometry variables, which resulted in demanding computer modelling requirements. Additionally, careful assessment ofmember a¡rd con¡rection design detaiis were required in order to optimize HSS connection design. The project conmct specifications, ñ¡nctional requirements and the assessment of va¡ious stn¡ctural configurations required design consideration of up to 60 load cases, a¡rd 250 load combinations, for numerous stnrcn¡¡al models with up to approximately 1700 members ar¡d 900 joinæ. A fi¡rther compiication was the requirement to satisff the requirements of th¡ee different codes, the National Building Code of Carørcr-' the CSA Offshore Structu¡es Code and tbe Project Specific Code for load values, factors and combinations. These requirements required the development of in-house software programs to maniFulate input and output data into formats which could readily be used for design puqposes, as the demands of this project exceeded the capacity of vendor-pr¡rchased softrvare to fi.:nction within practical time requirements for design pìÌrposes. Operational requirements had a major impact on design loads and conditions. The operational requirements included definition of live load for persorurel, equipmen! piping fluids, construction elevator loads and the basis for the derivation of environmental loads due to \¡/ind" ice build up, and thermal effects. Dead load requirements were outlined for piping, elevator self weight, and constuction related plaforms and supports. Other operational requirements included assessment of tilt effects of the CeS auring the constn¡ction phase on the Access System stnrcflres, bridge movement effects due to slipforming operations, spacing and frequency of miniyoke pin positions, personnel exit/egress requirements, and shut-down requirements for environmental effects.

Environmental effects derived fiom studies of local site conditions, were specified in contract docu¡nents. These included wind velocities based on 1:10 and l:100 year return periods at 10m and 50m elevations, ground snow load and mæcimum/minimum temperatue values, a requirement for ice build up thickness, and wave/current effects from which barge motion cha¡acteristics were derived and specified. Directional effects of wind were modelled using eight wind load orientations, based on increments of 45o, over a 360o wind directional distribution.

243

Constru ction Stage Reo uirements

t,'

l.
t-

50 constuction stages frame/main tower/miniyoke/main bridge assembly. The HSS steel ûämed were assembled in the fabricatot's shop into 2-storey higb súusüuctures using welaed connections The subsür¡ctr¡res were assembled on site using botted connectio¡s

were developed as critical design cases

constr¡ction the Pr-imav Access System was designed for a. nr¡mber of snuct'rar configurations with fi¡ll operationar rive lãads æpriá ã eaph of the stages of consEuction' Five construction stage models selected fiom approxiäately

most t¡pical,sEtrctures,.d*iog

for the Access system sqpport

to**

TVelded Connections

During recent decadcs, desig of welded HSS connections na1 developed to the plese,nt stage where well defined formulations a¡e available for most of F€nconnffins and load t¡pes the encounte'red in practice. continuor¡s intemational research has regularþ-;te'raø the butr¡ntilrecentlyresultswereoftennotwidelyavailableb"yoo¿*¿*í.publications. knowledge, Toremedy this sitr¡ation' the canadian lnstitræ b"r'htr.d";-;ruished a *-ï*"i"*¡u, design guide "{T3l by Packer and Henderson (lggz),(Ref. 8), which pr"r"otá the mosr helpftl informæion available on welded and bolted HSS connectio* io-rpractiìing structural engineers. This book was used extensively for designing the connections ofthis p-j"ã.

I

I

t

-

and negligible bending moments' welds were sized by considering the effective weld lengths i¿ent¡nø in chapter eighq (Ref' 8), or for T, Y or x connections, usin! informæionfrom more recent research by packer and Cassidy (1995),(Ref. 9).

For the most par! the Hibernia Ptt l.y Access system contains HSS connections with conventional T' Y' )(, K or N configurations, with ¿omtant a¡rial loads

I

i
i t

r

other stucfi¡res ofthe system have T and Y connections rith \ substantial in-plane and out-oÊplane bending moments in addition to axial loads. These connections required -JÃuuo..r" desþ in that the axial connection resistancg the in-pJane bending moment connection resistance and the out-oÊplane bending moment connection resistance alt had to be evaluated and compared with the --reÐective forces, and then combined for total connection resistance. Bolted Connections The vertical legs of the tower sub-shr¡ctures \üere connected with the use of bolted butt plate splices' where possible, bolts were placed along oory parallel sides in order to r¡se formulations in chapter 2 of Ref. 8. There is an obvlous r*ã"rig¡r;d;ä bofted btrtt plate "oa çlices where bolts are placed along the four sides of the connectorplate.

L

i

L

r

t--

L

r
L

*o

t
t
r

t
204

SUMIVTARY AND CONCLI]DING REMARKS th¡ee Case Studies presented in this paper are quite different in scale a¡rd fi¡nction but with a corrmon ingredient, namely, exposed hollow' stmcn:ral steel tube stnrctures. The combined featu¡es of economy and pleasing appearance \Ä'as a major factor in the selection of HSS members

All

for these projects.
there has been considerable resea¡ch and design aid development in recent years, for the of HSS members, additional development is required in bolted connections, quality assuftÐce in cold formed tubes, and code tolerances in the manufacn:ring process. As a result of experience gained on these and other structures, it would appear that the most pftìctical and cost effective means of joint connection of HSS members is a combination of shop welding and field bolting. HSS members continues to be the stn¡ctr¡ral steel type of choice for exposed spacial sûuctures.
r¡se

Al*¡stgh

REFERENCES

l. Adjeleiar¡ J.; Allen, C.M.; Huma¡, J.L.; and McRostie, G. 1986. National Aviation Muser:rn,
Ottawa Canadian Joumal of Civil Engineering. Vol i3. Number 6. pages 722to732. 2. Nlera C.M. 1992. Toronto SþDome Roof Stn¡cture; Engineering Challenge. Innovative La¡ge Span Stn¡ctures. IASS-CSCE International Congress. Vol. I pages 63 to7l. 3. Allen, C.M.; and Duchesne, D.J. 1989. Toronto SþDome Retractable Roof Stadium - The Roof
Concept. ASCE 7th Strucn¡¡al Conference. San Francisco. USA. 4. AIIen, C.M.; Duchesne, D.J.; and Humar, J.L. 1988. Application of Computer Aided Design in the Ontario Domed Stadium Project. Canadian Joumal of Civil Engineering. Vol. 15 pages

14to23. 5. In¡riq P.A.; and Gamble, S.L. 1988. Predicting Snow Loading on the To¡onto SþDome.
Proceedings of the Engineering Foundation Conference, Santa Barba¡a, CA.

6. Allen, C.M.; and Packer, J.A. 1989. Stn¡ctu¡al Testing of RHS Joints and Members for the Toronto SþDome Roof. International Symposium on Tubular Stn¡ctr¡¡es. Lappeenranta, Finland. 7. General Requirements for Rolled or Welded Stn¡cn¡¡al Quality Steel. CAN/CSA-G40.20-92. A National Standa¡d of Car¡ada 8. Packer, J.A.; and Henderson, J.E. lgg2. Design Guide for Hollow Stn¡crural Section Connections. Canadian Institute of Steel Constuctior¡ V/illowdale, Ontario. 9. Packer, J.A.; aird Cassidy, C.E. 1995. Effective V/eld Lengths for HSS T, Y and X Connections. Journal of Sructural Engineering. A¡rerican Society of Civil Engineers. Vol. 121.

205

WELDING OF STRUCTTJRAL ALT]MINT]M TUBING
By R. Bonneau*

aBsqacr
Atuminum tubing is used in large volumes in overhead structures supporting roadway and naffic signs. The light weight of aluminum allows prefabricatiol of large sub-assemblies that can be reãdily transporæd and quickly erecæd. The very good atuospheric corrosion resistance of aluminum minimi2s the mainænance costs of the structures.
This paper describes the significant differences between steel and aluminum in reference to code requiiements and welding fabrication. hactical aspects of avoiding difficulties when welding aluminr¡m fibulil components are outlined. The conte¡t is a reflection of observations made in the course of adminisfrating the CSA welding certifîcation standa¡ds.

I

n

INTRODUCTION
Overhead sign structures bpically consist of a rigid box truss, square in cross-section and supported at each end by tapered tubular aluminum frames as shown in figure 1.

I

I

ll

I !

The structure may consist of one or more truss sections fabricated of 6061-T6 alloy. When multþle tn¡ss sectionr¡ are used they are joined by means of cast ryrought aluminum flenges of 356.0 alloy. These flanges are welded to the chords with inside and outside fillet welds and bolæd together. The truss sections fastened to the supporting end frames fabricaæd of 6063-T6 alloy comprise the complete structure. The main advantage of using aluminum is its light weight which allow long span with a light
structure..

Desigr Reouirement

The overhead structures are designed according to AASHTO Standa¡d Specifications for structural supports for highway signs, luminaires a¡d Eaffic signals.
The sign structure and the end frames must withstand a wind load of a 100 milelhour (160 km/hour), or a wind pressure of 55 pounds per square foot on the sign panels plus 45 pounds per square foot on all the overhead sign structure without excessive deflection, vibration and without permanent deformation, fracture or structural failure.

I
*R.
Bonneau is with the C¡nadian Welding Bureau

t'
206

fr
'l
:

9'
I I I

I

N

o

i

:

;

J

SCÂLE

!LEvAltoN

l:75

Fig. I - Overheacl Box Truss Sign Structure

Fabúcation
process is used for joining braces ro the main For fabricarion of each truss section the GMAW Braces are cut and Eimmed for proper fit' chords with fillet welds. see figure 2.

Theendframessupporttheendsofthelowerchordsofthesignsupportingsntctureson sf stainlæs steel U bola' The end framæ plaforms a *ni.Hrlî, chords are fasþned by means joirr.à togrth., by mea-ns of filler welded braces. The columns consist of two tapered columns fillet welds to a shoe base made of a
¿¡'g 5samlsss extruded tubes taperrã casting 356.0 alloY.

*¿-.o*"cied with

Thedimensioninmmofeachitemvarywiththetypeofstructu¡e:

Columns:Øzo3taperedtol52x6wailor2l|taperedtoJI3x6wall or ilbe 89' O'D' x 5 wall

,'-

Brace: Chords:
Qslumns

Tube 48 O'p' * 5 wall x 5 wall or Tube 89 O'p' x 5 watl or tube 127 O'D' tube 152 O'D' x 5 wall'

Vertical

diagonal õ^ r x 5 wall Pipe 48 O'D' x 5 wall or 89 O'D' frames:
Inside diagonal frames: Pipe 42O.D' x 4 wall or 48

O'D' x 5 wail or 60 O'D' x 6 wall

Horizontal diagonal
frames:

Pipe 42O.D. x 4 wall or 48

O'D' x 5 wait or 60 O'D' x 6 wall

VERTiCAL

IIAGG|\¡ALS FRAII:S
:-rORtZON

lAL iRAV:S

DtAGON.a,_S

lERÏCÁL

DIAGCNA'-S ÍRAM:S

It(----

It\¡StDE

DIAGCNAiS FRÀVES -ORIZONÏAL

]:AGONALS 'RAMES

Figure 2 - Schematic Arrangement of Box Truss

208

CIIARACTERISTICS OF ALI]MINUM THAT MAKE IT DIFFERENT TO T1ELD TÉdN STEEL

Preparation for Welding
Cutting and Edge PreParation

steel, The cutting and edge prepararion of aluminum include atl the usua-l methods used for point much higher than excepr flamã cuning,-¿ue tô tne aluminum oxide skin that has a melting the aluminum that it covers. and suit¿ble rake and The success of mechanical cuning methods is related to high cutter speeds jaroming or catching. clearance anglæ, to avoid loading up of cuner and the possibility of cutter
Aluminum Oxide

oxide is thin, Aluminum oxide instantaneously forms on aluminum surfaces exposed to air. This The transparent and has a melting remperature about three times higher than aluminum' An thickness of the oxide film inciease rapidly at the beginning and then is self controlling.. may weld quality as fusion excessively thick oxide film can cause welding diffieulties and affect welded must be removed by mechanical or not occur. Excessive oxide on the surfacs to be chemical methods of cleaning prior to fit up..

wire brushes, Mechanical methods inciudes wire brushing with uncontaminated søinless steel have been cleaned of oil and grease. scraping, filing, pl¡ning and grinding after ttre surfaces
are useful for Chemical metfrods includes causric soda solution and proprietary products. They welding must batch sls¿ning. The interval between cleaning of the su¡faces to be welded and be as short as possible, usually within 6 hou¡s.
Oils, Greases, Other Hydrocarbon and Loose Partides

Oil and grease films and loose particles on the edges to be welded wilt
weids.
Solvent degreasing.applied by qpraying, dÞping or wiping are used, leaving solvent must be used. Water

cause porosiry

in the

prior to fit

up.

Non-residue

'water on surfaces o be welded may result f¡om outdoor exposure or from condensation caused by temperature changes. The surfaces must be dry before welding.

Water stain must be removed with disk grinder, a po\¡/er-driven stainless steel wire brush or other abrasive or machining method or by chemical methods.

209

t t
TVeldabilitv

I
I

Eigh Eeat Conductivity of Aluminqnt

t
t

Aluminum conducts heat away from a weld a¡ea atarate 3-5 times as fast as that when ¡r¡elrling steel. Welding currents and welding speeds must be higher and stringer beads are generally
used.

Eigh Coeffrcieut of Thermal Í'.xl¡ansion

Aluminum expalds about twice as much of steel for a given increase in æmperature. Stress induced by the contraction during solidification may cause excessive weld joint distortion or cracking unless proper welding procedures and filler metals a¡e used.
trìlter Metal

t t t

High srength alloys such as 6061 or 6063 a¡e welded with filler metal of different composition than the base meAl to prevent hot cracking. Hot cracking occurs during solidification when the metal is passing between the liçidus and solidus temperatures under contraction strains. The standa¡dgrecommend filler metals having enough silicon or magnesium such as 4043 or 5356 to produce a crack resistant composition in the weldPreheating

i
r
L

Preheating of aluminum is not generally required. Whren welding thick aluminum sections, preheating is sometimcs used to avoid cold-start defects to achieve heat balance between ãissimilarthicknesses, or to remove moisnue from the metal surface in the welds joint area. preheating is necessary, the application of heat should be for as short a time as possible 15 minutes marimum and a base metal temperature of 120"C should not be exceeded as the propreties and metallurgy of aluminum alloys are almost always affected adversely by elevated temperatures.

t t
t

If

t

No Colour Change During Heating

t
r
L

Unlike steel, during heating aluminum shows no colotu sþange during heating. The welder has to look carefully for a liquid wet appearance of the area being heaæd to know that the metal has begin to melt.

L
|..

L
i

I

L
210

t

**"'ffi'#o€'ff#R{'fi"fi
Avoid Craters in the
Tl'-eld

BäüH'^ffiffiil'**

types are usually present' Most weld craters contain cracks; both tr'2nsverse and longitudinal into the parent metal under service conditions. These cracks may extend into the weld bead or metal Crater cracks can be repaired by gouging out the unsound
a-nd

rewelding'

crarers can be avoided by proper manipulation of the welding.Thetechniquesforterminatingaweldincludes:

torch and/or filier metal in manual

_

the gun trigger; accelerating arc travel speed just before releasing suffi.itot to create a smooth transition reversing the direction óf travel for a dista¡ct with the weld surface by providing suitable build-up and dressing the crater area flush mechanical means

Stop/Start

of end frames' the stop/start When welding braces to the chords of truss section or colum¡s the toe and heel a¡ea of the jointduring welding should be made on the side rather than in
Incomplete Fusion
present on the surfaces and is not Incomplete fusion occurs when an aluminum oxide film or by the scouring acdon of the arc' completely ,."*ourã either by cleaning prior to wetdinq is high melting point prevents ir unrike steer, rhe oxide film ii insolublã io tn. weld pool and from being melted bY the arc-

joint spacing or edge preparation and too long Other sources of incompleæ fi,lsion are inadequate a welding arc. Incomplete Penetration
tends to bridge accross the In fillet welds, incomplete penerration resulß when the filler metal toe of the joint and not peneÍate into the root'
does not petretrate the fullIn groove welds, incompleæ penetation occurs when the weld bead side or where the weld beads do thickness of the p."nt ,ort"l when welding is done from one joint' not inter-penetrate when welding is done from both sidæ of the
speed too high; too long This defect is usually caused by insuftrcient welding current; arc ravel an arc; inadequate edge penetration.

211

F

L

E
Overlapping
welding æchnique. This defect is caused by a welding current too high and improper

t,
E E
E

Undercut

low or improper torch angle causes include welding crnrent too high, arc Eavel speed too
Porosity is introduced Hydrogen is the most common source of porosity inalumr¡um *9le.. $ldrogen either io tn.ïud pool from water vapour, grease and oil, surface oxide in the weld zone or surface oxile films on thl from residuailubricants tlat conåin hydrocarbons or from hydraæd arc they are broken down and hydrogen wnro these conaminants enter the ;irhr;;Hi"g thal it can sustain is liberated. In the molten state, aluminum absorbs 19 times more hydrogen the hydrogen released in the weld after solidification. Depending on the rate of solidification, rates result in greaær may become entrapped causin! porosity in the weld. Fast solidification porosity than do slow rates.

*itr.

Improper Fillet Welds

over grinding of fillet welds or a too concÍrve surface can cause a reduction of the effective
throat thickness and cracking of welds in service'

t t t t
t t t I
E

Control of \trelding Yariables
Main variablqs which need to be controlled are:

. . o o . . o . o e o

correct welding arc (stabte, with sufficient energy, proper lenght) correct electrical power sor¡rce matching of welding consumables with base metals care of welding consumables design of welded connections clea¡liness a¡d protection of joint manipulation or confiol of welding electrodes

To properly connol these variables the following is required:
welding procedures for continurty and consistenry during the welding operation skilled wllders for the process and position used that welders, welding operators and tack Qualified supervisor reqponsible foiensuring welders weld in accordance with approved procedures engineer responsible for welding design and welding procedures and practice
Qualif,red

212

t t t t

ALI.iMINI.IM \4IELDING STANDARDS
departments that welding In Canada, it is a contractual requirernent of provincial uansportation welding Bureau to the requirements shali be ca¡ried ou, uv companies cenified by ttre canadian of CSA Welding St¿ndards-

of aluminum are given in The Code and standards associated with rhe design and fabrication figure 3.

CUSTOMER'S SPECIFICATIONS

STRUCTIIRAL ST'PPORTS FOR HIGH\ilAY SIGNS' LIMINAIRES AND TRá'FFIC SIGNALS OR EQUWALENT FOR DESIGN

AASHTO STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR

csf,.w47.2
CERTTFICAT] :ON OF COMPANIES FOR FT]SION

csA \il59.2
WELDED A LTTMINT]M
CONSTRUC TION

WELDING O F ALI.'MINT'M

ANSUAWS 45.10 BARE ALT]MINT]M AND

ALUMINT]M ALLOY WELDING ELECTRODES AND RODS

ALI'MINT'M ASSOCIATIONS SPECMCATION FOR BASE METAL ALLOYS

CERTIFICATION OF WELDING INSPECTION ORGA}'TIZATIONS CSA W178.2 CERTIFICATION OF \ryELDING INSPECTORS

csA w178.1

Fig. 3 - Aluminum welding: codes and standa¡ds Involved

213

rdards

for Fr¡sion Welding of Aluminr¡m" dW4T.z"Certifrcation of Comp¡niss ^lsr"od"' quariry and verification of a basic jsundard specifies the requirem:nts for documeûraúon welding' Ii includæ requiremens for: "Ët;";-íor , Welding PersonneíQualification : ::l:-t:.:,

.

o o . .

Supervisor Welder

Welding Procedures
)

'Wetding Engineering Standards Welding Procedure Spectt-tcauons Welding Procedure Data Sheee

I

*"..rrary

Welding and Auxiliary Equipment

conforming to standards Use of Bæe Metal and Filler Alloys

Third party verification and

audits

Construction" A Standar d,W5g'2 "Welded Atuminum
ì

^,1

,l AI - c^- D^-a ah¡minum and Ahminum Alloy for Bare Àt,rninrryn *sUnws standard a5.10 "specifrcations
.\ding Electrodes and Rods"'
by the welding rods and elecuodes be certified dsw4j.zand w59.2 require that ;,L rono* or eNsvAws standa¡d A5'10' ,radian \Melding Bureau as conformid; rh. requirãments
I

) I ,

for: standa¡d specifies the requirement Design ãf Wtt¿e¿ Conne-ctions Jsshnique w;lãi"e ConsuÀaules, Workmanship *¿ joints À"."p-r":*e Criteria for Welded Weiding lnsPection

jAstandardW1TS.l..CertifrcationoflVeldinglnspectionorganizations''
l

d;;;;*'ã"".r
i
I

I

for: sundar¿ specifies the requirements

quatificaiion:

:
'

ìJ,no".i,i:' Teit EquiPment oPerator

-

llding insPection Procedures bessary testing equiPment hird partY verifica¡ion and audis
I

214

CSA Standard IV178.2 "Certification of TVelding rnspectors"
This standa¡d specifies the requirement for qualification as inspection superviso¡ or inspector.

CONCLUSION
As in the welding of steel, there are many variables to control when welding aluminum. proper base meai preparation before welding and fit up are key elements. Welding standards provide information on qualification of welding personnel, procedures and techniques, welding equipment, consumables, acceptaace criteria and inspection to assu¡e that aluminum weldments will meet the service requirements.

ACKNOWI,EDGEMENTS I would like to rhank ¡¡s À4inistere des ftensports du euebec to have share their experience as user of the structures and to Lampadaires Feralux Inc. for their cooperation.
REFERENCES
1.

Welding of Aiuminum. Alcan C¡na¿¿ Products Limited, Sixth Edi¡ion, 19g4.

2.

D.C.,
3.

, The Aiuminum Association, 'Wæhington
1977.

Canadian Standard Association, CSA W47.2-M1987, Certification Fusion Welding of Aluminum , lgï7.

of

Companies for

4.

Canadian Standard Association, CSA W59.2-M1991, Welded Aluminum Construction,

r99t.

5.

Welding Aluminum with the inert gas processes, Australian V/elding Resea¡ch Association and the Austalian V/elding Instirure, AS/RA-AWI Technical Note 2, 19g5.

215

it
1i
!

' hn

E)CERT cTwLENGE oF KNoIvLEDG ,E-BASED ôr rlm DESIGN oF TuBULAR srRucruRrs
Yusufr G Davies*, W Tizani* and K

SYSTEMS IN THE TI]TT]RE

ABSTRACT
in the design of rubular Knowledge Based Expert Systems pup", examines the potential of supporüng þ, ¿*åg development of a system aimed at bv guidine drawing on experiences gaintã *'orks dtn¡ctu¡es, ryryT *d d;;ïbdartnrss designs' Th" of fabrication, and this is in pro¿ucinË, {esig¡ers io, cost that recognise the consequenc", þers towards desig'recisions

*ã""*g

llusrated

bY a design case snrdY'

KEYWORDS Expert Systems' Decision Supporq and Constn¡ction, Knowledge Based hnteerated Desigo E.oão*i" Appraisal, Cost Modelling'
ì

i
ì

1¡TRoDucrIoN

tha¡ at an'v dme in human the rate of change is faster the field in a rapidiy changing w9rld, where lw" H.r" and the great strides-made in ,history. ."onã*v of electonic communication which ir" ati'rri"g the other maniford The relative bl the dominant factors we a¡e familia¡ iof infomlation technology appearto th"se in the constnrction industry-place in ari area¡-orrif" i";r"di"; with compuær lchanees taking ,with i.re^r-o9"r11111and Bills of Quantities' word processing for Specifications, interested parties, and electronic transmission beween analysis by Drafting of drawings and their rAided $/e a¡e well versed in stn¡ctural Maoufa"ãrr" in the *u"hin" shop' lComputer Aided itself at a terrrinal' We are th" il;;il"ttyi"g outthe design and a¡e also getting ullto and before

computer unìr", *ãíiewpoints at using Virnral Realiqv' iabte to view our designs fromdiffer.n through]st*"t*es and view or:r dreams witb rapid response' too long we will b. ;;1.1o*ak f initiating change ease orpro¿u"alon and of Alr these have the advantage of tecbnology, it is o1 ,h: role of information position and current perspectiv-e wilr arw-ays \!'hatever our present ri" n,*e. professional structural engineers grasp of the we cannot iossibly iqro¡e pr something of their professior¡ and-a-firm ãrr¡. manage the require a sound..¿"åi*¿irrg

the:ou:l:-*:Ï"t'

bJ;;;;Ptes

relevance of ,t .r"n,,Jã"*i "t,,a ü" rapid expansion of information of engileerins oi9.,;Ë. H;*tt'¡', design and constn¡ction information can easily ,".ogrú;"ã ,hu, a surfeit of indiscriminare the knowredge field it is widely in available in a distilled i, n""¿ã¿ is that ttre informæioi be rrad'y ðË-r", swamp the engineer. used' on how it is or is not to be which utro u¿"i'"s

tã ,tn

rur..r, ró *,u, ttrer.i¡ont{r¡':-:T:lt:uv

ÏP

form

th"""'

*ií

@eering,UniversiryofNottingham.UniversityPark,NoningharrNG72RD'UnitedKingdom

216

the Expert, has been in the hands of this knou,ledge tempered by'experienced l,isdol appropriateness of the use of the Traditionally uul" ã ,L*on about the required expert *,ho is much more rhan à speciatist, and r"w"ip"opte with this for particurar r*.r. e, fe*,er t'e inforrration in generar a¡rd oithin sm'l toïe¿ium size organisations' a¡e readily u"".rribl. fo, "o*Jäiion knowledge other way' be readily available in some appropriate ioro,,outi'o'i;ã;i;
that a smlctural engineer It is unreasonable to assume

wide required to practi-ce across a 'with aspect' i" d"pth i;;"diui. ãro of grasp of member design range good P],: *]ll assumed " tubura¡ srn¡crures,,.ã *itu tuittute joint details u'ith th" ;pecrJ u" ï*ciäe¿ procedures, but ma¡, engineer also? There what olt¡. young inexperienced both strength and economy. And ro satisfy ;i*tUigent';s'ppon alongside at the design stage' aduantag. in ft"ting so'n" to examrne r*-ould be considerabíe *ui'"i *iìl ,ir""r,^eously attow the investigaror details i¡ the joint The paper describes *"h advice oo ho* to modifi lattice girder layouts, several different

* *v p*'i"*,t"¡l *.*..,r-;;'r-'l ta* rh";;;*tg"ers f. *ø*'ia¡ i":Jt't:î ;;;;ro".t ó*;;;th

*U:.T"V,b

costs' terms of sfren$h a¡d relative

of the advan*:'h:lll"e been Tizani ßef. 1) have recently summarised ¡om3 attentron Nethercot and industry. They pay particular i""rrrroroçu **d,1, ¿"r*"tion the design in applyng ior"rrriào Ë*ã;]tr,.* rr"h"tãurt *¿-i"tegræion of made themes of using Krou,ledge-u^.u to tbe ton't't'"tioo h"y aso o"tlitt" advancesu'ill be process, *ithin the-a¡ea of iteel industry a¡d consmlction and explore ttt" titt"ty ways and the themes or 't ir*¿i*tion' r¡nder "";";;'i* future' The main points are: effected and operate in the

made

. . . .

and decision support tools' as a supplement within design lncorporation of intelligence' design' *nåurr.na and constructionled lntegrarion of the design pro..rr, tool5 for production' proárrrr, 3D design and modelling visualisation of the consmlction rut a-¿r for the electronic communication betwe."ä"""oJ.iti"r"äittror"i"g Effecrive oii"ro""ation of data and information'

.ornrruoltiã"

girders formed rearised in the design of rattice how the frst rwo aims have been designer to This paper describes workl r1 such a way as to allow the (cHS)- rr'* are from ci¡cula¡ Hollorv Secúons io,¡, advice offered. Fina'y some comments the on conror and to respond "eerd;¿ry have remain in a¡rá w¡at effects this will possible over the next few years' made of what is realisticall-v sbape of the indust4''

'y'**

BACKGROUND
Kingdom and many steel stn¡ctures in the united approach to the production of The trad.itionar carried outby the Engineering outline ÃJmember designî tenders counrries is that the srructtua u*-d"ôon ttre basis of competitive on behalf of the Client. wt"'"lont'u"t' the details of with Consultant *ill not have "oncerned the consultant and even the main ingenuity of the fabricator to the rog., rniliriog i.g.ty-teftto tfre form the stn¡cnral connections. at tbat u"w fi6e information on how to f'* chosen. Thus at the early t"gt uùen finally involved in the fabrication t"iL¿o*o of or u-hat it is likely ro ,oî'
other

*n*"a,

""

b";;;;t

the connection

th$t'ióti ri"

'h""o'o

217

jealously ggarded by the fabricator' It is therefore process is commercially sensitive and often can be made in the fabrication process. often difficurt forthe designeito estimate what econãmies the member checking the stength.ld cos¡ b¡r the time the fabricator is involved in the joints can the basis o¡'member only'requirements and sections have already been ordered on *elding' To avert this danger a then only be made strong enough by expensive stiffening -*d

"t,-*jj:Ï"

where the designer is enabled to carry out full fabrication led approach"tras ue-en á"u"ñp"d, the member but also joint fabrication requirements economic appraisals taking into accormt not;dy at the initial design stage.

SuchanapproachisdependentonthemorerecentlydevelopedtechnologiesofKnowledgeBase progams Programming (OOP)' IVhile conventional Experr Sysrems (KBESi and Object Orie¡t¿ted retieve used to carry out numerical calculæions or such as those written i' fo*u' or Basic are to manip-ulate knowledge as well as dzta' These information, KBES computer programs ar" oesigned a particular field (knowledqÐ P deduction and more flexible systems may be r:sed to representîum* "*p"ri"ote information (by applytng logical and also to provide advice on how to use the lnference Engine'' In contrast to induction procedures) as paft of a reasoning Process gull:d-'T pt"il;.rs by linking together those parts which form convenrional prograrnming OOP assists fn" con""ntiooal flow diagram is replaced by consistent ,etationst ips ãi i.¡ world óU¡"i"' via message passing' caUå¿ classes or objectstorn:nunicating
hierarchy entities

by the out atNottingham universir."-* and sponsored The work described in this paper was carried for all forms of as a protot]?e investigation Engineering and Physical Sìiãnces Resea¡ch Council, joints make interesting as tne cost of the steel construction. Tubula¡ lattice girders afe Pafticularly on ihe girder, and a minimum weight solution based an important contribution to the total cost of penalty' The the joints wrong can inflict a large cost the members can be quite misleading. Getting in order wiãtr trreir reduced nr:nber of orientarion options, ógs project has been to concentrate on getting the programming right'

r.#;;;

ñ¿.

the can be useful to the fabricator in managing The system also operates in such away ttrat it manner' production shops in an economical and efñcient throughput of several different jobs in the
SS

FABRICATION.LED DESIGN PROCE

steel traditional design approach to the.production of In order to overcome the shorrcomings of the advocated' ln this ptåt"tt tbe designer is empowered stuctures, a fabrication-led design Process is relative economics of various altemative and to assess the practicalitv of various design options lhe for expensive fabricarion operations such as design details, ,*'ith a v'iew to alleviating theìecessity could tubular stn¡ctures the fabrication-led approach sriffening during fabrication. For the aeiign of design and design, joint capacir¡- checks' involve the following sequence: ,oo"r*ut analysis made in response to results at each stage' critique, and cost appraisal, r*jth modifi.*ior6 being

designers in carrying out A prototype Inregrated Design system (IDS), aimed at supporting IDS is modula¡ in nature 2). The

u".n developed ßef' fabrication-led designs for tubular tn¡sses rtL and design packages' a and consists of links to standa¡d *¿ysis

joint

and a member capacity

218

checking module, a knowledge based expert system for design critiques, and a cost model used cost appraisal, as shown schematically in Figure l.

for

Economic Appraisal Module

1\

_____sz_

;

Figure

l:

The lntegrated Design System

The Joint Capacity Module checks the joint capacities of the tubula¡ truss. Allowing the designer to identify inadequate joints, and e4plore other less expensive methods of remediai action, such as increasing the chord thickness, or reducing the gap between braces, before the member design is finalised. These checks are typically not ca¡ried out in traditional desigr¡ a¡d can prevent the need for stiffening, which is prohibitively expensive, and is required often as a result of the member design prescribing sections u'hich aithough capable of transmiuing the required forces, a¡e urable

to provide adequate suength at the joints. The module applies the appropriate formulae for determining the joint capacity, which were obtained from the IIW (Ref. 3) and the CIDECT design guide (Ref- 4). The forrruiae are applied to the joint, based on the joint type, and the designer informed of the adequacy of the joint. The designer can request a detailed report higblighting the stn¡ctural efüciency of the joint, identiffing the anticþated mode of faih¡re. Through links to an advice knowledge base, the designer can be further provided with advice on how to improve the joint
required- The designer is able to check individuai joints or carr), out a global chech that inspects all the joints in a given truss. The integration provided by the IDS. mean-s that the user does not need to input any additional information for these checks to be \
capaeity

if

executed.

The Member Capacity Module examines the stn¡ctural adequacy of member sections, in response

to a¡y modifications made to a joint or Euss, and ensu¡es that modifications made do not result in a¡ unsafe stn¡ctue. For instance, in reducing the gap between braces at a joint, in order to improve the joint capacity, a moment due to the resulting eccenticity is set up in the chord. The member capacity module checks that the cho¡d is capable of resisting the moment, alerting the designer the chord is inadequate.

if

219

ì

I

The KBES, comprises an Inference Engine, Design, Fabrication, and Joint Capacity Knowledge Bases- The inference engine consults the knowledge bases to evaluate and cámsrent on design details, and provide advice on remedial actions. The design knowtedge base mainly contain rules of thumb that represent good practise. These include n¡les thæ check if the tnss is too deep or shallow, identifu arangements that involve high or low brace angles, and advise on the steel grades used foi the design. The rules in the fabrication knowledge base, examine the layout of the tn¡ss and the fit up of its members, identifting features that may adversely affect fabricàtion cost. For example the presence of overlap joints, the occurrence of a member that overlaps others at both ends, or the identification of a particular joint t1pe, as an expensive fabricatiãn detail. The joint capacity knowledge base provides advice on how to improve a joint's capacity. Its rules exa¡ine the mode of failnre and generate advice on remedial action. For instance, computation and advice on limiting values in response to a validity violation during a joint capacity check. The knowledge basei marripulated by the inference engine, fulfill an advisory role, drawing the attention of the ãesigner to adverse details, and recommending suitable modifications. The Cost Model estimates the cost of fabrication providing indicative costs for alternative design options- It consists of an object hierarchy, that is made up of objects that represent the various entities and relationships within the fabrication process. These include stuctural entities, such as tn:ss and joing fabricatiòn operations, like weld and cug and fabrication machinery such profiling as machines (Ref' 5)- The model estimates cost by representing the cost of carrying out the basiõ fabrication operations(cu! assemble, weld etc.). These ¿¡re computed using a combinæion ofmachine algorithms and rules of thr:mb. The cost of fabrication is estimated in minutes, to which a cost rate (which can be modified by the user) is applied. Material costs a¡e computed by calculating the total length and tonnage of each section, to which a rate is applied from the .,-"rrt price list. The cost model supports the existence of a number of tnrsses, enabling comparison ienryeen d.ifferent schemes. It also supports the costing of an entire truss or individual joints, facilitating global and local compa¡isons- The cost model is tuned to give relative costs, the aim being to support the comparison of various alternatives with difterent fabrication and material content.
Supported by the IDS, the designer thus has all the tools required to underrake a fabrication-led design of tubular trusses integrated into one envi¡onment. using the IDS the following design sequence could occur: The design process commences with the designer selecting a number of sbr¡ctural solutions for the tn:ss, typically based on past experience. The designer then analyses and selects adequate member sizes for one or a number of these solutions. Theãesigned truss is then subjected to joint capacity checks, the outcome of which may inform recommended modifications to the joint and member details. Hal'ing obtained a sbr¡ch¡¡ally adequate rnrss, the designer requests a critique of the design. This highlights design details that should be avoided. or may represenr improvements from either a design or fabrication point of view. The designer might make further modifications in response to the cofirments made, or note them for later investigaiion.

A summary'of the cost of manufacnring the truss can then be obtained, the summary identifying the total time required to fabricate the truss (in minutes), the total weight of the r*riin tonnes), and the total surface area (in square meü'es). The fabrication time and surface area are converted into monetary values by application of a rate w'hich can be modified by the designer, the material cost being based on the current British Steel price list. A number of feasible solutions for the truss can

220

thus be assessed based on fabrication and material contentThe designer can further inspect the cost associated with individual joint detailing, embarking on a .ï'hat-ifiscenario. by modiffing details and requesting cost assessments. These scenarios may be

designer óould also assess different splicing options, The design process as facilitated by the IDS is illustrated using the follou'ing design case study.

of comments made dr¡ring the critique of the design, or may be required to judge the sensitiviry* of the cost of a detail to changes in the joint geometry or welding specification. The
as a result

DESIGN CASE STUDY solutior¡ involving K type bracing arrangement, is shown in Figure Za.Tbetrusses a¡e to be placed at 6m centes and has a 36m span divided into l0 panels. Nodal loading is computed ar 32.4IOrl a¡rd the analysis and design results a¡e shown in Figure 2b- Members designer. ln this -uy b" placed into groups where the same CHS section is used as decided by the is selected for the *r" ttuãy based on the guidel.ines in the CIDECT design guide, a single section chords and the number of selected brace sections is restricted to ¡¡¡o' All member sections are 527 1JZH (Grade 43D) material grade.

A scheme for

a flat roof truss

(a) General Arrangement

cHsf 68.3X5.0
cHs60.3x3.2

ø
cHs88.9X4.0 cHs139.7X6.3

r*ì

(b) Part Structure

Figure 2: Details of Case Study Lattice Girder

221

IDs environment, via the lirks to the analysis/design The tn¡ss was then imported into the joint types and of tn¡ss dat4 tDS ascertains the and designated T5, Figure 3. On importutioo It also attaches (i.e. o''gies, ;;Py";¿tl"Ps) assuming zero eccentricity' computes the joint geoãetries joints, this specification ãro-"rrtt"t welds to the bracls at the a defaurt werding specification with can be modified bY the user'

package,

I

Figure 3: Truss T5 top the chord plastification criteria in the of the joint capacities reveals failure of An examination equivalenS' ihe advice presented a nr:mber chord joinæ J2, J4,¡0, ig, ¡f O,^*a tfr"1r¡f-*"ttical the reducirg the gap between braces' increasing options involving .i,*åi"g itt" .n:tq-*Ãss, of tttt øu¡tutor would have no choice but to brace diameter and stiffening. Typicalry;;ütit 'og", the IDs' readily explored by the dgsiener in or-¡ri, limitation stiffen the joints, and ,rr" "*-b" to u¡oioì' selecting and placing a suitable "rr.I, Oift*t The IDS can automatically apply u "*itffi joint J6, utilizing a can as has been done for chord section at ttre joint to impart ua"q*L'rtiffrress, in Figure 4a' An cost of the stiffened joint J6 is shown from cHS 16g3;6.3. The fabrication made CHS168'3x5'0 to change the entire. toi chord from alternative to local stiffening is to i' upp-tnt in tne revised cost estimate for joint J6 CHS168.3x6.3. The .r".iortr,î, simplifrcatiín ,o suitable savings in cutting, assembly' i" ;rt Figure 4b, showing a 3[Voreduction at "attiuu,"¿ into consideration the facr that local 51ffisning werding erc. due to trre Jmpiified detaü. ruri"g more b;;;g:? *ctiolr¡1 ttre top chord that is onlv 20% ttre ten inadequate j"irl *u¿ be avoided of the fabricationled section, *¿ tnt economical advantage expensive than the;;;;l d"rigleg due to the fact that delavs that rur*¡"r rä"itur approach becomes q;i;;pú.ã,. "o"ld T.-Tade details have designer commrmicated to decide stiffener would have occurred while the fabricator and small quantities of premium^*"iãr"¿ with buying the relatively been avoided, as well as the high are relative' The prices g.n"*La by the cost model cHSl6g.3x6.3 required to form the stiffeners. show close correlation oiJr.*,u,i't e details' Howevãr they their main purpose being for comparison with cr¡¡rent Pricing in the UK'

AdesigncritiqueofT5advisedthattheuseofhighgradesteelbeusedforthechords'whilea joints at J3 and its slmmetrical win' The critique higtriighted the presence of oveilap
fabrication

222

eccentricity. The reduced cost of the simplified derail is shown in Figure 5b, the IDS guiding the designer towa¡ds economical details.

cost of J3 is shown in Figure 5a The joint *'as then simplified by gapping, uith the IDS computing the new geometry. and checking the joint capaciqv. and capacity of the chord due to the induced

ß BD! stlfÍlll

ú

lXSló1.3tr4.3

llT¡ata ?r.p¡r¡t16 Cüttl¿9 to lr¡gtÞ tioflllDg Drll¡t.g ¡¡sdly L¡dlng !i6il!9 lnspÈctlo

! : : : : . i :

¡¡ ¡16. 32 d,É. t j,.t. a d6. ¡2 d¡r. J2 d.ÉtS .1.t. ã d¡t.

(a) rù/ith local stiffening

(b) Without local sriffening

Figure 4: Alternative cost of Joint J6

¡r+l¡t. ?r.Dù¡tion û¡ttin9 þ l.Btñ Proti¡ing Þi¡¡i.g ttFÈ¡9 I?lÉ1n9 DGrl¡g ¡D3tlction

r.c.rE.r¡oñ Eost: :a¿.! Ers ¡ tùi5 cúsitti of:

! : : : : 3 : 3

¡¡ ¡is, tt ¡tElS dE.

.tó úË. 13 ¡i6. a riÉ.

¡g ¡i6.

2, d,B.

(a) Overlapped Joint

(b) Gap Joint

Figure 5: Altemative cost ofJoint J3 Before costing the tnrss, flange plate support connections were specified at the support joints (Jl, J?,J?2,J23). having a 16mm thicloress and 6 grade 8.8Ìvl22diameter bolts. The trss *us spliced, the chosen configuration having splices atl2mlengths with nvo braces ransported loose. The IDS currently supports the placement of bolted ring-flange splices or butt *rldr, the former were selected and computed as 20mm thick plates with I No.M22 d.iameter bolts. Having obtained a structurally adequate truss. with all the fabrication details specified, the cost of T5 was then

223

þute4

6' and is shown in Figure

#,'ri:',rf;htri'#*1"-''
dt¡¡¡Ð orilli¡r9 ñrdrg L¡ó¡¡B

fg'!-

. | . .

' ¡i'i-'

udr. i¡¡ ¡n. SrS.ir¡¡ .¡r.

ll lI

i:

l'

I:

äåiî:LiifgËHìiÏ ff;ilr,',"ä,5,:{iì ä: ffiËñä'? rs* (e'trt)

ffi:ä:!iËffii*:Ei,rr,Ë

i.

I
.l.*,

determining the effects investigæions, for ins'nce welded butt join¡ could carry.out,fi'ther stage the designer ifuLi.u,åî*orîi"g sire ,n" i,r,*¿rî"îäJ."ï. oiusing a higher

T5 Figrre 6: cost of rrus

**i:'"r,*ü; -p*;;,*;e"f":î;ï[#"iru;"-'Ëç:*i*iHf::Fji#Ë:Jäffi :
rbs irrt"grut", ir,,o oäî;;i;,;;"J¡r
rhe

þs

schemes, tor tns

tnt iå"f'

"qt'iita

and practical to i"""rop an economic¿l

rt .

design firnctions;;;il4'1:li"*ent' easil-v execute 'iDS. Since tt'e designei is able to itiji:i 1nï#ï:'""ift*î"t options can be îq'q*rï'

the scare of benefits -.aca.srsd demonsmtes designcase.present:ij;i:;1it:;r$l

th1

the use of the can be derived from

roint

Lm:"'.'m:#hï:"*:,ä';+:m'"tf:+iï;J:ffi:.'n:ffi enã¡"i,,o,tr,"n*¿ro-,;;i:!;sr.-"i{îiijf :hrtr#,f ;=Jii|'LH!f iH:îåïfJ#j industrial ffi'*üã; risk ofo"lîää'T" disputes-$ lï:#i *""'oo'" the no, orrlv costs'
a

alerts

ö:'äå;;;:1:,.:*Í,f;i,i..Ír-i,:î;;; """ijå"'*ãru"'i'tts the production ñs lùe designer to T":i*-:i,^,;;"';ki"; rabrication-ted design"9'^lïr1T::iJ.fi"^from these oi"* däÄ;jnu *"*"''* trre desigîä;ï;J"n
artematives,

uv-

ioa'u'ive

B-v

supporring

r$åî:#:r#::äîärîäiii#ä;iffi
;;ñ;nefitbeingtotheciient'

ii""'*.r.ffi ïffi .'i.:îioää'."*
#äJisu"u
tut

::Ï;r;;or"r"n

the associat.¿ Tht, sisnificantly higher. *ã *o,rrd irave u,å. relolving the conflict, r"r"ri"" $age, ens'red that "

ii-t' '¡t: "r,*elî;;ö;;* h.Y., ñ :{i rrtrut.t-To: at tbe desieD ;t;lös r,., **ï* ru¡rication rie*?oints has been ä¿
.* i1.?äi"utio" '9q''. îiãi*t¿ r"u'i""ti*

rr^.iæ with all - process of design' withall to the conl;ntionar design would be .u been only subjected 1 wasted in u'"

#äi;

t"* u"*ä"-r*.*¿

achieved.

224

STTMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The development of the IDS has successfi.rlly tested the feasibility of using information technology, en-eineering knowledge and cost data, to develop a tool that ca¡r practically aid execution of fabrication-led desi-ens, by allowing the simultaneous consideration of design and its effects on fabrication, in effect integrating the design process. The IDS fi,rther demonstrates the potential of incorporating "intelligence" as a supplement \ /ithin the design and decision support tools, as shown by the embedded knowledge based system,that enables the critique and advice functions, providing access to "expert" knowledge. With minimal additional effort at the design stage, the IDS prevents esoteric solutions and ensu¡es the production of workable a¡rd competitive designs from both the stn¡ctural and fabrication l'iewpoints. This not only heþ to reduce costs but also saves time that might be saved in resolving potential disputes. Futr¡re work will extend this approach to include other constn¡ction stages such as tansportation and erection and will broaden the structr¡¡al forms considered.

The paper has indicated one area, using circula¡ holloç'sections, where integration of design and fabrícation in a cost effective way is nou'possible. Such procedrues will however only be generally accepted, as education and training to meet this potential is encouraged and developed across the whole steel constr¡ction field. Such developments will make progress, if the potential is recognised by all the players in the ¿¡ren4 including computer software companies. What of the shape of the business in the fi¡n:¡e? That will be for you to decide, as you leave a¡ld reflect on the usefi.rlness of what you have hea¡d in meeting the pressures of deadlines for both designers and fabricators.

REFERENCES

t.

Nethercot, D. A.; Tizail U/. M. K. 1996.IT in Constuction: Adva¡rces and Potential. Submitted to the l5th IABSE Congress. Copenhagen.

2.

Tizari, W. M. K.; Davies, G., McCarthy, T.J., Nethercog D.4., and Smith, N. J., 1993. A knowledge-based approach to constn¡ction-led stn¡ctural design, in Information technologies for constmction. cir,il engineering. and transport. Powell, J. A. and Day, R. @ditors), Brunel University with SERC, UK, pp.30l-309.

J.

IIW

1989. Design Recommendatíons for Hollow Section Joints - predominantly statically loaded. International Insritute of V/elding- Doc XV-70-89. UK. Wardenier, J.; Kruobane, Y., Packer, J. 4., Dutta D., andYeomans, N., l99l- Design guide for circular hollow'section (CHS) joints under predominantly static loading. publ. CIDECT. Verlag TUV Rhineland German]¡. 1991, pp 46-51.

4.

5.

TizanL,W. M. K.: Davies, G., McCarthy,T.J.;Nethercot, D.4., a¡rd Smith, N. J., 1994 Cost modelling for the economic appraisal of tubula¡ tn¡sses. in Topping B. H. V. A¡tificial and oriented approaches for strucnral engineering. publ. Civil-Comp Press, 1994, pp. 59-67.

22s

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.