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45 NOTES TO PG

Dr. Ankit Yadavendra, M.B.B.S., Dr.V.M.G.M.C., Solapur

23-BIOSTATICS, FORMULAE
categorical/qualitative data-percentage%
freq of occurrence(comparision of magnitude)
bar diagram
pie chart/sector diagram
pictogram
map diagram/spot map
quanTitative data-meanSD(unskew), median(range)(skew)
distribution(not related to time)
hisTogram
freq polygon
freq curve
line diag(time trend)
scatter plot(study relation b/n 2variable)
measure of central tendency
outlier, skewed, extreme
most affected-mean
least affect-mode
most preferred-median
geometric mean=(n)(x1x2xn)
harmonic mean=1/(1/x1+1/x2+1/xn)
meas of dispersion/deviation/variation
range=maxmin
mean deviation=|meanx|/n
SD=[(|meanx|)/n]
SD(<30)=[(|meanx|)/(n1)]
variance=SD
CV=(SD/mean)100
SE=SD/n
precision=1/SE=n/SD
for bimodal data
mode=3median2mean
z score/relative deviate/critical ratio
z=|meanx|/SD
(quant)SE=SD/n

(qualit)SE=(PQ/n)
(quant)95%CI=mean2.5SE
(qualit)95%CI=proportion2.5SE
(quant)sample size=ZSE/L
(qualit)sample size=ZPQ/L
Z=4, P=prevalence, Q=1P, L=100-CI
probability
p(event)=n(experiment)/n(total event)
odds=n(event occur)/n(event not occur)
Poisson distribution-discrete probability distribution for random event
+ve/rt skew
mean>median>mode
ve/lt skew
mean<median<mode
(Hint-arrange in alphabetical order and look at the direction where the (<,>) is
pointing)
Pearson skewness coefcient=(meanmode)/SD
std normal curve
area=1
mean=mode=median=0
SD=1
mean1SD=68.27%
mean2SD=95.45%
mean3SD=99.73%
test for pRecision(Reliability, Reproducibility, Repeatability)
Range chart
R chart
CRonbach
test for accuracy
mean chart
LJ(Levy Jenning) chart
Shewart control chart
null hypothesis(
reject )
rejected-p value<0.05-p value signicant
accepted-p value>0.05-p value insignicant
p value=prob of declaring diff when actually not=prob rejecting null hypothesis when
true

p value 0.01-difference 99%signif


CI level of signif
type I error-false +ve
type II error-false ve
epidemiologic hypothesis specify
population, expected outcome, sp cause, dose response relationship, time response
relationship
epidemiological study
cohort(AIR)-Attributable risk, Incidence, Relative risk-natural h/o ds, Hawthorn
effect-behaviour change when being observed
case control-Odds ratio
cross sectional-prevalence
ecological(best)-group characteristics-unit-population
observational study
descriptive
analytical
ecological-correlation-polpulation
cross sectional-prevalence-individual
case control-case reference-individual
cohort-follow up-individual
prospective-Framingham heart study, Doll&Hills study on smoking&ca lung
nested case control study
retrospective-effect of fetal monitoring on neonatal death, PVC exposure&
angiosarcoma liver
COmbine-COurt Brown&Doll study on radiation therapy
experimental study
randomised control trial-clinical trial-pt
eld trial-healthy people, introduce vacc for 1y old&see its efcacy
community trial-community intervention study-community
randomised control trial-dropout not excluded fr study
accuracy to test association b/n risk factor&ds
systematic review& metaanalysis>
randomised control trial>
retrospective cohort>
prospective cohort>
case cohort>
cross sectional>

ecological
yield=new case d/t screening
screen time=time(1st possible Dx nal critical Dx)
lead time=time(1st possibl Dx usual time Dx)
serial interval=time(prim case sec case)
generation time=time(receipt of inf by host max infectivity)
T interval=no. of d bed of hosp remain vacant
incubat periodgeneration time
RR/risk ratio=incid(exposed)/incid(non exposed)
AR=[incid(exposed)incid(non exposed)]/incid(expos)
popul AR=[incid(population)incid(not exposed)]/incid(population)
type of bias-technique
selection-randomisation
surveillance/detection
Neyman survival/incidence prevalence
referral/volunteer
response
Berkesonian(hosp admission)
recall(memory)
bias d/t confounding-matching, multivariate analysis
information-single blinding
interviewer/observer-double blinding
statician-triple blinding
sensitivity=(true+ve/all ds)100
specicity=(trueve/all not ds)100
+ve predictive value=(true+ve/all+ve)100
ve predictive value=(trueve/allve)100
diagnostic test-predictive value
false+ve%=(FP/total not ds)100=1sPecicity
falseve%=(FN/total ds)100=1seNsitivity
efciency(accuracy)=all true/all pt
likelihood ratio for +ve test=sensitivity/(1specicity)
likelihood ratio ve test=(1sensitivity)/specicity
pretest probability=prevalence+clinical assessm
posttest probability=pretest probabilitylikelihood ratio
sensitivity-TP-PPV
specicity-TN-NPV
sensitivity,specicity-criterion validity

multiple Dx test
series-sensitivity, specicity, PPV
parallel-sensitivity, specicity, NPV
best test to compare new&old test-Bland&Altman analysis
sampling
random/probability/nonpurposive-chance of being selected-same&known
simple
systematic
stratied(heterogenous)
multistage
Cluster(homogenous-Cost effective)
nonrandom/nonprobability/purposive
convenient
quota/targetted
snowball/network
judgement
PQLI=IMR+life expectancy at age 1y+literacy rate, range=0-100, India=65(rank-63)
measure social, economic, politic policies
does not measure economic growth
HDI=GNI per capita+ life expectancy at birth+ (mean y of school, expected y of
school), range0-1, India=0.545(rank-136)
top-Norway, Australia, USA
bottom-Congo, Nigeria
human poverty index1=long&healthy life(probability at birth not surviving 40y)+
knowledge(adult literacy rate)+ std of living(%of populat using improved H2O source+
%child underwt for age), India=31.3%
DALY(Disability Adjusted Life Y)=y of life lost+y lost to disability
burden of ds in populat
effectiveness of intervention
DFLE(Disability Free Life Expectancy)/active life expectancy=no. of y expected free of
disability if current pattern of mortality& disability continue to apply
HALE(Health Adjusted Life Expectancy)=life expectancytime spent in poor health
QALY(Quality Adjusted Life Y)=no. of y added to life by intervention
type of data(NOIR)

Nominal(mode)-mal/fem, black/white, rural/urban


Ordinal(median)-1st,2nd, very satised,satised,dissatised
Interval(mean)-90C,100C,110C
Ratio(mean)-pulse rate 90,100,110/min
correlation
graph-scatter plot(correlation diagram)
+ve-change in same direction
ve-change in opposite direction
r(Piersen correlation coefcient)
r=+1-perfect +ve
r=1-perfect ve
r=0-no correlation
1r+1
r=coeff of determination
0r1
r<0.3-very weak
r=0.3-0.49-weak
r=0.5-0.89-strong
r0.9-very strong
type of regression
simple linear-y=a+bx
multiple linear-y=a+bx1+cx2+dx3
simple curvilinear-y=a+bx
multiple curvilinear-y=a+bx1+cx2+dx3
test of signicance
quantitative
2group
related(before-after)-paired t test
unrelated-unpaired t test
>2group
ANOVA(F) test
qualitative/categorical
Pearson chi test/Fisher exact test/Yate correction
obesity
BMI(Quetlet index)=wt(kg)/ht(m)
Brocca index-ideal wt(kg)=ht(cm)100
corpulence index-actual wt/desirable wt1.2
Lorentz formula-ideal wt(kg)= ht(cm)100[{ht(cm)150}/2(fem),4(mal)}]
skinfold thickn(MC meth)

midtriceps(best)+biceps+subscapular+suprailiac 50mm(fem),40mm(mal)
midtriceps18mm(mal), 32mm(fem)
waist circumf(cm)
World102(mal), 88(fem)
India90(mal), 80(fem)
waist/hip ratio>1.0(mal), >0.85(fem)
waist/ht ratio(best CVS ds risk)0.5
contracept effectiveness
Pearl index
potency of contraception=(total accident preg/no. of pt observedmth of use)1200
life table analysis-best
prot quality assessm
digestibilty coefcient=(N2 absorbed/N2 intake)100
biological value=(N2 retained/N2 absorbed)100
net protein utilization=(N2 retained/N2 intake)100=(biological valuedigestibility
coefcient)/100
protein efciency ratio=wt gain(g)/prot intake(g)
AA(chemical) score=[{(no. of AA/g prot)}/{(no. of same AA/g egg prot)}]100
prot quantity assessm
prot energy ratio=(energy fr prot/total energy fr diet)100
1g prot=6.25g N2
norm NPU=50-80
relative humidity=H2O vapour content/H2O vapour capacity
Box Whisker plot
quartile
forest plot
represent result in systematic review& metaanalysis(best study design)
funnel plot
assess publication bias
Kaplan Meier curve/product limit estimation
survival fn fr lifetime data-#pt living for certain time after Rx
X-time, Y-%of survival
cox-proportion hazard model to control confounding factor in survival analysis
Levy Jenning chart
accuracy, quality monitoring

rate-numerator part of denominator, time is taken


IMR, incidence
ratio-numerator not part of denominator
std mortality rate, risk ratio, sex ratio, dependency ratio, coefcient of variance,
abortion ratio
PRoportion-%
case fatality rate, PRevalence
abortion ratio=no. of abortion performed/no. of live birth
age sp death rate=(death age grp/MYP of same age grp)1000
case fatality rate(CFR)=(death d/t ds/total case)100
child sex ratio=no. of fem(0-6y)/no. of mal(0-6y)
child survival rate=(1000under5 mortality rate)/10
crude birth rate=(8TFR)+1
crude death rate=(no. of death during 1y/MYP)1000
dependency ratio=[(0-14y+>65y)/(15- 65y)]100
general fertilty rate=(no. of child born/reproductive women)1000
gross reprod/fertility rate=no. of girl born/reproduct fem(no mortality)
incidence rate(I)=(no. of new case during a period/population at risk)1000
maternal mortality RATE=(maternal death/reprod women)1000
maternal mortality RATIO=(mat death/live birth)1lac
net reproduct rate=no. of girl born/reproductive women(x age sp fertility& mortality)
1-4y mortality(child death) rate=(death 1-4y/total childr1-4y)1000
prevalenc ratio(P)=(total no. of all case/population at risk)
P=Iduration of ds(time)
proportional mortality rate=(death d/t ds/total death)100
sp death rate d/t caus=(no. of death d/t cause/MYP)1000
standardised mortality ratio=(observed death/expected death)100
survival rate=1CFR
total fertilty rate=no. of child born/reproductive women(x age sp fertility rate)
under5(child) mortality rate=(death<5y/live birth)100
best indicator
health status of community, effectiven of MCH service, level of living-IMR
socioeconomic status-under5(child) mortality rate>IMR
malaria
Annual Parasite Incidence(API)
=(conrm case in 1y/populat)1000
Annual Bld Examinat Rate(ABER)

=(no. slide examin/populat)100


MPO10%
spleen rate=(no. child2-10y with enlarged spleen/total child2-10y)100
Infant Parasite Index(most sensitive)
=(infant with +ve PS/total infant)100
IPI=03consec y
plague
total flea index
=no. flea/no. rat all sp
cheopis/specif flea index
=no. X cheopis/no. rat
>1-potential explosive plague outbreak
specif% flea
=(sp of flea/no. rat)100
burrow index
=free living flea per species per rodent burrow
Abbreviations
a-artery, AA-amino acid, abtc-antibiotic, AI-autoimmune
bef-before, bel-below, b/l-bilateral, bld-blood, b/n-between, bn-benign, br-branch,
Bx-biopsy
ca-carcinoma, carb-carbohydrate, c/i-contraindication, c/l-contralateral,
conc-concentration, cong-congenital, Cx-cervix
d-day, def-deficient, ds-disease, d/t-due to, Dx-diagnosis
E-estrogen
fem-female, fr-from
gld-gland, glu-glucose
h-hormone
idiop-idiopathic, i/l-ipsilateral, inf-infection, inj-injury
lig-ligament, LL-lower limb, l/t-leading to
m-muscle, maj-major, mal-male, MC-most common, met-metastasis, min-minor,
mtx-methotrexate, Mx-management
n-nerve, norm-normal
P-progesterone, pl-plasma, prot-protein, pt-patient
Rx-treatment
SCC-squamous cell carcinoma, sr-serum, Sx-surgery, sz-seizure
tm-tumour, ts-tissue
UL-upper limb, u/l-unilateral
vag-vagina, VC-vocal cord, vel-velocity, vert-vertebra, vit-vitamin, vol-volume
w-week, wt-weight
Xr-X ray
y-year
#-fracture
-degree
-(N.B.-THESE NOTES ARE ONLY FOR THE PURPOSE OF GUIDANCE AND HELP
TO PG ASPIRANTS, NOT FOR COMMERCIAL OR OTHER PURPOSE. REFERENCE

HAS BEEN TAKEN FROM VARIOUS STANDARD TEXTBOOKS. FOR ANY


FEEDBACK/QUERY PLEASE CONTACT- ankit.yadavendra@facebook.com or
dr.ankityadavendra@gmail.com )