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mechanical vibration

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Table 1 Nomenclature

Symbol

Meanings

Angular velocity

Unit

ran

meq

Equivalent mass

kg

Damping ratio

rad/s

Damping coefficient

kg/s

Frequency

Hz

I0

kg.m2

Mass of load

kg

ms

Mass of spring

kg

fN

Natural frequency

Hz

Period

Velocity

m/s

2) Introduction:

In mechanical vibration natural frequency and stiffness of materials in generating

vibration (

). Vibration can be divide into three group ;

a) natural vibration

natural motion generated from object containing some internal

energy such as teacup, the energy come generated due to flickering

of the finger

b) forced vibration

Vibration due to forced vibration on a system. Example, unbalance

wheel will cause vehicle to vibrate equal to rotational speed of the

wheel.

c) unstable vibration

Vibration due to vibration motion without external excitation as the

object produce it own vibration force maintaining the motion.

Example of unstable vibration is aerodynamic flutter.

Therefore, understanding mechanical vibration is vital to study the properties, impact and

ability to govern the vibration in the design and operation of the mechanical plant.

The objective of this experiment was to learn how spring stiffness, natural frequency

and damping effect on system with single degree of freedom. this lab report are sub

divided into four parts which are parts A, B, C and D. Part A is to measure

the spring stiffness. Besides, for part B, the aim is to determine the

natural frequency of oscillation with and without lumped mass

correction. Furthermore in part C, the experiment is conducted on

viscous damping and its consequence to the natural frequency. Lastly

part D, determine error analysis.

3) Objectives:

The aim of this one degree of freedom system experiment are:

a.

f N=

1

2

k

1

=

ms 2

m+

3

k

meq

1

(Formula for lumped-parameter system frequency, f lump = 2

k

m )

(University 2012)

b. Attest theory

of

damping ratio ( ),

f 2 2

+ =1

, which states that small damping ratio will result in damped

fN

( )

natural oscillation frequency value is nearly the same as the undammed natural

oscillation frequency.

c. To acquire the stiffness of a helical spring

d. To analyze the uncertainties measurement that caused by error analysis

4) Apparatus

Apparatus which are used to conduct this experiment are Tecquipment universal

vibration, digital stop watches, accurate balance, and ruler.

5.1. Introduction

Part A is to resolve the spring stiffness of the spring which was used during the experiment

which is used in the calculation of other calculation. The theory of Hookes law, mass added to

the spring should not exceed the proportional limit.

5.2. Objectives

Evaluate value through calculation and the spring stiffness obtained from the graph

5.3.1.

Hookes Law

Hookes Law states that the deforming force applied is directly proportional to the size

of deformation or elongation as long as do not exceed elastic limit

(https://www1.umn.edu/ships/modules/phys/hooke/hooke.htm). Hookes Law can be

define mathematically as:

F=k

Where:

Equation 1

= deflection or deformation (m)

k = spring stiffness (N/m)

Graph of force against deflection VS the stiffness plotted is essential in identifying the gradient

of the graph.

5.3.2 Least Squares method

Best fit lines function, function, f ( x )=ax +b

relations. Least square method is used to determine best fit line this because least square method

utilised the coordinates on a scatter plot shown in Equation 2. Therefore, it was used to

1

m .

https://www.utdallas.edu/~herve/Abdi-LeastSquares06-pretty.pdf

m=

xy

( x )( y )

n

2

x

2

( x )

Equation 2

5.4. Procedure

1) The hanger and spring is attached to the tecquipment universal vibration

apparatus and at end of the spring.

2) The initial length of the spring is measured using ruler and recorded.

3) A 10N weight is slotted to onto the hanger and the elongation of the

length of the spring is measured and recorded.

4) Step 3 is repeated for loads of 20N, 30N, and 40N.

5) Graph of force versus deflection is plotted to conclude the spring stiffness.

i Total

suspended Total

Scale

mass, mi (kg)

force, Fi = Reading, i

(mm (m)

mig (N)

)

0 0

0

68

0.068

1 1.019

10

76

0.076

2

2.039

20

84

0.084

3.058

30

92

0.092

4.077

40

98

0.098

Deflection,

i o

(mm (m)

)

0

0

8

0.00

8

16

0.01

6

24

0.02

4

30

0.03

0

Increment

in

deflection (mm)

(mm)

(m)

0

8

0

0.008

0.008

0.008

0.006

0.04

0.03

0.03

0.02

Deflection, m

0.02

0.01

0.01

0

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Force, N

Deflection, i o

Fi 2

0

(i

Fi

0

1

2

3

4

0.008

0.016

0.024

0.030

0.078

total

10

20

30

40

100

y=mx +c

Gradient, m:

xn

2

n . x n

n . x n y n x n y n

m=

m=

5 (2.32 )(100)(0.078)

5 (3000 )(100)2

4

7.6 10

y-intercept, c:

x

xn

n . x n2

( n)2 x n y n . x n

yn

c=

100

400

900

1600

3000

0.08

0.32

0.72

1.2

2.32

c=

5 ( 3000 )10000

a=0.0004

Therefore equation of slope:

y=0.00076 x +0.0004

k=

1

0.00076

1315.79 N / m

1.315 kN /m

1.1.

Discussion

Based on the drawn graph as shown in Error: Reference source not found, proof that deflection

of the spring is proportional to the applied force. Besides the gradient of the curve of

0.00076 m/N . The spring stiffness is 1.315 kN /m , it can be obtain by using least square

method.

Besides, there are several factor which might influence the reading obtain. One of the error is due

to the spring itself. This because spring has elastic limit, ones it reach this limit it will enter the

phase of plastic behavior. The deformation at this stage is permanent. Although this scenario has

small chances of occurrence, it would be better to prevent such an incidence. The possibilities is

same spring is used by other group which will cause certain amount of deformation on the

spring. Therefore, new spring is recommended to be used for better accuracy.

Furthermore, random error cause by inappropriate method obtaining the measurement will lead

to error in the reading. Example of such an error are taking the reading when the spring moving

slightly which will change the length of the spring. Common error such as parallax error is also

common when no effort is taken into taking the measurement. These problem can be abstain by

practicing greater care in taking measurement without contact with the spring and assign a

person to take the reading so that same reference point is used in taking the measurement. It is

also better to attach a fixed measurement tool beside the spring so that

reading readings can be obtain without having to hold the ruler

To obtain higher accuracy in reading several reading must be taken to minimise the chances of

error to the minimal.

part b

5.5. Introduction

In section B of the experiment, the natural frequency of the spring oscillation was obtain

by applying varies load to the spring. The experimental data was obtained and recorded .

Theoretical value with and without lumped mass adjustment were identified and compare

5.6. Objectives

To study and identify the natural frequency of oscillation of a spring with and

without lumped mass adjustment.

Compare the graph obtained theoretical and experimental result, associated with

period of oscillations and varies load on the hanger .

To verify the correctness of the experimental result ontained.

5.7.1.

Natural Frequency

Natural frequency is the frequency of a system oscillate in the nonexistence of any

damping which is also known as simple harmonic motion, which is a sinusodial motion

http://www.math.psu.edu/tseng/class/Math251/Notes-MechV.pdf

Figure 1 shows a spring mass system oscillate in the direction of gravitational force in y

axis of moment , which is categorise as one degree of freedom

Point A in the Figure 1 show actual length of the spring where no force is exert on it.

When the mass applied , it will lengthen to static equilibrium position at point B.

Different load applied on the spring will results different position of point B. Lengthen

length from point B to point C represents the extension of the spring during spring

oscillation which can be explained by by using Newton II Law where,

F y =m y

--- (1)

mgk static ky =m y

When

k static=mg

y +

--- (2)

k

y=0

m

--- (3)

Since gravitational force has no effect to on the dynamic motion will lead to

g

i

k

2

k static=mg

= m = w based on

k

m

---(6)

2

m

2

---(7)

f=

1

T

1

2

k

m

---(8)

5.7.2.

Lumped Mass System

Lumped mass systems are systems that with restricted number of freedom

Allowed for the mass of spring an energy method to determine the natural frequency of

the system. Rayleighs Energy is adopted in this case which assumes:

Maximum kinetic energy is equal to maximum strain energy.

The mode shape is assumed.

(University

Note that,

c= the free length of the spring.

m= mass of object

v= velocity at c

V= velocity at c + dc

ms=mass of spring

We can assume ,

2012)

1

KE 1= mV 2

2

v V

=

c C

dc

C

ms v

1

KE 2=

2

cV

v=

C

2

( )

C

1 ms V 2

KE=

c 2 dc

2

2 C C 0

Equation 2

1 ms 2

V

2 3

By including the addition of kinetic energy of thebody and the whole system will get

Equation 3

KE max =

m

1

m+ s V 2

2

3

And,

Equation 4

k

m+

ms

3

Equation 5

f s=

1

2

k

m

m+ s

3

5.8. Procedure

i)

ii)

iii)

Vertical oscillations with 10mm of amplitude is exert

and 30

and recorded.

iv)

v)

against various masses.

Mass of the spring,

ms=0.034 kg

mh=0.01 kg

Induced amplitude,

A 10 mm=0.01 m

weights

on of cycles,

N

mi

hanger,

of

oscillation,

N

oscillations,

mi +mh

mi +m h +

ms

3

ms

mi

(N )

(kg)

T=

(sec)

1 sec

(sec)

t

N

( kg )

1

2

( kg )

1

2

0

10

0

1.0194

30

30

0

6.3433

0

0.2114

0.1000

1.0146

0.1461

1.0201

20

2.0387

30

7.4400

0.2480

1.4313

1.4353

0

0.0334

0.0167

30

3.0581

30

9.4270

0.3141

1.7516

1.7548

40

4.0775

30

10.8200

0.3607

2.0217

2.0246

0.0111

0.0083

note that gravity

=9.81

m/s

( 2k ) M

T=

Square root of total with spring,

Period (without spring

m

mass without spring,

mi +mh + s (kg)

mass),

mi +mh (kg)

3

T1 (sec)

0.1000

0.1461

0.017321

1.0146

1.0201

0.175744

1.4313

1.4353

0.247923

1.7516

1.7548

0.303404

2.0217

2.0246

0.350189

Note:

M1 =

mass),

T2 (sec)

0.025307

0.176697

0.248616

0.303958

0.350692

mi+ mh

ms

m

+

m

+

i

h

M2 =

3

0.4

0.35

0.3

Experimental data

assuming spring is

massless

0.25

Period

0.2

spring is massless

0.15

assuming spring is

massless)

0.1

0.05

0

0.8

2.2

Mass (kg)

Figure 3 Comparison between theoretical data and experimental data (assuming spring is massless)

0.4

0.35

0.3

Theoretical data

considering spring with

mass

0.25

Period

0.2

considering spring with

mass)

0.15

0.1

spring mass consideration

0.05

0

0.8

2.2

Mass (kg)

Figure 45 Comparison between theoretical data and experimental data (assuming spring is have mass)

1.1. Discussion

Figure 3 Comparison between theoretical data and experimental data (assuming spring is

massless) in figure 9 and figure 10 proof the difference between the value obtain between

experimental data and the theoretical. The common between these two graph showed that is the

spring is elastic limits phase .

Besides, by considering the mass of the spring to the calculation will affect the obtain result .

Theoretical relationship based on formula

spring mass it will cause the value of

the impact will decline.

( 2k ) M

T=

From the graphs plotted , the experimental data changes in small degree and does not line up in

a straight line. The cause is due to parallax error. this can be explain due to fast oscillation of the

spring and time keeper of the stopwatch. Thus, indirectly cause the period of oscillation in

experiment is has higher value as compare to theoretical value which are clearly shown on the

graphs plotted. to avoid such an error laser oscillator counter should be used.

furthermore condition of the string should also take into consideration. this because induced

extension of the spring at the initial might varies from the recommended extension. In addition \

mass attach to the hanger must be firm to abstain certain affect on the oscillation. Other than

that, the spring might not be in a good condition since it is not a new spring.

In nutshell, obtaining mean value in the experiment are vital to minimise error in the

experiment.

part c

5.9. Introduction

In section C, the system include and exclude viscous damping which was certain type of

oil is used to study the effect of viscous damping on natural frequency and damping

coefficient in one degree of freedom .

Objectives

5.10.

To study the damping ratio and damping coefficient of a viscous damping system

To study the impact of effects on natural frequency and viscous damping.

Theory Background

5.10.1.

Viscous Damping

According to (Rao 2004), viscous damping occurs when a mechanical system vibrates in

a fluid medium such as air, gas, water and oil, the resistance offered by the fluid to the

moving body causes energy to be dissipated. In this case, the amount of dissipated energy

depends on many factors, such as the size and shape of the vibrating body, the viscosity

of the fluid, the frequency of vibration, and the velocity of the vibrating body. In viscous

damping, the damping force is proportional to the velocity of the vibrating body. (Rao

2004).

The mathematical model of viscous damping can be express below,

Equation 6

F=q x

Equation 7

T =q

To study the effects of viscous damping, we apply Newtons Second law to the following

system,

Applying Newton II ,

F x =m x

kxq x =m x

Equation 8

x +

q

k

x + x=0

m

m

The resultant equation is a linear, second order, homogeneous, constant coefficient, ordinary

differential equation. Such equations can be tackled by assuming a solution in the form of a

complex exponential (University 2012). Hence, let's assume that:

Equation 9

x ( t )=X e st

and simplify yields the characteristic equation,

Equation 10

2

s +

q

k

s+ =0

m m

Equation 11

x ( t )=X e st

and

x +

q

k

x + x=0

m

m

s 1 }= q 1 1 4 mk

s2 2 m

q2

Equation 12

2

q a +

k c =0

+

I0

I0

Where

=angular acceleration

= angular velocity

= angle change

q = damping coefficient

k = spring stiffness

a = distance from pivot to damper

c = distance from pivot to helical spring

I0

2

2 N N 0

, it show that,

Equation 13

q 2a 4

4c 2 I o k

kc2

Io

N

and

Equation 14

f damped f undamped 1 2

1

2

kc2

Io

q 2a 4

4kIo c 2

Equation 15

1 2 y0

ln

n 2 y n

2

1

1

2

damping co-efficient

Equation 16

2c

a2

kIo

2n

ln( 2 yo / 2 y n )

Where

y0 = the amplitude of the vibration at the beginning.

yn = the amplitude of the vibration at n cycle of oscillation.

n = oscillation number.

If the dashpot is drained of its oil, it will gives out q=0 and so then Equation 14 becomes

Equation 17

c

fN

2

k

Io

c

I o

2f N

Equation 18

k c

f N a

2n

ln( 2 y o / 2 y n )

yo

yn

As long there is natural frequency of oscillation and

evaluated to determined the damping coefficient.

5.11.

Procedure

2. A empty dashpot was fixed at a distance a from the pivot O and the helical spring used in

Part A and Part B was fixed at a distance of c from the pivot O.

3. Both length a and c was recorded.

4. A chart recorder was place at the free end of the vibrating beam (which is closer to the

helical spring) to produce a time trace of oscillation.

5. The free end of the beam was pull downwards approximately 50mm.

6. A stop watch was started simultaneously once the beam was released into an oscillation.

The time for the full series of oscillations was recorded.

7. Step 2 to step 7 was repeated by replacing the empty dashpot with a oil filled viscous

dashpot.

8. All data was recorded in Table 5

Measurements of Apparatus (Refer to Figure 2 Damped rotational system with single d.o.f.)

a=150 mm

c=600 mm

Table 6 Experimental data for Part C

Category

Dashpot

without

(undamped)

oscillations, n

Time

taken

for

n 8.41

oscillation (s)

n

0.150

Period ( s ) ,T (s)

42

Frequency (Hz)

2 y0

(mm)

6.659

3.1

6.140

2.6

2.6

2 yn

Initial

0

(mm)

deflection

angle, 3.2

6.84

0.163

2.7

(rad)

Calculation:

***Note: The value spring stiffness k , is taken from part A calculation.

I0

The data from the experiment without oil in dashpot (undamped) is used. Equation

I0 =

c 2

k

2 fN

, is used

Where,

f N =6.659 Hz

k =1315.79 N /m

c=0.6 m

I0 =

2

0.6

( 1315.79 )

2 6.659

I 0 =0.2706 Nm s 2

q=

2

0.152

2 (15)

+1

3.1

ln

2.6

q=1.878 kg / s

( )

f q=6.659 Hz

1

f damped =

2

1315.79 0.62

1.8782 0.154

1

0.2706

4 1315.79 0.2706 0.62

fq

is equivalent to experimental

(6.659Hz).

Calculating experimental

f q 6.659

=

f N 6.659

fq

fN

fq

fq

=1 ,

fN

fq

= 1

fN

( )

= 1( 1 )

=0 , which is

<1

fq

Calculating theoretical result of f N

f q 6.140

=

f N 6.659

fq

=0.90899 , which is very close to 1.

fN

f

= 1 q

fN

( )

= 1( 0.922 )

=0.387 , which is

<1

1.2. Discussion

Based on the experiment undamped system take longer time with more oscillation and

frequency as compared to damped system. Calculation show that theoretical damped

frequency which is 6.659 which is the same as the experimental value shown in Figure.

This shows that the experimental data is acceptable with =0 , which indicate

frequency of free oscillation is generally very small

In contrast, the theoretical value

experimental damping ratio is 0.387. the causes of the difference is due to the

variation , obtained from the

fq

fN

35mm length.

Introduction

The purpose of the error analysis is to determine the accuracy of the value we obtain during the

experiment . Value of the parameter can be achieved by substitute the measured value obtain

from the lab, which is exposed to certain error. This will lead to measured quantities and

function of algebraic might be the cause of the error in new parameter. There are two

types of uncertainties which are syst4ematic errors and random uncertainties.

Theory

9.2 Theory

9.2.1 Arithmetic Mean,

xi

1

x=

N

xi

i=1

Standard deviation allow us to approximate the precision if the uncertainties of measurement

which are random.

( x ix )2

i=1

N1

quantities, each subject to error, in an algebraic expression. So the error in the new parameter can

be some function of the algebraic expression, the measured quantities and their respective

uncertainties.

The absolute error can be defined in quantity x as dx while the fractional error can be defined in

quantity

as

x dx

=

x

x

5.12. Part D:

5.12.1.

Error Analysis

The evaluation of data gained from experiment always carries a certain level of

uncertainties. The will to reduce the uncertainties must be balanced with the

necessity to achieve maximum efficiency of information collected and

experimental yield with the resources available.(University 2012).

To determine the uncertainty of a function that is made up of several parameters

the formula below is used:

For function

Equation 19

.dw

.dx

.dy ...

x

y

w

determined. From

k c

f N a

2n

ln( 2 y o / 2 y n )

Equation 20

q

q

q

q

q

.da

.dc

.dyo

.dyn

.df N

.dk

c

yo

yn

f N

k

a

dq

5.14. Part D: Error Analysis

q

q

q

q

q

q

.da

.dc

.dyo

.dyn

.df N

.dk

c

yo

yn

f N

k

a

dq

To

determine

the

To solve this long equation at ease it was broken into smaller parts for solving and later

combined together to determine the final result.

Note: the calculation is only conducted for the damped system as the undamped system is

assumed that no damping took place.

5.14.1.

2 y0 2

+1

2 yn

2 n

k C2

f n a3

2

q

a=

a

( )

Uncertainty of a

3.1 2

+1

2.6

2 ( 15 )

1315.79 0.62

6.659 0.153

2

q

a=

a

( )

=0.025041

5.14.2.

Uncertainty of c

k c

f N a 2

q

dc 2

dc

c

2n

2

(

) 1

ln( 2 y o 2 y n )

1315.79 0.6

2

q

dc 2 6.659 0.15 0.001

c

2 15 2

(

) 1

ln( 3.1 / 2.6)

h

dc=6.259 x 1 03

c

5.14.3.

Uncertainty of yo

2

q

dyo

yo

k c

f N a

dyo o

2n

2

(

) 1

ln( 2 yo 2 yn )

q

k c 2 n

dyo

yo

f N a ln( 2 yo / 2 yn )

q

k c

dyo

yo

f N a

q

dyo

yo

1

2

( )( 2) 2n

2

4kn 2 c

fN a

1

2

0.001

ln( 2 yo / 2 yn ) 2 1

2 n

yo

ln( 2 yo / 2 yn )

2 n

1

ln( 2 yo / 2 yn )

ln( 2 yo / 2 yn ) 3 yo

3

2

0.001

3

2

0.001

41315.79 15 0.60

6.659

0.15

q

dy o

y o

2 15

h

d y 0 =6.8887 x 1 03

y0

5.14.4.

q

dy o

y o

Uncertainty of yn

k

f N

c

a

2n

(

)2 1

ln( 2 y o 2 y n )

dy o o

q

k c 2 n

dy o

y o

f N a ln( 2 y o / 2 y n )

q

k c

dy o

y o

f N a

q

dy o

y o

1

2

( )( 2) 2n

2

4kn 2

fN

1

2

0.001

ln( 2 y o / 2 y n ) 21

2 n

y o

ln( 2 y o / 2 y n )

2 n 2

) 1

ln(

2

y

/

2

y

)

o

n

ln( 2 y o / 2 y n ) 3 y n

c

a

3

2

0.001

3

2

0.001

3

2

0.001

41315.49 15 0.60

6.659

0.15

2

q

dy o

y o

2 15

h

d y n =1.0883

yn

5.14.5.

Uncertainty of

| ( ) |

q

df =

f N N

k c

f N2 a

( ) .1

2 ( n)

y

0

yn

( )

| ( ) |

1315.79 0.6

6.659 2 0.15

( ) .1

2 ( 15 ) 2

+1

3.1

2.6

( )

=0.282039

fn

3

2

0.001

5.14.6.

Uncertainty of

dk ,

dk

k

1

dq 2 dq k 2 compliance

q

q

Where,

complience y

n x xi

2

i

And ,

1

1

y i xi b

n2

k

y

compliance

To determine dk , we need to first find

followed by

.

No

Total

x

Deflection, y

force,

0

10

20

30

40

100

1

2

3

4

5

Sum

[]

1

xb

k

b=0

0

0.000400003

0.000800006

0.001200009

-0.000399988

0.00200003

0

0.008

0.016

0.024

0.03

0.078

( [] )

y

1

xb

k

0

1.60002E-07

6.4001E-07

1.44002E-06

1.5999E-07

2.40002E-06

k =1315.79 N /m

By plotting the graph Deflection over Load, it will produce a straight line passing

through the axis (0,0), thus b=0 .

1

1

y

yi xi 0

n2

k

1

1

yi xi

n2

k

1

2.40002E - 06

52

3

=0.89443x 10

By using the

n

x

i 1

x

i 1

100

3000

value, the

compliance

can be found,

y =0.89443 10

complience y

5 3000 100

5

2.8284x 10

dk k 2 compliance

By applying the

compliance =2.8284 10 m/ N

= 48.968

q

dk

k

q

dk

k

k

f N

c

a

2n

(

)2 1

ln( 2 y o 2 y n )

1

f N

c

a

dn

2n

(

)2 1

ln( 2 y o 2 y n )

dk

to

q

dk

k

1

0.55

(7.055) 0.15

131.84

2 (31)

2

(

) 1

ln( 0.043 / 0.011)

q

dkundamped 0.5597

k

5.14.7.

Uncertainty of

q ,

q

q

q

q

q

.da

.dc

.dyo

.dyn

.df N

.dk

c

yo

yn

f N

k

a

dq

dq 1.9323

6) Discussions

6.1. Part A: Measuring the stiffness of the spring

6.2. Part B: Natural frequency of oscillation (with and without lumped mass

correction)

6.3. Part C

6.4. Part D

The value of damping coefficient, q

uncertainty is 34.13% of the damping coefficient. The result shows that the uncertainty is

very high and improvement might need to carryout to improve the accuracy of the result.

However, since that the damping coefficient is a function of other parameters taken from

the experiment, the accuracy of the parameters must be improved to determine a more

accurate damping coefficient.

7) Conclusion

Part A:

In conclusion, the value of spring stiffness determined (1250 N/m) with approximate 6.2% error

is consider acceptable. Due to the difference in theoretical and experimental data, the theoretical

value 1333.33 N/m is used in the following experiments.

Part B:

The experimental result is acceptable as they showed close to linear properties with the gradient

close to the theoretical data in the plotted graph. The inclusion of spring mass will affect the

theoretical value however the effect become less significant when the load becomes larger. Thus,

the slope of the graph will not be affected even though spring mass is included (when spring

mass<<load).

Part C:

As a conclusion, the damping coefficient of the damped system is equal to 5.6613kg/s. The

theoretical and experimental data of

the

fq

fN

for theoretical and experimental equal to 0.41683 and 0.47822 respectively. The

fq

fN

is less than 1.

Part D:

The value of damping coefficient, q

2.1. Part D:

2.1.1.

Error Analysis

The evaluation of data gained from experiment always carries a certain level of

uncertainties. The will to reduce the uncertainties must be balanced with the

necessity to achieve maximum efficiency of information collected and

experimental yield with the resources available.(University 2012).

To determine the uncertainty of a function that is made up of several parameters

the formula below is used:

For function

Equation 21

.dw

.dx

.dy ...

x

y

w

determined. From Equation 18,

k c

f N a

2n

ln( 2 y o / 2 y n )

Equation 22

q

q

q

q

q

.da

.dc

.dyo

.dyn

.df N

.dk

c

yo

yn

f N

k

a

dq

2.3. Part D: Error Analysis

q

q

q

q

q

q

.da

.dc

.dyo

.dyn

.df N

.dk

c

yo

yn

f N

k

a

dq

To

determine

the

To solve this long equation at ease it was broken into smaller parts for solving and later

combined together to determine the final result.

Note: the calculation is only conducted for the damped system as the undamped system is

assumed that no damping took place.

2.3.1.

q

da 2

a

Uncertainty of a

k

f N

c2

3

a

2n

(

)2 1

ln( 2 y o 2 y n )

da

1315.79 0.6 2

3

q

da 2 6.659 0.15 0.001

a

2 15 2

(

) 1

ln( 3.1 / 2.6)

q

da 0.025041

a

2.3.2.

Uncertainty of c

c

2

q

a

dc 2

dc

c

2n

(

)2 1

ln( 2 y o 2 y n )

k

f N

10

2.3.3.

1315.79 x 0.6

q

7.055 0.15 2

dc 2

0.001

c

2 15

2

(

) 1

ln( 0.031 / 0.026)

q

dc 6.259 x10 3.

c

2.3.4.

q

dy o

y o

k

f N

c

a

2n

(

)2 1

ln( 2 y o 2 y n )

dy o o

q

k c 2 n

dy o

y o

f N a ln( 2 y o / 2 y n )

q

k c

dy o

y o

f N a

q

dy o

y o

1

2

( )( 2) 2n

2

4kn 2 c

fN a

1

2

0.001

ln( 2 y o / 2 y n ) 21

2 n

y o

ln( 2 y o / 2 y n )

3

2

0.001

2 n 2

) 1

ln( 2 y o / 2 y n )

ln( 2 y o / 2 y n ) 3 y o

3

2

0.001

Uncertai

nty of yo

41315.79 15 0.6

6.659

0.15

2

q

dy o

y o

3.1x10 3

2 15

0.001

3

2

q

dy o 6.887 x10 3

y o

dfd

2

q

dyn

yn

q

dyn

yn

k c

f N a

dyo

2n

2

(

) 1

ln( 2 yo 2 yn )

4kn 2 c

fN a

2 n

1

ln( 2 yo / 2 yn )

ln( 2 yo / 2 yn ) 3 yo

41333.33 31 0.55

7.055

0.15

2

q

dyn

yn

2.3.5.

Uncertainty of yn

0.001

2 31

q

dyn 0.37745

yn

3

2

3

2

0.001

2.3.6.

Uncertainty of

fn

k c

2

q

f N a

df N

df N

f N

2n

2

(

) 1

ln( 2 yo 2 yn )

2

1333.33 0.55

(7.055) 2 0.15

(1)

q

df N

2 (31)

2

(

) 1

f N

ln( 0.043 0.011)

q

df N 0.8024

f N

2.3.7.

Uncertainty of

dk ,

dk

k

1

dq 2 dq k 2 compliance

q

q

Where,

complience y

n x xi

2

i

And ,

1

1

yi xi b

n2

k

y

compliance

To determine dk , we need to first find

followed by

.

From page Error: Reference source not found,

i Total

suspended Total

Scale

mass, mi (kg)

force, Fi = Reading, i

mig (N)

(mm (m)

)

0 0

0

70

0.070

1 1.019

10

75

0.075

Deflection,

i o

Increment

in

deflection (mm)

(mm

)

0

5

(m)

(mm)

(m)

0

5

0.005

2.039

20

83

0.830

13

0.008

3.058

30

90

0.090

20

10

0.010

4.077

40

100

0.100

30

0

0.00

5

0.01

3

0.02

0

0.03

0

10

0.010

k =1333.33 N /m

By plotting the graph Deflection over Load, it will produce a straight line passing

through the axis (0,0), thus b=0 .

1

1

y

yi xi 0

n2

k

x

i 1

1

1

yi xi

n2

k

1

0 6.25 10 6 4.00 10 6 6.25 10 6 5.625 10 15 2.345 10 3

52

By using the

n

100

value, the

compliance

can be found,

x

i 1

3000

y =2.345 10

complience y

By applying the

5

2.345 10 3 0.03162 7.416 10 5 m / N

2

5 3000 100

dk k 2 compliance

to

2

q

dk

k

k c

f N a

dn

2n

2

(

) 1

ln( 2 y o 2 y n )

q

dk

k

1 c

f N a

dk

2n

2

(

) 1

ln( 2 y o 2 y n )

q

dk

k

1

0.55

(7.055) 0.15

131.84

2 (31)

2

(

) 1

ln( 0.043 / 0.011)

q

dkundamped 0.5597

k

2.3.8.

Uncertainty of

q ,

q

q

q

q

q

.da

.dc

.dyo

.dyn

.df N

.dk

c

yo

yn

f N

k

a

dq

dq 1.9323

3. Discussions

3.1. Part A: Measuring the stiffness of the spring

3.2. Part B: Natural frequency of oscillation (with and without lumped mass

correction)

3.3. Part C

3.4. Part D

The value of damping coefficient, q

uncertainty is 34.13% of the damping coefficient. The result shows that the uncertainty is

very high and improvement might need to carryout to improve the accuracy of the result.

However, since that the damping coefficient is a function of other parameters taken from

the experiment, the accuracy of the parameters must be improved to determine a more

accurate damping coefficient.

4. Conclusion

Part A:

In conclusion, the value of spring stiffness determined (1250 N/m) with approximate 6.2% error

is consider acceptable. Due to the difference in theoretical and experimental data, the theoretical

value 1333.33 N/m is used in the following experiments.

Part B:

The experimental result is acceptable as they showed close to linear properties with the gradient

close to the theoretical data in the plotted graph. The inclusion of spring mass will affect the

theoretical value however the effect become less significant when the load becomes larger. Thus,

the slope of the graph will not be affected even though spring mass is included (when spring

mass<<load).

Part C:

As a conclusion, the damping coefficient of the damped system is equal to 5.6613kg/s. The

theoretical and experimental data of

the

fq

fN

for theoretical and experimental equal to 0.41683 and 0.47822 respectively. The

fq

fN

is less than 1.

Part D:

The value of damping coefficient, q

Reference:

4physics (n.d.). "A Hooke's Law Spring." Retrieved March

http://www.4physics.com/phy_demo/HookesLaw/HookesLawLab.html.

19,

2012,

from

Dukkipati, R. V. (2010). Mechanical Vibrations. Oxford, UK, Alpha Science International Ltd.

Rao, S. S. (2004). Mechanical Vibrations (International Edition). Upper Saddle River, New

Jersey, Pearson Education International.

University, C. (2012). Dynamic System 334 - Course Notes Lecture 1. Perth, Department of

Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University.

University, C. (2012). Dynamic System 334 - Course Notes Lecture 5. Perth, Department of

Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University.

University, C. (2012). Dynamic System 334 laboratory Excercise 1, Department of Mechanical

Engineering.

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