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Hydrostatic Load Case in CAESAR-II
Simulates the Loading during the event of Hydrotest.
Water filled weight
Hydrotest pressure
(Basic Load case)


Section Modulus of thin Pipe,

Z  rm2 t
rm  Mean _ Radius 

ri  ro Di  Do Do   Do  2t 


t is normally the nominal thickness, but, we can take the thickness in corroded condition.

Sustained Load case simulates the Piping system for Sustained Loads at Installed condition


Allowable Stress for Sustained Load case in CAESAR II
Consider the Piping system has various Operating conditions like the following:Condition-1
(Sh : Allowable Stress)
Now Allowable Stress for ANY of the Sustained Load case is :
Min (Sh1, Sh2, Sh3, ……….., Shn)
The reason seems to be that Piping system is designed for maximum sustained load for any of the
operating condition.
Example : In our case
ASTM A285 Gr. C
Condition-1 : P1 = 0.245 Bar,g
T1=425 0C
Condition-2 : P2 = 3.0 Bar,g
T1=160 0C
So, Sh = Min(10310, 17600) = 10310 psi

Sh1=10310 Psi
Sh2=17600 Psi

This is clear from the below fragments of CAESAR Report:

3) In “Stress Extended” option in CAESAR output we obtain the following:- .3(b). Calculation of Longitudinal Stress due to Sustained Loads in CAESAR II (per ASME B31.

5(Sc + Sh) – SL = 1.25(Sc + Sh) – SL] [f = Stress range reduction factor] For a Piping system with several Sustained Load cases. The SL is obtained as follows: . Allowable Thermal Stress Range SA = Syc + Syh = 3/2(Sc + Sh) [As Sc = 2/3Syc & Sh = 2/3Syh] = 1. ii io Mi Mo = = = = In-plane Stress Intensification factor Out-plane Stress Intensification factor In-plane Bending Moment Out-plane Bending Moment 4.25 (Sc + Sh) – SL [ Considering factor of safety and reducing Sustained stress] = f[1. + Axial Stress due to Internal Pressure F Pd  A 2t So.Sb Code Stress for Sustained Load case =Longitudinal Stress due to Sustained Loads = S L SL = Sa + Sb Sa = = Sa  Axial Stress Axial Stress due to Pipe Weight / Support reaction etc. Sb = Sb  Bending Stress due to Moments  ii M i  2   i o M o  2 Z So.

……….g P2 = 3.0 Bar. SL2 Sustained Case-3: W + P3 .3 Psi Sh2=17600 Psi . SL1 = 1544. SL1 = 117 Psi So for Node-100. SL3 ……………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………… Sustained Case-n: W + Pn .1 Psi Sh1=10310. SLn SL = Max(SL1 . SL = Max(SL1 . SL2 . SL1 Sustained Case-1: W + P2 ..g T1=425 0C T1=160 0C The following are the TWO Sustained Load cases: So for Node-100. C 18300 Psi P1 = 0. SL3 .245 Bar. SL2) = 1544.Sustained Case-1: W + P1 .1 Psi Hence. SLn) Example : In our case MOC = Sc = Condition-1 : Condition-2 : ASTM A285 Gr.

0 for N < 7000) = 34218. Moments & Stresses for this position.3 Position due to Expansion only from Neutral position = D1-D2 = Displacement Range (Displacement Range position) CAESAR evaluates Forces.3) – 1544.Hence Allowable Thermal Expansion Stress Range for condition-1 is as follows: SA1 = f[1.0[1. That’s why it is the “Displacement Range Stress” Note: Stress Range is meaningful while Load during Expansion i .25(Sc+Sh1) – SL] = 1.25(18300+10310.1] (f = 1.8 Psi The same is clear from the following: Positions of Piping System: (1) Position of Piping System for Sustained Load case (From Neutral position) (2) Position of Piping System in Operating Load case (From Neutral Position) (3) Position of Piping System in for Displacement Range Load case Basic Load Cases Algebraic Combination of Reference Load Cases Scalar Combination of Referene Loada Cases Hypothetical “Neutral Position” of Piping System: Operating Position of Piping System : Sustained Load position of Piping System at Installed condition : D =0 D = D1 D = D2 Algebraic combination of Displacements is done to find the Exansion Load case per B31.

there are following three approaches to Model the Nozzles in CAESAR. Here. (3) Rigid Nozzle with predefined Displacements: If the Equipment experiences the thermal growth due to temperature difference between Installed and operating condition then we need to input the Nozzle displacements in CAESAR like the following:- . No predefined Nozzle displacement as well as no flexibility is there at Nozzle node. These cases are basically defined on the basis of following:  Predefined Displacement at Nozzle Node  Flexibility at Nozzle Node RIGID NOZZLES (1) Rigid Nozzle (Anchor) without any predefined displacements: This is the simplest approach to model the Nozzle. All six degrees of freedom are restricted at the Nozzle Node.MODELING EQUIPMENT NOZZLES IN CAESAR Based on the data available.

the following: KxKyKzCxCyCzThese stiffeneses are provided in CAESAR Input as follows:- .e.Please note the following in this regard: Enter only displacements for the node.  Do not specify restraints or anchors at the node to be displaced.. i. make sure all 6 degrees of freedom at the node are defined FLEXIBLE NOZZLES (Nozzle Flexibility known) (3) Flexible Nozzle without any predefined displacements : If the Stress Analyst is awared of the Flexibility in Nozzle in form of Linear & Rotational stiffeneses.  For anchors with displacements.

 The Stiffenesses are defined at Nozzle Node  Displacements are defined at connecting node (Cnode) .(4) Flexible Nozzle with predefined displacements: This can be modeled with the concept of Cnode in CAESAR.

i. Flexible Anchor.e.. The only difference here is that in this case Nozzle flexibility is itself .FLEXIBLE NOZZLES (Nozzle flexibility calculated by CAESAR according to WRC 297) (5) Flexible Nozzle as per WRC-297 with NO predefined Displacements: This is similar with the case(3) above.

The difference being the following: . Flexible Anchor with displacement. contrary to the case-(3) where flexibilities are provided manually in CAESAR.e. (6) Flexible Nozzle as per WRC-297 with predefined Displacemenst: This is analogous to case-(4). i.calculated by CAESAR according to WRC 297 ..

Nozzle displacements are defined at Vessel Node as follows: MODELING VESSEL WITH NOZZLE IN CAESAR FOR WRC-297 ANALYSIS . Hence.  Nozzle Flexibility is calculated by CAESAR automatically according to WRC 297 The function of CNode is done by Vessel Node in the dialogue box.