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A break in the skins surface resulting in external bleeding

May allow bacteria to enter the body, causing an infection


Lacerations consist of cuts to the skin caused by sharp

objects. Broken glass, shop tools, knives and other cutting
implements commonly cause skin lacerations.
o They have ragged, irregular edges and masses of torn
tissue underneath.
(the surgical equivalent is an incised wound)
o The clinical examination must therefore assess the
integrity of all structures in the area: arteries, nerves,
muscles, tendons and ligaments.
o The ideal form of management of an incised wound is
surgical inspection, cleaning and closure.
o Usually deep, narrow wounds in the skin and underling
organs .The entrance is usually small, and the risk of
infection is high. The object causing the injury may remain
impaled in the wound.
o Punctures are caused by objects that penetrate into the
tissues while leaving a small surface opening. Wounds
made by nails, needles, wire, and bullets are usually
o As a rule, small puncture wounds do not bleed freely;
however, large puncture wounds may cause severe
internal bleeding.
o Bites are a particular type of puncture wound associated
with a high incidence of infection, presumably from mouth
organisms. Animal bites may result in small, sharp, incised
wounds or in severe tissue crushing as in horse bites. Dog
bites may also be associated with a degree of tissue
avulsion, and often there are puncture wounds from upper
and lower teeth and contusion of the intervening tissue.
Human bites may be associated with avulsion of pieces of
the nose or ear.

o An avulsion is the tearing away of tissue from a body part.
Bleeding is usually heavy.
o Falls occurring while in motion frequently lead to skin
abrasions. Extensive skin loss may occur with high-speed
motorcycle or similar accidents.
o Avulsion most often involve ears, fingers, and hands.
o A shearing injury of skin in which the surface is rubbed off,
with little or no blood loss.
o Abrasions tend to be painful because the nerve endings
often ate abraded along with the skin. Ground- in debris
may be present.
o This type of wound can be serious if it covers a large or
becomes embedded with foreign matter.
o Other names for an abrasion are scrape, road rash and rug
o Incisions, commonly called CUTS, are wounds made by
sharp cutting instruments such as knives, razors, and
broken glass.
o Incisions tend to bleed freely because the blood vessels
are cut cleanly and without ragged edges.
o The amount of bleeding depends on the depth, the
location, and the size of the wound.
o There is little damage to the surrounding tissues. Of all
classes of wounds, incisions are the least likely to become
infected, since the free flow of blood washes out many of
the microorganisms (germs) that cause infection.
o Involves the cutting or tearing off a body part, such as
finger , toe, hand, foot, arm, or leg.
o Amputations are classified according to the type of injury
1. Guillotine amputation
a clean- cut, complete detachment.
Examples wound include a finger cut off with an ax or an
arm severed with a power tool.
2. Crushing amputation
Occurs when an extremity separates by being crushed or
mashed off. Such as when hand is caught in a roller machine.
3. Degloving

When the skin is peeled off, much as like taking off a glove.


The skin is not broken, but tissue and blood vessels beneath the
skins surface are crushed, causing bleeding within the confined

o A contusion is more commonly known as bruises.
o These are a common type of sports injury, where a direct
blunt trauma can damage the small blood vessels and
capillaries, muscles and underlying tissue, as well the
internal organs and, in some cases, bone.
o Contusions present as a painful bruise with reddish to
bluish discoloration that spreads over the injured area of
o Swelling occurs as the blood collects beneath the skin
layers or in the damaged tissues. A hematoma or blood
clot almost always forms beneath the surrounding tissues,
resulting in a characteristic blue or black mark. A classic
example is the so-called black eye. Initially, the injured
part appears blue or reddened but gradually changes color
into brownish yellow as the tissues heal.

o These include any injury that damages the small blood
vessels and capillaries resulting in blood collecting and
pooling in a limited space.
Hematomas typically present as a painful, spongey
rubbery lump-like lesion.
o Hematomas can be small or large, deep inside the body or
just under the skin; depending on the severity and site of
the trauma.

Crush injuries
o These are usually caused by an external high pressure
force that squeezes part of the body between two
surfaces or great/ extreme amount of force applied over a
long period of time.
o The degree of injury and pain can range from a minor
bruise to a complete destruction of the crushed area of
the body, depending on the site, size, duration and power
of the trauma.