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Disusun oleh:
Arif Eko Sumaryanto



Archimedes was a mathematician, physicist, astronomer and even a

philosopher. He comes from the Greek port city, precisely named Syracuse , better
known by the name of Sicily. Archimedes lived in Greece from circa 287 to 212
BC. He was born from the intelligent family, his father is an expert in the world of
astrology . In addition to being born of a family of intelligent, Archimedes also
still has a royal descent, he was a nephew of the king Hiero II, who ruled or ruling
in Syracuse at the time.
As a port city, known as the Syracuse area developed and crowded at the
time, other than as a trading center because of its location adjacent to the sea,
Syracuse is also a center of art and science. As a young man who was born at the
center of science, Archimedes has a high curiosity and the desire to solve any
problems. When he has learned as much as he could from his teacher, Archimedes
still not satisfied with his knowledge, so he decided to continue studying to Egypt,
precisely the area of Alexandria, founded by Alexandria the Great in 331 BC.
Before the arrival of Archimedes, Egypt also has a very famous
mathematician, mathematician named Euclid. After completing his studies in
Alexandria , Archimedes returned to Syracuse and continuing ambition of thought
and invention. Many apocryphal legends record how Archimedes favored by King
Hiero II , because finding solutions to the problems that made the king distress.
Archimedes has a role that is not the least in the world of physics, it has
drawn from the character himself is known to have high curiosity as well as his
interest in solving problems that directly or indirectly, it is related to physics,

making the king Hiero II like him always solving the problems experienced by the
king. Contributions Archimedes related to physics are as follows.
1. Archimedes Screws
At other times, King Hiero II asked Archimedes to design a huge ship. The
ship can not only serve as a luxury passenger ship, but also can serve as transport
vessels and supply ships. The ship can carry more than 600 people, equipped with
various facilities such as parks, gymnasium , and the temple of the goddess
Aphrodite. The ship was then known as Syracusia.
Syracusia is the largest vessel in ancient times. So big, the ship is very
vulnerable to leaking, so the ship's hull is sometimes much filled with water. To
solve this problem, Archimedes created a device called Archimedes screw or
Archimedes Screw.

Archimedes screw sketch drawings

Archimedes screw is a combination of a few simple plane is an inclined
plane, screw, and wheel pivots. Archimedes screw consists of a thin sheet made
twist screw and a cylinder shape ( see picture). When the screw is rotated by hand,
then the water under will rise to the top. Thus, the water inside the vessel can
easily be discarded into the sea.
Archimedes screw was not only useful in the ship , but also can be used for
irrigation purposes . The water that comes from the lowland can be moved to the
irrigation channel by using screws. Archimedes screw is still used to move water
or solids in the form of granules.
2. The Puzzle Of King Hieros Crown

The most widely known story about Archimedes tells of how he invented a
method to determine the volume of an object with an irregular shape. According
to Vitruvius, the crown in the form of a laurel wreath had been made for King
Hiero Xenophon II, and Archimedes was asked to check whether the crown is
really made of pure gold or made of a mixture of gold and silver. Because King
Hiero II do not trust the creator of the crown. Archimedes days thinking hard. He
did not know how to prove cheating goldsmith. There had been no electronic
device that can detect whether an object is made of pure gold or gold mixtures.
When the head of Archimedes is hot because of too much thinking, he went to a
public bath. He undressed and got into the bathtub filled with water.
Density crown will be lower than the density of pure gold when the crown
maker cheat and add a silver or metal with a lower specific gravity. Because too
excited by this discovery, Archimedes then took to the streets in the nude, was so
excited by his discovery to the point that he forgot to get dressed, shouting "
Eureka! " ( Greek: " !, " meaning " I have found it! " ).
Arriving home, Archimedes weigh pure gold weighing king's crown. Pure
gold is then inserted into a basin full of water. Water overflow at capacity and
weigh the. Then he dipped crown to the second basin is full of water. Basin first
and second equal. It turns out the water that overflowed from the second basin
more than the water that overflowed from the first basin . Archimedes knew of
this incident , that the king's crown was not made of pure gold.

Illustration gold metal immersion into water

Then he made the Archimedes law which reads: " An object that partially or
fully dipped into the liquid will have an upward force on the heavy liquid urged

by it ". With it he proves that the king's crown mixed with silver. Artisan who
made the crown put to death.
Archimedes law states the following , a submerged object
partly or wholly in the liquid will experience an upward force
equal to the weight of liquid removal . An object wholly or
partially submerged in a fluid will get a lift to the top equal to the
weight of the fluid displaced fluid . The magnitude of the upward
force by the Law of Archimedes written in the equation :
Fa = v g
Description :
Fa = upward force ( N )
V = volume of the submerged object ( m3 )
= density of liquid ( kg / m3 )
g = acceleration due to gravity ( N / kg )
This law is not a fundamental law because it can be derived from Newton's
laws as well. Archimedes when the force is equal to gravity W then the resultant
force = 0 and the object drift.
If the FA > W, the object will be pushed upwards will drift
When FA < W then the object will be pushed down and sinks