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EFFECTS OF DRUG AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE ON YOUTH DEVELOPMENT

AMONG THE YOUTH IN BANGLADESH VILLAGE, CHANGAMWE


CONSTITUENCY, MOMBASA COUNTY, KENYA.

This report was done and presented by


Martin Otundo Richard: +254721246744; Email: martinotundo@gmail.com
(PhD Student in Project Management at Jomo Kenyatta University of
Agriculture and Technology)

A RESEARCH PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED By Martin Otundo Richard On


Academia.Edu As A Sample Research Report For Universities And Other Institutions Of
Higher Learning, Aimed At Guiding Younger And Old Researchers In 21 st Century
Project Reports Development

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Drug and substance abuse in the world in this 21 st century is a worse disaster than HIV/Aids,
cancer and famine combined (Kaguthi, 2004 cited by Murimi, 2012). In todays society more
and more adolescents are experimenting with using drugs regularly (Pretoria, 2000 cited by
Murimi, 2012). This has amplified with globalization, changes in communication technology,
changes in living styles and climate change. The worst still is when the menace has not only been
pronounced in the urban settings as it was in the 18th to early 20 th century but has been
implanted in the rural settings too. In this note, drug and substance abuse is a problem that has
raised concern all over the world.
According to EMCDDA (2014), main drugs abused in the world today range from the socially
accepted like alcohol, tobacco, Miraa and caffeine to the outlawed ones such as heroin, cocaine
and cannabis sativa (bhang). The long intake of these drugs leads to drug addiction. Drug
addiction is a disease that impairs the structure and function of the brain. Botvin (2000) cited in
International Labour Organization (2013), attributed the drug abuse among youth to the feelings
elicited by the drugs, influence from friends and kins, experimentations, medicinal use and
stressful lives.
Drugs abused affect people at all levels of development, they are also introduced at very early
age of between 10-14 years (Kyalo, 2010). Research shows that psychotropic drugs are
introduced to 37 per cent of people aged between 10 and 14 years and nearly 75 per cent of those
aged below 19 years across the world, thus spreding the unpronounced negative effects to
development since these ages consist of young people who could otherwise change the look of
nations (Kaguthi, 2004 cited by Barasa, 2013).

Globally, USA is one country that is greatly affected by the drugs and substance abuse.
Although, this is worst in Caribbean countries of Mexico and Brazil, Arab countries of Iran and
Afghanistan, and the larger world colony called United Kingdom that has a higher amount of
people addicted to alcohol compared to Russia besides having a high number of drug buyers and

users compared to the United States and many others in the world (Roy, 2015). A study by Roy
(2015) continue to show that in the USA as a whole, hard drugs like cocaine get into the country
from Mexico and Peru and later on spread easily through a well-established networks like the
communication media and modern security trickery technology. The effects of these drugs
ranges from sudden deaths, terminal diseases like cancer, risky sexual behaviors leading to teen
pregnancy and school dropouts, dependency that leads to crimes like prostitution and robbery
among many others (Roy, 2015).
Similar studies by Napa Valley Rehab (2015) shows that, other superpower countries like China
are also affected by drugs in their young population. The report indicates that, among 10 youths
aged between 14 and 30 years, five of them abuse two major categories of drugs i.e. alcohol and
cocaine. In this study, the organisation has given a number of effects related to the abuse of these
drugs by these troubled youths. Included are the long term effects of alcohol include that include:
Liver failure, Brain damage, Sexual dysfunction, Fetal alcohol syndrome and other birth defects
during pregnancy, Stomach ulcers, Malnutrition, Weight gain, Risk of cancer in the mouth and
throat, High blood pressure, Increased risk for stroke and heart-related diseases, Tolerance and
physical dependence and Addiction. This costs the country very much, both economically and
socially. On the other hand, long term effects of cocaine include: Permanent damage to blood
vessels in the heart and lungs, Heart attacks due to high blood pressure and constricted arteries,
Liver damage, Kidney damage, Lung damage, Stomach ulcers, Strokes from high blood
pressure, Destruction of nasal tissues if cocaine is snorted, Infection (hepatitis, HIV) and
abscesses if cocaine is injected, prostitution, school dropout, unproductivity at work and many
more (Donna, 2011).
Continentally, drugs and substances abuse is not a new idea and their effects are deep rooted in
the African communities and this has been widening day after day. According to the African
Union Ministerial Conference on Drug Control in Africa report (2014), at least 16 countries in
Africa have reported abuse of opiates, with prevalence rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.8 percent for
the population aged 15 and above. Twelve countries reported cocaine abuse with prevalence
ranging from 0.01 to 1.5 percent for this age bracket. Concurrently, the age of those initiated to
drug use is diminishing with large numbers of in-school and out-of-school youth consuming
drugs. This phenomenon is even more acute in conflict and post conflict countries, with
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populations experiencing high stress levels while child soldiers are provided with drugs to enable
them to fight. In fact, the report continues to show that Africas role in the global drugs supply
chain is increasing. Already the continent is the second largest region for cannabis production,
trafficking and consumption, accounting for 26 percent of global seizures of this drug in 2014.
By country, the largest hauls in this period were in Nigeria, and the Republic of South Africa,
while Morocco is said to be one of the main producers of Cannabis resin.
According to World Health Organization (2013), the effects of drugs and substances abuse in
Nigeria for example range from formation of criminal gangs, drop out of schools, involvement in
social evils like prostitution and same sex marriages, lawlessness and many more. Nathaniel
(2014) argues that, the various consequences of the drug abuse or drug addictions are so
devastating and very shameful to the extend that both the national and international organizations
all over the world are also worried about the spread of this scourge among Nigeria youths, they
are as follows:- Social violence among youths, armed robbery, mental disorder, 419, syndrome,
social miscreants (area boys and girls), lawlessness among youth, lack of respect for elders, rape,
many more of the social evil.
In Tanzania, the problem has speeded at large percent whereby the youths like students from
secondary schools have been noted to be taking drug and abusing substances. The study on the
same provide evidence that, heavy drinking and drug consumption lead to a lower schooling
among the youths and the academic performance declines besides increased rates of school
dropout. For example, In Baloha in Kahama town in Tanzania, the issue of effects of drug abuse
persists among adolescents today who abuse drugs often since they do poorly academically and
drop out of school. They also risk falling into unplanned pregnancies, violence and infectious
diseases like HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis (Makoye, 2015).
In Kenya, reports of young peoples lives ruined by alcohol and drugs are rampant. The youth,
especially, are vulnerable to the vice owing to peer pressure, media influence, poor guidance and
role modelling (Kikuvi, 2009 cited by Murimi, 2012). This has taken root in schools leading to
the high school drop outs and idleness, in communities leading to laziness, non-productivity,
decrease in sexual performance, engaging in dangerous activities like prostitution, criminal
gangs among other. According to Amayo and Wangai (1994), Kyalo (2010) and many more

scholars, drug consumption has led to unrest and widespread destruction of life and property in
schools, homes and institutions of social importance.
Worrying studies in 2011 to 2014 showed that, Kenya was ranked among the top four African
Nations notorious for consumption of narcotics by the United Nations International Drug Control
Programme (World report, 2014). The Kenyan airport of Mombasa has been identified in the
report as the major transit point for drug trafficking in Africa. According to a National survey on
the magnitude of alcohol and drug abuse conducted by National Campaign Against Drug Abuse
(NACADA) (2012), the abuse of alcohol in the country is worrying. The facts and figures from
this report indicate that 13 per cent of teenagers in the 10 to 11 years age bracket have used an
intoxicating substance mostly alcohol followed by cigarettes. In the 15 to 24 year bracket, a
worrying 11.7 per cent are currently hooked in to alcohol, while 6.2 per cent are regular users of
Tobacco products, of this group, 4.7 per cent chew miraa (khat) while 1.5 per cent smokes
bhang. Regrettably this age bracket constitutes youths in Kenya some of whom are students in
either secondary schools or higher institutions of learning; depriving the country its energetic
population that could otherwise be producing the best of the economys good and services.
Digging deeper into the worst state of events, the sad reality presented by the figures and facts in
NACADAS 2012 survey on drugs that is 14.8 per cent of the respondents aged between10 to 14
years old are completely oblivious of the risks associated with substance abuse. These statistics
underline the need to educate our young people on dangers of alcohol and drug abuse. The
initiation into substance abuse in the early stages of life of the adolescents is positively
associated to increased risk of early school dropout and an involvement in deviant adolescent
behaviours and behavioural problems into adulthood (Abot, 2005).
If left unaddressed, escalating rate of drug and substance abuse puts the country at a risk of
losing generations as well as underdevelopment owing to the diversion of resources to address
among others; basic needs for uneducated and unskilled youth, dependant young adults,
increased health care needs among the youth abusing alcohol and drugs, the cost of policing will
also be high due to crimes resulting from idleness and youth drinking habits, all those
compounded will go a long way in frustrating the attainment of the Sustainable development
Goals and the vision 2030 which envisages making Kenya industrial and mid-level income
country ( WHO, 2015).
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Studies in mombasa have linked a lot of Tycoons and big families to drugs supply and
trafficking. The use of drugs among the youths is the order of the day with worst areas being the
slums of Likoni, Kisumu Ndogo, Likoni, Kisauni, Changamwes Uhuru Owinyo slum and
Bangladesh slum. Youth abuse up to 45% of cheap drugs like Miraa/Mogoka, tobacco,
counterfeit alcohol, bhang, cocaine and many more; leading to a number of effects both socially
and economically (NACADA, 2015). In Changamwes Bangladesh area for example, NACADA
(2014a) notes that alcohol and drug abuse is linked to poverty because family resources and
earnings are spent on drugs. There is also decreased efficiency hence low wages and loss of
employment among other problems. Other socio-economic effects of drugs include: drug
induced accidents and violence; child abuse; fear, depression and anxiety hence low
productivity; and increased medical bill.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Drug and substance abuse is a worldwide phenomenon, and this occurs in almost every country,
be it developed or less developed. The specific drug or drugs used varies from country to
country, income level to another and from region to region (WHO, 2013). The report by
NACADA (2014b) shows that, worldwide, the three main drugs of use are cannabis (such as
marijuana), opiates (such as heroin), and cocaine. Although individual countries have their own
drug laws, in general, drug possession, sale, and use are illegal. Unfortunately, laws are not
always equally enforced in countries around the world and worst even from county to county as
it is in the case with Kenya counties whereby orders are taken differently.
Drug abuse [especially among the youth and young adults in Kenya and more specifically
Mombasa County] is responsible for lost wages, destruction of property in schools and social
areas or community levels, soaring health care costs and broken families. It is a problem which
affects us all as parents, children, teachers, government officials, taxpayers and workers. Despite
eradication efforts by various agencies like NGOs, CBOs, FBOs and government agencies in
Kenya, the country still remains a major supplier/port of dispatch of some drugs such as
cannabis, which is one of the most widely abused drugs (NACADA, 2014c). Worst is seen when
most of the drugs and substances abused get into/out of the country through the Mombasa port;
putting into risk the local population.

Since the early nineteen eighties, Africa has been experiencing an escalating problem with drug
abuse and trafficking. Although reliable information is scarce, data collected under the Eastern
Africa Drug Information System/Global Assessment Programme (EADIS/GAP), country
mission reports coupled and small-scaled research activities conducted by governments and
nongovernmental organizations all attest to this (Abdool, 2004).
World Drug report (2012) did a study on the effects of illicit drug use among the teenagers in
Kenyas coast province and devastating figures showed that slums were the most affected areas
by the menace. According to the study, between 3.4 and 6.6 per cent of the adult population
(persons aged 15-64) in coast province were found to be abusing hard drugs like cocaine while
the youths up to the tune of 11.3% admitted of using one or two type of drugs. The report
continue to show that, some 10-13 per cent of drug users continue to be problem users with drug
dependence and/or drug-use disorders, the prevalence of HIV (estimated at approximately 20 per
cent), hepatitis C (46.7 per cent) and hepatitis B (14.6 per cent) among injecting drug users
continues to add to the countrys burden of disease, and, last but not least, approximately 1 in
every 100 deaths among adults is attributed to illicit drug use. With estimated annual prevalence
ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 per cent of the population aged 15-64, the use of opioids (mainly heroin,
morphine and non-medical use of prescription opioids) is stable in all of the main markets.
According to a national survey on the Rapid Situation Assessment of Drug and Substance Abuse
in Kenyas slums (Bangladesh included) (2012), 11.7% of youth aged 15-24 are current users of
alcohol, 6.2% tobacco, 4.7% miraa, 7.1% grade two miraa (Mogoka) and 1.5% cannabis. In
addition, the median age of initiation among the 10-14 year olds to tobacco and alcohol is 10
years. These statistics are an indication of the grave situation faced by children and the youth
who are already burdened by other socio-economic challenges such as unemployment. From the
findings above, it can be said that young Kenyans have been and are being socialized into drugs
and worst is being experienced in the slums like Bangladesh. It is in this background that this
study sought to find out the effects of drug and substance abuse on youth development among
the youth in Bangladesh village, Changamwe constituency, Mombasa County, Kenya.

1.3 Purpose of the study


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of drug and substance abuse on youth
development in Bangladesh village, Changamwe Constituency, Mombasa County, Kenya.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The Study was guided by the following objectives:
i.

To examine the extent to which drug and substance abuse influences level of education
among the youth in Bangladesh Village Changamwe Constituency.

ii.

To find out the extent to which drug and substance abuse influences economic
productivity among the youth in Bangladesh Village Changamwe Constituency.

iii.

To examine the influence of drug and substance abuse on teenage pregnancies among the
youth in Bangladesh Village Changamwe Constituency.

1.5 Research Questions


The study was guided by the following research questions:
i.

What is the extent to which drug and substance abuse influences level of education
among the youth in Bangladesh Village Changamwe Constituency?

ii.

To what extent does drug and substance abuse influences economic productivity among
the youth in Bangladesh Village Changamwe Constituency?

iii.

What is the influence of drug and substance abuse on teenage pregnancies among the
youth in Bangladesh Village Changamwe Constituency?

1.6 Significance of the Study


First, the proposed study could help the Ministry of Education both at the county level and the
national level to better understand the current situation and accordingly make changes to address
the factors that contribute to substance abuse among the youths in both primary and in secondary
schools and more specifically in the slums. This also can be coupled with strategies of
minimizing the effects of the drug users. Kenya, like many other developing countries, is faced
with the social problem of high rates of substance abuse. To make matters worse, the percentage
of substance abusers in schools increases yearly despite the efforts to eradicate the problem.
Failure to solve this problem not only threatens the life of individuals, but also the economic and
social development of the country as a whole. The current study is useful in contributing to the
general body of knowledge in this area.

Second, bodies like NACADA, NGOs, CBOs, FBOs and many more will be lucky to get
firsthand information from the report on the state of drugs and substances abuse in the
Changamwe slums and this can be generalized across the troubled Kenyas coast. This way, the
body shall be able to identify and control the drugs menace in the county and help solve the cases
of advance effects among the users who had/have fallen victims of addiction.
Finally, the research is expected to contribute a lot to the body of knowledge in the area of drugs
and substance abuse. Future researchers, learners and scholars will be able to get firsthand
information that shall enrich their knowledge.
1.7 Basic Assumptions of the Study
The research is carried out with the basic assumption that the cases of drugs and substances
abuse in Bangladesh area of Chanagmwe are recorded and the information can be available when
required.
Another assumption is that, the respondents will be willing to give information (including the
most sensitive one) without any bias and subjectivity that could compromise the results.
Finally the research has the assumption that the effects of drugs and substances abuse in the
county is closely tied to the above three objectives.
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1.8 Limitations of the Study


Time could be a limitation facing the study. Time for classroom work, research, that at work, that
for the family and that of linkage between the supervisor and the respondents is a big issue.
Owing to the nature of the researchers work, the time of the research and guidance by the
supervisor at the campus will be highly in competition. However the researchers will create
personal time to link the supervisor and the respondents during the research times.
Financial resources are not only a limitation but a factor in the study. Limited resources may
delay the achievements of the study. However the researcher will get family support and by
extension go for extra funding from the bank or any other institution when need arises.
The final limitation is that getting information about drugs and substances abuse in Mombasa is a
bit tricky since most people opt to hide from the menace due to fears and threats from the wellconnected cartels that traffic the drugs.
1.9 Delimitations of the Study
The study delimits itself by concentrating on the effects of drugs and substance abuse in the
performance of youths and the scope of the study shall be limited to the Bangladesh slum of
Changamwe Sub-county, Mombasa County.
The study shall also delimit itself by concentrating its argument on the three major objectives
outlined above.
1.10 Definition of Significant Terms used in the Study
Drug - This is any substance other than food which by its chemical reaction /nature affects
structure or function of a living organism.
Drug abuse - This refers to the use of illegal drugs on the in appropriate use of legal drugs.
Drug addiction- Drug addiction is a condition of being unable to do without the drug.
Drug dependence - This is repeated drug taking that results in the tolerance, withdrawal and
compulsive drug taking when an individual persists in use of alcohol on other drugs despite
problem related to use of the substance.

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Drug misuse - The term used commonly when prescribing medication with sedative anxiolytic
analgesic or a stimulant property are used for mood alternation or intoxication ignoring the fact
those overdose of such Medicines have serious adverse effects.
Youth - The term refers to young and energetic person who are economically productive in a
community.
1.11 Organization of the Study
This research proposal is organized in three chapters. Chapter one is the introduction which
includes the background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objectives
of the study, research questions, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objectives of the
study, research questions, research hypothesis, significance of the study, delimitations of the
study, basic assumptions and the definition of significant terms. Chapter two of the study
consists of the literature review with information from other articles which are relevant to the
researcher. Chapter three entails the methodology to be used in the research.

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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
This chapter reviews thematically the relevant literature guided by the research objectives. The
chapter outlines the concept of drugs and substances abuse in Kenya, literature under the various
subtopics as guided by the three objectives and a conceptual framework has been included to
show the relationship between independent and dependent.
2.2 The Concept of Drugs and Substance Abuse in Kenya
Drug and substance abuse is not only a Kenyan problem but a global problem which is affecting
mostly the youth both in school and out of school. This problem impacts negatively on the
academic, social, psychological, economical and physiological development among the abusers
(Agatha, 2016).
Agatha (2016) continues to show that, the menace has strangled the youthful population who are
wasting away their prime lives instead of investing their energy and time to building the nation.
Drug trafficking has hit a crisis level in Kenya and this has seen the deportation of foreigners
suspected to be involved in drug trafficking, with orders from the President.
According to Softkenya (2014) there are various drugs abused by youths in Kenya with the
figures ranging up to 47.1% among youths in major slums in the cities of Mombasa, Kisumu and
Mombasa where Bangladesh falls. According to the study, Drugs and substances abused in
Kenya include: Alcohol, Tobacco, Miraa/ khat, Marijuana, Inhalants and Solvents, Heroin,
Cocaine and Prescription Drugs including sex enhancement drugs. The list is in one way or the
other changing day to day and this is becoming a worrying trend among the youth in the country.
For example, there are other drugs abused in Kenya that include: Anabolic Steroids and
Contraceptives.
A study by World Health Organization (2012) has shown that the Causes of Drug Abuse in
Kenya include: Peer influence, Low self-esteem, Media influence (TV, magazines, internet),
Rebellion against parents, teachers, religion etc, Curiosity, Lack of knowledge of drugs,Poor role
models , Frustrations from home, school, body changes etc, Inability to achieve goals set thus
feeling like a failure, False ideas and perceptions. e.g. bhang enhances academic performance
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and many more. The abuse of such drugs has led to a number of Consequences. of youth
substance abuse.
A study by Softkenya (2014) called Consequences of youth substance abuse in Momba sa county
has shown that, young people who persistently abuse substances often experience an array of
problems, including academic difficulties, health-related problems (including mental health),
poor peer relationships, and involvement with the juvenile justice system. Additionally, there are
consequences for family members, the community, and the entire society.
This is confirmed by UNDCP (2013) in their study; Effects of Drug Abuse in Kenyas Major
Slums and have favored effects like: Poor memory, Reduced reasoning capacity, Truancy and
poor performance in school, sports and other activities, Poor concentration, Dropping out of
school, Suspension and expulsion from schools ,Risky sexual behavior leading to early
pregnancy & HIV/AIDS, Crimes like theft, violence, rape, incest, bestiality(sex with animals)
leading to legal implications, Poor health, Personal neglect, Withdrawal and isolation from
society, Being shunned by the society, Personal guilt, Poor relations with parents, teachers,
siblings and peers, Physical and psychological addiction, Overdose of drugs can lead to DEATH
and ma more.
2.3 The Influence of Drug and Substance Abuse on Education Performance
In Kenya, reports of young peoples lives destroyed by alcohol and drugs are rampant. The youth
and particularly students are especially vulnerable to the vice owing to peer pressure, media
influence, poor guidance and role modeling (Muchemi, 2013). The problem has taken root in
learning institution leading to the high number of school drop outs and idleness. If the problem is
left unaddressed, the country risks losing generations as well as remaining under-developed
owing to the diversion of resources to address among others basic needs for uneducated and
unskilled youth.
Although it is difficult to authenticate the actual extent and nature of drug and substance abuse
among youth in learning institutions, research indicates that most students, experiment with and
abuse alcohol and other drugs. A report by Chesang (2013) indicates that by the age of 15, 34%
of this age group had used tobacco, 18% cannabis sativa, 32% had abused khat and 5% cocaine;
with the age group at most risk put at between 16 and 18 years. In addition, the Daily Nation
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Newspaper, Tuesday 15 July 2014 (newsdesk@ke.nationmedia.com) reported that of the 27


people who died after consuming poison alcohol in Nyeri County, among them were university
and secondary school students, between 15 and 20 years old.
According to national statistics from the Rapid Situation Assessment of Drug and Substance
Abuse in Kenya (NACADA, 2012), 11.7% of young people aged 15-24 are current users of
alcohol, 6.2% use tobacco, 4.7% khat while 1.5% are users of cannabis. In addition, the median
age of initiation to tobacco products is 10 years while the minimum is 8 years. Alarmingly, the
median age for alcohol is 10 years and the minimum 4 years. The above statistics are an
indication of the grave situation faced by children and the youth in Kenya who are already
burdened by other socio-economic challenges. In addition, students were found to be abusing
imported illegal substances such as heroin, cocaine and mandrax. However, it was noted that of
the school youth who engaged extensively in drug and substance abuse, most of the cases took
place in secondary schools and institutions of higher learning. These findings show that drug and
substance abuse is a reality among Kenyan youth; and there is need for the development and
implementation of intervention strategies to curb the problem especially among students since
the dropouts and malingering from schools has been born by the above.
Reports on the impact of substances abuse on academic activities in almost 23 schools in the
slums of Mombasa, Kisumu and Nairobi indicate that it interferes with physiological,
psychological and emotional functioning. Among the problems recorded in the students who
participated in the study are impaired memory and other intellectual faculties, and tracking
inability in sensory and perceptual functions (Word Drug Report, 2014). Further, the habit
creates preoccupation with acquiring the substances, adverse psycho-pathetic complications and
social development. This may lead to truancy, lack of concentration on studies among others
(Word Drug Report, 2014)).
Reduced cognitive efficiency leads to poor academic performance and thus resulting in
decreased self-esteem. This contributes to instability in an individuals sense of identity, which
in turn, is likely to contribute to further substance abuse, thus creating a vicious circle (Hawkins,
Catalano & Miller, 1992; Eisenstein, 2005; Word Drug Report, 2014)). Other studies have
expounded that it is not only those who abuse substances that are affected. Students who abstain

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frequently suffer the second hand effects from the behaviour of other students who abuse
psychoactive substances (INCB, 2006 cited in Word Drug Report, 2014)).
While launching the 2 nd national conference on Drug and Substance Abuse: A Call for Action,
organized by NACADA in 2013, to formulate measures to curb drug abuse; the President of
Kenya, Hon. Uhuru Kenyatta directed the National Treasury to allocate more resources for
prevention and control of alcohol and drug abuse. In addition, the treasury was advised to seek
innovative ways of securing funding to increase NACADAs resource base in the fight against
drug and substance abuse in the country, particularly among the young people both in and out of
learning institutions (Standard Newspaper, June, 2014).
According to Kevin

et al. (2014), results of both studies in the rural and urban slums where

drugs are abused in Kenya underscore the importance of clarifying the mechanisms by which
substance use influences academic outcomes. Research suggests at least two potential
mechanisms. First, substance use itself may impair cognitive development which, in turn,
reduces academic achievement and disrupts academic progression. Recent studies in slums in the
Kenyas coast have shown that heavy adolescent substance use can lead to problems with
working memory and attention due to changes in adolescent brain activity. In turn, these memory
and attention problems may lead to decreases in academic performance and engagement in
school, and ultimately increase risk for school problems and dropout. However, these findings
have been reported with heavy drinking and drug-using adolescents (similar to the clinical
sample used by Engberg & Morral), and it is unclear whether such effects would emerge at lower
levels of use. Moreover, the magnitude and permanence of these effects are unclear in terms of
whether they extend to impair academic functioning. For example, studies suggest that
withdrawal is an important predictor of the neurocognitive deficits associated with adolescent
drinking, but it is not clear whether prolonged periods of abstinence rectifies these deficits or
whether they are permanent.
Kevin et al (2014) continue to show that alternatively, it could be that drug and alcohol use
during adolescence leads to association with antisocial peer groups, which in turn diminishes
school engagement and increases other behavioral and social problems. Indeed, as Godley and
the current studies support, substance use is related to many school-related outcomes that have a
strong behavioral and social component. That is, outcomes such as school grades, attendance,
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school completion and dropout are influenced not only by intellectual functioning, but also by
motivation, organizational skills and social/behavioral skills. In other words, the effects of
substance use on academic outcomes may have motivational, social and behavioral components
in addition to any effects on cognition and cognitive development. Thus, negative academic
outcomes may be due to both the direct effect of substance use on cognitive skills as well as the
constellation of motivational, social and behavioral risk factors associated with substance use in
adolescence.
Other studies show that, declining grades, absenteeism from school and other activities, and
increased potential for dropping out of school are problems associated with adolescent substance
abuse. Hawkins, Calatano and Miler (1992) had research finding that low level of commitment to
education and higher truancy rates appear to be related to substance use among adolescents.
Again drugs abused effect the brain, this result in major decline in the functions carried out by
the brain (Abot, 2005). Drugs affect the students concentration span, which is drastically reduced
and boredom sets in much faster than for non-drug and substance abusers. The student will lose
interest in school work including extra curriculum activities. Most of the psychoactive drugs
affect the decision making process of the students, creative thinking and the development of the
necessary life and social skills are stunted. They also interfere with the awareness of an
individuals unique potential and interest thus affecting their career development (Kikuvi, 2009;
Maithya, 2012).
In spite of the measures taken by the government to curb drug abuse, the practice is still
widespread in schools and institutions of higher learning. A report appearing on TV, K24
channel on 13th July, 2014 revealed that a 16 year old male student in a secondary school in
Nyeri County died after a drinking alcohol in a bar; this is not exception of Mombasa County
where cases of deaths have been continuously reported among school students in relation to
drugs. Additionally, another story by the Nation Media team, in the Daily Nation Newspaper
July 15th 2014, indicates that two university students and 4 secondary students were among 21
brew victims who died after consuming adulterated spirits in Eldoret County. As a result, Uasin
Gishu County Commissioner banned the sale of spirits indefinitely. Also in Mombasa County,
Marwa has tried to implement the presidents order of illicit drugs but the response from the
county government is surely cruel and very poor; posing the students to mere risks. This means
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that drug and substance abuse among students in Mombasa has become a serious problem that
affects all the people in the county, and especially students. It is in view of this background that
the current study was carried out.
2.4 The Influence of Drug and Substance Abuse on Economic Productivity
The social and economic costs related to youth substance abuse are high. They result from the
financial losses and distress suffered by alcohol- and drug-related crime victims, increased
burdens for the support of adolescents and young adults who are not able to become selfsupporting, and greater demands for medical and other treatment services for these youth
(Gropper, 1985cited by INCB, 2016).
According to EMCDDA (2014) drug abuse inflicts immeasurable harm on public health and
safety around the world each year, and threatens the peaceful development and smooth
functioning of many societies. An understanding of the economic costs of drug abuse is
necessary to develop policies that reduce such costs. Attempts to calculate the global monetary
burden of drug abuse, however, are mired in data limitations in the many areas that must be
taken into account to arrive at even a rough estimate of the total global cost of drug abuse.
Analysis of the economic consequences of drug abuse must account for expenditure associated
with policy choices and take into consideration any gains and externalities. Although accounting
for the full, real dollar costs of drug abuse worldwide is challenging, analysing its consequences
and understanding the domains it affects helps us to gain a clearer picture of the ways in which
drug abuse affects the world.
First of its impact is on health. According to International Labour Organization (2013), a
persons health is greatly affected by drug abuse, and this worsens among the youths who rarely
have the power to manage their health. Economically, this manifests itself in prevention and
treatment costs, health-care and hospital costs, increased morbidity and mortality. Depicted in
Costs of drug prevention and treatment, the phenomenon of drug abuse requires societies to
dedicate resources to evidence-based prevention, education and interventions, including
treatment and rehabilitation. Although such activities can be resource-intensive, studies have
shown that for every $1 spent, good prevention programmes can save Governments up to $10 in

17

subsequent costs; and such amount could be directed to development projects like upgrading of
slums in Kenya.
Also, visits to hospitals in connection with drug abuse are costly to society, and this is worse in
Mombasa where the number of such hospitals is limited. Such visits occur as a result of
overdoses, adverse reactions, psychotic episodes and symptoms of infectious diseases that can be
transmitted through, inter alia, injecting drug use, such as hepatitis B and C, HIV/ AIDS,
tuberculosis, and other illnesses related to drug use. Additionally, hospitals often need to treat
victims of drug-related crimes and accidents (NACADA, 2014b).
Another loss that is associated to drugs and has a direct impact on economic development is the
area of deaths associated with the drugs. This affects the youth who could otherwise contribute to
economic development. According to International Labour Organization (2013), globally, it is
estimated that drug-related deaths account for between 0.5 and 1.3 per cent of all-cause mortality
for people aged 15-64 years. It is estimated that there are 211,000 drug-related deaths annually,
with younger people facing a particularly high risk; a population that has the energy that is
otherwise required for economic development. In Europe, the average age of death from drug use
is in the mid-30s. It is important to note that little information regarding drug-related mortality is
available for Asia and Africa. In addition to drug-related mortality, estimates indicate that of the
14 million injecting drug users worldwide, 1.6 million are living with HIV, 7.2 million are living
with hepatitis C, and 1.2 million are living with hepatitis B. A global scientific study estimated
that the burden of disease attributable to drug use was substantial, rising in 2010 relative to 1990.
Out of 43 risk factors, drug use was nineteenth in the ranking of the top global killers (alcohol
was third and tobacco was second). For people aged 15-49 years, drug use was the sixth most
common reason for death (United States Agency for International Development, 2013).
According to World Health Organization (2011), another economic area challenged by substance
abuse in Kenya today is the impact on public safety by the youth. According to the report,
beyond health costs, people under the influence of drugs pose major safety risks and costs to
people around them and the environment. For example, drug-affected driving accidents have
emerged as a major global threat in recent years and the same in worst in Mombasa where the
majority of youths under drugs double as motor bike riders (Bodabodas). Additionally, a greater
awareness of the impacts on the environment of illicit drug cultivation, production and
18

manufacture has emerged. Also, the emergence of illicit drug cultivation and manufacture in
residential areas brings with it concern about reduced quality of life for residents, neighbourhood
decay and property damage resulting from child endangerment, criminal activity and explosions.
A study by Barasa (2013) notes that, a further cost of drug abuse that is often cited is the loss in
productivity that can occur when drug users are under the influence of drugs or are experiencing
the consequences of their drug use (e.g., while in treatment, incarceration or hospital). Studies
have put the costs of lost productivity borne by employers at tens of billions of dollars. This has
also been advocated by costs from labour non-participation. Here, productivity losses are
calculated as work that would be reasonably expected to have been done if not for drug use (a
loss of potential income and output and therefore GDP) as a result of a reduction in the supply or
effectiveness of the workforce. Globally, lost productivity in the United States as a result of
labour non-participation is significant: $120 billion (or 0.9 per cent of GDP) in 2011, amounting
to 62 per cent of all drug-related costs. Similar studies in Australia, Canada and Kenya identified
losses of 0.3 per cent of GDP to 0.4 per cent of GDP. In those three countries, the cost of lost
productivity was estimated to be 8 and 3 times higher than health-related costs due to morbidity,
ambulatory care, physician visits and other related consequences.
In the Kenyan slums, a study touching on Costs from treatment participation, hospitalization,
incarceration and premature mortality of the drug abusers has shown that, while in treatment or
when incarcerated, drug users may be unable to participate in work, education or training, adding
to the economic loss, in addition to the cost of treatment or incarceration. It should be noted that
these productivity costs will be lower if job opportunities are already scarce as a whole. In
Europe in 2010, 56 per cent of patients entering drug treatment programmes were unemployed,
and that percentage has increased over the past five years. A similar trend has been identified in
Kenya. In fact, Drug abuse has slowed economic development in many parts of Mombasa,
helping keep unemployment rates high and economic productivity low even among the users
themselves. In addition, high crime rates discourage foreign investment.
2.5 Drug and Substance Abuse and Teenage Pregnancies among the Youth
Teenage pregnancy is pregnancy in human females under the age of 20. A girl can become
pregnant from sexual intercourse after she has begun to ovulate which can be before her first
19

menstrual period (menarche), but usually occurs after the onset of her periods. In well-nourished
girls, menarche usually takes place around the age of 12 or 13 (Morbidity and Matality weekly
report, 2013). The report continues to show that, teen pregnancy has become a national epidemic,
in part because more and more teenagers who give birth decide to keep and raise their children.
There is a great cost to individuals, families, and society when children have children of their
own.
According to National Institute on drug abuse (2012), the abuse of alcohol and other drugs lead
to acute effect on the body. It alters judgment, vision, coordination and speech and also leads to
risk taking behavior. The youth involved in drug related problems affecting their relation with
family members and friends. They are likely to be involved in fights and these get them into
trouble with the law. Because drugs lead to irresponsible sexual behaviour, girls abusing drugs
are likely to get pregnant. The issue of teen pregnancy has much bad hidden effects than could be
observed on the surface in Kenyas slums of Kibera, Mukuruini, Kisumu Ndogo and many more
(NACADA, 2015).
According to a study carried out by NACADA (2014c), teens who drink or use drugs in Kenya
today often are more sexually active and less likely to use contraception when they have sex than
teens who take fewer risks. They also tend to have more sexual partners, and often start having
sex at younger ages. This is true due to the fact that, nearly four in ten high school students
report having experimented with marijuana at least once, and over one-third of form fours report
they have used some type of illicit drug. Approximately two-thirds of youths in colleges report
having tried alcohol at least once and one-quarter of all high school students in Mombasa and
Nairobi slums say they drink heavily on occasion. Consequently, teens 15 and older who use
drugs are more likely to be sexually experienced than are those teens who do not use drugs, as 72
percent of teens who use drugs have had sex, compared to 36 percent who have never used
drugs.
Teens who have used marijuana are four times more likely to have been pregnant or to have
gotten someone pregnant than teens who have never used marijuana in the country today
(NACADA, 2015). More than one-third of sexually active teens and young adults age 15 to 24
report that alcohol or drug use has influenced them to do something sexual in Mombasa for
example and nearly one-quarter of sexually active teens and young adults age 15 to 24 report that
20

they have had sex without a condom because they were under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
43 percent of teens and young adults say that they are concerned that they might do more
sexually than they had planned because they are drinking or using drugs. The report continues to
show that, Girls who smoke or drink are even more susceptibleprior use of alcohol and/or
cigarettes increases the risk of early sexual experience by 80 percent, and many teenage girls
who use alcohol when they first have sex are too drunk to use birth control successfully. In
Kisauni and Changamwe, the report shows that almost one-quarter of all high school students
used alcohol or drugs prior to their last sexual experience.
In a nutshell summary, a study by NACADA (2012) shows that, teens often drink or use other
drugs when they engage in sexual activity. So perhaps it's not surprising that many young people
lose their virginity while drunk. Unfortunately, many teens who get drunk and have sex also
become pregnant because they aren't thinking about or able to use protection at the time. The
report continue to show that, thirteen percent of teens say they've done something sexual while
using alcohol and other drugs that they might not have done if they had been sober. Finally, teens
who drink and smoke are more likely to hang out with teens they perceive to be sexually
"advanced" which usually results in a higher level of sexual activity among those teens
themselves.
Therefore, there are complicated, even dangerous, connections between the use of drugs and
alcohol and sexual behaviors. Yet the effects of most drug prevention efforts have been modest
at best. Risky behaviors are not going away, and neither is our responsibility to face them
squarely. Perhaps now is the time for educators to try new strategies to counter the ever
increasing challenges of teen alcohol and drug abuse and the impact on their sexual risk -taking
behavior. Some experts advocate programs which offer comprehensive and realistic information
about the effects of alcohol and other drugs, along with the assumption that young people can be
trusted to make responsible decisions to stay safe (Softkenya, 2014).

21

2.6 The Conceptual Framework


The study is guided by the following conceptual framework which shows the independent
variables and dependent variable.
Independent Variables
Education Performance
Dependent Variable

Poor Grades

Poor Concentration

Absenteeism

Effects of Drug and

School Drop Out

Substance Abuse on Youth


Development

Economic Productivity

Financial Losses

Demands For Medical

Drug-Related Deaths

Public Safety

Labour Non-Participation

Teenage Pregnancies

Irresponsible Sexual Behavior

More Sexual Partners

Unwanted Pregnancies

Illegal Abortions

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework

22

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
This chapter focused on the research methodology used in the study. It entails a research design,
the target population and sample size, the procedure followed in the collection of the data, data
collection instrument, validity and reliability, data presentation and analysis.
3.2. Research Design
According to Mugenda and Mugenda (1999), research design refers to the procedures selected by
a researcher for studying a particular set of questions or hypothesis; this includes the researchers
choice of quantitative or qualitative methodology, and how, if at all, causal relationships between
variables or phenomena are to be explored. This study therefore used a descriptive survey
research design. According to Mugenda and Mugenda (2003), a descriptive survey is a means of
gathering information about the characteristics, actions or opinions of a large group of people
and thus, surveys are capable of obtaining information from large samples of the population.
3.3 Target Population
The target population for this study included all the youths who are subscribed to one major
Alpha and Omega Teens 4 teen CBO. Alpha and Omega Youth Group is a registered self-help
group under the Ministry of Gender Children & Social Services in the Department of Social
Services. The group is located in Jomvu division, Birikani sub location-(Bangladesh), of
Changamwe constituency /district formally Mombasa district along Mombasa Nairobi highway
opposite Changamwe railway station. It was established in year 2009.The groups formation was
primarily facilitated to address the pathetic drug abuse/use by the youths Environmental
pollution standards, Economic Empowerment of the youth, Social construction and the
HIV/AIDS pandemic through behavior change interventions. The youth group therefore aims at
empowering the youth (boys and girls) who live in abject poverty to sustainable Economic,
Social and Environmental maturity. The numbers of youth subscribed to the CBO today are
approximately 190. This will make the target population.
3.4 Sample design and sample size
Mugenda & Mugenda (2003) argues that a sample size of at least 10% of the target population is
convenient in a descriptive study more specifically when the target population is less than
10,000. According to Okombo (2012) the sample population should have at least 30 respondents
23

in order to have an accurate analysis. Determination of the sample shall be guided by the need to
obtain a sample that is, as far as possible, representative of the population as a whole. Kothari
(2004) argues that the sample size population can be increased from 10% to 20%, 30% or more
so as to take care of the non-respondents. Since the population is more centralized and is not
large, the researcher adopted the 30% threshold. Therefore a random sampling was applied to
randomly sample 30% of the respondents from the 190. Therefore the sample population taken
was 57 youths.
3.5 Data Collection Instruments
The questionnaires were the main data collection instruments used. The questionnaire was
expected to help the researcher to collect data on knowledge, opinions as well as attitudes of
respondents. The questionnaire was suited for this study because it is practical and is used to
collect data from a large number of people within a short time and in a relatively cost effective
manner. Open ended questions enabled respondents to provide sufficient details while close
ended questions enabled the researcher to easily quantify results by the use of SPSS version 20.0.
3.6 Validity and Reliability of Research
According to Marshall and Rossman (1989), validity is a measure of how well a test measures
what it is supposed to measure. It is the degree to which results obtained actually represent the
phenomenon under investigation. Reliability is defined by Kothari (2004) as the measure of the
degree to which a research instrument yields consistent results after a repeated trial.
3.6.1Validity of the Research Instrument
According to Best & Khan (1981), validity is the quality that a procedure or instrument or a tool
used in research is accurate, correct, true and meaningful. The research used content validity as a
measure of the degree to which the data collected using the questionnaire represented the
objectives of the study. The instrument was verified by the university supervisor and experts in
research and senior employees of research firms in Mombasa.
3.6.2 Reliability of the Research Instrument
Mugenda (2003) argues that reliability is concerned with estimates of the degree to which a
research instrument yields consistent results after repeated trials. In this study, reliability was
determined by a test-retest administered to 10 respondents/subjects not included in the sample.
The data obtained was keyed in as t1. A re-test was done on the same respondents and the results

24

given as t2 .A correlation value was calculated by taking (t1 /10+ t2/10)/2 .A value of 0.75 will be
the minimal one accepted for the study (what is known as Cronbachs alpha calculation).
3.7 Data Collection Procedure
Data collection tools were piloted and suggestions made before finalizing the questionnaire. The
study utilized self-administered questionnaires by the researchers and field research assistants.
The researchers got a permit from the Kenya School of administration and relevant authorities
like the ministry of youths. The researchers visited the sampled respondents and administer the
questionnaires to them. Appointments to the sampled teachers were arranged prior to the visits to
avoid any inconveniences to the respondents.
3.8 Data Analysis
Quantitative data obtained from the open ended questions was coded to facilitate quantitative
analysis. The coded data was analyzed by use of descriptive statistics comprising of frequency
tables. Data analysis shall be done by use of SPSS 20.0
3.9 Ethical Considerations
All government authorities were informed prior to the study to avoid suspicions and resistance
from the community members. Consent was sought from the respondents whose participation in
this study is voluntary. The information they provided was treated with utmost confidentiality.
Privacy and dignity of the respondents shall be considered during the research. Names of the
respondents shall not be exposed and codes will be used instead. The respondents shall be
assured that a feedback session will be organized in order to disseminate the research findings to
the county.

25

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Introduction
The data collected was keyed and analyzed by simple descriptive analysis using Statistical
Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 20.0 software. The data was then presented through
frequency tables and narrative analysis. The chapter presents data in different sub-sections that
are in relationship with the objectives and the items asked in the questionnaire.
4.2 Response Rate
57 questionnaires were administered to various categories of respondents and the results
analyzed. Out of the 57 questionnaires issued, 54 were returned, thus they were valid for the
study. 3 questionnaires were returned. This means that the return rate was 94.74% positive while
non-responses took 5.26%.
4.3 Basic Information of the Respondents
The study wanted to find out the bio data of respondents, age and educational level as shown in
the tables below.
4.3.1

Sex Distribution of the Respondents

The study found out the sex composition of the respondents as shown in the table 4.1 below.
Table 4.1 Sex Distribution of Respondents
Sex

Frequency

Percentage

Female

14

36.36%

Male

40

64.64%

Total

54

100%

From the table above, the response was dominated by the male gender with a total of 40 male
respondents who made 64.64% while 13 of the respondents went for the female gender that
represented 36.36%.
4.3.2

Age Distribution of Respondents

The study sought to find out the age brackets of the respondents in the study and the results were
as shown below.

26

Table 4.2 Age Distribution of Respondents


Age

Frequency

Percentage

14 to 18 Years

10

18.5%

18 to 22 Years

11

20.4%

22 to 26 Years

12

22.2%

26 to 30 Years

15

27.8%

30 to 34 Years

11.11%

Total

54

100%

From the table, majority of the population that participated in the study was between ages 26 to
30 years making 27.8%. This is the age that is mostly dominated by youths who are in the
transition rate to either parents or new jobs. This was followed by 22.2% for ages that went for
ages 22 to 26 years, ages 18 to 22 followed with 20.4%, 14 to 18 years followed with a
percentage of 18.5% and finally ages 30 to 34 years had 11.11%.

4.3.3

Educational Level of Respondents

The study sought to establish the level of education of the respondents and the results indicated
by the table below were arrived at.
Table 4.3 Academic Qualification of Respondents
Education level

Frequency

Percentage

Primary

11.11%

Secondary

20

37.0%

College

12

22.22%

University

16

29.67%

Total

54

100%

Respondents with secondary education dominated at 37.0%. They were followed by those with
university education at 29.67%, Diploma followed at 22.22%, while the remaining 11.11% with
6 respondents went for youths who have education.

27

4.4 Influence of Drug and Substance Abuse on Education Performance


The research aimed at investigating the Influence of drug and substance abuse on education
performance and results in the sub-headings below reached upon.
4.4.1

Drug and Substance Abuse on Education Performance

The respondents were asked whether they supported the idea that of drug and substance abuse
has an influence on education performance in Bangladesh area and the responses in the table
below were arrived at:
Table 4.4 Drug and Substance Abuse on Education Performance

Response
YES
NO
Total

Frequency

Percentage

50

92.59%

7.41%

54

100%

From the responses, 50 respondents agreed with the idea that drug and substance abuse has an
influence on education performance in Bangladesh area, while those who were for no made 7.4%
of the responses, bringing the total to 4 respondents.
4.4.2 Degree of Rating of Drug and Substance Abuse on Education Performance
The respondents were asked to rate using a scale of 1 to 5, the extent to which the following
issues were related to drugs and substances abuse. Key is as: (Strongly Agree SA, Agree A,
Neutral N, Disagree D, Strongly Disagree SD).

28

Table.4.5 Rating of Drug and Substance Abuse on Education Performance


Statement

SD

Drugs and substances abuse has led to Poor Grades among youths in 4

SA

29

schools.
Poor Concentration in schools is due to drug and substances abuse.

12 17

11

Absenteeism in Bangladesh is due to drugs and substance abuse.

14 19

10

School Drop Outs have increased due to drugs and substances abuse.

29

From the responses gotten, various factors attracted different degrees of responses on a rating.
On the factor that focused on Poor Grades among youths in schools, 4 respondents strongly
disagreed, 7 Disagreed, 9 went for neutral, 29 agreed, while, 5 strongly agreed with the issue.
Responses on poor concentration in schools had, 7 who disagreed, 7 disagreed, 12 went for
neutral, 17 agreed while, 11 strongly agreed. The statement that read, Absenteeism in
Bangladesh is due to drugs and substance abuse attracted, 5 respondents strongly disagreed, 6
who disagreed, 14 who were neutral, 19 who agreed, while the remaining 10 greatly agreed.
Finally, the statement that read, school drop outs have increased due to drugs and substances
abuse attracted, no respondents strongly disagreed, 7 who disagreed, 9 who were neutral, 29 who
agreed, while the remaining 9 greatly agreed.
4.5 Influence of Drug and Substance Abuse on Economic Productivity
The study sought to examine the influence of Substance Abuse on Economic Productivity in the
Bangladesh area and the following results were gotten.
4.5.1 Drug and Substance Abuse and Economic Productivity
Respondents were asked whether they thought that Drug and Substance Abuse has influenced
Economic Productivity in Bangladesh and the following responses were given.

29

Table 4.6 Response on Relationship between Drugs and Substances Abuse on Economic
Empowerment

Response
YES
NO

Total

Frequency

Percentage

50

92.6%

7.4%

54

100%

From the response, 92.6% of the respondents felt that Drug and Substance Abuse has influenced
Economic Productivity in Bangladesh significantly, while the remaining 7.4% Drug and
Substance Abuse has influenced Economic Productivity in Bangladesh had no significant
influence in relation to projects completion. When asked to give reasons, the following became
evident: drug addicts for example become dependent on drugs to the extent that they cant work
without using them, some have contracted diseases that have totally weakened them, others have
been absent to work, leading to poor productivity and many more.
Table 4.7 Rating of Drug and Substance Abuse and Economic Productivity
Respondents were asked a question that read, indicate your position using a scale of: Strongly
Disagree = 1, Disagree = 2, Neutral =3, Agree =4 and Strongly Agree =5 in relation to the
factors below and the results were as shown in the table.

30

Statement
Financial losses have been experienced at Bangladesh due to drugs and

SD

SA

15 14 19

28 14 5

13 21 10 10

10 19 19

substances abuse by the youth.


Demands for medical care due to drugs and substances abuse has have
led to slowed economic development.
Drug-related deaths lead to slowed economic development.
Public safety concerns posed by drug users have slowed economic

14 28

development.
Labour non-participation by drug abusers has led to slowed
development.

According to the responses received, 3 respondents strongly disagreed with the idea that
financial losses have been experienced at Bangladesh due to drugs and substances abuse by the
youth, 3 disagreed, 15 were neutral, 14 agreed, while the rest 19 strongly agreed. On the idea that
focused on demands for medical care due to drugs and substances abuse attracted, 2 respondents
who strongly disagreed, 5 disagreed, 28 were neutral, 14 agreed, while the remaining 5 strongly
agreed with the idea. On the idea that read, drug-related deaths lead to slowed economic
development had the responses as follows: 0 respondents strongly disagreed, 13 disagreed, 21
were neutral, 10 agreed, while the remaining 10 strongly agreed with the statement. On the
statement that read; Public safety concerns posed by drug users have slowed economic
development, 2 respondents strongly disagreed, 5 disagreed, 5 were neutral, 14 agreed, while the
remaining 28 strongly agreed with the statement. Finally on the statement that read, labour nonparticipation by drug abusers has led to slowed development, 3 respondents strongly disagreed, 3
disagreed, 10 were neutral, 19 agreed, while the remaining 19 strongly agreed with the statement.
4.6 Item on Drug and Substance Abuse and Teenage Pregnancies among the Youth
Respondents were asked whether they thought that drug and substance abuse had a link with
teenage pregnancies among the youth in Bangladesh and responses below given.

31

Table 4.8 Drug abuse and Teen Pregnancy

Response

YES

NO

Total

Frequency

Percentage

52

96.30%

3.70%

54

100%

Respondents were asked whether they thought that the drugs abuse have an influence in teen
pregnancies and the responses were that 52 respondents who represented 96.30% went for a yes
answer while the remaining 2 with a percentage of 3.7% went for a no answer. When asked to
give examples supporting their responses, over 97% of the respondents argued that, issues like
unprotected sex, group sex, sexual urge and rapes among peers are very common among the
youth abusing drugs.
4.6.1 Rating of Drug abuse and Teen Pregnancy
Respondents were asked to rate the on a scale of 1 to 5, the extent of agreement with the
following factors (SA-Strongly agree, A- Agree, N-Neutral, D-Disagree, SD- strongly disagree)
gave the following:
Table 4.9 Rating of Drug abuse and Teen Pregnancy
Statement

SD

SA

Irresponsible sexual behavior is linked to drugs and substances abuse


in Bangladesh.

17 15

17

Drugs and substances abusers have more sexual partners.

21

24

Unwanted pregnancies are common among the drug and substance


abusers.

11 23

10

Illegal abortions are common among drug and substance abusers.

11 14

23

32

In relation to the above statements, the support for the statement that read irresponsible sexual
behavior is linked to drugs and substances abuse in Bangladesh had 1 respondent who strongly
disagreed, 4 disagreed, 17 were neutral, 15 agreed, while the rest 17 strongly agreed with this
idea. On the statement that read, drugs and substances abusers have more sexual partners, 1
respondent strongly disagreed, 3 disagreed, 5 neutral, 21 agreed, while the remaining 24 strongly
agreed. On the statement that read, unwanted pregnancies are common among the drug and
substance abusers, 4 respondent strongly disagreed, 6 disagreed, 11 neutral, 23 agreed, while the
remaining 10 strongly agreed On the final factor that read, poor decisions making from the
supervisors have led to delayed projects, attracted 4 respondents who strongly disagreed, 6
disagreed, 11 uncertain, 23 agreed, while the remaining 10 strongly agreed with the statement.

33

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction
This chapter presents the summary of the study findings, discussions, conclusions and
recommendation of the research. The chapter also contains suggestions of related studies that
may be carried out in the future.
5.2 Summary of Findings
The aim of this study was to establish the effects of drugs and substances abuse on the youth in
Bangladesh. From an analysis and review of the research data and additional data gathered
through interviews and questionnaires filled, issues that follow become evident.
The first objective sought to examine the extent to which drug and substance abuse influences
level of education among the youth in Bangladesh Village Changamwe Constituency and from
the responses, 50 respondents agreed with the idea that drug and substance abuse has an
influence on education performance in Bangladesh area, while those who were for no made 7.4%
of the responses, bringing the total to 4 respondents. On a rating scale, in relation to the factor
that focused on Poor Grades among youths in schools, 4 respondents strongly disagreed, 7
Disagreed, 9 went for neutral, 29 agreed, while, 5 strongly agreed with the issue. Responses on
poor concentration in schools had, 7 who disagreed, 7 disagreed, 12 went for neutral, 17 agreed
while, 11 strongly agreed.

In relation to the second objective that sought to find out the extent to which drug and substance
abuse influences economic productivity among the youth in Bangladesh Village Changamwe
Constituency, the following responses became apparent. From the response, 92.6% of the
respondents felt that Drug and Substance Abuse has influenced Economic Productivity in
Bangladesh significantly, while the remaining 7.4% Drug and Substance Abuse has influenced
Economic Productivity in Bangladesh had no significant influence in relation to projects
completion. When asked to give reasons, the following became evident: drug addicts for
34

example become dependent on drugs to the extent that they cant work without using them, some
have contracted diseases that have totally weakened them, others have been absent to work,
leading to poor productivity and many more.
.
The third objective sought to examine the influence of drug and substance abuse on teenage
pregnancies among the youth in Bangladesh Village Changamwe Constituency. Here,
respondents were asked whether they thought that the drugs abuse have an influence in teen
pregnancies and the responses were that 52 respondents who represented 96.30% went for a yes
answer while the remaining 2 with a percentage of 3.7% went for a no answer. When asked to
give examples supporting their responses, over 97% of the respondents argued that, issues like
unprotected sex, group sex, sexual urge and rapes among peers are very common among the
youth abusing drugs.
5.3 Discussion of Findings
Findings have shown that there is a significant link between the objectives discussed in the
literature review and what is seen in chapter four and as it is entirely proven by the figures that
have been shown. Therefore, from the findings on the first objective sought to examine the extent
to which drug and substance abuse influences level of education among the youth in Bangladesh
Village Changamwe Constituency and from the responses, 50 respondents agreed with the idea
that drug and substance abuse has an influence on education performance in Bangladesh area,
while those who were for no made 7.4% of the responses, bringing the total to 4 respondents. In
agreement to this is Muchemi (2013) who notes that, in Kenya, reports of young peoples lives
destroyed by alcohol and drugs are rampant. The youth and particularly students are especially
vulnerable to the vice owing to peer pressure, media influence, poor guidance and role modeling.
The problem has taken root in learning institution leading to the high number of school drop outs
and idleness.

In relation to the second objective that sought to find out the extent to which drug and substance
abuse influences economic productivity among the youth in Bangladesh Village Changamwe
Constituency, the following responses became apparent. From the response, 92.6% of the
respondents felt that Drug and Substance Abuse has influenced Economic Productivity in
Bangladesh significantly, while the remaining 7.4% Drug and Substance Abuse has influenced
35

Economic Productivity in Bangladesh had no significant influence in relation to projects


completion. When asked to give reasons, the following became evident: drug addicts for
example become dependent on drugs to the extent that they cant work without using them, some
have contracted diseases that have totally weakened them, others have been absent to work,
leading to poor productivity and many more. This is supported by Gropper (1985) cited by INCB
(2016) who notes that the social and economic costs related to youth substance abuse are high.
They result from the financial losses and distress suffered by alcohol- and drug-related crime
victims, increased burdens for the support of adolescents and young adults who are not able to
become self-supporting, and greater demands for medical and other treatment services for these
youth.

The third objective sought to examine the influence of drug and substance abuse on teenage
pregnancies among the youth in Bangladesh Village Changamwe Constituency. Here,
respondents were asked whether they thought that the drugs abuse have an influence in teen
pregnancies and the responses were that 52 respondents who represented 96.30% went for a yes
answer while the remaining 2 with a percentage of 3.7% went for a no answer. When asked to
give examples supporting their responses, over 97% of the respondents argued that, issues like
unprotected sex, group sex, sexual urge and rapes among peers are very common among the
youth abusing drugs.
According to a study carried out by NACADA (2014c), teens who drink or use drugs in Kenya
today often are more sexually active and less likely to use contraception when they have sex than
teens who take fewer risks. They also tend to have more sexual partners, and often start having
sex at younger ages. This is true due to the fact that, nearly four in ten high school students
report having experimented with marijuana at least once, and over one-third of form fours report
they have used some type of illicit drug. Approximately two-thirds of youths in colleges report
having tried alcohol at least once and one-quarter of all high school students in Mombasa and
Nairobi slums say they drink heavily on occasion. Consequently, teens 15 and older who use
drugs are more likely to be sexually experienced than are those teens who do not use drugs, as 72
percent of teens who use drugs have had sex, compared to 36 percent who have never used
drugs.
36

5.4 Conclusions
Based on the findings and the analysis of the data from the field, the researcher concluded that,
academic performance of the youth, level of economic performance by the youth and teenage
pregnancy are closely linked and influenced by the use, abuse and taking of drugs in
Changamwes Bangladesh slum.
5.5 Recommendations
Based on the findings of the study that has come from the respondents in the field and the
literature review, the researcher recommends that the county government in charge of dugs
control, the NACADA, NGOS, CBOs, FBOs, teachers, politicians and local leaders should come
up with amicable strategies that can enable the youths understand the effects and dangers
associated with drugs and substances abuse. Also, rehabilitation centres and special
schools/social education halls must be built to take care of the youth who are already affected.
5.6 Suggestions for Further Research
i.

This study was carried out in Kenyas coast region only. Therefore, a similar study can be
done in other parts of the country.

ii.

A research can be done to access the effects of drugs and substances abuse on the third
parties (parents, guardians, society) in Changamwe sub-county.

37

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40

Appendixes
Appendix I:
Letter of Transmittal
Martin Otundo Richard
P. O. Box 09-80402
Lungalunga, Kenya

Dear Sir/Madam,
RE: INTRODUCTION AND REQUEST TO PARTICIPATE IN STUDY
I am a student at JKUAT Mombasa campus. Am doing a report in this area and the research
topic is Effects of Drugs and Substances Abuse on Youth Performance in Bangladesh.
You have been randomly selected to participate in this study by filling in the questionnaire to
enable the collection of the needed data for analysis. The information collected will be used for
academic research only and will be treated with utmost confidentiality.
Thanking you in advance for your co-operation.
Yours faithfully,
Otunod Richard Martin +254721246744
Researcher (PhD Student JKUAT)

41

Appendix II:
Questionnaire
SECTION A: DEMOGRAPHIC DATA
Please tick in the most appropriate box. [ ]

1. Kindly indicate your gender:


Male

Female

14 to 18 Years

18 to 22 Years

[ ]

22 to 26 Years

26 to 30 Years

30 to 34 Years

2. What is your age bracket?

3. What is your level of education?


Primary

Secondary

College

University

SECTION B: Question in Relation To the Items in the Questionnaire


Influence of Drug and Substance Abuse on Education Performance
1. Do you support the idea that of drug and substance abuse has an influence on education
performance in Bangladesh area?
Yes

No {

42

2. In the table below please indicate your appropriate response to the statements given by
ticking in the correct box.
Key: Strongly Agree SA, Agree A, Neutral N, Disagree D, Strongly Disagree SD
Statement

SD

SA

Drugs and substances abuse has led to Poor Grades among youths in
schools.
Poor Concentration in schools is due to drug and substances abuse.
Absenteeism in Bangladesh is due to drugs and substance abuse.
School Drop Outs have increased due to drugs and substances abuse.

Influence of Drug and Substance Abuse on Economic Productivity


4. Do you think that there is an influence of drug and substance abuse on economic productivity?
Yes

No {

4. Giving two examples to support your arguments in 4 above.

5. In a rating scale, in the table below please indicate your appropriate response to the
statements given by ticking in the correct box.

43

Key: Strongly Agree SA, Agree A, Neutral N, Disagree D, Strongly Disagree SD

Statement

SD

Financial losses have been experienced at Bangladesh due to drugs and


substances abuse by the youth.
Demands for medical care due to drugs and substances abuse has have
led to slowed economic development.
Drug-related deaths lead to slowed economic development.
Public safety concerns posed by drug users have slowed economic
development.
Labour non-participation by drug abusers has led to slowed
development.

Drug and Substance Abuse and Teenage Pregnancies among the Youth
6. Do you agree with the idea that drugs and substances abuse are closely linked to teenage
pregnancies among the youth in Bangladesh area?
Yes

No

7. Support your answer above with any evidence.

44

SA

9. In the table below please indicate your appropriate response to the statements given by ticking
in the correct box.
Key: Strongly Agree SA, Agree A, Neutral N, Disagree D, Strongly Disagree SD
Statement

SD

Irresponsible sexual behavior is linked to drugs and substances abuse


in Bangladesh.
Drugs and substances abusers have more sexual partners.
Unwanted pregnancies are common among the drug and substance
abusers.
Illegal abortions are common among drug and substance abusers.

45

SA

Appendix III:
Budget

NO.

DESCRIPTION

AMOUNT
(KSHS)

1.

Stationary expenses

4,500

2.

Travelling and upkeep expenses

20,000

3.

Research Assistants Allowances

20,000

4.

Photocopying and Binding

10,500

TOTAL

56,000

46