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1) Nomenclature

Table 1 Nomenclature

Symbol

Meanings
Angular velocity

Unit
ran

meq

Equivalent mass

kg

Damping ratio

rad/s

Damping coefficient

kg/s

Frequency

Hz

I0

Inertia of beam about pivot O

kg.m2

Mass of load

kg

ms

Mass of spring

kg

fN

Natural frequency

Hz

Period

Velocity

m/s

2) Introduction:
In mechanical vibration natural frequency and stiffness of materials in generating
vibration (
). Vibration can be divide into three group ;
a) natural vibration
natural motion generated from object containing some internal
energy such as teacup, the energy come generated due to flickering
of the finger
b) forced vibration
Vibration due to forced vibration on a system. Example, unbalance
wheel will cause vehicle to vibrate equal to rotational speed of the
wheel.
c) unstable vibration
Vibration due to vibration motion without external excitation as the
object produce it own vibration force maintaining the motion.
Example of unstable vibration is aerodynamic flutter.
Therefore, understanding mechanical vibration is vital to study the properties, impact and
ability to govern the vibration in the design and operation of the mechanical plant.
The objective of this experiment was to learn how spring stiffness, natural frequency
and damping effect on system with single degree of freedom. this lab report are sub
divided into four parts which are parts A, B, C and D. Part A is to measure
the spring stiffness. Besides, for part B, the aim is to determine the
natural frequency of oscillation with and without lumped mass
correction. Furthermore in part C, the experiment is conducted on
viscous damping and its consequence to the natural frequency. Lastly
part D, determine error analysis.

3) Objectives:
The aim of this one degree of freedom system experiment are:

a.

To approximate the natural frequency of system equivalent to lumped parameter

system by using the formula

f N=

1
2

k
1
=
ms 2
m+
3

k
meq

1
(Formula for lumped-parameter system frequency, f lump = 2

k
m )

(University 2012)
b. Attest theory

of

damping ratio ( ),

derived from the equation

f 2 2
+ =1
, which states that small damping ratio will result in damped
fN

( )

natural oscillation frequency value is nearly the same as the undammed natural
oscillation frequency.
c. To acquire the stiffness of a helical spring
d. To analyze the uncertainties measurement that caused by error analysis

4) Apparatus
Apparatus which are used to conduct this experiment are Tecquipment universal
vibration, digital stop watches, accurate balance, and ruler.

5) Part A: Measuring the stiffness of a spring


5.1. Introduction
Part A is to resolve the spring stiffness of the spring which was used during the experiment
which is used in the calculation of other calculation. The theory of Hookes law, mass added to
the spring should not exceed the proportional limit.

5.2. Objectives

To determine the stiffness of the spring exert by different mass.


Evaluate value through calculation and the spring stiffness obtained from the graph

5.3. Theory Background


5.3.1.
Hookes Law
Hookes Law states that the deforming force applied is directly proportional to the size
of deformation or elongation as long as do not exceed elastic limit
(https://www1.umn.edu/ships/modules/phys/hooke/hooke.htm). Hookes Law can be
define mathematically as:
F=k

Where:

Equation 1

F = applied load or force. (N)


= deflection or deformation (m)
k = spring stiffness (N/m)

Graph of force against deflection VS the stiffness plotted is essential in identifying the gradient
of the graph.
5.3.2 Least Squares method
Best fit lines function, function, f ( x )=ax +b

are drawn in the graph to avoid errors for known

relations. Least square method is used to determine best fit line this because least square method

utilised the coordinates on a scatter plot shown in Equation 2. Therefore, it was used to

determine the gradient, m and the spring stiffness,

1
m .

https://www.utdallas.edu/~herve/Abdi-LeastSquares06-pretty.pdf

m=

xy

( x )( y )
n
2

x
2

( x )

Equation 2

5.4. Procedure
1) The hanger and spring is attached to the tecquipment universal vibration
apparatus and at end of the spring.
2) The initial length of the spring is measured using ruler and recorded.
3) A 10N weight is slotted to onto the hanger and the elongation of the
length of the spring is measured and recorded.
4) Step 3 is repeated for loads of 20N, 30N, and 40N.
5) Graph of force versus deflection is plotted to conclude the spring stiffness.

5.1. Result and calculations

Table 2 Part A Experimental Result

i Total
suspended Total
Scale
mass, mi (kg)
force, Fi = Reading, i
(mm (m)
mig (N)
)
0 0
0
68
0.068
1 1.019
10
76
0.076
2

2.039

20

84

0.084

3.058

30

92

0.092

4.077

40

98

0.098

Deflection,
i o
(mm (m)
)
0
0
8
0.00
8
16
0.01
6
24
0.02
4
30
0.03
0

Increment
in
deflection (mm)
(mm)
(m)
0
8

0
0.008

0.008

0.008

0.006

Assuming gravitational force, g =9.81 m/s2.

Load VS. Deflection


0.04
0.03
0.03
0.02
Deflection, m

0.02
0.01
0.01
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Force, N

Error: Reference source not found

Table 3 Calculation of graph equation using the method of least squares,

Deflection, i o

Total force, Fi = mig (N)

Fi 2
0

(i

Fi
0

1
2
3
4

0.008
0.016
0.024
0.030
0.078

total

10
20
30
40
100

According to the general formula for linear equation,


y=mx +c

Gradient, m:
xn

2
n . x n
n . x n y n x n y n
m=

m=

5 (2.32 )(100)(0.078)
5 (3000 )(100)2
4

7.6 10

y-intercept, c:
x
xn

n . x n2
( n)2 x n y n . x n

yn
c=

100
400
900
1600
3000

0.08
0.32
0.72
1.2
2.32

c=

0.078 ( 3000 )2.32(100)


5 ( 3000 )10000

a=0.0004
Therefore equation of slope:
y=0.00076 x +0.0004

Where the spring stiffness, k:


k=

1
0.00076

1315.79 N / m
1.315 kN /m

1.1.

Discussion

Based on the drawn graph as shown in Error: Reference source not found, proof that deflection
of the spring is proportional to the applied force. Besides the gradient of the curve of
0.00076 m/N . The spring stiffness is 1.315 kN /m , it can be obtain by using least square
method.
Besides, there are several factor which might influence the reading obtain. One of the error is due
to the spring itself. This because spring has elastic limit, ones it reach this limit it will enter the
phase of plastic behavior. The deformation at this stage is permanent. Although this scenario has
small chances of occurrence, it would be better to prevent such an incidence. The possibilities is
same spring is used by other group which will cause certain amount of deformation on the
spring. Therefore, new spring is recommended to be used for better accuracy.

Furthermore, random error cause by inappropriate method obtaining the measurement will lead
to error in the reading. Example of such an error are taking the reading when the spring moving
slightly which will change the length of the spring. Common error such as parallax error is also
common when no effort is taken into taking the measurement. These problem can be abstain by
practicing greater care in taking measurement without contact with the spring and assign a
person to take the reading so that same reference point is used in taking the measurement. It is
also better to attach a fixed measurement tool beside the spring so that
reading readings can be obtain without having to hold the ruler
To obtain higher accuracy in reading several reading must be taken to minimise the chances of
error to the minimal.

part b

5.5. Introduction
In section B of the experiment, the natural frequency of the spring oscillation was obtain
by applying varies load to the spring. The experimental data was obtained and recorded .
Theoretical value with and without lumped mass adjustment were identified and compare

5.6. Objectives

To study and identify the natural frequency of oscillation of a spring with and
without lumped mass adjustment.
Compare the graph obtained theoretical and experimental result, associated with
period of oscillations and varies load on the hanger .
To verify the correctness of the experimental result ontained.

5.7. Theoretical Background


5.7.1.
Natural Frequency
Natural frequency is the frequency of a system oscillate in the nonexistence of any
damping which is also known as simple harmonic motion, which is a sinusodial motion
http://www.math.psu.edu/tseng/class/Math251/Notes-MechV.pdf

Figure 1: Free Body Diagra of spring mass system.


Figure 1 shows a spring mass system oscillate in the direction of gravitational force in y
axis of moment , which is categorise as one degree of freedom
Point A in the Figure 1 show actual length of the spring where no force is exert on it.
When the mass applied , it will lengthen to static equilibrium position at point B.

Different load applied on the spring will results different position of point B. Lengthen
length from point B to point C represents the extension of the spring during spring
oscillation which can be explained by by using Newton II Law where,

F y =m y

--- (1)

By balancing the equilibrium,


mgk static ky =m y

When

k static=mg
y +

--- (2)

will lead equation 2 become :


k
y=0
m

--- (3)

Since gravitational force has no effect to on the dynamic motion will lead to
g
i

k
2
k static=mg
= m = w based on

therefore the frequency of the oscillation is:

k
m
---(6)

Hence, the natural period is,

2
m
2

---(7)

The natural frequency (number of cycles completed in one second) is,


f=

1
T

1
2

k
m

---(8)

5.7.2.
Lumped Mass System
Lumped mass systems are systems that with restricted number of freedom
Allowed for the mass of spring an energy method to determine the natural frequency of
the system. Rayleighs Energy is adopted in this case which assumes:

motion is simple harmonic and vibration mode.


Maximum kinetic energy is equal to maximum strain energy.
The mode shape is assumed.
(University

Referring to figure bellow:

Figure 1 System with 1 d.o.f.

Note that,
c= the free length of the spring.
m= mass of object
v= velocity at c
V= velocity at c + dc
ms=mass of spring
We can assume ,

2012)

Kinetic energy of the body, m,

1
KE 1= mV 2
2

Kinetic energy of the dc element of spring, ms,

For the identical triangle (mode shape),

v V
=
c C

dc
C
ms v

1
KE 2=
2

cV
v=
C
2

( )

Lastly , the kinetic energy for the whole spring, ms,


C
1 ms V 2
KE=
c 2 dc
2
2 C C 0

Equation 2

1 ms 2
V
2 3

By including the addition of kinetic energy of thebody and the whole system will get
Equation 3

KE max =

m
1
m+ s V 2
2
3

And,
Equation 4

k
m+

ms
3

Therefore, the natural frequency when mass of spring is considered, fs :


Equation 5

f s=

1
2

k
m
m+ s
3

5.8. Procedure

Figure 2 Damped rotational system with single d.o.f.

i)

Mass of the spring and hanger are measured and recorded.

ii)

The spring is attached to the tecquipment universal vibration

iii)

apparatus with hanger hanged at the end of the spring.


Vertical oscillations with 10mm of amplitude is exert

and 30

number of cycles is timed using digital stopwatch are measured


and recorded.
iv)

Step iii is repeated for 0, 10N , 20N ,30N and 40N.

v)

Then graph of experimental and theoretical period are plotted


against various masses.

1.1. Result and calculations


Mass of the spring,

ms=0.034 kg

Mass of the hanger,

mh=0.01 kg

Induced amplitude,

A 10 mm=0.01 m

Table 4 Part B experimental data

Total mass of Number


weights
on of cycles,
N
mi
hanger,

Mean time of Period


of
oscillation,
N
oscillations,

mi +mh

mi +m h +

ms
3

ms
mi

(N )

(kg)

T=

(sec)
1 sec

(sec)

t
N

( kg )

1
2

( kg )

1
2

0
10

0
1.0194

30
30

0
6.3433

0
0.2114

0.1000
1.0146

0.1461
1.0201

20

2.0387

30

7.4400

0.2480

1.4313

1.4353

0
0.0334
0.0167

30

3.0581

30

9.4270

0.3141

1.7516

1.7548

40

4.0775

30

10.8200

0.3607

2.0217

2.0246

0.0111
0.0083
note that gravity

=9.81

m/s

Table 5 Theoretical relationship based on formula

( 2k ) M

T=

Square root of total mass


Square root of total with spring,
Period (without spring
m
mass without spring,
mi +mh + s (kg)
mass),
mi +mh (kg)
3
T1 (sec)
0.1000
0.1461
0.017321
1.0146
1.0201
0.175744
1.4313
1.4353
0.247923
1.7516
1.7548
0.303404
2.0217
2.0246
0.350189

Note:
M1 =

Period (with spring


mass),
T2 (sec)
0.025307
0.176697
0.248616
0.303958
0.350692

mi+ mh

ms
m
+
m
+
i
h
M2 =
3

0.4
0.35
0.3
Experimental data
assuming spring is
massless

0.25
Period

0.2

Theoretical data assuming


spring is massless

0.15

Linear (Theoretical data


assuming spring is
massless)

0.1
0.05
0
0.8

1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

2.2

Mass (kg)

Figure 3 Comparison between theoretical data and experimental data (assuming spring is massless)

0.4
0.35
0.3
Theoretical data
considering spring with
mass

0.25
Period

0.2

Linear (Theoretical data


considering spring with
mass)

0.15
0.1

Experimental data with


spring mass consideration

0.05
0
0.8

1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

2.2

Mass (kg)

Figure 45 Comparison between theoretical data and experimental data (assuming spring is have mass)

1.1. Discussion
Figure 3 Comparison between theoretical data and experimental data (assuming spring is
massless) in figure 9 and figure 10 proof the difference between the value obtain between
experimental data and the theoretical. The common between these two graph showed that is the
spring is elastic limits phase .
Besides, by considering the mass of the spring to the calculation will affect the obtain result .
Theoretical relationship based on formula
spring mass it will cause the value of
the impact will decline.

( 2k ) M

T=

table, shows that by considering the

to increase. Moreover ,when the mass increase

From the graphs plotted , the experimental data changes in small degree and does not line up in
a straight line. The cause is due to parallax error. this can be explain due to fast oscillation of the
spring and time keeper of the stopwatch. Thus, indirectly cause the period of oscillation in
experiment is has higher value as compare to theoretical value which are clearly shown on the
graphs plotted. to avoid such an error laser oscillator counter should be used.
furthermore condition of the string should also take into consideration. this because induced
extension of the spring at the initial might varies from the recommended extension. In addition \
mass attach to the hanger must be firm to abstain certain affect on the oscillation. Other than
that, the spring might not be in a good condition since it is not a new spring.
In nutshell, obtaining mean value in the experiment are vital to minimise error in the
experiment.

part c

5.9. Introduction
In section C, the system include and exclude viscous damping which was certain type of
oil is used to study the effect of viscous damping on natural frequency and damping
coefficient in one degree of freedom .
Objectives

5.10.

To study the damping ratio and damping coefficient of a viscous damping system
To study the impact of effects on natural frequency and viscous damping.

Theory Background

5.10.1.
Viscous Damping
According to (Rao 2004), viscous damping occurs when a mechanical system vibrates in
a fluid medium such as air, gas, water and oil, the resistance offered by the fluid to the
moving body causes energy to be dissipated. In this case, the amount of dissipated energy
depends on many factors, such as the size and shape of the vibrating body, the viscosity
of the fluid, the frequency of vibration, and the velocity of the vibrating body. In viscous
damping, the damping force is proportional to the velocity of the vibrating body. (Rao
2004).
The mathematical model of viscous damping can be express below,
Equation 6

F=q x
Equation 7

T =q
To study the effects of viscous damping, we apply Newtons Second law to the following
system,

Figure 6 Damped 1 d.o.f. system

Figure 7 Free body diagram

Applying Newton II ,

F x =m x
kxq x =m x
Equation 8

x +

q
k
x + x=0
m
m

The resultant equation is a linear, second order, homogeneous, constant coefficient, ordinary
differential equation. Such equations can be tackled by assuming a solution in the form of a
complex exponential (University 2012). Hence, let's assume that:
Equation 9

x ( t )=X e st

Since both X and s can be complex. Substituting


and simplify yields the characteristic equation,
Equation 10
2

s +

q
k
s+ =0
m m

And roots of this equation will be,


Equation 11

x ( t )=X e st

and

x +

q
k
x + x=0
m
m

s 1 }= q 1 1 4 mk
s2 2 m
q2

However, in this experiment in Part C for the experimental setup as below,

Figure 8 Schematic diagram of damped rotational system with single d.o.f.

The Newton Second Law can written as,


Equation 12
2

q a +
k c =0
+
I0
I0
Where
=angular acceleration
= angular velocity
= angle change
q = damping coefficient
k = spring stiffness
a = distance from pivot to damper
c = distance from pivot to helical spring
I0

= moment of inertial of the arm along the pivot O,

2
2 N N 0

By comparing the above equation with

, it show that,

Equation 13

q 2a 4
4c 2 I o k

kc2
Io

N
and

And the damped vibration frequency can be described as,


Equation 14

f damped f undamped 1 2

1
2

kc2
Io

q 2a 4

4kIo c 2

Recalling that the logarithmic decrement:


Equation 15

1 2 y0

ln
n 2 y n

2
1
1
2

which, if solved for

and then replaced with the expression for

damping co-efficient
Equation 16

2c
a2

kIo

2n

ln( 2 yo / 2 y n )

above fives the

Where
y0 = the amplitude of the vibration at the beginning.
yn = the amplitude of the vibration at n cycle of oscillation.
n = oscillation number.

If the dashpot is drained of its oil, it will gives out q=0 and so then Equation 14 becomes
Equation 17

c
fN
2

k
Io

c
I o
2f N

Substitution of Equation 17 into Equation 16 gives,


Equation 18

k c

f N a

2n

ln( 2 y o / 2 y n )

yo
yn
As long there is natural frequency of oscillation and
evaluated to determined the damping coefficient.

exist, Equation 18 can be

5.11.

Procedure

Figure 9 Schematic diagram of damped rotational system with single d.o.f.

1. The apparatus was set up as shown above.


2. A empty dashpot was fixed at a distance a from the pivot O and the helical spring used in
Part A and Part B was fixed at a distance of c from the pivot O.
3. Both length a and c was recorded.
4. A chart recorder was place at the free end of the vibrating beam (which is closer to the
helical spring) to produce a time trace of oscillation.
5. The free end of the beam was pull downwards approximately 50mm.
6. A stop watch was started simultaneously once the beam was released into an oscillation.
The time for the full series of oscillations was recorded.
7. Step 2 to step 7 was repeated by replacing the empty dashpot with a oil filled viscous
dashpot.
8. All data was recorded in Table 5

1.1. Result and Calculations

Figure 10: Typical time history of viscously damped oscillation

Measurements of Apparatus (Refer to Figure 2 Damped rotational system with single d.o.f.)
a=150 mm
c=600 mm
Table 6 Experimental data for Part C

Category

Dashpot
without
(undamped)

oil Dashpot with oil (damped)

Total number of full cycle 56


oscillations, n
Time
taken
for
n 8.41
oscillation (s)
n
0.150
Period ( s ) ,T (s)

42

Frequency (Hz)
2 y0
(mm)

6.659
3.1

6.140
2.6

2.6

2 yn
Initial
0

(mm)
deflection

angle, 3.2

6.84
0.163

2.7

(rad)

Calculation:
***Note: The value spring stiffness k , is taken from part A calculation.

Moment of inertia of arm about O,

I0

The data from the experiment without oil in dashpot (undamped) is used. Equation

I0 =

c 2
k
2 fN

, is used

Where,
f N =6.659 Hz
k =1315.79 N /m
c=0.6 m

I0 =

2
0.6
( 1315.79 )
2 6.659

I 0 =0.2706 Nm s 2

Damping Coefficient, q (using Equation 16)


q=

2 0.60 1315.79 0.2706


2
0.152
2 (15)
+1
3.1
ln
2.6

q=1.878 kg / s

( )

Experimental damped free-oscillation,


f q=6.659 Hz

Theoretical damped free-oscillation (using Equation 14),

1
f damped =
2

1315.79 0.62
1.8782 0.154
1
0.2706
4 1315.79 0.2706 0.62

f q=f damped =6.659 Hz

Comparison between experimental and theoretical

fq

is equivalent to experimental

(6.659Hz).

Calculating experimental
f q 6.659
=
f N 6.659

fq

fN

(using Equation 17 and Equation 18),

fq

fq
=1 ,
fN

fq
= 1
fN

( )

= 1( 1 )

=0 , which is

<1

fq
Calculating theoretical result of f N
f q 6.140
=
f N 6.659
fq
=0.90899 , which is very close to 1.
fN

f
= 1 q
fN

( )

= 1( 0.922 )

=0.387 , which is

<1

(using Equation 17 andEquation 18),

1.2. Discussion
Based on the experiment undamped system take longer time with more oscillation and
frequency as compared to damped system. Calculation show that theoretical damped
frequency which is 6.659 which is the same as the experimental value shown in Figure.
This shows that the experimental data is acceptable with =0 , which indicate
frequency of free oscillation is generally very small
In contrast, the theoretical value

is 0.387. the difference from the

experimental damping ratio is 0.387. the causes of the difference is due to the
variation , obtained from the

fq
fN

ratio cause by the human error or due to

variation of force to initiate the movement by pushing down the beam by


35mm length.

2. Part D: Error Analysis


Introduction

The purpose of the error analysis is to determine the accuracy of the value we obtain during the
experiment . Value of the parameter can be achieved by substitute the measured value obtain
from the lab, which is exposed to certain error. This will lead to measured quantities and
function of algebraic might be the cause of the error in new parameter. There are two
types of uncertainties which are syst4ematic errors and random uncertainties.
Theory

9.2 Theory
9.2.1 Arithmetic Mean,

Is a number (N) of readings

xi

which can be close to the correct data if the number (N) is

huge enough and the uncertainties are totally random.


1
x=
N

xi
i=1

9.2.2 Standard Deviation,


Standard deviation allow us to approximate the precision if the uncertainties of measurement
which are random.

( x ix )2
i=1

N1

In general case, the magnitude of a parameter is determined by the substitution of measured


quantities, each subject to error, in an algebraic expression. So the error in the new parameter can
be some function of the algebraic expression, the measured quantities and their respective
uncertainties.
The absolute error can be defined in quantity x as dx while the fractional error can be defined in
quantity

as

x dx
=
x
x

5.12. Part D:
5.12.1.
Error Analysis
The evaluation of data gained from experiment always carries a certain level of
uncertainties. The will to reduce the uncertainties must be balanced with the
necessity to achieve maximum efficiency of information collected and
experimental yield with the resources available.(University 2012).
To determine the uncertainty of a function that is made up of several parameters
the formula below is used:
For function

=f ( w , x , y ) , its uncertainty can be defined as,

Equation 19

.dw
.dx
.dy ...
x
y
w

In this experiment, the uncertainty of the damping coefficient q, is to be


determined. From

k c

f N a

2n

ln( 2 y o / 2 y n )

Therefore, the uncertainty of q for damped spring can be defined as,


Equation 20

q
q
q
q
q
.da
.dc
.dyo
.dyn
.df N
.dk
c
yo
yn
f N
k
a

dq

5.13. Part C: Viscous damping and its effects on natural frequency


5.14. Part D: Error Analysis
q

q
q
q
q
q
.da
.dc
.dyo
.dyn
.df N
.dk
c
yo
yn
f N
k
a

dq

To

determine

the

uncertainty of the damping coefficient q , Equation 22 is used.

To solve this long equation at ease it was broken into smaller parts for solving and later
combined together to determine the final result.
Note: the calculation is only conducted for the damped system as the undamped system is
assumed that no damping took place.
5.14.1.
2 y0 2
+1
2 yn

2 n

k C2
f n a3
2

q
a=
a

( )

Uncertainty of a

3.1 2
+1
2.6

2 ( 15 )

1315.79 0.62
6.659 0.153
2

q
a=
a

( )

=0.025041

5.14.2.

Uncertainty of c

k c

f N a 2
q
dc 2
dc
c
2n
2
(
) 1
ln( 2 y o 2 y n )
1315.79 0.6
2
q
dc 2 6.659 0.15 0.001
c
2 15 2
(
) 1
ln( 3.1 / 2.6)

h
dc=6.259 x 1 03
c

5.14.3.

Uncertainty of yo
2

q
dyo
yo

k c

f N a
dyo o
2n
2
(
) 1
ln( 2 yo 2 yn )

q
k c 2 n

dyo

yo
f N a ln( 2 yo / 2 yn )

q
k c
dyo

yo
f N a

q
dyo
yo

1
2
( )( 2) 2n
2

4kn 2 c

fN a

1
2

0.001

ln( 2 yo / 2 yn ) 2 1
2 n

yo
ln( 2 yo / 2 yn )

2 n
1
ln( 2 yo / 2 yn )

ln( 2 yo / 2 yn ) 3 yo

3
2

0.001

3
2

0.001

41315.79 15 0.60

6.659
0.15

q
dy o
y o

2 15

ln( 0.031 / 0.026)

ln( 0.031 / 0.026) 3 0.043x10 3 / 2

h
d y 0 =6.8887 x 1 03
y0

5.14.4.
q
dy o
y o

Uncertainty of yn

k
f N

c

a

2n
(
)2 1
ln( 2 y o 2 y n )

dy o o

q
k c 2 n

dy o

y o
f N a ln( 2 y o / 2 y n )

q
k c
dy o

y o
f N a

q
dy o
y o

1
2
( )( 2) 2n
2

4kn 2
fN

1
2

0.001

ln( 2 y o / 2 y n ) 21
2 n

y o
ln( 2 y o / 2 y n )

2 n 2
) 1
ln(
2
y
/
2
y
)
o
n

ln( 2 y o / 2 y n ) 3 y n

c

a

3
2

0.001

3
2

0.001

3
2

0.001

41315.49 15 0.60

6.659
0.15
2

q
dy o
y o

2 15

ln( 0.031 / 0.026)

ln( 0.031 / 0.026) 3 (2.6 x10 3 / 2)

h
d y n =1.0883
yn

5.14.5.

Uncertainty of

| ( ) |

q
df =
f N N

k c
f N2 a

( ) .1

2 ( n)
y
0
yn

( )

| ( ) |

1315.79 0.6
6.659 2 0.15

( ) .1

2 ( 15 ) 2
+1
3.1

2.6

( )

=0.282039

fn

3
2

0.001

5.14.6.

Uncertainty of

dk ,

Using Equation 22, we can formulateEquation 22,


dk

k
1
dq 2 dq k 2 compliance
q
q

Where,

complience y

n x xi
2
i

And ,

1
1
y i xi b

n2
k

y
compliance
To determine dk , we need to first find
followed by
.

No

Total
x

Deflection, y

force,

0
10
20
30
40
100

1
2
3
4
5
Sum

[]

1
xb
k

b=0

0
0.000400003
0.000800006
0.001200009
-0.000399988
0.00200003

0
0.008
0.016
0.024
0.03
0.078

( [] )
y

1
xb
k

0
1.60002E-07
6.4001E-07
1.44002E-06
1.5999E-07
2.40002E-06

k =1315.79 N /m
By plotting the graph Deflection over Load, it will produce a straight line passing
through the axis (0,0), thus b=0 .

1
1
y
yi xi 0

n2
k

1
1

yi xi

n2
k

1
2.40002E - 06
52
3

=0.89443x 10

By using the
n

x
i 1

x
i 1

100

3000

value, the

compliance

can be found,

y =0.89443 10

complience y

5 3000 100

5
2.8284x 10

dk k 2 compliance

By applying the

compliance =2.8284 10 m/ N

dk k 2 compliance 1315.79 2 2.8284 10 5


= 48.968

Substitute dk =48.968 into

q
dk
k

q
dk
k

k
f N

c

a

2n
(
)2 1
ln( 2 y o 2 y n )
1
f N

c

a

dn

2n
(
)2 1
ln( 2 y o 2 y n )

dk

to

q
dk
k

1
0.55

(7.055) 0.15
131.84
2 (31)
2
(
) 1
ln( 0.043 / 0.011)

q
dkundamped 0.5597
k

5.14.7.

Uncertainty of

q ,

q
q
q
q
q
.da
.dc
.dyo
.dyn
.df N
.dk
c
yo
yn
f N
k
a

dq

dq 0.0755 0.0206 0.0966 0.3775 0.8024 0.5597


dq 1.9323

6) Discussions
6.1. Part A: Measuring the stiffness of the spring

6.2. Part B: Natural frequency of oscillation (with and without lumped mass
correction)
6.3. Part C
6.4. Part D
The value of damping coefficient, q

calculated is 5 .6613 1. 9323 Ns/m , where the

uncertainty is 34.13% of the damping coefficient. The result shows that the uncertainty is
very high and improvement might need to carryout to improve the accuracy of the result.
However, since that the damping coefficient is a function of other parameters taken from
the experiment, the accuracy of the parameters must be improved to determine a more
accurate damping coefficient.

7) Conclusion
Part A:
In conclusion, the value of spring stiffness determined (1250 N/m) with approximate 6.2% error
is consider acceptable. Due to the difference in theoretical and experimental data, the theoretical
value 1333.33 N/m is used in the following experiments.

Part B:
The experimental result is acceptable as they showed close to linear properties with the gradient
close to the theoretical data in the plotted graph. The inclusion of spring mass will affect the
theoretical value however the effect become less significant when the load becomes larger. Thus,
the slope of the graph will not be affected even though spring mass is included (when spring
mass<<load).

Part C:
As a conclusion, the damping coefficient of the damped system is equal to 5.6613kg/s. The
theoretical and experimental data of
the

fq
fN

are 0.90899 and 0.87824 respectively. Furthermore,

for theoretical and experimental equal to 0.41683 and 0.47822 respectively. The

experiment confirmed the modeled prediction as both

fq
fN

is less and close to 1, and both

is less than 1.

Part D:
The value of damping coefficient, q

was found to be 5.6613 1.9323 Ns/m , where the

uncertainty is 34.13% of the damping coefficient.

2.1. Part D:
2.1.1.
Error Analysis
The evaluation of data gained from experiment always carries a certain level of
uncertainties. The will to reduce the uncertainties must be balanced with the
necessity to achieve maximum efficiency of information collected and
experimental yield with the resources available.(University 2012).
To determine the uncertainty of a function that is made up of several parameters
the formula below is used:
For function

=f ( w , x , y ) , its uncertainty can be defined as,

Equation 21

.dw
.dx
.dy ...
x
y
w

In this experiment, the uncertainty of the damping coefficient q, is to be


determined. From Equation 18,

k c

f N a

2n

ln( 2 y o / 2 y n )

Therefore, the uncertainty of q for damped spring can be defined as,


Equation 22

q
q
q
q
q
.da
.dc
.dyo
.dyn
.df N
.dk
c
yo
yn
f N
k
a

dq

2.2. Part C: Viscous damping and its effects on natural frequency


2.3. Part D: Error Analysis
q

q
q
q
q
q
.da
.dc
.dyo
.dyn
.df N
.dk
c
yo
yn
f N
k
a

dq

To

determine

the

uncertainty of the damping coefficient q , Equation 22 is used.

To solve this long equation at ease it was broken into smaller parts for solving and later
combined together to determine the final result.
Note: the calculation is only conducted for the damped system as the undamped system is
assumed that no damping took place.
2.3.1.
q
da 2
a

Uncertainty of a
k
f N

c2
3
a

2n
(
)2 1
ln( 2 y o 2 y n )

da

1315.79 0.6 2
3
q
da 2 6.659 0.15 0.001
a
2 15 2
(
) 1
ln( 3.1 / 2.6)
q
da 0.025041
a

2.3.2.

Uncertainty of c
c
2
q
a
dc 2
dc
c
2n
(
)2 1
ln( 2 y o 2 y n )
k
f N

10

2.3.3.

1315.79 x 0.6
q
7.055 0.15 2
dc 2
0.001
c
2 15
2
(
) 1
ln( 0.031 / 0.026)
q
dc 6.259 x10 3.
c

2.3.4.

q
dy o
y o

k
f N

c

a

2n
(
)2 1
ln( 2 y o 2 y n )

dy o o

q
k c 2 n

dy o

y o
f N a ln( 2 y o / 2 y n )

q
k c
dy o

y o
f N a

q
dy o
y o

1
2
( )( 2) 2n
2

4kn 2 c

fN a

1
2

0.001

ln( 2 y o / 2 y n ) 21
2 n

y o
ln( 2 y o / 2 y n )

3
2

0.001

2 n 2
) 1
ln( 2 y o / 2 y n )

ln( 2 y o / 2 y n ) 3 y o

3
2

0.001

Uncertai
nty of yo

41315.79 15 0.6

6.659
0.15
2

q
dy o
y o

3.1x10 3

ln( 0.031 / 0.026) 3

2 15

ln( 3.1 / 2.6)

0.001

3
2

q
dy o 6.887 x10 3
y o
dfd
2

q
dyn
yn

q
dyn
yn

k c

f N a
dyo
2n
2
(
) 1
ln( 2 yo 2 yn )

4kn 2 c

fN a

2 n
1
ln( 2 yo / 2 yn )

ln( 2 yo / 2 yn ) 3 yo

41333.33 31 0.55

7.055
0.15
2

q
dyn
yn

2.3.5.
Uncertainty of yn

0.001

2 31

ln( 0.043 / 0.011)

ln( 0.043 / 0.011) 3 0.011

q
dyn 0.37745
yn

3
2

3
2

0.001

2.3.6.

Uncertainty of

fn

k c

2
q
f N a
df N
df N
f N
2n
2
(
) 1
ln( 2 yo 2 yn )
2

1333.33 0.55

(7.055) 2 0.15

(1)
q
df N
2 (31)
2
(
) 1
f N
ln( 0.043 0.011)
q
df N 0.8024
f N

2.3.7.

Uncertainty of

dk ,

Using Equation 22, we can formulateEquation 22,


dk

k
1
dq 2 dq k 2 compliance
q
q

Where,

complience y

n x xi
2
i

And ,

1
1
yi xi b

n2
k

y
compliance
To determine dk , we need to first find
followed by
.
From page Error: Reference source not found,
i Total
suspended Total
Scale
mass, mi (kg)
force, Fi = Reading, i
mig (N)
(mm (m)
)
0 0
0
70
0.070
1 1.019
10
75
0.075

Deflection,
i o

Increment
in
deflection (mm)

(mm
)
0
5

(m)

(mm)

(m)

0
5

0.005

2.039

20

83

0.830

13

0.008

3.058

30

90

0.090

20

10

0.010

4.077

40

100

0.100

30

0
0.00
5
0.01
3
0.02
0
0.03
0

10

0.010

k =1333.33 N /m
By plotting the graph Deflection over Load, it will produce a straight line passing
through the axis (0,0), thus b=0 .

1
1
y
yi xi 0

n2
k

x
i 1

1
1

yi xi

n2
k

1
0 6.25 10 6 4.00 10 6 6.25 10 6 5.625 10 15 2.345 10 3
52

By using the
n

100

value, the

compliance

can be found,

x
i 1

3000

y =2.345 10

complience y

By applying the

5
2.345 10 3 0.03162 7.416 10 5 m / N
2
5 3000 100

compliance =7.416 105 m/ N

dk k 2 compliance
to

dk k 2 compliance 1333.332 7.416 10 5 131.84

Substitute dk =131.84 into


2

q
dk
k

k c

f N a
dn
2n
2
(
) 1
ln( 2 y o 2 y n )

q
dk
k

1 c

f N a
dk
2n
2
(
) 1
ln( 2 y o 2 y n )

q
dk
k

1
0.55

(7.055) 0.15
131.84
2 (31)
2
(
) 1
ln( 0.043 / 0.011)

q
dkundamped 0.5597
k

2.3.8.

Uncertainty of

q ,

q
q
q
q
q
.da
.dc
.dyo
.dyn
.df N
.dk
c
yo
yn
f N
k
a

dq

dq 0.0755 0.0206 0.0966 0.3775 0.8024 0.5597


dq 1.9323

3. Discussions
3.1. Part A: Measuring the stiffness of the spring
3.2. Part B: Natural frequency of oscillation (with and without lumped mass
correction)
3.3. Part C
3.4. Part D
The value of damping coefficient, q

calculated is 5 .6613 1. 9323 Ns/m , where the

uncertainty is 34.13% of the damping coefficient. The result shows that the uncertainty is
very high and improvement might need to carryout to improve the accuracy of the result.
However, since that the damping coefficient is a function of other parameters taken from
the experiment, the accuracy of the parameters must be improved to determine a more
accurate damping coefficient.

4. Conclusion
Part A:
In conclusion, the value of spring stiffness determined (1250 N/m) with approximate 6.2% error
is consider acceptable. Due to the difference in theoretical and experimental data, the theoretical
value 1333.33 N/m is used in the following experiments.

Part B:
The experimental result is acceptable as they showed close to linear properties with the gradient
close to the theoretical data in the plotted graph. The inclusion of spring mass will affect the
theoretical value however the effect become less significant when the load becomes larger. Thus,
the slope of the graph will not be affected even though spring mass is included (when spring
mass<<load).

Part C:
As a conclusion, the damping coefficient of the damped system is equal to 5.6613kg/s. The
theoretical and experimental data of
the

fq
fN

are 0.90899 and 0.87824 respectively. Furthermore,

for theoretical and experimental equal to 0.41683 and 0.47822 respectively. The

experiment confirmed the modeled prediction as both

fq
fN

is less and close to 1, and both

is less than 1.

Part D:
The value of damping coefficient, q

was found to be 5.6613 1.9323 Ns/m , where the

uncertainty is 34.13% of the damping coefficient.

Reference:
4physics (n.d.). "A Hooke's Law Spring." Retrieved March
http://www.4physics.com/phy_demo/HookesLaw/HookesLawLab.html.

19,

2012,

from

Dukkipati, R. V. (2010). Mechanical Vibrations. Oxford, UK, Alpha Science International Ltd.
Rao, S. S. (2004). Mechanical Vibrations (International Edition). Upper Saddle River, New
Jersey, Pearson Education International.
University, C. (2012). Dynamic System 334 - Course Notes Lecture 1. Perth, Department of
Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University.
University, C. (2012). Dynamic System 334 - Course Notes Lecture 5. Perth, Department of
Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University.
University, C. (2012). Dynamic System 334 laboratory Excercise 1, Department of Mechanical
Engineering.