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# ECE306

Lab 6

Sine wave oscillators

05/10/16

LAB 6 SINEWAVE OSCILLATORS
PRELAB ASSIGNMENT
1. Read Sedra and Smith [1] Sections 13.1, 13.2.1-13.2.2 before coming to the lab.
2. For the Wien bridge oscillator in Figure 6 of this lab, calculate the values of ω o and R2 needed for
oscillation using the component values given and assume R1 = 10K.
3. For the Wien bridge oscillator in Figure 6, calculate the impedance of C S at ω0.
4. For the Phase-shift oscillator in Figure 3, calculate R2 and ω0 for oscillation using the component values
given.

LABORATORY INSTRUCTIONS
The purpose of this experiment is to explore the design of sine wave oscillators. A sine wave oscillator is
basically a rudimentary function generator. Thus, we will, in effect, be exploring the basic principles of the
design of function generators. Two different oscillator designs will be studied: the Wien bridge oscillator and
the Phase shift oscillator. Both of these designs rely on the principle of utilizing positive feedback to produce
unstable circuit behavior.

Positive feedback
Figure 1 shows the basic block diagram for a positive feedback configuration. The gain of the feedforward
network is A(s), and the gain of the feedback network is β.

V (s)
S

+

V

I

A(s)

+
VF

Vo (s)

B(s)

Figure 1: Basic block diagram for positive feedback
The gain of this block diagram is given in equation 1.

A f (s) 

VO (s)
A(s)

VS (s) 1  A(s)β(s)

(1)

Notice that the denominator can become zero, which would cause the transfer function to be infinite. Thus
the system could have a non-zero output with zero input amplitude. In such a case, the system is said to be
unstable. This occurs when the loop gain, L(s), is:

6.1

2 and 3 above the magnitude and phase characteristics of β(s) must be equivalent to: 6. The A(s) gain network is the inverting gain section of the op-amp. Wien bridge oscillator Figure 2 shows the Wien bridge oscillator.2 . Both sine wave oscillators investigated in this experiment consist of two separable parts. In fact. R 2 3 1 Va C P 8 .XK U 1A LF356 R S 10K R P 10K Figure 2: The Wien bridge oscillator The magnitude and phase characteristics of A(s) are given by equation 4. unstable behavior is desired to generate the oscillation.2 n C S 8 .ECE306 Lab 6 Sine wave oscillators 05/10/16 A f (s)   L(s)  A(s)β(s)  1 which results in (2) The A(s)β(s) product plays a key role in oscillator design and is called the loop gain. The A(s) network will be the amplifier part. systems are usually designed to avoid positive feedback. Since positive feedback causes instability. therefore both. and the β(s) network will be the frequency determining part.2 n Vo 6 5 2 + 10K - R 1 2 X. L(s)  1 and L(s)  0  N360 (3) are required for oscillation. It is not always possible to do this. A(s)  R2 and A(s)  180 R1 (4) Since oscillation occurs when L = 1 from Eq. The β(s) feedback network is the section between Va and Vo . But in the case of an oscillator. some amount of positive feedback is normally used in the design of oscillators. For oscillation to occur the loop gain must be exactly one. a sine wave oscillator can be constructed by designing a circuit such that the loop gain is unity. Oscillation will occur at a frequency such that the above two conditions are met. Remember that the loop gain is a function of frequency. Thus. but for both oscillators in this experiment it is possible.

7 nF. R 2 Cer. Sketch V2. 1.ECE306 Lab 6 β(s)  Sine wave oscillators 05/10/16 R1 and β(s)  180  N360 R2 (5) This will happen for one value of R2 and at one frequency.0 K C 1 C 2 C 3 C 4 10nF 10nF 10nF 10nF + + V2 V2 - R 3 3K R 4 3K R 5 3K - Figure 4: A(s) network - Figure 5: β(s) network. In the lab. -1 5 Figure 3: The A network of a phase shift oscillator is an inverting amplifier The A(s) network is the section between V1 and V2 as shown in Figure 4. Measure and record the new f o and R2. Adjust R2 so that the circuit oscillates and V2 is sinusoidal. Phase shift oscillator Figure 3 shows the Phase shift oscillator . R 6 47K R 2 8 5 1 3 C 5 0 .0 K R 3 3K R 4 3K R 5 3K V- 4 C 6 0 .1 u F Cer. f 0. The β(s) network is the section between V2 and V1 as shown in Figure 5. Connect the circuit shown in Figure 6 (shown at the end of this document). Note the 2 diodes and 4 resistors connected to the power supply rails and op-amp output that have been added are for amplitude control. Use a 25K variable resistor for R2. 6. Record the value of R2 and the frequency of oscillation. Change CS = CP = 4. + 6 5 1 V1 - 3 + + 3K - 2 R 1 100K U 1A LF 356 R 7 2 .3 V1 R 1 3K . 7 U 1B V+ nc 3K C 1 C 2 C 3 C 4 10nF 10nF 10nF 10nF 6 + R 1 - 2 +15 100K U 1A LF 356 R 7 2 .1 u F Cer. perform each of the numbered steps.

ECE306 Lab 6 Sine wave oscillators 05/10/16 Analysis of the Phase shift oscillator is similar to the analysis of the Wien bridge oscillator. Build the circuit shown in Figure 3. describe why the circuit in Figure 2 will oscillate. IMPORTANT Don’t put in R6 yet!!! Use a variable resistor for R2. R4 and R5 and something close to 10nF for C1-C4. You may have to put in R6 to get enough gain to achieve oscillation. and compare it with the measured value. Compare the measured values of fo and R2 to the values you calculated for the Wien bridge oscillator. Find the frequency for which the phase shift of the phase shift network is 180 o. In your own words. and compare it with the measured value. 3. Record the value of R2 + R6 and the frequency of oscillation. 3. R3. In your own words. Capture V2. Derive the theoretical value of R2 that will cause the circuit to oscillate. Adjust R2 so that the circuit oscillates and V2 is sinusoidal.4 . Derive the theoretical frequency of oscillation f 0. 2. POST LAB QUESTIONS 1. describe why this circuit shown in Figure 3 will oscillate. The magnitude and phase of the A network must be determined. Calculate the theoretical value of R2 that will cause the circuit to oscillate. 4. Connect the function generator to the phase shift network as shown in Figure 5. 6. You re-measured fo and R2 after changing capacitors In step 1 of the experiment. and compare it with the measured value. 2. Calculate the theoretical frequency of oscillation f0. Also compare the measured frequency of oscillation with the measured frequency for which the phase shift of the phase shift network is 180 o. Explain the changes in theses two values. and compare it with the measured value. Use something close to 3K for the resistors R1. Then the magnitude and phase of the β network must be selected so that the loop gain is exactly one. Measure the phase shift at each node of the phase shift circuit.

Smith.. Oxford 2004. S. Microelectronic circuits.2 n C S 1 -1 5 8 .1 u 7 U 1B R 3 1N 4148 + 10K LF 356 U 1A 6 R 4 1k R 5 R 2 XX . C.X K 1k Ohmega = 1/(RC) D 2 Resistors in Ohms Capacitors in Farads 1N 4148 Oscillation occurs when R2 is a little more than 2 * R1 R 6 3K -1 5 Figure 6 [1] A.2 n 3 R 1 2 10K R S 5 V+ nc 3K C 3 0 .5 . Fifth edition. Sedra and K.ECE306 Lab 6 Sine wave oscillators 05/10/16 +15 +15 D 1 8 R P 10K 4 V- C 4 0 .1 u C P 8 . 6.