You are on page 1of 10

# 45 NOTES TO PG

## Dr. Ankit Yadavendra, M.B.B.S., Dr.V.M.G.M.C., Solapur

23-BIOSTATICS, FORMULAE
categorical/qualitative data-percentage%
freq of occurrence(comparision of magnitude)
bar diagram
pie chart/sector diagram
pictogram
map diagram/spot map
quanTitative data-meanSD(unskew), median(range)(skew)
distribution(not related to time)
hisTogram
freq polygon
freq curve
line diag(time trend)
scatter plot(study relation b/n 2variable)
measure of central tendency
outlier, skewed, extreme
most affected-mean
least affect-mode
most preferred-median
geometric mean=(n)(x1x2xn)
harmonic mean=1/(1/x1+1/x2+1/xn)
meas of dispersion/deviation/variation
range=maxmin
mean deviation=|meanx|/n
SD=[(|meanx|)/n]
SD(<30)=[(|meanx|)/(n1)]
variance=SD
CV=(SD/mean)100
SE=SD/n
precision=1/SE=n/SD
for bimodal data
mode=3median2mean
z score/relative deviate/critical ratio
z=|meanx|/SD
(quant)SE=SD/n

(qualit)SE=(PQ/n)
(quant)95%CI=mean2.5SE
(qualit)95%CI=proportion2.5SE
(quant)sample size=ZSE/L
(qualit)sample size=ZPQ/L
Z=4, P=prevalence, Q=1P, L=100-CI
probability
p(event)=n(experiment)/n(total event)
odds=n(event occur)/n(event not occur)
Poisson distribution-discrete probability distribution for random event
+ve/rt skew
mean>median>mode
ve/lt skew
mean<median<mode
(Hint-arrange in alphabetical order and look at the direction where the (<,>) is
pointing)
Pearson skewness coefcient=(meanmode)/SD
std normal curve
area=1
mean=mode=median=0
SD=1
mean1SD=68.27%
mean2SD=95.45%
mean3SD=99.73%
test for pRecision(Reliability, Reproducibility, Repeatability)
Range chart
R chart
CRonbach
test for accuracy
mean chart
LJ(Levy Jenning) chart
Shewart control chart
null hypothesis(
reject )
rejected-p value<0.05-p value signicant
accepted-p value>0.05-p value insignicant
p value=prob of declaring diff when actually not=prob rejecting null hypothesis when
true

## p value 0.01-difference 99%signif

CI level of signif
type I error-false +ve
type II error-false ve
epidemiologic hypothesis specify
population, expected outcome, sp cause, dose response relationship, time response
relationship
epidemiological study
cohort(AIR)-Attributable risk, Incidence, Relative risk-natural h/o ds, Hawthorn
effect-behaviour change when being observed
case control-Odds ratio
cross sectional-prevalence
ecological(best)-group characteristics-unit-population
observational study
descriptive
analytical
ecological-correlation-polpulation
cross sectional-prevalence-individual
case control-case reference-individual
prospective-Framingham heart study, Doll&Hills study on smoking&ca lung
nested case control study
retrospective-effect of fetal monitoring on neonatal death, PVC exposure&
angiosarcoma liver
COmbine-COurt Brown&Doll study on radiation therapy
experimental study
randomised control trial-clinical trial-pt
eld trial-healthy people, introduce vacc for 1y old&see its efcacy
community trial-community intervention study-community
randomised control trial-dropout not excluded fr study
accuracy to test association b/n risk factor&ds
systematic review& metaanalysis>
randomised control trial>
retrospective cohort>
prospective cohort>
case cohort>
cross sectional>

ecological
yield=new case d/t screening
screen time=time(1st possible Dx nal critical Dx)
lead time=time(1st possibl Dx usual time Dx)
serial interval=time(prim case sec case)
generation time=time(receipt of inf by host max infectivity)
T interval=no. of d bed of hosp remain vacant
incubat periodgeneration time
RR/risk ratio=incid(exposed)/incid(non exposed)
AR=[incid(exposed)incid(non exposed)]/incid(expos)
popul AR=[incid(population)incid(not exposed)]/incid(population)
type of bias-technique
selection-randomisation
surveillance/detection
Neyman survival/incidence prevalence
referral/volunteer
response
recall(memory)
bias d/t confounding-matching, multivariate analysis
information-single blinding
interviewer/observer-double blinding
statician-triple blinding
sensitivity=(true+ve/all ds)100
specicity=(trueve/all not ds)100
+ve predictive value=(true+ve/all+ve)100
ve predictive value=(trueve/allve)100
diagnostic test-predictive value
false+ve%=(FP/total not ds)100=1sPecicity
falseve%=(FN/total ds)100=1seNsitivity
efciency(accuracy)=all true/all pt
likelihood ratio for +ve test=sensitivity/(1specicity)
likelihood ratio ve test=(1sensitivity)/specicity
pretest probability=prevalence+clinical assessm
posttest probability=pretest probabilitylikelihood ratio
sensitivity-TP-PPV
specicity-TN-NPV
sensitivity,specicity-criterion validity

multiple Dx test
series-sensitivity, specicity, PPV
parallel-sensitivity, specicity, NPV
best test to compare new&old test-Bland&Altman analysis
sampling
random/probability/nonpurposive-chance of being selected-same&known
simple
systematic
stratied(heterogenous)
multistage
Cluster(homogenous-Cost effective)
nonrandom/nonprobability/purposive
convenient
quota/targetted
snowball/network
judgement
PQLI=IMR+life expectancy at age 1y+literacy rate, range=0-100, India=65(rank-63)
measure social, economic, politic policies
does not measure economic growth
HDI=GNI per capita+ life expectancy at birth+ (mean y of school, expected y of
school), range0-1, India=0.545(rank-136)
top-Norway, Australia, USA
bottom-Congo, Nigeria
human poverty index1=long&healthy life(probability at birth not surviving 40y)+
knowledge(adult literacy rate)+ std of living(%of populat using improved H2O source+
%child underwt for age), India=31.3%
DALY(Disability Adjusted Life Y)=y of life lost+y lost to disability
burden of ds in populat
effectiveness of intervention
DFLE(Disability Free Life Expectancy)/active life expectancy=no. of y expected free of
disability if current pattern of mortality& disability continue to apply
HALE(Health Adjusted Life Expectancy)=life expectancytime spent in poor health
type of data(NOIR)

## Nominal(mode)-mal/fem, black/white, rural/urban

Ordinal(median)-1st,2nd, very satised,satised,dissatised
Interval(mean)-90C,100C,110C
Ratio(mean)-pulse rate 90,100,110/min
correlation
graph-scatter plot(correlation diagram)
+ve-change in same direction
ve-change in opposite direction
r(Piersen correlation coefcient)
r=+1-perfect +ve
r=1-perfect ve
r=0-no correlation
1r+1
r=coeff of determination
0r1
r<0.3-very weak
r=0.3-0.49-weak
r=0.5-0.89-strong
r0.9-very strong
type of regression
simple linear-y=a+bx
multiple linear-y=a+bx1+cx2+dx3
simple curvilinear-y=a+bx
multiple curvilinear-y=a+bx1+cx2+dx3
test of signicance
quantitative
2group
related(before-after)-paired t test
unrelated-unpaired t test
>2group
ANOVA(F) test
qualitative/categorical
Pearson chi test/Fisher exact test/Yate correction
obesity
BMI(Quetlet index)=wt(kg)/ht(m)
Brocca index-ideal wt(kg)=ht(cm)100
corpulence index-actual wt/desirable wt1.2
Lorentz formula-ideal wt(kg)= ht(cm)100[{ht(cm)150}/2(fem),4(mal)}]
skinfold thickn(MC meth)

midtriceps(best)+biceps+subscapular+suprailiac 50mm(fem),40mm(mal)
midtriceps18mm(mal), 32mm(fem)
waist circumf(cm)
World102(mal), 88(fem)
India90(mal), 80(fem)
waist/hip ratio>1.0(mal), >0.85(fem)
waist/ht ratio(best CVS ds risk)0.5
contracept effectiveness
Pearl index
potency of contraception=(total accident preg/no. of pt observedmth of use)1200
life table analysis-best
prot quality assessm
digestibilty coefcient=(N2 absorbed/N2 intake)100
biological value=(N2 retained/N2 absorbed)100
net protein utilization=(N2 retained/N2 intake)100=(biological valuedigestibility
coefcient)/100
protein efciency ratio=wt gain(g)/prot intake(g)
AA(chemical) score=[{(no. of AA/g prot)}/{(no. of same AA/g egg prot)}]100
prot quantity assessm
prot energy ratio=(energy fr prot/total energy fr diet)100
1g prot=6.25g N2
norm NPU=50-80
relative humidity=H2O vapour content/H2O vapour capacity
Box Whisker plot
quartile
forest plot
represent result in systematic review& metaanalysis(best study design)
funnel plot
assess publication bias
Kaplan Meier curve/product limit estimation
survival fn fr lifetime data-#pt living for certain time after Rx
X-time, Y-%of survival
cox-proportion hazard model to control confounding factor in survival analysis
Levy Jenning chart
accuracy, quality monitoring

## rate-numerator part of denominator, time is taken

IMR, incidence
ratio-numerator not part of denominator
std mortality rate, risk ratio, sex ratio, dependency ratio, coefcient of variance,
abortion ratio
PRoportion-%
case fatality rate, PRevalence
abortion ratio=no. of abortion performed/no. of live birth
age sp death rate=(death age grp/MYP of same age grp)1000
case fatality rate(CFR)=(death d/t ds/total case)100
child sex ratio=no. of fem(0-6y)/no. of mal(0-6y)
child survival rate=(1000under5 mortality rate)/10
crude birth rate=(8TFR)+1
crude death rate=(no. of death during 1y/MYP)1000
dependency ratio=[(0-14y+>65y)/(15- 65y)]100
general fertilty rate=(no. of child born/reproductive women)1000
gross reprod/fertility rate=no. of girl born/reproduct fem(no mortality)
incidence rate(I)=(no. of new case during a period/population at risk)1000
maternal mortality RATE=(maternal death/reprod women)1000
maternal mortality RATIO=(mat death/live birth)1lac
net reproduct rate=no. of girl born/reproductive women(x age sp fertility& mortality)
1-4y mortality(child death) rate=(death 1-4y/total childr1-4y)1000
prevalenc ratio(P)=(total no. of all case/population at risk)
P=Iduration of ds(time)
proportional mortality rate=(death d/t ds/total death)100
sp death rate d/t caus=(no. of death d/t cause/MYP)1000
standardised mortality ratio=(observed death/expected death)100
survival rate=1CFR
total fertilty rate=no. of child born/reproductive women(x age sp fertility rate)
under5(child) mortality rate=(death<5y/live birth)100
best indicator
health status of community, effectiven of MCH service, level of living-IMR
socioeconomic status-under5(child) mortality rate>IMR
malaria
Annual Parasite Incidence(API)
=(conrm case in 1y/populat)1000
Annual Bld Examinat Rate(ABER)

## =(no. slide examin/populat)100

MPO10%
spleen rate=(no. child2-10y with enlarged spleen/total child2-10y)100
Infant Parasite Index(most sensitive)
=(infant with +ve PS/total infant)100
IPI=03consec y
plague
total flea index
=no. flea/no. rat all sp
cheopis/specif flea index
=no. X cheopis/no. rat
>1-potential explosive plague outbreak
specif% flea
=(sp of flea/no. rat)100
burrow index
=free living flea per species per rodent burrow
Abbreviations
a-artery, AA-amino acid, abtc-antibiotic, AI-autoimmune
bef-before, bel-below, b/l-bilateral, bld-blood, b/n-between, bn-benign, br-branch,
Bx-biopsy
ca-carcinoma, carb-carbohydrate, c/i-contraindication, c/l-contralateral,
conc-concentration, cong-congenital, Cx-cervix
d-day, def-deficient, ds-disease, d/t-due to, Dx-diagnosis
E-estrogen
fem-female, fr-from
gld-gland, glu-glucose
h-hormone
idiop-idiopathic, i/l-ipsilateral, inf-infection, inj-injury
m-muscle, maj-major, mal-male, MC-most common, met-metastasis, min-minor,
mtx-methotrexate, Mx-management
n-nerve, norm-normal
P-progesterone, pl-plasma, prot-protein, pt-patient
Rx-treatment
SCC-squamous cell carcinoma, sr-serum, Sx-surgery, sz-seizure
tm-tumour, ts-tissue
UL-upper limb, u/l-unilateral
vag-vagina, VC-vocal cord, vel-velocity, vert-vertebra, vit-vitamin, vol-volume
w-week, wt-weight
Xr-X ray
y-year
#-fracture
-degree
-(N.B.-THESE NOTES ARE ONLY FOR THE PURPOSE OF GUIDANCE AND HELP
TO PG ASPIRANTS, NOT FOR COMMERCIAL OR OTHER PURPOSE. REFERENCE