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By

Shailendra S. Aote

2/3/2016

Course Outcome

On successful completion of the course, students will be able to:

Understand challenges involved in designing intelligent systems by exploring

human intelligence nature and its role in problem solving.

Represent given problem using state space representation and apply informed

and uninformed search techniques on it .

frames, Scripts Semantic net etc.

Understand uncertainty theory based on techniques like probability theory

and fuzzy logic.

Design Knowledge Based Systems using production rules.

2/3/2016

Intelligence

The ability to acquire & apply knowledge to solve a problem.

What is AI

AI is the study of how to make computers to do things which at the

moment , people do better. (Rich & Knight)

Is a branch of computer Science that is concerned with the automation

of intelligent behavior in simple terms.

AI is a way of making a computer thinks intelligently (Mathews)

2/3/2016

Collection of facts and rules.

Place where the domain specific knowledge is stored

Consist of body of facts axioms, rules and concepts about different entities.

Knowledg

e Base

Inference

Engine

User

Interface

Means of utilizing

facts and rules.

Carries out the

search through the

Knowledge base

To

prove

the

hypothesis & to arrive

at a conclusion

communicate with the system.

2/3/2016

Task Domains of AI

Mundane Tasks

Perception

Vision

Speech

Natural language

Understanding

Generation

Translation

Commonsense Reasoning

Robot Control

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Formal Tasks

Games

Chess

Checkers

Mathematics

Geometry

Logic

Proving Properties of Programs

Expert Tasks

Engineering

Design

Manufacturing and Planning

Scientific Analysis

Medical Analysis

Financial Analysis

5

Turing Test

To detect whether the m/c has become intelligent as

human or not.

Room-1

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interrogator

Room-2

AI Techniques

Intelligence requires Knowledge. : It is a method which should be

applied to solve the AI problems by exploiting knowledge.

Search:

It provides a way of solving problems for which no more direct approach

is available.

Use of Knowledge:

It provides a way of solving complex problems

Abstraction:

It provides a way of separating important features from unimportant

2/3/2016

way that

Knowledge captures generalization (DATA)

It can easily be modified to correct errors

It can be used in many situations.

2/3/2016

solve an AI problem?

1.

2.

3.

the problem.

4.

Choose the best problem solving technique and apply them to the

particular problem.

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problem state

The set of all possible configuration is the

space of the problem states.

Problem Space The environment where the

search is performed.

State Space-set of all states reachable from the

initial state.

2/3/2016

10

You are given two jugs, a 4-gallon one and 3-gallon one.

Neither has any measuring marks on it. There is a pump that

can be used to fill the jugs with water. How can you get

exactly 2 gallons of water into the 4-gallon jug?

2/3/2016

4G

3G

11

Problem

State: (x, y)

x = 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4

y = 0, 1, 2, 3

x No. of gallons of water in 4 gallon jug

Y No. of gallons of water in 3 gallon jug

Attempting to end up in a goal state.

2/3/2016

12

1 (x,y)

if x < 4

2 (x,y)

if y < 3

3 (x,y)

if x > 0

4 (x,y)

if y > 0

5 (x,y)

if x > 0

6 (x,y)

if y > 0

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(4,y)

(x,3)

the 4-gallon jug

(x,y d) Pour some water out of

the 3-gallon jug

(0,y)

Empty the 4-gallon jug

on the ground

(x,0)

Empty the 3-gallon jug

on the ground

13

7 (x,y)

if x+y >= 4 and y > 0

8 (x,y)

if x+y >= 3 and y > 0

9 (x,y)

if x+y <= 4 and y > 0

10 (x,y)

11 (0,2)

12 (2,y)

2/3/2016

(4,y (4 - x))

3-gallon jug into the 4-gallon jug

until the 4-gallon jug is full

(x (3 - y),3)

Pour water from the

4-gallon jug into the 3-gallon jug

until the 3-gallon jug is full

(x+y,0)

Pour all water from the

from the 3-gallon jug

into the 4-gallon jug

(0,x + y )

Pour all water from the

if x + y <= 3 and X > 0 from the 4-gallon jug

into the 3-gallon jug

(2,0)

Pour the 2 gallons from the 3gallon jug into the 4-gallon jug

(0,y)

Empty the 2 gallons in

the 4-gallon jug on the ground

14

4-Gallon Jug

0

0

3

3

4

0

2

3-Gallon Jug

0

3

0

3

2

2

0

Rule Applied

2

9

2

7

5 or 12

9 or 11

2/3/2016

15

Solution-2

(0, 0)

(4, 0)

(1, 3)

(1, 0)

(0, 1)

(4, 1)

(2, 3)

2/3/2016

Rules Applied--??

16

2/3/2016

17

Production Systems

o A production system consists of a collection of productions

(rules), a working memory of facts (database) and an

algorithm for producing new facts from old.

o A rule becomes eligible to "fire" when its conditions match

some set of elements currently in working memory. A

control strategy determines which of several eligible rules

fires next.

2/3/2016

18

Production Systems

To solve a problem using a production system, we must

specify the

Global Database

Rules

Control Strategy

Transforming

a problem statement into these three

components of a production system is called the

representation problem in AI

2/3/2016

19

Control Strategies

It specifies in which order the rules to be fired.

The first requirement of a good CS is that it causes motion.

Every time the rules cant be started from first

rule. (Water Jug problem)

systematic.

Construct the tree with the initial state as its root.

2/3/2016

20

rule produces a goal state.

2/3/2016

21

Search Techniques

Uninformed Search/Blind Search

Is to generate the successors and distinguish the goal state from non

goal state.

Strategies that know whether one non goal state is more promising

2/3/2016

22

Criteria's

Completeness

Optimality

Will the strategy find the optimal solution?

Time Complexity

How long does it take to find a solution?

Space Complexity

2/3/2016

23

BFS

DFS

Generate And Test

Hill Climbing

Best First

Problem Reduction

Constraint Satisfaction

2/3/2016

24

Breadth-first search

Expand all the nodes of

one level first.

Depth-first search

Expand one of the nodes at

the deepest level.

2/3/2016

25

1. Generate A possible Solution

For some problems, this means generating a particular point in the problem

space i.e Generating a path from a start state.

2. Test to see if this Actually a Solution by compairing the chosen point or the

endpoint of the chosen path to the set of acceptable goal states.

Otherwise return to step-1

Exa. Throwing a die to get particular score(6)

1

6

2/3/2016

26

1. It is Depth first Search procedure since complete solution must be generated

before they can be generated

2. Exhaustive Search

3. It is also known as British Museum algorithm

(Finding an object in the museum randomly.)

4. ==DFS with Backtracking.

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27

Hill Climbing

Similar to generate-and-test

Test function + heuristic function

Tell how close to the goal state

EX : In unfamiliar city without a map...

downtown = tall building...

heuristic function = distance between

downtown and tall building

Stop

2/3/2016

No alternative state to move

28

1.

else continue

2.

operators left to be applied in the current state.

a) Select an operator that has not yet been applied to the

b) Evaluate a New State

i) If it is a goal state then return it & quit

ii) If it is not a goal state, but it is better than the

current state then make it the current state.

iii) If it is not better than the current state,then

2/3/2016

29

1.Evaluate the initial state.If it is also a goal state, then return it & quit.

Otherwise continue with the initial state as the current state.

2. Loop until a solution is found or until a complete iteration produce no

change to the current state.

a) Let SUCC be a state such that any possible successor of the

current state will be better than succ.

b) For each operator that applies to the current state do:

i)Apply the operator & Generate new state.

ii)Evaluate new state..If it is a goal state then return &

quit. If not ,compare it to SUCC. If it is better, then set

iii)If SUCC is better than current state,then set current

state to SUCC.

2/3/2016

30

It combines the advantages of DFS & BFS

expanded.

BFS:-It does not get trapped on dead end paths.

Follow a single path at a time, but switch paths whenever some

competing paths looks more promising than the current one.

We have to apply appropriate Heuristic Function.

The old branch is not forgotten.

2/3/2016

31

At each step of the BFS process

2)Then expand the chosen node by using the rules to generate its

successors.

3) If one of them is a solution then quit.

4)If not all those new nodes are added to the set of nodes generated so far.

5)Again the most promising node is selected and the process continues.

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32

OR Graph

If each of the branches represent an alternative problem solving path it

is called as OR Graph.

graph.

Each node of the graph contains a description of the problem state.

Heuristic function is an estimate of

the cost of getting to a solution

from a given node

Step-2

A

Step-1

A

B

(3)

2/3/2016

(5)

(1)

33

Step-3

Step-4

B

(3)

(5)

(5)

E

(4)

2/3/2016

(6)

(6)

(5)

E

(4)

F

(6)

34

Step-5

A

(5)

G

(6)

(5)

E

(4)

I

(2)

2/3/2016

F

(6)

J

(1)

35

Lists Required?

OPEN:-Nodes that have been generated and have had the heuristic

(Visited, but not expanded)

CLOSED:-nodes that have already been examined. (Visited, expanded)

2/3/2016

36

1.Start with OPEN containing just the initial state.

2.Until a goal is found or there are no nodes left on OPEN do:

a)

b)

(i) If it has not been generated before. evaluate it. add it to OPEN, and record its

parent.

(ii) If it has been generated before, change the parent if this new path is better than

the previous one.

In that case update the cost of getting to this node and to any successors that

this node may already have.

Ex. Travelling Salesman Problem.

2/3/2016

37

Notations.

F-Heuristic function to be used

g-measure of the cost of getting from the initial state

to the current node.

h Estimate of the additional cost of getting from the

current node to the goal state.

F(x)=g(x)+h(x)

2/3/2016

38

A* Algorithm

1.Place the starting node S on open.

2.If open is empty, Stop & return failure.

3.Remove from open the node n that has the smallest value of f*(n).

If the node is a goal node, return success & Stop. Otherwise.

4. Expand n, generating all of its successor n and place n on closed.

For every successor n, if n is not already on open or closed attach a

back-pointer to n, Compute f*(n) and place it on open.

5.Each n that is already on open or closed should be attached to backpointers which reflect the lowest g*(n) path. If n was on closed and its

6.Return to step 2

2/3/2016

39

2/3/2016

40

Open List:

A* search example

Arad

We start with our initial state Arad. We make a node and add

it to the open list. Since its the only thing on the open list,

we expand the node.

Think of the open list as a priority queue (or heap) that sorts

the nodes inside of it according to their g()+h() score.

2/3/2016

41

Open List:

Sibiu

Timisoara

A* search example

Zerind

We sort them according to the

2/3/2016

g()+h()

calculation.

42

Open List:

Rimricu Vicea

Fagaras

A* search example

Weve been

Timisoara to Arad

Zerind

Arad

Oradea

before.

Dont list it

again on the

open list.

already expanded this node once; so, we dont add it to the

open list again.

2/3/2016

43

Open List:

Rimricu Vicea

Fagaras

A* search example

Timisoara

Zerind

Oradea

We see that Rimricu Vicea is at the top of the open list; so, its

the next node we will expand.

2/3/2016

44

Open List:

A* search example

Fagaras

Pitesti

Timisoara

Zerind

Craiova

Sibiu

Oradea

But weve already expanded this node once; so, we dont add

it to the open list again.

2/3/2016

45

Open List:

A* search example

Fagaras

Pitesti

Timisoara

Zerind

Craiova

Oradea

top of the sorted open list.

2/3/2016

46

Open List:

Pitesti

Timisoara

A* search example

Zerind

Bucharest

Craiova

Sibiu

Oradea

it to the open list.

We also find Bucharest, but were not done. The algorithm

doesnt end until we expand the goal node it has to be at

the top of the open list.

2/3/2016

47

Open List:

Pitesti

Timisoara

A* search example

Zerind

Bucharest

Craiova

Oradea

2/3/2016

48

Open List:

Bucharest

Timisoara

A* search example

Zerind

Craiova

Rimricu Vicea

Oradea

higher in the list. We also found a worse value for Craiova

we just ignore this.

And of course, we ran into Rimricu Vicea again. Since its

already been expanded once, we dont re-add it to the Open

List.

2/3/2016

49

Open List:

Bucharest

Timisoara

A* search example

Zerind

Craiova

Oradea

2/3/2016

50

Open List:

Bucharest

Timisoara

A* search example

Zerind

Craiova

Oradea

Were done!

optimal.)

2/3/2016

51

Problem Characteristics

To choose an appropriate method for a

particular problem:

1) Is the problem decomposable?

2) Can solution steps be ignored or undone?

3) Is the universe predictable?

4) Is a good solution absolute or relative?

5) Is the solution a state or a path?

6) What is the role of knowledge?

7) Does the task require human-interaction?

2/3/2016

52

Can the problem be broken down to smaller

problems to be solved independently?

Decomposable problem can be solved easily.

2/3/2016

53

Symbolic Integration

(1+cos2X)dx

2/3/2016

54

Start

Goal

C

A

ON(B,C)

ON(A,B)

Blocks World

CLEAR(x)

ON(x, Table)

2/3/2016

ON(x, y)

55

ON(B, C) and ON(A, B)

ON(B, C)

ON(A, B)

CLEAR(A)

ON(A, B)

C

A

2/3/2016

B

B

C

56

undone?

Theorem Proving

A lemma that has been proved can be ignored

for next steps.

Ignorable!

2/3/2016

57

undone?

The 8-Puzzle

2 8 3

1 2 3

1 6 4

7 6 5

Recoverable!

2/3/2016

58

undone?

Ignorable problems can be solved using a

simple control structure that never backtracks.

Recoverable problems can be solved using

backtracking.

Irrecoverable problems can be solved by

recoverable style methods via planning.

2/3/2016

59

The 8-Puzzle

Every time we make a move, we

know exactly what will happen.

Certain outcome!

2/3/2016

60

Playing Bridge

We cannot know exactly where all the cards are

or what

the other players will do on their turns.

Uncertain outcome!

2/3/2016

61

For certain-outcome problems, planning can used to generate a

sequence of operators that is guaranteed to lead to a solution.

For uncertain-outcome problems, a sequence of generated

operators can only have a good probability of leading to a

solution.

Plan revision is made as the plan is carried out and the

necessary feedback is provided.

2/3/2016

62

relative?

1. Marcus was a man.

2.

3.

5.

erupted in 79 A.D.

6.

7.

2/3/2016

63

relative?

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Marcus was a Pompeian.

Marcus was born in 40 A.D.

All men are mortal.

All Pompeians died when the volcano

erupted in 79 A.D.

6. No mortal lives longer than 150 years.

7. It is now 2004 A.D.

Is Marcus alive?

2/3/2016

64

relative?

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Marcus was a Pompeian.

Marcus was born in 40 A.D.

All men are mortal.

All Pompeians died when the volcano

erupted in 79 A.D.

6. No mortal lives longer than 150 years.

7. It is now 2009 A.D.

Is Marcus alive?

Different reasoning paths lead to the answer. It does not

matter which path we follow.

2/3/2016

65

Solution 1

1. Marcus was man.

4. All men are mortal.

8. Marcus is mortal.

3. Marcus was born in 40 A.D.

7. It is now 2009 A.D.

9. Marcus age is 1961 years.

6. No mortal lives longer than 150 years

10. Marcus is dead.

2/3/2016

axiom 1

axiom 4

1,4

axiom 3

axiom 7

3,7

axiom 6

8,6,9

66

Solution 2

5. All Pompeians died in 79 A.D.

11. All Pompeians are dead now.

2. Marcus was a Pompeian.

12. Marcus is dead.

2/3/2016

axiom 7

axiom 5

7,5

axiom 2

11,2

67

or relative?

The Travelling Salesman Problem

We have to try all paths to find the shortest one.

2/3/2016

Boston

New York

Miami

Dallas

Sanfransi

sco

Boston

250

1450

1700

1300

New York

250

1200

1500

2900

Miami

1450

1200

1600

3300

Dallas

1700

1500

1600

1700

Sanfransisco

3000

2900

3300

1700

68

relative?

Any-path problems can be solved using

heuristics that suggest good paths to explore.

For best-path problems, much more exhaustive

search will be performed.

2/3/2016

69

Finding a consistent interpretation

The bank president ate a dish of pasta salad with

the fork.

bank refers to a financial situation or to a side of a river?

dish or pasta salad was eaten?

Does pasta salad contain pasta, as dog food does not contain

dog?

Which part of the sentence does with the fork modify?

What if with vegetables is there?

No record of the processing is necessary.

2/3/2016

70

The Water Jug Problem

The path that leads to the goal must be reported.

2/3/2016

71

A path-solution problem can be reformulated

as a state-solution problem by describing a

state as a partial path to a solution.

2/3/2016

72

Playing Chess

Knowledge is important only to

constrain the search for a solution.

Reading Newspaper

Knowledge is required even to be able

to recognize a solution.

Exa-Cricket news(players)

2/3/2016

73

Solitary problem, in which there is no

intermediate communication and no demand

for an explanation of the reasoning process.

communication is to provide either additional

assistance to the computer or additional

information to the user.

2/3/2016

74

Summary

Sr.

No.

Problem Char

Chess

WaterJug

8 Puzzle

Travelling

Salesman

Tower of

Hanoi

Bridge

Decomposable

No

No

No

No

No

No

Ignored

/Undone

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Universe

predictable

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Absolute/Rela

tive

Any

Path

Any

Path

Any

Path

Best

Any

Any

State/ Path

State

Path

Path

Path

Path

Path

Knowledge

Required

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

User

Interaction

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

2/3/2016

75

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