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SMK JAWI

Jawapan

SPM Fizik Tingkatan 4,5 - ppt ting 5 2015 Kertas 2


1. (a)

(b) Upthrust buoyant force = weight


(c) W = buoyant force
mg = Vg
m = 800 1.25 = 1 000 kg
(d) Reduce the volume of the air in the balloon
2.(a) i. Spring P
ii. Spring P has the largest stretching force which is the highest spring constant.
With that, spring P is the strongest.
(b) The diameter of the coil of spring X is smaller, the diameter of the wire of spring X is
bigger than spring Q.
(c) Yes. By arranging the springs in parallel can strengthening the spring.
This allows the cradle to be able to withstand the weight of bigger babies.
(d) The weight (force) of the child has already exceeded the elasticity limit of the spring,
causing the spring to lose its elasticity.
(e) Spring constant =
3. (a) Bourdon gauge
Tolok Bourdon
(b) (i) Temperature
Suhu
(ii) Air pressure
Tekanan udara
(c) Volume
Isi padu

= 5 N cm1

(d)

(e)

4. (a)
i. Pressure,
Tekanan,
P= F
A
= 30
0.02
= 1 500 N m2
ii. Pressure exerted on the big piston
Tekanan yang dikenakan ke atas piston besar
= 1 500
m 10 = 1 500
0.5
mass/jisim, m = 75 kg
(b) Pascals principle
Prinsip Pascal
(c) i. The volume of the oil pushed = The volume of the oil rises
Isipadu minyak yang tertolak = Isipadu minyak yang naik
20 0.02 = h 0.5
h = 0.8 cm
ii. The density of the hydraulic oil does not change.
Kepekatan minyak hidraulik tidak berubah.

5.(a) Specific heat capacity of water is the heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1
kg of water by 1 C.
Muatan haba tentu bagi air adalah tenaga haba yang diperlukan untuk meningkatkan
suhu 1 kg air seba nyak 1 C.
(b) Q1 = mc
= 1.0 4 200 70
= 2.94 105 J
(c) i. The heat supplied is used to do work to break the bonds between water molecules
when they change from liquid to gas.
Haba yang dibekalkan diguna kan untuk melakukan kerja untuk memutuskan ikatanikatan antara molekul-molekul air apabila berubah daripada cecair kepada gas.
ii. Heat supplied, Q2 = mL,
Haba yang dibekalkan, Q2 = mL,
L = specific latent heat of vaporization of water
L = haba pendam tentu pengewapan air
226,000 = 0.1 L
L = 2.26 106 J kg1
6.(a) i. An electromagnetic wave is a wave that consists of oscillating electric and magnetic
fields, and can
travel through a vacuum.
Suatu gelombang elektromagnet ialah suatu gelombang yang mempunyai medan
elektrik dan medan
magnet bergetar dan boleh merambat melalui vakum.
ii. Microwaves/Gelombang mikro
(b) i. 1. Infrared radiation/Sinaran infra-merah
2. Visible light/Cahaya nampak
3. Ultraviolet radiation/Sinaran ultraungu
ii. Ultraviolet radiation/Sinaran ultraungu
iii. Sunburn and skin cancer
Selaran matahari dan kanser.
(c) i. P = Microvaves/Gelombang mikro
Q = Ultraviolet rays/Sinaran ultraungu
R = X-rays/Sinar-X
ii. Difference: Radio waves are produced by electron oscillations in an electric circuit
and sent out by
a transmitter, but gamma rays are produced by a radioactive source.
Perbezaan: Gelombang radio dihasilkan oleh getaran elektron dalam litar elektrik
dan dipancarkan
oleh pemancar, tetapi sinar gama dihasilkan oleh bahan radioaktif.

Similarity: Both are transverse waves/ electromagnetic waves/can travel through a


vacuum.
Persamaan: Kedua-duanya adalah gelombang melintang/gelombang
elektromagnet/boleh merambat
melalui vakum.

Distance between the earth and the moon, x = 3.9 108 m


Jarak antara Bumi dan Bulan, x = 3.9 108 m
7. (a) Longitudinal wave.
Gelombang membujur
(b) i. X = rarefaction
X = renggangan,
ii. wavelength = 1.2 m
panjang gelombang = 1.2 m
(c) i. speed decreases
laju berkurang
ii. wavelength decreases
panjang gelombang berkurang.
8.(a) The lamps are connected in parallel so that the voltages across the lamps are the same.
It ensures that each lamp is run on the marked power rating.
Or, if one of the bulb spoil, the others still can function.
(b) (i) Since
The resistance of each lamp is

= 400

Thus, if R is the total resistance, then

R = 100

(ii) Since P = IV, the current flowing through each lamp


=
= 0.5 A
Hence, the total current drawn from the main supply

= 0.5 4 A
=2A
(c) (i) If a fault develops and a large current flows, the fuse blows and breaks the circuit
before the cable
overheats and catches fire.
(ii) Since the total current drawn is 2 A, a 5 A fuse is suitable.
(iii) If the switches were connected to the neutral wire, then the cable and lamps will
still be live when the
switches are turned off. This will be dangerous to us if a fault develops or if the
cable is broken
accidentally.
9.(a) (i) Interference of waves
Interferens gelombang [1m]
(ii) The wavelength depends on the depth of the water
Panjang gelombang bergantung kepada kedalaman air [1m]
Increasing the depth will cause the wave to refract
Menambahkan kedalaman akan menyebabkan gelombang membias [1m]
Refraction will increase the length of the wavelength
Pembiasan akan menambahkan panjang gelombang [1m]
The nodes/antinodes will be affected
Nod/Antinod akan dipengaruhi
(iii) The wave pattern shown in Diagram A is the same as that shown in Diagram B
Corak gelombang yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah A adalah sama seperti yang
ditunjukkan dalam Rajah B [1m]
The wavelength produced by the two spherical dippers shown in Diagram A is the
same as that shown in Diagram B
Panjang gelombang yang dihasilkan oleh dua penggetar sfera yang ditunjukkan
dalam Rajah A adalah sama dengan yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah B [1m]
The distance between the two consecutive antinodes is greater in Diagram A than
that in Diagram B
Jarak antara dua antinod yang berturutan adalah lebih besar dalam Rajah A
daripada yang dalam Rajah B [1m]
The distance between the two consecutive nodes is greater in Diagram A than that
in Diagram B
Jarak antara dua nod yang berturutan adalah lebih besar dalam Rajah A
daripada yang dalam Rajah B [1m]
An increase in the distance between the two coherent source will decrease the
distance between the two consecutive nodes or antinodes
Penambahan jarak antara dua sumber yang koheren akan mengurangkan jarak
di antara dua nod atau antinod yang berturutan [1m]
(b) (i) Sonar is a system that uses the reflection of ultrasonic waves (ultrasonic echoes)
Sonar adalah sistem yang menggunakan pantulan gelombang ultrasonik (gema
ultrasonik) [1m]
(ii) Ultrasonic waves have a higher frequency and more energy so they can move

further.
Gelombang ultrasonik mempunyai frekuensi yang lebih tinggi dan lebih banyak
tenaga supaya ianya boleh bergerak lebih jauh. [2m]
(iii) Attach an ultrasonic transmitter to a ship.
Memasang pemancar ultrasonik pada kapal [1m]
Use a microphone receiver to detect ultrasonic pulses.
Menggunakan mikrofon penerima untuk mengesan denyutan ultrasonik [1m]
Direct the ultrasonic pulses from the transmitter to the seabed.
Menghalakan denyutan ultrasonik dari pemancar ke dasar laut [1m]
Use the microphone receiver to pick up the reflected pulses from the seabed.
Menggunakan mikrofon penerima untuk mengesan denyutan yang terpantul
daripada dasar laut [1m]
Measure the time taken by the pulses to travel to the seabed and return.
Mengukur masa yang diambil oleh denyutan untuk bergerak ke dasar laut dan
kembali semula [1m]
Calculate the depth of the water.
Menghitung kedalaman air [1m]

10.(a) (i) The bulbs are connected in parallel


Mentol-mentol disambungkan secara selari [1m]
The switch and battery are connected in series
Suis dan bateri disambungkan secara bersiri [1m]
Correct symbols for all components
Simbol yang betul bagi semua komponen [1m]
(ii) When the bulb is connected to a power supply of 1.5 V, it will produce 3 J of
energy in 1 second.
Apabila mentol disambungkan pada bekalan kuasa 1.5 V, mentol menghasilkan 3 J
tenaga dalam 1 saat [2m]
(iii) The brightness of bulb A is the same as that of bulb B
Kecerahan mentol A adalah sama dengan mentol B [1m]

(v) Energy/Tenaga = VIt [1m]


= 1.5 4 3600
= 21 600 J [1m]
(b) (i) The resistance of the wire is low to prevent power loss due to heat
Rintangan dawai adalah rendah bagi mengelakkan kehilangan kuasa disebabkan
oleh haba [1m]
(ii) The melting point is high to prevent the wire from melting.
Takat lebur adalah tinggi bagi mengelakkan dawai daripada melebur [1m]

(iii) The density of the wire is low to reduce the mass of the wire so that it is light
Ketumpatan dawai adalah rendah bagi mengurangkan jisim dawai supaya dawai
ringan [1m]
(iv) The rate of rusting is low to prevent it from rusting easily
Kadar pengaratan adalah rendah bagi mengelakkannya daripada mudah
berkarat [1m]
(v) The rate of expansion of the wire is low to prevent lengthening of the wire
Kadar pengembangan dawai adalah rendah untuk mengelakkan pemanjangan
dawai [1m]
11.(a) Pressure is defined as the force acting normally per unit area

Tekanan ditakrifkan sebagai daya yang bertindak secara normal dalam satu unit luas

(b) When the small piston is pulled up, the hydraulic oil is drawn from the reservoir into
the small piston
Apabila omboh kecil ditarik ke atas, minyak hidraulik diambil dari takungan ke
dalam omboh kecil [1m]
When the small piston is pushed down, the hydraulic oil is exerted with force and
experiences a pressure
Apabila omboh kecil ditolak ke bawah, minyak hidraulik dikenakan daya dan
mengalami tekanan [1m]
The pressure is transmitted uniformly from the small piston to the big piston.
Tekanan dihantar secara seragam dari omboh kecil ke omboh besar [1m]
The force produced raises the big piston
Daya yang dihasilkan mengangkat omboh besar [1m]
The system can convert a small input force into a bigger output force.
Sistem ini boleh menukarkan input daya yang kecil kepada satu daya output yang
lebih besar [1m]
(c) (i) From F = ma, a small mass will give an acceleration, a that is big
Daripada F = ma, jisim yang kecil akan menghasilkan pecutan yang besar [1m]
(ii) The melting point of the metal of the engine should be high
Takat lebur bagi logam enjin adalah tinggi [1m]
The engine does not melt although the energy produced by combustion of the
fuel and friction with air is high
Enjin tidak akan melebur walaupun tenaga yang dihasilkan daripada
pembakaran bahan api dan geseran udara adalah tinggi [1m]
(iii) The change in velocity per unit time is high, i,e the acceleration is high
Perubahan halaju per unit masa adalah tinggi, iaitu pecutan adalah tinggi[1m]
The high acceleration enables the car to moves with maximum speed in the
shortest time
Pecutan yang tinggi membolehkan kereta bergerak dengan laju maksimum
dalam masa yang singkat [1m]
(iv) The braking distance is short

Jarak membrek adalah pendek [1m]


The car can be stopped in the shortest possible time during an emergency or
when entering the station
Kereta boleh berhenti pada masa yang sangat singkat semasa kecemasan atau
semasa memasuki stesen [1m]
Car S is chosen because the mass of car S is small, the melting point of the metal
of the engine is high, the change in velocity per unit time is high and the braking distance
is short.
Kereta S dipilih kerana jisim kereta S adalah kecil, takat lebur logam enjin
adalah tinggi, perubahan halaju per unit masa adalah tinggi dan jarak membrek adalah
pendek.
(d) v2 = u2 + 2as [1m]
v = 0 (when the airplane stops/apabila kapal terbang berhenti) [1m]
u = 50.0 and/dan a = 3.0 (because of deceleration/ kerana nyahpecutan) [1m]
(02) = (50.02) + 2(3.0)s [1m]
s = 416.67 m
12.(a) Voltage is the potential difference supplied to an appliance under normal conditions.
[1 m]
(b) i. Low power.
Reduce the cost of electricity.
High efficiency.
So that the wastage of energy to other forms of energy does not need to be
minimised
High melting point of filament.
So that the filament does not melt easily.
Voltage must be 240 V.
Because this is the potential difference supplied to residential areas in the whole
country.
ii. Lamp Q
Because lamp Q has a low power, high efficiency, high melting point and voltage
of 240 V.
(c)

[1 m]
Circuit is constructed as shown in diagram.
A parallel circuit is chosen because other lamps can continue to light if one of the

lamps is spoilt.
The brightness of each lamp is the same as the potential difference across each lamp
is the same.
We can switch off one of the lamps or any two of the lamps while the others are still
lighting and
vice versa.
(d) E = Ir + V [1 m]
1.5 = V + 0.5(0.5) [1 m]
Potential difference, V = 1.25 V [1 m]
V = IR [1 m]
1.25 = 0.5(1 + x) [1 m]
x = 1.5 [1 m]