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SURVEY ON PARENTAL

AWARENESS OF ONLINE
CHILD ABUSE RISKS*
March 2016

* Survey conducted by

Table of contents

I INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 4
II METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................................................... 7
Overview of methodology........................................................................................................... 8
CATI survey .................................................................................................................................. 8
Sample structure ......................................................................................................................... 9
III SURVEY RESULTS ....................................................................................................................... 12
I.1 Summary .............................................................................................................................. 13
I.2 Presence of information and communication technologies in households
with children aged 8 17 years ................................................................................................ 14
I.3 Direct exposure to ICT of children aged 8 to 17 years ......................................................... 16
I.4 Accessibility of Internet ........................................................................................................ 19
I.5 Use of Internet ..................................................................................................................... 21
I.6 Perception and evaluation of Internet risks among the parents of children age 8 to 17.... 29
I.7 Participation in childs Internet experience ......................................................................... 35
I.8 Experienced Internet risks/ dangers and their prevention .................................................. 38
IV RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................................... 45
V REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................... 48

I INTRODUCTION

Powerful development of communication and information technologies (ICT) has utterly changed the
world around us, particularly the world of children. According to some estimates, more than a half of
total human population is expected to be on line until 2017, and it is absolutely certain that children
and the young1 will constitute greater part of this Internet population.
With increase of ICT accessibility and growing inclusion of children in the world of communication and
Internet, risks of their potential exposure to different inappropriate contents (sexual, pornographic,
violent), manipulations, abuse and exploitation also increase.
All available data indicate the fact that Serbia has become an information society in the true sense of
the word. Penetration of Internet and mobile telephony has long exceeded 50% of total population,
while the use of standard and mobile Internet, on daily level already includes more than 75% of
Internet population.
To illustrate, relevant statistical data for Serbia2 show that presence of computers in households
increased from 55.2% to 64.4% in the period from 2012 to 2015. In the same period, the growth of
Internet penetration in households was even more intensive (from 47.5% to 63.8%). When it comes to
mobile phones situation in Serbia has long been in the framework of the European trends (85.8% in
2012; 91.4% in 2015).
When it comes to children, particularly the ones in school age (8 to 17 years), the role of parents in
safe use of Internet and Internet contents is of crucial importance. Previous research in this area has
shown that awareness of Internet risks and risks from abuse of children via Internet is on a rather
modest level. Although the available data refer to research assignments conducted under the support
of UNICEF in 20123, it would be logical to expect that, during the past 4 years, the level of Internet
literacy of parental population has somewhat improved, but important question is in which domains
and areas.
On the other hand, the topic of Internet abuse of children and Internet risks for child population during
the past several years has become very relevant and important, both in media communications, and
other social communications (social networks, school, peer groups, expert organisations Internet
providers, professional associations). It is absolutely certain that increase of media importance and
general social importance of the topic of Internet risks for child population had an impact on change of
awareness of parents, as a target group, and degree of their alertness and focus on this topic. Hence it
is quite reasonable to expect that attitude of parents towards this topic has changed considerably and
that it partly impacted their behaviour.
1

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Internet_usage
Statistical Office of RS USE OF INFORMATION-COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIESIN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA, 2015.
3
Popadid D, Kuzmanovid D. Utilization of digital technologies, risks, and incidence of digital violence among students in
Serbia - Summary, UNICEF/Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Belgrade University, 2013
2

Apparently, the fact that the issue of general child abuse (peer and parental) has become a topic of
special importance and interest both for society as a whole and for media has played an important role
in this process of raising the visibility and importance of the topic of Internet child abuse.
In the context of these social phenomena UNICEF has recognised the importance and magnitude of
awareness strengthening, both in society as a whole and among parents, about high degree of
connection between general violence and Internet violence. Furthermore, a clear connection between
these two categories of violence as two different forms of social pathology has been established.
While in the world, particularly in our, European environment, surveys on digital violence and Internet
risks for children and their consumption of Internet are very numerous and frequent, the first
systematic study of this kind, related to children in Serbia, was realized in 2012, by the Institute of
Psychology of the University of Belgrade with the support of UNICEF and Telenor. In the second half of
2015, Serbia joined the international research Global Kids Online4 in which participate a total of 5
countries, together with the UNICEF Office of Research Innocenti from Florence and with the support
of the UK Government.
The main objective of the this survey initiated by the UNICEF with the support of the UK Government
and realised by Ipsos Serbia, that strongly relied on basic elements of the project Global Kids Online
and EU kids Online5 was to ascertain current situation in the domain of awareness of parents who have
children aged from 8 to 17 years in Serbia about potential Internet risks for their children, and
recognise their attitudes in the domain of evaluation and alertness towards various categories of these
risks. Special attention in the realised research was paid to practical and concrete activities which
parents of children of this age take up in order to support and help their children in the domain of safe
use of Internet, and educational and preventive actions aimed at reducing such risks for their children.
Important segment of this study concerned detection of basic Internet literacy and competence of
parents to assess various forms of Internet risks for their children, as well as provision or search for
appropriate measures for protection of children. In this regard, the study covered the topic of parents
sources of information about potential Internet risks related to the use of the Internet among children,
as well as the information needs of parents in raising their internet competence.

4
5

Global Kids Online - Childrens rights in the digital age: http://www.lse.ac.uk/media@lse/research/Global-Kids-Online.aspx


EU Kids Online: http://www.lse.ac.uk/media@lse/research/EUKidsOnline/Home.aspx

II METHODOLOGY

Overview of methodology

Realisation:

Data collection was realised in February 2016

Sample frame:

Parents / Guardians / Foster parents of children aged from 8 to


17 years

Size of sample:

614 respondents
Two-stage, stratified combined probability sample

Type of samp0le:

Unit of the first stage: Household, simple random sample


(SRSWoR)
Unit of the second stage: Household member, quota criterion

Type of survey:

CATI, average length 25 minutes

Place of survey:

141 municipalities in urban, suburban and rural settlements.


Allocation by strata is proportional to size of the given strata.

Post stratification:

By gender, age and region

CATI survey
Standard method of quantitative survey which uses telephone communication with respondents
a.
b.

c.

d.
e.

Proportional sample allocation relative to % size of geographic strata (number of parents of


children aged 8 -17 years)
Realisation of survey by means of telephone survey (Computer Assisted Telephone
Interview). The whole process of work on realisation of the interviewing process is
completely automated: from selection of telephone number to data entry and control of
validity of the entered answers.
The interviewer administers the questionnaire material through software programmed
questionnaire (high degree of data entry control; instant entry of information; direct data
entry in centralised data base)
Administration of questionnaires is performed in call centre Ipsos Serbia with the help of
experienced professionals on CATI projects
Size of questionnaire do 25 minutes

Realisation of quantitative survey made possible exact measurement and quantification of


relevant indicators for different target groups or segments of population. Besides that, such
quantitative survey realised on combined representative sample, and in compliance with certain
sampling procedures, also made possible generalisation of the obtained results to entire

population with a degree of certainty. In other words, results of the survey on awareness of
parents in Serbia about Internet risks that their children are potentially exposed to, are the
reflection of the opinion of parents of children aged from 8 to 17 years in Republic of Serbia, and
reflect the situation in the entire population.
When it comes to technical details of realisation of this kind of survey, it is worth mentioning that
the sample, according to its technical characteristics and sampling principles, is a two-stage,
stratified, random sample. Sampling frame was 2011 Census of Population. Stratification was done
by region and type of settlement, and two stages which ensure randomness of the sample are
Selection of households (used the Random walk technique) and selection of respondents (used
quotas). The sample covered a total of 141 municipalities, and data collection was realised in
February 2016.

Sample structure
Geographic allocation of the sample

Socio-demographic structure of sample

9%
Father/Mother

97.5

Guardian

1.5

Foster parent

1.4

46%

54%
1 parent
family

91%

Step
0.3
father/Step
Other

2 parent
family

0.2

RELATIONSHIP WITH CHILD

RESPONDENTS GENDER

FAMILY TYPE

30%

34%

35%

25-39 YEARS

40-46 YEARS

47+ YEARS

RESPONDENTS AGE

18%

60%

23%

ELEMENTARY

HIGH

HIGHER AND UNIVERSITY

RESPONDENTS EDUCATION

10

Characteristics of child population within sample


CHILDRENS AGE

8
9

NUMBER OF CHILDERN
AGED 8 DO 17

8.3

66%

9.1

10
11

CHILDRENS GENDER

57%

10.2

7.8

12

56.4

38.2

12.9

13

12.0

14

10.3

15

10.2

16

9.2

17

10.1

GENDER OF THE CHILD


REPORTED IN THE RESEARHC

56%

4.6

0.4

0.4

AGE OF THE CHILD


REPORTED IN THE RESEARHC

44%

26%
23%
21%

18%
13%

8 - 9.

10 - 11.

12 - 13.

14 - 15

16 - 17

11

III SURVEY RESULTS

12

I.1 Summary
The realised survey about the level of awareness and alertness of parents who have children aged from
8 to 17 years about potential Internet risks and threats has shown that this topic, as well as the whole
area of Internet consumption of school-age children has become an important topic and preoccupation
of this segment of general population.
Internet risks and threats, abuse and violence against children of that age are no more the topics that
are just thought and talked about. These are not the topics of some other people, some other,
developed societies, some other social communities. These are the phenomena that have become
visible, relevant and realistic, an integral part of this young generations everyday life and life of their
parents. These phenomena have become an integral part of life of Serbian society, which has
undoubtedly become a developed information society.
Internet and mobile communications have become an indispensable part of active time of the
dominant part of children of this age: within their household, the educational institution they attend,
in their reference, peer groups ... Proportionally, the Internet risks have also multiplied, and unpleasant
experiences and exposure of children to disturbing content have now become evident.
In parallel with this, alertness, caution and fear of parents regarding these topics, issues and problems
have also grown. Basic communication within family, between children and parents has been
established regarding this topic, but not in all sub segments (economic and educational in particular) of
families with children of that age. The most important obstacle to creating a better partnership and
supportive relationships between parents and children in terms of prevention and rehabilitation of
internet risks and threats, is primarily the educational structure of the population as a whole (and
respective parental subpopulation), as well as general low level of Internet literacy and competence of
the older generations of population (which certainly includes parents).
What is certainly a positive potential and room for improvement of situation in the field of prevention
and elimination of Internet threats, risks and abuses regarding the population of children aged 8 to 17
years is the high level of parents trust in their own children, both in terms of recognition of such risks,
and in terms of their own parental role of a reliable partner that the child will turn to for help and
support in such circumstances. In this sense the key factor for further improvement of situation in this
area can be summed up in a simple motto, expressed in modern language of communications: STAY
CONSTANTLY CONNECTED WITH YOUR CHILD.
However, in order to accomplish this goal, the parents need additional support and help in terms of
raising the level of their computer literacy and Internet competences, where significant help could
come from media, educational institutions and organisations dedicated to care and welfare of schoolage children.

13

I.2 Presence of information and communication technologies in


households with children aged 8 17 years
A very imposing number of households with children aged 8 to 17 years own Smart phones, i.e. mobile
devices whose modern technology platforms enable a so-called mobile Internet access (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Presence of SMART phones in household;
Base: Total target population

Do your household members have


Smartphone?

How many?
21.3

26.4

28.2

3
NO

83.3

16.7

YES

15.6

4
5
5+

Base: Total targeted population

6.5
2.1

Base: Those who have Smartphone in HH (83.3% of the total)

Furthermore, when data about the number of such devices within the household are observed, the
impression is that accessibility of mobile Internet in the household with children at this vulnerable age
is very high. The fact that, with increase of the number of household members also increases the
number of such devices, corroborates this finding, which allows us to suppose that, in great number of
cases, one of these devices is completely used by the youngest members of these households (Table 1.)
Table 1. Number of SMART phones in the households with different number of HH members;
Base: Households which own SMART phones

No of
Smartphones

No of HH members
2

5+

81.0

33.7

14.4

20.0

7.7

31.6

30.9

21.2

0.0

29.4

31.7

25.8

0.0

2.1

17.6

19.4

5+

11.3

3.1

5.4

13.5

Does any of your household members have Smartphone? - Android, iOS, Windows telefon, BlackBerry OS or other?
Base: Those who have Smartphone in HH (83.3% of the total)

14

Presence of SMART phones in the households significantly corresponds with parents education, that
is, SMART phones are owned by considerably higher percentage of parents with higher and university
education (Table 2.). This can definitely be associated with economic status of the household,
considering that it is often in significant correlation with education.
Table 2. Presence of SMART phones;
Base: Total target population

Total

Parents gender

Parents age

Male Female 25-39


N
Yes
No

614
83.3
16.7

282
86
14

332
81
19

187
81
19

40-46

47+

211
90
10

216
79
21

HH type
1 parent 2 parent
family
family
559
55
83
89
17
11

Parents education
Higher and
Elementary High
university
108
368
138
64
85
94
36
15
6

Does any of your household members have Smartphone? - Android, iOS, Windows telefon, BlackBerry OS or other?
Base: Total targeted population

Except the very widespread availability of mobile Internet access, the households with children aged 8
to 17 years have even greater degree of accessibility to the so-called classic (static) Internet. More than
90% of the households with this demographic characteristic own some of the classic devices which
allow Internet access (Figure 2), and their number, similar to the previous analysis, increases with
increase of the number of household members (Table 3).
Figure 2. Presence of SMART phones in household;
Base: Total target population

Do your household members have


PC/laptop/tablet?

How many?
43

28.3

18.3

3
NO

7.3

92.7 YES
4
5
5+

Base: Total targeted population

6.1
2.8
1.5

Base: Those who have PC/Laptop/Tablet> in HH (92.7% of the total)

However, it should be noted that the largest number of households usually have one such device,
which in practical terms may mean that the increasing prevalence and availability of mobile Internet
(SMART phones and similar communication devices with android and compatible platforms)
downplayed to some extent the need for possession of traditional and conventional IT devices that
allow Internet access.

15

Table 3. Presence of IT devices in the household;


Base: Households which possess IT devices

No of IT devices

No of HH members
1

2
48.7

3
46.5

4
41.4

5+
42.9

30.6

24.1

28.2

30.3

10.6

20.4

19.1

16.8

10.1

7.0

5.9

5.8

5+

0.0

2.0

5.4

4.2

Do your household members have PC/laptop/tablet?


Base: Those who have PC/Laptop/Tablet> in HH (92.7% of the total)

Similar to SMART phone, in case of classic (static) IT devices correlation between the level of parents
education and number of such devices in the household is also visible (Table 4)
Table 4. Presence of IT devices in the household;
Base: Total target population

47+

1 parent
family

2 parent
family

Elementary

High

Higher and
university

Parents education

40-46

HH type

25-39

614
92.7
7.3

Parents age

Female

N
Yes
No

Parents
gender

Male

Total

282
93
7

332
92
8

187
90
10

211
96
4

216
91
9

559
94
6

55
77
23

108
77
23

368
95
5

138
98
2

Do your household members have PC/laptop/tablet?


Base: Total targeted population

Availability of IT devices in the households with children of primary and secondary school age is very
similar to results obtained in 2012 survey, and minimal difference (-2.3%) in penetration of IT devices
can be explained by differences in type of sample in the two realised surveys.

I.3 Direct exposure to ICT of children aged 8 to 17 years


Data about availability of IC technologies in the households with children aged 8 to 17 years indicate
possibility of implicit risk of being exposed to some of the numerous forms of Internet abuse. However,
information about the extent to which this exact generation of Internet users has direct access to the
Internet through their own devices, i.e. devices that are exclusively available to them, indicate the
degree of explicit risk to which they are potentially exposed. In this sense the following series of
information analyses attitudes of parents reflecting these direct, explicit circumstances in which this
young generation of Internet users can be exposed to these risks.

16

Figure 3. Possession of own ICT device among children aged 8 to 17 years;


Base: Total target population

63%

SMART / Android phone

59%

Conventional mobile phone

54%

PC / Laptop / Tablet

SMART + CONVENTIONAL MOBILE = 85.2%


Base: Total targeted population

Base: Children without Smartphone

Base: Total targeted population

More than 85% of children aged from 8 to 17 years possess some mobile telecommunication device,
out of whom 63% possess SMART mobile phone or mobile phone with android platform. On the other
hand, almost 60% of children and the young at this age who do not have any advanced mobile device
possess their own, classic (conventional) mobile telecommunication device.
In comparison with the survey conducted in 20126, somewhat smaller penetration of mobile phones in
this child age was recorded (2012. 94% of primary school pupils and 99% of secondary school pupils
claimed to have a mobile phone), but this difference can surely be explained by differences in
characteristics of the sample. Namely, the referent survey from 2012 was realised predominantly in
urban population, that is, on the sample of pupils from schools which participated in the project kola
bez nasilja (School without Violence), while the survey conducted by Ipsos Serbia was realised on
national representative sample of parents who have children of this age, which included substrata of
suburban and rural segment of population.
Particularly interesting is comparison of Internet accessibility through mobile phone. Namely, in
previous survey circa 42% of the interviewed pupils from primary and secondary school reported to
have Internet access via their mobile phone. In this new survey we can see that as much as 63% of
children of this age have SMART mobile phone, which by default has this option. This practically means
that possibility of mobile access to Internet has significantly grown for this generation with increasing
penetration of this type of mobile devices.
6

Popadid D, Kuzmanovid D. Utilisation of digital technologies, risks, and incidence of digital violence among students in
Serbia - Summary, UNICEF/Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Belgrade University, 2013

17

In addition to that, we can conclude that percentage of primary school and secondary school pupils
who have their own PC or IT device of similar character (laptop or tablet) differs just minimally in the
two surveys (60% in 2012 and 54% in 2016). This minimal difference regarding the possession of own IT
by the following: on the one hand by difference in characteristics of sample (domination of urban
population in sample realised in 2012), and on the other hand by the fact that modern mobile phones
who have an integrated function of Internet access, reduce the need for possessing the IT device,
which according to their price belong to higher economic rank.
It is particularly interesting that almost 55% of children at this age have some IT device. This practically
means that accessibility of mobile Internet at this age is considerably higher than accessibility of classic
Internet via conventional static IT devices, which confirms some of our previous assumptions.
Table 5. Possession of own SMART phone;
Base: Total target population
Total

Childs age

Childs gender

Parents age

8 - 9. 10 - 11. 12 - 13. 14 - 15 16 - 17 Male Female 25-39 40-46

Yes
No

63.1
36.9

34
66

54
46

68
32

77
23

76
24

62
38

64
36

61
39

Parents education
Higher &
Elementary
High
university

47+

67
33

61
39

47
53

63
37

77
23

Table 6. Possession of own conventional mobile phone;


Base: Total target population
Total

Childs age

Childs gender

Parents age

8 - 9. 10 - 11. 12 - 13. 14 - 15 16 - 17 Male Female 25-39 40-46

Yes
No

58.9
41.1

34
66

57
43

68
32

87
13

82
18

59
41

59
41

50
50

47+

56
44

70
30

Parents education
Higher &
Elementary
High
university

66
34

57
43

55
45

We can again confirm a significant degree of correlation between level of parents education and
possession of SMART phone by children aged 8 to 17 years. However, what these data illustrate
considerably more is the fact that significant use of mobile communications corresponds with age of 10
years. Exactly that period of child development (10-11 years) represents a turning point when they
enter the world of mobile telecommunications on a large scale. Similar conclusion can be made
regarding the category of static IT devices (Table 7)
Table 7. Possession of own static IT device;
Base: Total target population
Total

Childs age
8 - 9.

Yes
No

53.8
46.2

46
54

10 - 11. 12 - 13.
53
47

50
50

Parents age

Parents education

14 - 15

16 - 17

25-39

40-46

47+

Elementary

High

Higher &
university

56
44

64
36

49
51

60
40

52
48

44
56

55
45

58
42

18

I.4 Accessibility of Internet


All previous data clearly indicate that population of children aged 8 to 17 years live in a modern,
technological environment in which their devices for Internet access "at their fingertips", either as part
of the household or their personal equipment. Therefore, the explicit data showing that almost 95% of
the households in Serbia with children aged 8 to 17 years have some kind of Internet connection is not
surprising. Whats more, it emphasises to an even greater extent the issue of potential exposure of this
generation of Internet users to various forms of risks and threats which it carries along.
Figure 4. Internet access in the households with children aged 8 to 17 years;
Base: Total target population
No
6%
Total

Parents age
25-39 40-46

Da
Ne

94
6

94
6

47+

98
2

90
10

Parents education
Higher &
Elementary High
university
80
96
99
20
4
1

Yes
94%
Base: Total targeted population

Again, quite expectedly, we conclude that accessibility of Internet in the households is in significant
correlation with parents age and their education. Younger and more educated generation of parents.
Younger and more educated generation of parents naturally represent a group of Internet-literate
persons, so it is logical that their households have bigger Internet access.
Figure 5. Internet access of children aged 8 to 17 years in the households;
Base: Total target population
By your knowledge, does your child have
any kind of internet access?

By PC/Laptop/Tablet of another
household member

I believe no
1%

Base: Total targeted population

61.1

By his/hers personal android phone

Not for sure


5%

I believe
yes
4%

In which of these ways does your child access internet


these days?

Yes for sure


90%

55.8

By his/hers personal
PC/Laptop/Tablet

By android phone of another


household member

By devices of his/hers friends

49.2

24.4

19.4

10.6

DK

19

When it comes to direct approach to Internet among children aged 8 to 17 years, it is quite clear that
dominant percentage of these children (almost 95%) access Internet (according to parents knowledge
Figure 5), primarily from their android/SMART mobile device or their IT device. This practically means
that, on the average, children of that age have an absolute autonomy in Internet access, with almost
no restrictions regarding both the time spent on Internet and choice of content. Internet access
increases with childs age, and it is in significant correlation with education of both parents (Table 8),
which is quit expected.
This data is fully correlated with information which can be found in previous, referent survey from
2012, which shows that 87% of primary school and 95% of secondary school pupils use Internet, that is,
have an Internet access.
Table 8. Internet access among children aged 8 to 17 years;
Base: Total target population

Total

Yes for sure


I believe yes
Sum +
Sum I believe no
Not for sure
Total

90.3
3.8
94.1
5.9
1.3
4.6

Childs age

Parents education
Higher &
8 - 9. 10 - 11. 12 - 13. 14 - 15 16 - 17 Elementary
High
university
81
88
90
95
92
69
94
98
3
4
5
3
4
9
4
0
83
92
95
98
96
78
97
99
17
8
5
2
4
22
3
1
3
2
1
1
7
0
17
5
3
1
2
15
3
1
1

By your knowledge, does your child have any kind of internet access?
Base: Total targeted population

20

I.5 Use of Internet


We can add to previous data a new series of information that illustrates the basic parameters of
Internet use among children aged 8 to 17 years, based on the knowledge of their parents. The
expressed attitude that children of that age have a relative autonomy in terms of length of time and
contents which they consume on Internet, confirm the initial information about average time which
they spend on Internet (Figure 6).
Figure 6. Average online time;
Base: Children who have Internet access (94%)

27.4
21.6

21.6

BETWEEN TWO AND


THREE HOURS

MORE THAN THREE


HOURS

18.9

9.7

AN HOUR AND LESS

BETWEEN AN HOUR
AND ONE HOUR

BETWEEN ONE AND TWO


HOURS

As far as you are aware, how much time during average day, your child spends on internet?
Base: Children with internet access (94%)

It is quite clear that children of that age spend significant part of their active time on Internet. More
than 85% of children who have Internet access spend more than one hour on Internet, that is, more
than 43% of children from this age interval use Internet for two or more hours a day.
Table 8. Online time;
Base: Children who have Internet access (94%)
Total

Childs age
8 - 9.

an hour and less


between an hour and one hour
between one and two hours
between two and three hours
more than three hours
Not sure/DK

9.7
18.9
27.4
21.6
21.6
0.7

20
23
38
6
12
1

Parents education

10 - 11. 12 - 13. 14 - 15 16 - 17 Elementary


9
29
28
19
15

13
19
32
18
18
1

6
11
27
26
30
1

6
19
17
32
27

6
31
21
22
18
4

High
11
16
28
21
23
0

Higher &
university
8
19
29
23
21

Base: Children with internet access (94%)

Data about distribution of time spent on Internet (Table 8) in case of different age groups clearly
indicate the following tendency use of Internet increases with the childs age, that is, at the age of
10-11 years, time spent on Internet significantly rises again.

21

Important question of this analysis refers to structure of childrens activities on Internet, that is, the
way in which they use their time during Internet consumption. Data presented in Figure 7. Illustrate
the parents assessment of contents structure which their children most frequently consume on
Internet.
Figure 7. Average online time;
Base: Children who have Internet access (94%)
Never
Listening music/Watching music videos 7.7

Once a month or less

Few times a month

Few times a week

11

20

56

6.2

17

56

11.1

22

17.2

24

30

26.1

29

28

29

21.9

23

Tracking news regarding his/hers idols

38.1

16.4

16

17

Visiting websites: fashion, sports, youth, health and beauty

42.9

18.7

16

14

Communicating with friends and peers on social networks 17.9


Playing PC games 17.1
Informing about his/hers special interests and hobbies

21.3

Learning and education 10.8


Watching movies/TV series or similar

Blogging/Chatting

45

19

66

5.4

Reading newspapers and magazines: youth/fashion/sports

65.4

9.7

Reading books

59.7

Shopping

81.5

22.3
5.6

Everyday

As far as you are aware, how often your child uses internet for
Base: Children with internet access (94%)

There are two dominant areas (content groups) which, according to parents, occupy childrens
attention on Internet to the highest extent: fun-entertainment (gaming and music content
consumption) and communications (with peer groups) on social networks. Parents also think that, at
that age, a much smaller part of childrens Internet activities has to do with information and
education, although their share in the structure of all content that children devote their time to is not
negligible. With respect to this there is a significant concurrence with the data from 2012 survey in
which the parents also concluded that the greatest part of their childrens Internet activities at that
age was focused on communications and fun-entertainment.
Compared with the observed Internet contents, certain tendencies and regularities are visible, and
they are in significant correlation with childrens gender or age. Namely, a clear connection can be
established between consumption of PC games and gender, whereas the boys are much more
frequent visitors of webpages with such content (Table 9). Also, within the same data a clear
connection can be established between frequency of PC gaming and childs age, since this time starts
gradually decreasing after the age of 11 years, which leads us to conclusion that this is primarily a
preoccupation of younger children within this wide age range.

22

Table 9. Online time spent playing PC games;


Base: Children who have Internet access (94%)
PC games

Total

Never
Once a month or less
Few times a month
Few times a week
Everyday
DK

17.1
3.3
11.1
21.8
44.5
2.1

Childs gender
Male
Female
9
27
2
6
9
14
20
24
59
26
1
3

8 - 9.
3
1
11
29
55
1

Childs age
10 - 11. 12 - 13. 14 - 15
8
17
19
1
3
6
14
9
13
19
24
20
58
47
38
1
4

16 - 17
31
5
9
19
31
4

In contrast to this, it is unambiguously clear that communication on social networks is an Internet


activity that attracts the older age groups of children in this age range (Table 10).
Table 10. Online time spent playing PC games;
Base: Children who have Internet access (94%)
Social networks

Total

Never
Once a month or less
Few times a month
Few times a week
Everyday
DK

17.9
2.4
6.2
17.3
55.6
0.6

Childs gender
Male
Female
18
17
2
3
7
5
18
16
53
59
1
0

8 - 9.
57
3
9
15
15

Childs age
10 - 11. 12 - 13. 14 - 15
35
13
6
2
3
1
7
6
3
18
19
15
38
58
74
1
1

16 - 17
2
3
8
17
68
1

Social networks and communication with peer groups and peers become an Internet preoccupation
already at the age of 12 years, while at the age of 14 to 17 years this represents a daily Internet activity
for 70% of this generation of children.
When it comes to consumption of fun and entertainment contents on Internet, such as watching films
and listening to music, the data do not indicate any age or gender-related trends (Table 11 and 12),
although there is a slight tendency of increased time spent with such Internet contents among children
belonging to older segment of this age range.
Table 11. Online time spent watching films and TV serials;
Base: Children who have Internet access (94%)
Watching movies and TV series
Never
Once a month or less
Few times a month
Few times a week
Everyday
DK

Total
29
6.3
21.9
23
19
0.8

Childs gender
Male Female 8 - 9.
30
28
38
6
7
3
24
19
25
20
27
22
18
20
12
1

Childs age
10 - 11. 12 - 13. 14 - 15 16 - 17
29
34
22
26
5
5
9
7
27
16
27
18
17
21
22
32
19
24
18
17
3
1

23

Table 11. Online time spent listening to music or watching music video clips;
Base: Children who have Internet access (94%)
Listening music / Watching music
TV spots
Total
Never
Once a month or less
Few times a month
Few times a week
Everyday
DK

7.7
4.3
11
20.2
56.2
0.7

Childs gender
Male Female 8 - 9.
8
8
8
5
3
2
14
7
15
20
21
25
53
60
51
0
1

Childs age
10 - 11. 12 - 13. 14 - 15 16 - 17
10
12
5
3
6
5
2
5
13
10
9
11
19
22
18
19
50
50
65
61
1
1
1

Situation is similar in terms of Internet contents pertaining to hobbies and specific interests of children
and the young, as well as the contents connected with news and information about their idols (music,
film, sports). Although it is not possible to establish special gender-related or age-related differences
(Tables 12 and 13), some trends corresponding with the previous one can be recognised. They indicate
that preferences towards such contents are developed on somewhat older age within this generation
age range.
Table 12. Online time spent reading about idols;
Base: Children who have Internet access (94%)
Tracking news regarding his/hers
idols
Total
Never
Once a month or less
Few times a month
Few times a week
Everyday
DK

38.1
5.7
16.4
16.3
17.2
6.2

Childs gender
Male Female 8 - 9.
41
34
54
6
6
6
14
19
10
16
17
23
17
17
7
6
6

Childs age
10 - 11. 12 - 13. 14 - 15 16 - 17
49
39
31
28
6
5
6
5
20
15
16
18
9
16
16
19
14
19
23
16
1
6
7
14

Table 13. Online time spent reading about hobbies and specific interests;
Base: The children who have Internet access (94%)
Informing about his/hers special
interests and hobbies
Never
Once a month or less
Few times a month
Few times a week
Everyday
DK

Total
21.3
4.5
17.2
23.5
29.7
3.9

Childs gender
Male Female 8 - 9.
21
22
44
4
5
3
19
15
24
20
28
12
32
26
15
4
4
2

Childs age
10 - 11. 12 - 13. 14 - 15 16 - 17
27
21
13
14
5
3
7
3
19
15
16
16
21
25
26
27
24
32
34
34
2
4
4
6

The parents agree that studying is not the predominant activity among children 8 to 18 years old.
Although almost 60% of children of this age (Table 14) use the Internet for studying several times a
week or even every day, compared with other Internet activities, this one is not very frequent.

24

Table 14. Online time spent studying;


Base: The children who have Internet access (94%)
Learning and education

Never
Once a month or less
Few times a month
Few times a week
Everyday
DK

Total

10.8
4.7
26.1
29.1
27.8
1.4

Childs gender
Childs age
Male Female 8 - 9. 10 - 11. 12 - 13. 14 - 15 16 - 17
11
10
20
15
6
11
8
4
5
3
3
2
10
4
30
21
33
36
23
22
22
29
29
27
21
34
31
29
23
33
18
25
33
24
32
2
1
1
2
4

On the other hand, Internet usage at this age is not very likely to be connected with a significant trend
in the ICT world on-line shopping. However, the modern ICT trends seem to be slowly
overwhelming our information society as well. Almost 20% of the parents say that their children of
this age have shopped online, although it is quite certain that this type of Internet activity is primarily
used by the eldest in the generation, or those on the verge of adulthood (Table 15). These data match
the data on ICT usage in general population: about 23% of general population members have used the
Internet for on-line shopping in the past 3 months, or about 33% in the past 12 months. 7 This trend
(about 60.000 of new Internet users who shop online) obviously doesnt omit the youngest generation
of the Serbian society.
Table 15. Online time spent online shopping;
Base: The children who have Internet access (94%)
On-line shoping
Never
Once a month or less
Few times a month
Few times a week
Everyday

Total
81.5
11.4
5.6
1.2
0.3

Childs gender
Childs age
Male Female 8 - 9. 10 - 11. 12 - 13. 14 - 15 16 - 17
80
84
97
95
88
72
65
12
11
2
3
6
22
18
7
3
1
1
6
3
14
1
2
1
3
1
1
2

Reading books is also among the not-preferred Internet activities of the children of this age (Table 16).
The observations from other segments of their behaviour analysis suggest that reading books in
general (electronic or printed) is not among the preferred activities of these young people. Although
we do observe the mildly increasing trend of reading books at later ages, still almost 50% of young
people just about to become adults do not read electronic books.

Source: USAGE OF INFORMATION-COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA, 2015. the Statistical
Office of Serbia

25

Table 16. Online time spent reading e-books;


Base: The children who have Internet access (94%)
Reading books
Never
Once a month or less
Few times a month
Few times a week
Everyday
DK

Total
59.7
8
22.3
5.4
3
1.6

Childs gender
Male Female 8 - 9.
60
59
74
8
8
1
23
21
19
4
7
3
3
3
3
1
2

Childs age
10 - 11. 12 - 13. 14 - 15 16 - 17
65
64
54
48
6
8
12
8
23
20
19
30
3
4
9
7
3
1
4
4
2
1
4

On the other hand, reading e-dailies and magazines (Table 17), although not very widespread among
the children of this age, quite expectedly, grows gradually and becomes a relevant part of their
Internetting at the age of 16-17.
Table 17. Online time spent reading e-newspapers and magazines;
Base: The children who have Internet access (94%)
Reading newspapers and magazines:
youth/fashion/sports
Never
Once a month or less
Few times a month
Few times a week
Everyday
DK

Total
65.4
6.7
9.7
8.5
7.9
1.8

Childs gender
Male Female 8 - 9.
68
62
87
5
9
5
9
10
2
7
10
3
8
7
3
2
1

Childs age
10 - 11. 12 - 13. 14 - 15 16 - 17
86
69
55
45
4
7
6
9
3
5
15
19
2
8
13
12
4
9
9
10
1
2
1
4

The prevailing Internet activity of the girls 14+ is visiting websites about fashion, sports, health, beauty
and nutrition (Table 18). However, Internet participation of this generation in the exchange of
opinions, ideas and attitudes on forums and blogs (so primarily with unknown members of other
Internet-social communities and groups), is not really widespread in this generation, although it grows
mildly with age, or childs maturity (Table 19).
Table 18. Online time dedicated to websites about fashion, sport, the young, health and beauty;
Base: The children who have Internet access (94%)
Visiting websites: fashion, sports,
youth, health and beauty
Never
Once a month or less
Few times a month
Few times a week
Everyday
DK

Total
42.9
5.7
18.7
15.8
13.9
3

Childs gender

Childs age

Male Female 8 - 9. 10 - 11. 12 - 13. 14 - 15 16 - 17


49
35
74
60
49
25
25
7
4
4
4
5
10
5
16
22
10
15
18
21
25
12
21
9
13
15
19
20
12
16
3
5
10
24
20
4
2
3
2
2
6

26

Table 19. Online time spent on blogging and chatting;


Base: The children who have Internet access (94%)
Blogging/Chatting

Total

Never
Once a month or less
Few times a month
Few times a week
Everyday
DK

66
4.8
5.4
5.3
8.8
9.8

Childs gender
Childs age
Male Female 8 - 9. 10 - 11. 12 - 13. 14 - 15 16 - 17
66
65
89
77
70
51
56
5
4
1
5
2
8
6
5
6
2
7
6
6
6
6
5
2
3
5
9
5
6
12
5
5
9
11
11
11
8
1
3
8
16
16

Bearing in mind all the mentioned data on the consumption of different Internet contents at this age
(in the parents opinion), the structure of the most commonly used ICT applications is not surprising.
Relying on the parents assessments, it may be concluded (Figure 8) that the highest percentage of
children age 8 to 17 use the information-communication applications intended for surfing and
consumption of their favourite Internet contents, or for practicing their favourite Internet activities:
entertainment, fun and peer communication.
Figure 8. Using of ICT application;
Base: The children who have Internet access (94%)

Yes

DK

YouTube

88.5

Facebook

50.8

Mail account

28.1

WhatsApp
Viber Wink
9.3

62.1
63.7

14.7
6.1

8.8

68.2
84.6

16.7

5.1
5

52.4

10.5

17.1

Twitter

48.2

4.3

9.8

25.8

22.7

40.7

43.3

Instagram

Blogg

1.8

56.3

Skype

8.9

23.8

75.5

Viber

Snapshot

2.6

76.1

PC games websites

Chat room

No

74.5

26
14.9

68.9
80.1

As far as you are aware, does your child uses?


Base: Children with internet access (94%)

27

Table 19. Using of ICT application;


Base: The children who have Internet access (94%)
Total
YouTube
Facebook
PC games websites
Viber
Skype
Mail account
Instagram
WhatsApp
Viber Wink
Twitter
Chat room
Snapshot
Blog

88.5
76.1
75.5
56.3
50.8
43.3
28.1
25.8
17.1
9.3
8.8
5.1
5

Childs gender
Male
Female
87
90
76
76
87
61
50
64
56
44
44
43
20
38
19
34
14
21
8
11
9
9
3
8
4
6

8 - 9.
89
45
89
39
35
20
3
6
8
1
2

10 - 11.
89
51
92
56
48
33
13
16
14
5
3
5
1

Childs age
12 - 13. 14 - 15
88
91
77
94
81
69
55
66
50
57
41
45
29
39
21
41
17
22
6
15
11
14
5
5
6
8

16 - 17
86
91
55
58
56
64
39
32
18
15
9
9
6

As far as you are aware, does your child uses?


Base: Children with internet access (94%)

Similar to the previous analyses, here we can also identify identical trends and correlations. Facebook
and Internet communications with peers and peer groups are increasingly gaining significance and
becoming Internet preoccupation after 11th birthday. On the other hand, PC games and Internet
activity preoccupy mainly boys, with mild loss of interest after age 15. Private (mail) communication
become more important later on (15+), and Instagram and WhatsApp are more commonly used by
girls over 14 years of age.

28

I.6 Perception and evaluation of Internet risks among the parents


of children age 8 to 17
Parents participation in childrens Internet experience is one of the key factors for identification and
prevention of Internet risks. This part of the survey is focused on the perception of different forms of
Internet risk among the parents, as well as on the parents participation in everyday childrens Internet
experiences.
The starting point of this analysis is personal ranking of Internet risks in the system of assessment of
perils child of this age is exposed to in his immediate environment. In other words, the beginning of
this analysis is ranking of Internet risks and Internet perils on the parents individual care-o-meter.
Figure 9. The typical parental concerns
Base: Total target population

General worries
Seeing inappropriate material on the internet

Most important wories

43.3

Being contacted by strangers on the internet

32.6

40.3

How they are doing at school

33

31.1

22.2

Being injured on the roads

29

18.4

Being treated in a hurtful/nasty way by other children

28.1

18.4

Being a victim of crime

26.6

18.7

Drinking too much alcohol/taking drugs

23.6

Nothing, no worries
Their sexual activities

11.4

Getting into trouble with the police

10.3

Other

20.8

15.7

15.7
3.9
1.8

5.4

4.9

Spending to much time on internet 4.1

3.4

Don't know

1.5

1.5

Thinking about your child/children aged 8-17, which of these things, if any; do you worry about a lot?
Which three of them worries you the most.
Multiple answers; Base: Total targeted population

Top position of Internet risks in the general list of parents concerns and fears for their children,
unambiguously points to extreme significance attributed to these cotemporary technological perils
(Figure 9). Not only that they are positioned very high, but they are also among the most valued,
preoccupying concerns.
Here we need certain caution in regard to the revealed data. Namely, the fact that fears related to
alcohol and drug abuse, or fear of early and inadequate sexual activities of children of this age, are
ranked quite low while they are increasingly becoming, not only in the media but also clinically, the
striking form of social pathology and behaviour disorder, provokes certain dilemma and doubt. Why do

29

parents value and rank Internet risks this highly compared with other social risks and spreading forms
of deviant behaviours? The responses to these dilemmas may be multiple and mainly assumptions,
since a limited-scope survey like this one cant yield impartial conclusions. It is however logical to
mention some reasonable assumptions:
1.
The issues of Internet risk and abuse in case of school age children have been widely
present in the media and in all the other forms of social communications. These topics have
become extremely visible and relevant, which certainly makes many parents highly alert
and sensitive. This also elevates the degree of parents rational and irrational fears.
2.
In the situation when certain topics are becoming socially relevant and visible, social
community members have the natural need to fit in the specific communicational
context, so it may easily happen that parents attribute more relevance to these topics than
they really have in their personal system of values. In this way, they demonstrate a specific
form of social mimicry and give highly socially preferable responses, in order to fit in the
expected caring parents image who are in harmony with the moment.
3.
On the other hand, the problem of considerable presence of alcohol and drug abuse at early
childrens age has been an issue in our society for a few decades now, so the level of social
tolerance to these socially deviant phenomena may easily be increased. So cognitive
acceptance of these phenomena (which doesnt necessarily imply the same level of
personal acceptance) is much more widespread than expected. The focus of social
attention, care and criticism of these forms of abuse has been simply moved, so the level
of alertness and care has, quite probably, dropped.
4.
Finally, it should not be forgotten that natural human tendency is to fear more of unknown
phenomena, situations and contents, or that human fear grows with unfamiliarity of the
phenomena which they are not well informed about. Exactly this may be one of the
significant factors for high ranking of Internet risks among the parents of children of this
age. The fact that these parents are only partly Internet literate and competent may
explain these data somewhat.
The following figure (Figure 10) may help explain this dilemma and evaluate the given assumptions.

30

Figure 10. Assessment of potentially most relevant Internet risks;


Base: Total target population
38.7

Establishing contacts with strange persons

16.4
13
12.8
12.8
12.4

Exposure to the harmful contents


Bullying/Cyberbullying
Sexual solicitation and grooming
Stealing or abuse of the personal data and information
Exposure to the sexual and pornographic contents

Trafficking
Exposure to the harmful advices and suggestions (religious, health or other nature)
Meeting online contacts offline

Money stealing
Inducement to alcholol and drugs abuse, krime
Bat influence on health
Internet addiction
Falce internet profiles
Peers violence, bulling
Viruses and hacking
Other

7.8
7.6
4.7
4.1
3.8
3.1
2.8
1.7
1.6
1.1
5.8

What are, by your opinion, main potential risks of abuse your child could be exposed using internet? Can you name et least three main potential risks?
Base: Total targeted population

When analysing in detail the list of Internet fears of the parents of children age 8 to 17, impression is
that they are quite conservative and conventional, or deeply culturally rooted. Fear from contacts and
communications with strangers is one of the traditional and usual parents fears, irrespective of this
communication being direct or indirect. This is the reason why such distribution of responses confirms
the previously suggested caution and reserve.
Being insufficiently familiar with and informed about all the possible Internet risk aspects and hidden
threats integrated in this form of virtual communication, the parents seem to have simply moved
(allocated) their conventional and usual social fears and concerns into the new, strange, cyber
environment. Simply put, impression is that the parents have just transferred their familiar and
traditional fears to a relatively new and insufficiently known context.
The extent to which Internet fears and concerns are deeply culturally rooted, and the extent to
which they are products of a traditional, patriarchal model of upbringing and family relationships, the
following data seem to illustrate well (Table 20).
Namely, they rather clearly suggest the extent to which the traditional fears and concerns are
transferred from a classic social context into a new, virtual social context. The fear from contacts with
strangers and the fear of sexual harassment are a lot more likely to be present among the parents of
girls than boys. Doesnt this sound rather familiar and expected? Isnt this the usual patriarchal pattern
present among girls parents?

31

Table 20. Assessment of potentially most relevant Internet risks;


Base: Total target population
Total

Childs gender

Parents age

Parents education
Higher &
High
Male Female 25-39 40-46
47+
university
Establishing contacts with strange persons
38.7
31
49
40
40
36
26
40
45
Exposure to the harmful contents
16.4
16
17
17
15
17
3
18
23
Bullying/Cyberbullying
13
10
16
12
19
8
6
13
17
12.8
8
19
14
18
7
10
15
10
Sexual solicitation and grooming
Stealing or abuse of the personal data and information
12.8
11
15
13
15
11
12
13
12
Exposure to the sexual and pornographic contents
12.4
11
14
10
17
10
8
13
13
Trafficking
7.8
8
8
10
8
6
9
8
7
Exposure to the harmful advices and suggestions (religious, health or other)
7.6
8
6
5
9
8
3
8
10
Meeting online contacts offline
4.7
4
5
5
6
3
9
4
3
Money stealing
4.1
4
4
2
5
4
5
4
3
Inducement to alcholol and drugs abuse, krime
3.8
4
3
4
2
5
7
3
3
Bat influence on health
3.1
4
2
3
4
2
1
3
5
Internet addiction
2.8
4
1
3
2
3
4
1
Falce internet profiles
1.7
1
3
2
3
0
2
3
Peers violence, bulling
1.6
1
2
3
1
1
2
2
Viruses and hacking
1.1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
Other
5.8
7
5
7
6
5
2
5
10
Nothing
11.9
13
11
15
8
14
22
10
11
DK
15.7
19
11
14
14
19
28
14
10
What are, by your opinion, main potential risks of abuse your child could be exposed using internet? Can you name et least three main potential risks?
Base: Total targeted population
Elementary

On the other hand, the model of distribution of responses of educated and less educated parents is
very significant. While the responses of the educated parents are dispersed, the less educated parents
give almost uniform responses. Due to their poorer Internet competences, they seem unable to
properly evaluate the real threats and Internet risks. The percentage of their responses none or
dont know is therefore not surprising (50% of responses).
Figure 11. Risk assessment;
Base: Total target population

No risk

High risk

Exposure to the harmful contents

-22.5

53.9

Establishing contacts with strange persons

-22.9

52.5

Trafficking

-31.3

44.8

Exposure to the sexual and pornographic contents

-29.9

43.7

Stealing or abuse of the personal data and information

-29.6

40.9

-37.1

Sexual solicitation and grooming

-27.2

Exposure to the harmful advices and suggestions (religious, health or other

-31.5

Bullying/Cyberbullying

-34.6

Meeting online contacts offline


Money stealing

-59.3

39.8
38.9
38.2
34.9
23.7

There is a list of abuses and risks to which children can be potentially exposed using internet, mobiles and ICT.
Which of them you consider most prominent when your child is in stake?
Base: Total targeted population

32

When the parents are asked to assess the risk potential in specific Internet situations and Internet
contents, their perception seems more logical (Figure 11). In this context, the parents seem to
intuitively recognise the threats with more or less risk for their own child.
Table 21. Risk assessment (high risk contents and situations);
Base: Total target population
High risk
Total

Parents education

Elementary High

Exposure to the harmful contents


Establishing contacts with strange persons
Trafficking
Exposure to the sexual and pornographic contents
Stealing or abuse of the personal data and information
Sexual solicitation and grooming
Exposure to the harmful advices and suggestions (religious, health or other)
Bullying/Cyberbullying
Meeting online contacts offline
Money stealing

53.9
52.5
44.8
43.7
40.9
39.8
38.9
38.2
34.9
23.7

58
56
58
55
57
49
44
52
37
47

53
54
46
42
39
41
38
37
36
22

Higher &
university

54
45
32
39
34
29
37
30
30
10

There is a list of abuses and risks to which children can be potentially exposed using internet, mobiles and ICT.
Which of them you consider most prominent when your child is in stake?
Base: Total targeted population

Again, the two differently educated categories of parents allocate risks differently (Table 21). While the
educated parents tend to identify and allocate risks in line with their own assessment of certainty that
their child might be exposed to specific Internet contents or situation, the less educated parents share
almost the same response: due to their low Internet awareness and competence, they consider all
potential threats and risks equally valuable and relevant.
In this sense, we may safely conclude that the degree of education and Internet literacy and
competence play an important role in recognising and valuing Interest risks and threats.
Figure 12. Internet as a dangerous place;
Base: Total target population
Not at all

4
Total

31.6

Not very much

35.6

Sum -

64.1

Sum +

46.1

A fair amount

18

A lot

DK

Not at all
Not very much
Sum Sum +
A fair amount
A lot
DK
Total

4
31.6
35.6
64.1
46.1
18
0.3

Parents education
Higher &
Elementary High
university
11
2
5
10
34
41
20
36
46
80
63
54
42
48
44
37
15
10
0
100

0.3

Do you think that internet and ICT is unsafe and potentially dangerous place/tool for your child
Base: Total targeted population

33

These data (Figure 12) partly confirm some of the suggested assumptions. Namely, almost 65% of the
parents of children age 8 to 17 consider the Internet and mobile communications unsafe and
dangerous for their children. This attitude is a lot more present among the parents with lower
education, who probably have poorer Internet literacy and competence. They actually represent the
social group which is relatively unfamiliar with the Internet and mobile communications. In high
percentage this is a strange and frightening place for them as well. 80% of parents with this education
level express this kind of fear and concern. As opposed to them, the opinion of highly educated parents
is not uniform: the percentage of those who consider the Internet and mobile communications
potentially dangerous for children is very similar to the percentage of those who dont share this
concern.
Although previous data from the survey conducted in 2016 cannot completely be compared with
findings of the survey conducted in 2012 (due to different formulation of questions), it is still indicative
that, in 2012, as much as 92% of the interviewed parents claimed that their children were exposed to
numerous risks on Internet and within mobile communications, which considerably exceeds the results
of 2016 survey (64%). Namely, we shouldnt neglect the fact that there is no foundation for completely
correspondent comparison of these two data, although the observed difference definitely deserves to
be examined and analysed, particularly in the context of the following group of information.
Figure 13. Personal assessment of childrens exposure to Internet risks and abuse;
Base: Total target population

40.5

Not at all

37.6

Not very much

78

Sum -

19.8

Sum +

14.2

A fair amount

A lot
DK

Total

5.6

Not at all
Not very much
Sum Sum +
A fair amount
A lot
DK

40.5
37.6
78
19.8
14.2
5.6
2.2

Parents education
Higher &
Elementary
High
university
49
38
39
22
39
46
71
77
86
24
21
13
16
15
11
8
6
2
5
2
1

2.2

As far as you are aware, to which extent your child is exposed to the potential abuse by using internet?
Base: Total targeted population

In spite of the widely spread opinion that the Internet, as a specific form of virtual social
communication, is a potentially dangerous place for their children, most parents do not show personal
concern and dont think that their children are exposed to any kind of Internet risks, mistreatment and
abuse (Figure 13). Again the parents with lower education are more likely to fear and stay alert, but we
can also observe another unusual discrepancy from the previously suggested data. This kind of reminds
of the traditional Balkan optimism: it will never happen to me.

34

So, it is unusual that parents firmly believe that the Internet is potentially dangerous for children in
their most vulnerable period of psycho-physical development, while they are also almost absolutely
convinced that their children are not directly exposed to these risks and threats. The question is: Is this
belief irrational? Or even more specifically: What do parents based their belief on?
This is not only about Internet competences and parents ability to assess the concrete situation in
which their childrens Internet experience is created, but also about practical participation in childrens
Internet experience.

I.7 Participation in childs Internet experience


To what extent do parents really participate in their childrens Internet experiences and to what extent
do they share Internet experiences? The answer to this question is all the more important, if we
consider the fact that prevention of Internet risks and abuse among children is not only a matter of
parents knowledge, awareness and Internet competence, but also a matter of recognising childrens
Internet experience contents and activities.
Figure 14. Participation in childrens Internet activities and experiences;
Base: Total target population
93,2%

Talk to him/her about


what he/she does on
the internet

75%

Stay nearby when


s/he uses the
internet

70,9%

Sit with him/her while


s/he uses the internet
(watching what s/he is
doing but not really
joining in)

62,7%

Encourage your child


to explore and learn
things on the internet
on their own.

52,6%

Do shared activities
together with your
child on the internet

Which of the following things, if any, do you sometimes do with your child? . Remember, please just tell us about the things that you personally do with your child.
Base: Children with internet access (94%)

Sharing of Internet experiences with children age 8 to 17 is not an unusual activity for parents (Figure
14). Most parents talk to their children about this, while also many directly participate in childrens
Internet experience. However, direct, in vivo participation of parents in their childrens Internet
experiences is clearly less present that indirect.

35

As for the problem between parents and children in communication about the Internet risks and
threats, the situation seems to be rather favourable, although some specificity may be detected in
regard to childs gender and age, as well as parents education (Figure 15).
Most parents of the children of this age communicate with them continuously about various forms and
types of Internet risks and threats. This communication is considerably intensified after age 9, while
this intensity drops with age 15.
The intensity of communication about Internet risks between parents and their children is somewhat
higher in case of girls, as well as in families with higher education.
Figure 15. General communication on the Internet risks and threats;
Base: the children who have Internet access (94%)
Yes, we speak about
that all the time

46.7

14 - 15

16 - 17

Muki

enski

Osnovno i nie

Srednje

Via/Visoka
kola

12 - 13.

3.4

10 - 11.

No, never

42.9
No, never
Yes, once, long time ago
Yes, we speak about that from
time to time
Yes, we speak about that all
the time

Parents age

8 - 9.

Yes, once, long time


ago

19
3

8
2

5
3

3
3

7
6

9
4

6
3

14
3

6
3

4
6

42.9 52

33

37

48

48

51

36

44

43

42

46.7 27

57

56

46

39

36

56

39

48

48

Total

Yes, we speak about


that from time to
time

Parents
gender

Childs age

7
3.4

Have you ever spoke with your child about potential risks in using internet and ICT.
Base: Total targeted population

As for the specific topics of the communication on the Internet risks between parents and children age
8 to 17, all the key, potentially risky Internet topics and situations seem to be relatively well covered
(Figure 16). However, here also certain reserve and caution are necessary when making the final
conclusions, due to the fact that we have parents statements only, so such uniform distribution of
responses may hide the already described phenomenon of socially preferred responses.

36

Figure 16. Specific communication on the Internet risks and threats;


Base: the children who have Internet access (94%)
94.4

Not exposing/sharing personal data with unknown people (address, phone number etc.)

93.3

Not entering into communication with unknown people (accepting friendship request
Not participating in any kind of harassment, bullying or cyberbullying of others

91.4

Not sharing sensitive private content with group/groups (photos, videos, private

91.3

Not sharing private data or content regarding other people with others or groups

89.7
87.8

Suggested ways to behave towards other people on the internet

83.4

Explained why some websites are good or bad

83

Suggested ways to use the internet safely

82.5

Not visiting websites with explicit pornographic or sexual content

81

Helped him/her when s/he found something difficult to do or find on the internet

79.1

In general, talked to him/her about what s/he would does if something on the internet

75.5

Not visiting websites with explicit age restriction


Helped him/her in the past when something has bothered him/her on the internet

58.3

Have you ever introduced your child with rules of communication on internet, social networks or internet? To which of them you have introduced your child?
Baza: Deca koja imaju pristup internetu (94%)

An additional indication in the analysis of this group of information is the distribution of negative
responses in specific parent population categories (Figure 17). Namely, these data reveal the relatively
limited communication between parents and children 8 and 9 years old in regard to safe Internet
usage, which may imply that these parents believe that their children are still not in a situation to be
faced with this kind of risk, or that they are still cognitively unable to receive such information.
On the other hand, the parents with lower education clearly have somewhat more restricted
communication about Internet risks and unsafe forms of Internet behaviour, which is, probably, the
consequence of their poorer Internet literacy and competence.
Figure 17. Specific communication on Internet risks and threats;
Base: the children who have Internet access (94%)

8 - 9.

10 - 11.

12 - 13.

14 - 15

16 - 17

Osnovno i nie

Srednje

Via/Visoka
kola

Helped him/her in the past when something has bothered him/her on the internet
Not visiting websites with explicit age restriction
In general, talked to him/her about what s/he would does if something on the internet ever bothered
Helped him/her when s/he found something difficult to do or find on the internet
Not visiting websites with explicit pornographic or sexual content
Suggested ways to use the internet safely
Explained why some websites are good or bad
Suggested ways to behave towards other people on the internet
Not sharing private data or content regarding other people with others or groups (photos, videos)
Not sharing sensitive private content with group/groups (photos, videos, private correspondence)
Not participating in any kind of harassment, bullying or cyberbullying of others
Not entering into communication with unknown people (accepting friendship request or contact)
Not exposing/sharing personal data with unknown people (address, phone number etc.)

Obrazovanje

Total

Starost deteta

41.7

58

49

39

36

36

45

42

40

24.5

37

23

24

19

25

29

23

25

20.9

36

19

19

18

19

29

19

21

19

20

15

16

20

25

37

18

17.5

33

14

14

15

18

32

15

14

17

24

18

14

17

16

26

16

13

16.6

28

17

11

13

21

20

16

15

12.2

25

12

14

20

12

10.3

23

10

19

8.7

25

15

8.6

29

10

12

6.7

23

11

5.6

19

15

Have you ever introduced your child with rules of communication on internet, social networks or internet? To which of them you have introduced your child?
Absence of communication / Not done
Baza: Deca koja imaju pristup internetu (94%)

37

I.8 Experienced Internet risks/ dangers and their prevention


One survey segment tackles identification of specific, concrete situations and circumstances in which
children are directly exposed to these risks.
The information provided by parents suggests that considerable percentage of children have had
unpleasant and disturbing Internet experiences (Figure 18). Even of parents report on such,
challenging Internet situations and contents.
The parents reporting on such childrens experiences are more likely to be of higher education, which
can be interpreted in two ways: on one hand, this may indicate higher degree of alertness and
sensitivity of the better educated group of parents to these suspicious Internet situations; while on
the other, this may also point to the fact that this category of parents, due to their higher level of
Internet literacy and competence, share higher quality perception and identification of such,
potentially dangerous and risky Internet situations.
Figure 18. Experienced Internet distresses;
Base: Total target population

DK
4%

No
71%

Yes
25%

Total

Yes
No
DK

Parents education
Higher &
Elementary
High
university
25.1
16
26
30
71
81
70
66
3.9
3
4
4

As far as you are aware, in the past year, has your child seen or experienced something on the internet that has bothered them in some way? For example, made
him/her feel uncomfortable, upset, or feel that they shouldnt have seen it?
Base: Total targeted population

Another important point regarding settling, but also prevention of such, potentially dangerous and
risky situations, refers to parents trust and estimate of childrens awareness of these situations, or
parents trust in their childrens competences to recognise such Internet situations and contents. The
survey suggests extremely high degree of parents trust (Figure 19).

38

Figure 19. Trust in childrens competences to recognise unsafe and dangerous Internet contents and situations;
Base: Total target population

9
17
25
74
41
32
1

Parents age

Female

8 - 9.

10 - 11.

12 - 13.

14 - 15

16 - 17

25-39

40-46

47 +

20.8

Sum -

3
12
15
85
38
47

10
31
42
58
35
24

11
21
32
68
45
23

6
11
17
82
43
39
1

3
12
15
85
40
45

3
6
10
89
35
54
1

8
20
28
72
36
35
0

4
13
17
83
45
38

7
11
18
81
39
42
1

Parents
education

78.8

Sum +
A fair amount

40.1

A lot

38.8

0.3

Not at all
Not very much
Sum Sum +
A fair amount
A lot
DK

18
14
32
68
32
36

4
15
19
81
39
42
1

Higher&university

6.2
14.6
20.8
78.8
40.1
38.8
0.3

Child age

High

Childs
gender

14.6

Not very much

DK

Total

Elementary

6.2

Male

Not at all

3
14
17
83
50
32

Do you think that your child is aware that internet is or might be unsafe and potentially dangerous place for him/her?
Base: Total targeted population

Almost 80% of this age childrens parents consider their children sufficiently aware of the Internet risks
and unsafety. However, this viewpoint seems not to be absolute, given that about half of the parents
who share it, agree that the children are mainly (but not fully) aware of these risks. This is a mild, but
significant (rational) drift from the absolute level of trust.
Compared to the survey conducted in 2012, it is evident that parents share almost identical attitude
towards this issue. Namely, in 2012, 83% of parents expressed the opinion that their child was cautious
and competent enough to recognise potential Internet risks, while in 2016 survey such opinion is
expressed by 78.8% of parents who have children of that age.
The parents of girls and of the eldest analysed children seem to be more likely to share somewhat
stronger trust of this type. On one hand, it is understandable that the parents of older children have
more trust in their children, because of these childrens richer experience and better developed
cognitive skills. On the other, the higher degree of girls parents trust may illustrate the fact that the
patriarchal model of upbringing is somewhat stricter and more alert in case of girls than boys, which is
a culturally conditioned phenomenon.
The parents of under-9-children generally agree that the children of this age are not aware enough of
Internet risks, given their actually lower cognitive competences. Similar opinion is shared by the
parents of lower educational status, which is probably more likely to illustrate their Internet
competences and mistrust to the entire Internet phenomenon than the real situation.
The trust in childrens competences to recognise Internet risks and dangers results in high degree of
parents trust in their childrens ability to deal with Internet challenges and risky situations,
experiences and contents (Figure 20).

39

Figure 20. Trust in childrens competence to deal with unpleasant Internet situations and contents;
Base: Total target population

DK

9
31
40
60
42
18

9
25
33
65
48
16
2

6
19
25
72
57
15
3

2
14
15
78
57
21
6

4
13
16
84
48
35

High

2
15
18
82
53
28
1

Higher
& university

8
22
30
66
50
16
4

16 - 17

21.3

A lot

5.4
19
24.4
72.9
51.6
21.3
2.7

14 - 15

51.6

A fair amount

Not at all
Not very much
Sum Sum +
A fair amount
A lot
DK

12 - 13.

72.9

Sum +

8 - 9.

24.4

Sum -

Female

19

Not very much

Parents
education

Child age

Elementary

Childs
Total gender

10 - 11.

5.4

Male

Not at all

9
11
20
71
38
32
9

6
20
26
73
54
19
1

2
22
24
74
56
18
2

2.7

To what extent, if at all, do you think your child is able to deal with things on the internet that bothers him/her?
Base: Total targeted population

However, this time the difference between mild and absolute trust is a lot more pronounced, which
actually implies that parents believe that their children are still not completely capable of
independently overcoming and processing such unpleasant experiences.
Girls parents again share a lot more optimistic assessment of their childrens abilities to deal with such
unpleasant experiences, similar to the parents of older children. It is, however, quite surprising that
such extensive optimism, or absolute trust, is also present among the parents of lower education,
which reinitiates the question of their parental competences to provide a valid assessment of the
childrens reaction to such and similar situations.
Irrespective of the assessment of these childrens ability to recognize and react to unpleasant and
disturbing Internet contents and situations, the parents prediction of childrens behaviour in such
situations vis-a-vis parents as authorities is quite interesting. So, predominant percentage of these
parents (almost 90%) believe (Figure 21) that their children, if faced with unpleasant and disturbing
Internet contents or situation, would turn to them for assistance and support.

40

Figure 21. Parents as support with unpleasant Internet situations and matters;
Base: Total target population
If your child found a potentially dangerous/harmful
content on Internet how likely is it she/he would
consult or ask you for advice about that matter?
Yes

8.1

To what extent, if at all, do you feel you are able to help your child
to deal with anything on the internet that bother him/her?
Not at all

4.5

5.4
19

Not very much

24.4

Sum -

No

72.9

Sum +

51.6

A fair amount

DK

87.4

21.3

A lot
DK

2.7

Base: Total targeted population

This belief is a significant, optimistic point in analysis of the potential of parents role in preventing and
remedying the consequences of Internet risks and dangers for the children of this age. The key
question of this analysis is whether such conviction can be considered realistic from the aspect of
external, objective indicators. Data about which Popadid D. and Kuzmanovid D.8 report do not fully
confirm the realism of this conviction. Namely, this survey indicated that parents have an important
place in prevention and remediation of Internet risks and misuse, but also the same as peer groups
(particularly in older school ages). Besides that, the same survey concluded that, in situations of real
Internet abuse, majority of primary and secondary school pupils do not take any action
(communication) with this regard. Just a small percentage of them turn to parents for help, but also to
their peers, friends and members of other referent social groups. However, the fact which requires
specific attention is parents assessment of their own competence to respond adequately to childrens
needs and expectations in such situations.
Although almost 73% of parents believe to be competent and knowledgeable enough to react
adequately to such dangerous and risky situations, this belief is not absolute. Somewhat more than
50% of parents consider themselves sufficiently, but not absolutely capable of helping and supporting
their children in such critical Internet situations.
Quite the contrary, almost of parents consider themselves completely or mainly incompetent to
provide adequate assistance and support to their children in such situations.
All these data suggest very realistic and impartial parents self-perception. This self-perception is
obviously based on the rather critical assessment of own, general, Internet literacy and competence
(Figure 22).
8

Popadid D, Kuzmanovid D. Utilisation of digital technologies, risks, and incidence of digital violence among students in
Serbia - Summary, UNICEF/Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Belgrade University, 2013

41

Figure 22. Parents as support with unpleasant Internet situations and contents;
Base: Total target population

63.3

Sum +

46.3

A fair amount
A lot

Not at all
Not very much
Sum Sum +
A fair amount
A lot

5.5
31.2
36.7
63.3
46.3
17

6
26
32
68
47
21

4
28
32
68
50
17

7
39
45
55
42
13

21
49
70
30
25
5

3
34
37
63
49
14

Higher
&university

High

36.7

Sum -

Parents education

Elementary

31.2

Not very much

Parents age

47+

Total

40-46

5.5

25-39

Not at all

10
10
90
55
34

17

How confident are you in using the internet?


Base: Total targeted population

Almost of parents of the children age 8 to 17, consider themselves Internet literate and competent.
However, it should not be forgotten that almost 50% of these parents state that they are mainly
familiar with the Internet and its working principles. It is also relevant to point out that older parents,
as well as those with lower education (even 70% of them) do not consider themselves sufficiently or at
all Internet competent, which largely explains some of the already identified specificities of the
attitudes of these parent subpopulations towards different Internet risks and dangers issues and
topics.
In this segment of data analysis we can also conclude that there is a rather high concurrence with the
data obtained in 2012 survey, where almost identical distribution of answers on parents IT
competence was obtained using a somewhat different self-assessment system.
Analysis of the previous data shows that the thesis which Mark Prensky (Prensky, Article Digital
Natives, Digital Immigrants - 2001)9 launched back in 2001 about digital gap between Internet natives
and Internet immigrants still has its validity and value from the point of objective research information.
Namely, in the previous data it is possible to clearly identify Internet gap of the first order (between
generations which have access to information technologies and those which dont have this access), as
well as Internet gap of second order (which is not based on accessibility of information technologies,
but on the differences which arise from knowledge, skills and ability to use them).
All this is connected with the information on the measures and mechanisms of control implemented by
parents regarding the behaviour of their children on Internet (Figure 23). Just somewhat more than
50% of parents of the children of this age use some mechanism for monitoring and control of their
childrens Internet interests and mobile communications. Most of this surveillance and control implies
9

Kuzmanovid D., Lajovid B., Grujid S. i Medenica G. Digital Violence Prevention and Response. Ministry of Education,
Science and Technological Development of of the Republic of Serbia and Pedagogic Society of Serbia. 2016.

42

straightforward tracking, reviewing and analysis of contents of childrens communication in different


Internet and mobile communication forms.
Figure 23. The childrens Internet behaviour control mechanisms;

Tracking records (history) on internet / Parental


controls or other means of keeping track of the

84.3

Reviewing profile/s/contacts/messages on a social


network or online community

No
46%

Yes
54%

83

74.3

Reviewing messages on mobile phone

48.5

Software to prevent spam or junk mail or viruses


Installing software restrictions on web browsers /
Parental controls or other means of blocking or

32.2

A service or contract that limits the time your child


spends on the internet
Do you use any kind of parental control of internet or ITC
communications of your child?
Base: Total targeted population

18.2

Which of listed?
Base:: 55% of targeted population od ciljne populacije)

This analysis certainly doesnt speak in favour of the hypothesis that control and monitoring of
childrens Internet behaviour is the most important and most relevant form of prevention of Internet
dangers and risks (abuse). Quite the contrary, this survey was not focused on the issues of control and
restriction (limiting) of Internet experiences and behaviours of the children of this age. The context in
which these forms of parents behaviour have been observed is considerably broader, and it refers to
the parents knowledge and awareness of the possibilities and their general Internet competence. All
this seems to confirm that the level of parents Internet education is not particularly high.
This is actually the stand for observing the next group of information referring to the challenges and
topics of Internet safety and prevention of Internet risks and dangers (Figure 24).
Figure 24. Information sources on Internet safety
Base: Total target population
Usual source
Prefered source
Family and friends

58.2

Television, radio, newspapers or magazines

41.6

Your childs school

31.2

From my child
Internet service providers
Manufacturers and retailers selling the products
Government, local authorities
Other sources
None, I dont get any information about this
Dont know

62.5

36.9

Websites with safety information

Childrens welfare organisations/charities

38.2
36.2

20.8
10.4
6
3.5
2.9
3.3
6.4
2.5

30
20.5
18.5
21
7.7
11.1
1.8
0.5
2.7

In general where do you get information and advice on safety tools and safe use of the internet from?
And where would you like to get information and advice from in the future?
Multiple answers, Base: Total targeted population

43

In the process of collecting information about the tools for protection of children from potential
Internet risks, most parents (almost 60% of them) rely on their referent social groups (family and
friends), then the mass media, and partly on the educational institutions and dedicated Internet pages
and portals. It is interesting though how much the parents of children age 8 to 17, while collecting
information on a rather complex and expert topic, use informal sources of information, amateur advice
and recommendations. Does this mean that they feel more comfortable displaying their Internet
incompetence in familiar and safe social environment? Probably so.
However, the parents clearly need more extensive engagement of educational institutions, which
should have additional educational role in this domain, not only for the children, but for the parents as
well. With this respect, we can still find concurrence with the data obtained from 2012 survey where
71% of parents expressed the need for increased participation of educational institutions in the
process of informing both them and their children about digital violence, risks and protection.
Quite surprising and very precious is the fact that about 20% of parents rely on the assistance and
support of their own children, and that the same percentage of parents expect to upgrade their
Internet competences, literacy and awareness together with their children. It seems that this, together
with some previously reported findings, possesses the specific potential for enhancing of the situation
in the domain of recognising, preventing and remedying of Internet risks and threats for the children
age 8 to 17.

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IV RECOMMENDATIONS

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This survey, similar to numerous comparable other surveys conducted here and worldwide,
unambiguously clearly underlines the significance of parents and primary family in creating an
adequate, favourable environment for a normal, undisturbed and sound digital development of
primary and secondary school children.
Parents and primary (nuclear) family are the supporting points and the key influencers who determine
and define the scope of childrens psycho-social and physical development, so their role in childrens
digital development and maturation is equally important. How may this parents developmental role
be upgraded, given the clearly identified phenomenon of the digital gap between two typical
generations (digital natives vs digital immigrants)?
The authors of the publication Digital violence prevention and response, seem to nicely and clearly
define the solution to this dilemma: Children may know more about the internet, but adults know
more about life.
Indeed, however true it may be that young generations share considerably better developed IT
abilities, skills and competences, it is equally true that parents life experience is an indispensable
resource that can guide childrens digital skills and abilities in good, safer and more secure direction.
The digital world is abundant with risks and threats, same as the real world is. Parents experience
gained through overcoming and facing different (both positive and negative) life challenges, situations
and crises, has similar functionality, value, usefulness and validity in the digital world.
Observing the comprehensive research material that we have collected, we cant but agree with one of
the conclusions of the authors of the mentioned publication, which, somewhat modified, states:
Parents do not necessarily need to be aware of all the digital world achievements in order to provide
good quality support and be childs safe backing in his or her digital development and growth.
The fundamental elements or aspects of parents function and role in childrens digital development
and growth, particularly in the domain of their digital security and safety, are almost identical to other
development and growth aspects (psychological, social, emotional, intellectual...):
1. Parent as up-to-date, but not necessarily as an expert in information and communication
technologies. Parents, quite certainly, need to have some notions, knowledge and information
on IC technologies, but they dont have to be experts. Parents ICT knowledge primarily reflects
their involvement and interest in a specific aspect of childs environment and development.
2. Parent as a participant and partner in childs digital experience development. Primary and
secondary school children obviously enter the digital world through their primary family and
household. This is the environment where the initial digital experiences and knowledge are
obtained. Parents should continuously participate in the development of this experience, both
through communication (continuous and open), and as partners (creating common digital

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experience, knowledge, skills). Sharing information and experiences about the digital world
upgrades (enriches) both parents and children.
3. Parent as regulator. One of the key parents educational roles is regulation of childrens
behaviour. Least of all, regulation includes control, ban, punishment and threat. Regulation
means establishment of rules, scope, limits for various types of childrens behaviour and
expression. Regulation at older age (senior primary school and secondary school age) becomes
a product of harmonization, consultation and agreement between parents and children. It
exists and it should stay so. The same applies to childrens behaviour and expressing in the
digital world. It directs childs digital development.
Regulation has another, more complex psychological meaning and function. Parents are also
the regulators of childs emotional reactions. With their personality structure and their
established reaction models to different life situations, crises and challenges, they create the
model of childs emotional reaction. In addition, when children are faced with life, including
digital, challenges, crises, threats and situations, instinctively and intuitively they expect parents
to regulate(relax, calm down, soothe) their emotional reaction and anxiety.
In this context, the degree of confidence between child and parent is the key precondition for
functional realisation of both of these regulatory roles.
4. Parent online10. All this brings us to a conclusion that the key element of primary and
secondary school age childrens safe and secure digital development is that their parents are
online (or more explicitly, that parents and children are online). This practically means that
parents establish continuous (quality) contact (bond) with their children. This bond should
apply to their digital communication the least, while it should be focused more on continuous
and open communication about the digital world and its challenges.

10

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Online_and_offline / Online - indicates a state of connectivity

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V REFERENCES

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1. Barbovschi Monica, Lelia Green, Sofie Vandoninck (editors) - Contributors: Monica Barbovschi,
Despina Chronaki, Michael Dreier, Lelia Green, Leslie Haddon, Leen dHaenens, Ingunn Hagen,
Giovanna Mascheroni, Ingrid Paus-Hasebrink, Fabian Prochazka, Andra Siibak, Philip Sinner,
David mahel, Liza Tsaliki, Sofie Vandoninck - Innovative Approaches for Investigating how
Children Understand Risk in New Media; Dealing with Methodological and Ethical Challenges
2013;
2. Jesrani Tejal, Steven Malby, Tania Bauelos, Anika Holterhof, Magdalena Hahn (UNODC) - Study
on the Effects of New Information Technologies on the Abuse and Exploitation of Children UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME Vienna, 2014
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Safety on the Internet: the Perspective of European Children: full findings and policy implications
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Technologies in the Republic of Serbia, 2015

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