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May 10, 2016

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Anatomy Test Review Guide (Chapter 1 and

Characteristics of life:

Movement
Responsiveness
Growth
Reproduction
Digestion
Respiration (obtaining oxygen, removing carbon dioxide,
and producing energy from food)
Absorption (passage of substances through membranes
into bodily fluids)
Circulation (movement of fluids and substances within an
organism)
Assimilation (Chemically changing substances into other
forms)
Excretion (removal of wastes)

Metabolism:
Catabolic- Break Down (Hydrolysis)
Anabolic- Build (Dehydration Synthesis)

Cells must maintain Homeostasis between their


Intercellular and Extracellular fluids.
Negative Feedback System
Counteract Stress
Human Body Temp. (shivering to counteract cold)
Positive Feedback System
Reinforce Stress
Child Birth (makes contractions worse)
Body Cuts:

May 10, 2016


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Anatomy Test Review Guide (Chapter 1 and

Cross-Sectional- Top and Bottom


Longitudinal- Left and Right
Oblique- Cut made at an angle

Body Positions
- Axial Portion (Head, Neck, and Torso)
- Appendicular Portion (Arms and Legs)
- Midline (The line the splits the body in half)

Relative Positions
- Superior vs. Inferior
(Head vs. Feet)
- Anterior vs. Posterior
(Front vs. Back)
- Medial vs. Lateral
(Close vs. Far from Midline)
- Proximal vs. Distal
(Close vs. Far from Trunk)
- Superficial vs. Deep
(External vs. Internal)

Body Planes:
Sagittal- Divides the body into (left and right) portions
Transverse- Divides the body into superior and inferior portions (head and
feet)

Coronal- Divides the body into anterior and posterior regions (front and
back)
Body Regions:

Epigastric- Upper middle


position
Left and Right
Hypochondriac- On each side
of the Epigastric Region
Umbilical Region- Refers to
the middle position
Left and Right Lumbar
Regions- On each side of the
Umbilical Region
Hypogastric Region- Refers to
the lower middle region

May 10, 2016


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The
-

Anatomy Test Review Guide (Chapter 1 and

cell membrane:
Semi-Permeable
Encloses the cytoplasm and organelles
Maintains a balance between inner and outer fluids
Made of phospholipids
Proteins are imbedded in the membrane
Phospholipid Bi-layer

-Fatty-Acid Tail
-Non-Polar
-Hydrophobic

-Phosphate
Head
-Polar
-Hydrophilic

Protein Functions:
-

Transport (in/out of the cell)


Receptors (what is on the outside)
Communicators (send signals)
Cholesterol (keeps fluids moving, help to support the membrane)

What things can go through the Cell Membrane?


1. Extremely Small particles
2. Fatty Substances
3. Neutral Substances

May 10, 2016


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Anatomy Test Review Guide (Chapter 1 and

4. Non-Polar molecules

Isotonic Solutions:
- Have an equal concentration inside and outside of the cell
- Have no net movement of water

Hypertonic Conditions:
- Cells will be in an extremely Concentrated Solution
- Water will be removed
- Cells will shrink

Hypotonic Conditions:
- Cells will be in an extremely un-concentrated solution
- Water will be absorbed
- Cells will expand

Cell Organelles
Ribosomes- factories of the cell they work to synthesize proteins
Cytoplasm- fluid that fills the cell, nutrients are received, processed, and used
Mitochondria- membrane sacs that release energy from food molecules, and transform it
into a usable form
Microtubules- thin protein rods within the cytoplasm that help to support the cell
Nuclear Membrane- Double membrane that separates the nuclear contents from the
cytoplasm

May 10, 2016


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Anatomy Test Review Guide (Chapter 1 and

Vacuole- a large membrane bound organelle that is used for storage


Smooth ER- produces lipids, removes toxins from the body
Rough ER- synthesizes proteins
Golgi Apparatus- post-office packages proteins for transport and secretion
Lysosome- Helps to break down large molecules into smaller more usable ones (contains
enzymes)
Nucleolus- the site of ribosome synthesis, composed of proteins and RNA

Passive Transport:
- High to Low Concentration
- No Energy is Required
Four Different Types:
1. Diffusion- particles move down the
concentration gradient
2. Osmosis- diffusion of water molecules (across a
membrane)
3. Facilitated Diffusion- is facilitated by proteins

These proteins combine with large molecules in


order to change their shape and bring them to
the other side of the membrane.

4. Filtration- an external source pushes it through


Ex.) Heart Pumping Blood

Active Transport:
- Low to High Concentration
- Energy is Required
- Removing Toxins from the Cell
Types:

1. Exocytosis- Secretes a substance (using a vesicle)

May 10, 2016


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Anatomy Test Review Guide (Chapter 1 and

2. Endocytosis- Takes in a Substance (part of cell membrane


breaks off)
Pinocytosis- Takes in water containing dissolved
substances
Phagocytosis- Takes in molecules/solids

Levels of Complexity:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Atom
Molecule
Organelle
Cell
Tissue
Organ
Organ Systems
Organism

The Body Systems:


Integumentary System (Body Coverings)
Function:
Protection, regulates body temperature
Associated:
- Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands

Endocrine System (Maintain Homeostasis)


Function:
To secrete hormones (chemical messengers), particular hormones affect specific groups of cells
Associated:
- The hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid, adrenal gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes,
pineal gland, and thymus.

Respiratory System (Oxidation)


Function:
To move air in and out, exchanging gases between the blood and air
Associated:
- Nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi, and lungs

May 10, 2016


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Anatomy Test Review Guide (Chapter 1 and

Skeletal System (Structure)


Function:
Provide framework and a protective shield for soft tissues, also serve as an attachment for
muscles
Associated:
- All bones, ligaments, and cartilages that bind bones together

Cardiovascular System (blood flow)


Function:
Forces blood through blood vessels carries oxygen from the lungs and nutrients from the
digestive tract. Also transports hormones and carries wastes from body cells.
Associated:
- Heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, and blood

Urinary/Excretory System (Eliminates Waste)


Function:
To eliminate excess water, salt, and waste products, this results in the production of urine.
Associated:
- Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra

Digestive System (Nutrients)


Function:
To process food, and absorb nutrients
Associated:
- Esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small and large intestine

Muscular System (Movement)


Function:
To contract and provide movement in the body

Lymphatic System (Immune System)


Function:

May 10, 2016


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Anatomy Test Review Guide (Chapter 1 and

To defend the body from infections, transport excess tissue fluids back into the blood stream, and
carry fatty substances away from the digestive organs.
Associated:
- Lymphatic vessels, lymph fluid, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen

Reproductive System (Offspring)


Function:
To produce offspring
Associated:
- Reproductive organs

Nervous System (Communication)


Function:
To communicate with other nerves and with muscles and glands, using electromagnetic signals
Associated:
- The brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs
Cavities:
I.

Ventral Cavity- Front


A. Thoracic Cavity- Chest
1. Pleural Cavity- Lung
2. Pericardial Cavity- Heart

Mediastinum- Region that separates the pleural and pericardial cavities


B. Abdominopelvic Cavity
1. Abdominal- Digestive
2. Pelvic- Reproductive/Urinary
II.

Dorsal Cavity
A. Cranial- Brain
B. Vertebral- Spine

Membranes: Provide protection and moisture to cavities


I.

Pleural Membrane- Lungs


A. Parietal Membrane- Outside
B. Visceral Membrane- Inside

May 10, 2016


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Anatomy Test Review Guide (Chapter 1 and

II.

Pericardial Membrane- Heart


A. Parietal Membrane- Outside
B. Visceral Membrane- Inside

III.

Peritoneal- Abdominal Pelvic


A. Parietal Membrane- Outside
B. Visceral Membrane- Inside