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Quaternary International xxx (2015) 1e21

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Quaternary International
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/quaint

The human settlement of Central Iberia during MIS 2: New
technological, chronological and environmental data from the
Solutrean workshop of Las Delicias (Manzanares River valley, Spain)
~ o a, *, Mario Lo 
pez-Recio b, Fernando Tapias c, Felipe Cuartero b,
Manuel Alcaraz-Castan
b
d 
rez-Gonza 
lez e,
Javier Baena , Blanca Ruiz-Zapata , Jorge Morín c, Alfredo Pe
e
Manuel Santonja  

, C/ Colegios 2, 28801, Alcala 
de Henares, Madrid, Spain
Area
de Prehistoria, Universidad de Alcala 
noma de Madrid. Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid, Spain
Departamento de Prehistoria y Arqueología, Universidad Auto
c
Departamento de Arqueología, Paleontología y Recursos Humanos, Auditores de Energía y Medioambiente, S.A. Calle Santorcaz 4, 28002, Madrid, Spain
d 
. Edificio de Ciencias, Ctra. A-II, Km 33.600, 28871, Alcala 
de Henares, Madrid, Spain
Departamento de Geología, Universidad de Alcala
e 
n sobre la Evolucio 
n Humana (CENIEH), Paseo Sierra de Atapuerca 3, 09002, Burgos, Spain
Centro Nacional de Investigacio
a

b

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:
Available online xxx

The recent excavations (2008e2009) conducted at the open-air site of Las Delicias, located in the
Manzanares River valley (Madrid), have revealed new important data for the understanding of the human settlement of Central Iberia during Solutrean times. In this paper, we present a geomorphological
and taphonomic study of the Pleistocene deposits of Las Delicias, a technological analysis focused on the
bifacial lithic reduction processes documented at the site, new Optically Stimulated Luminescence dates,
and new palynological data. Together with the existence of numerous Solutrean lithic assemblages from
the early 20th century excavations of the Manzanares terraces, these new data highlight the importance
of the Manzanares valley as a focus of Solutrean settlement, not only related to flint procurement but also
to foraging activities. Moreover, they require reconsideration of Central Iberia as a virtually unpopulated
region during the Late Pleniglacial (MIS 2), and of the associated idea of its cultural dependence on the
coastal areas of the Iberian Peninsula. We propose new avenues of research aimed at approaching the
central region of Iberia in its own cultural and ecological terms.
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.

Keywords:
Solutrean
MIS 2
Manzanares valley
Central Iberia
Bifacial reduction

1. Introduction
The human settlement of Europe during the Late Pleistocene has
been described as a complex process of population movements
related to the environmental changes caused by the climatic fluctuations of the last glacial cycle (e.g. Terberger and Street, 2002; van
Andel and Davies, 2003; Gamble et al., 2004; Banks et al., 2008,
2009; Conard and Bolus, 2008; Hublin and Roebroeks, 2009;
€ ller et al., 2012). Within this process, the
Verpoorte, 2009; Bradtmo
Iberian Peninsula, together with other regions of Southern Europe,
has been usually depicted as an ecological refugium where human
populations moved from northern latitudes during the harshest

* Corresponding author.
E-mail
addresses:
manuel.alcaraz@uah.es,
~ o).
(M. Alcaraz-Castan

manuelalcarazc@gmail.com

periods of the glacial cycles (Jochim, 1987; Gamble et al., 2004). This
pattern has been especially claimed for the Last Glacial Maximum
(LGM), and more broadly for the Late Pleniglacial or MIS 2
(27.8e14.7 ka cal BP). In this context, the Solutrean techno-complex
of France and Iberia, traditionally linked to the LGM, has been
interpreted as a subsistence system directly responding to the
contraction of the human range towards the southwestern European refugium as a consequence of a rapid worsening of climatic and
environmental conditions (Straus, 1991, 2012; Straus et al., 2000).
This Iberian refugium model posits the coastal areas of the
peninsula as the only territories suitable for human occupation
during the Late Pleniglacial. In contrast, the interior lands of Spain,
dominated by an upland plateau (the Meseta) divided in two by the
Central System range (Fig. 1), are considered a nearly depopulated
area during most of the Upper Paleolithic. This interpretation,
which is based on the scarce archaeological record for the Early
Upper Palaeolithic and the Solutrean in Central Iberia (see Tiffagom,

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2015.06.069
1040-6182/© 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.

~ o, M., et al., The human settlement of Central Iberia during MIS 2: New technological,
Please cite this article in press as: Alcaraz-Castan
chronological and environmental data from the Solutrean workshop of Las Delicias (Manzanares River valley, Spain), Quaternary
International (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2015.06.069

2

~ o et al. / Quaternary International xxx (2015) 1e21
M. Alcaraz-Castan

Fig. 1. Geographic setting of Las Delicias (+) and other Solutrean sites within the middle and lower Manzanares River valley and the Iberian Peninsula. Sites excavated in the early
20th century subject to modern studies: 1: El Sotillo, 2: Santiago, 3: El Cojo, 4: Martínez, 5: Valdivia, 6: Nicasio Poyato. Recent excavations: 7: Puente de los Tres Ojos. Other
~ a Capo 
n.
Solutrean sites in Central Iberia: 8: Valdocarros, 9: Pen

2006; Banks et al., 2009; Cacho et al., 2010; Schmidt et al., 2012;
Aubry and Almeida, 2013), has been common in the Spanish literature since the beginnings of the 20th century (Breuil and
~o
Obermaier, 1913; see Delibes and Díez, 2006 and Alcaraz-Castan

et al., 2013 for references). It has also been highlighted in recent
surveys and paleoclimate simulations (Burke et al., 2014).
One of the major shortcomings traditionally faced by this model
are the numerous Solutrean-like pieces that were collected at the

~ o, M., et al., The human settlement of Central Iberia during MIS 2: New technological,
Please cite this article in press as: Alcaraz-Castan
chronological and environmental data from the Solutrean workshop of Las Delicias (Manzanares River valley, Spain), Quaternary
International (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2015.06.069

However.doi. These allowed us both to evaluate the extent of the Pleistocene deposits and to obtain the first information on the stratigraphy and site formation processes.06. In sum. functional. 2. 2011).. Las Delicias: a classic Palaeolithic site in the Manzanares valley The archaeological site of Las Delicias is known since the excavation conducted at the location by H. and thus can be considered an extension of it (Figs. modern) remains. 5) justified extending them and developing a systematic excavation project in two different areas (Sectors I and II) (Fig. and later as “tenuifoliate sbaikian point”  n. 3. 1). 2002. 2). and other 0. 1918) to “Mousterian of 3 Acheulean tradition with Sbaikian influences” (Obermaier. Corcho 2014: 44). Santonja et al. In this sector. We will argue that geomorphological.quaint. 3 and 4).8 m of Quaternary clayey silts corresponding to level 2 and part of level 3. The Manzanares River is a second order tributary of the Tagus River. Burke et al. As a consequence. B: The same piece.  n.e. despite the diverse interpretations that have been proposed to explain its problematic ~o lithic assemblage (Santonja et al. / Quaternary International xxx (2015) 1e21 M. This project was centered in the excavation of part of the Quaternary deposits preserved at Las Delicias. Thus. IIc and IId) (Fig. 2012). 1994). the most technological attributes (Baena and Carrio accepted interpretation still maintained a Middle or Lower Palaeolithic chronology (Gonz alez-Echegaray and Freeman. New excavations at Las Delicias: fieldwork methods Due to the urban expansion of Madrid. The latter is part of the Tagus basin (Fig.. Please cite this article in press as: Alcaraz-Castan chronological and environmental data from the Solutrean workshop of Las Delicias (Manzanares River valley. We first conducted 12 mechanical test pits of 3  2 m along the area. 8). 1925: Fig. 1918: Fig. Alcaraz-Castan et al.2015. A: Piece from the 1910s excavations at Las Delicias first interpreted as “handaxe point” (Obermaier and Wernert. including the LGM. M.069 . most of the sites that were excavated in the Manzanares valley during the late 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th century are now destroyed. references to a purported Solutrean occupation of the Manzanares valley have been cautious in the last decades. and hence our new excavations at the site. 2002: 130. Obermaier and P. Previously. 3). 1918). these collections were recovered without stratigraphic control and most of their sedimentary deposits were destroyed during the city's expansion in the 1960s and 1970s. (Obermaier. Locating lithic industry in some of those test pits (numbers 2. currently interpreted as Solutrean foliate point in advanced stage of reduction (modified from Baena and Carrio ~ o. Quaternary International (2015). these are usually interpreted as “occasional uses of or ephemeral visits to the less oceanic parts of the Peninsula during the LGM in sensu lato” (Straus et al. 1952). 1) at the be n. It is found in the city center of Madrid (Central Spain). it is surprising that the topography of the area around Las Delicias has survived with little modification until the present day (Fig. 1998. located to the north and rez-Gonza lez.8 m of contemporary (i. although at the turn of the century some researchers already pointed to a possible Solutrean character of Las Delicias lithic assemblage on the basis of some  n. whose characterization as handaxes has been usually granted from a typological viewpoint (Fig.. reaching the Neogene clays at 1. 4:36). see also Straus. Cultural attributions have ranged from “Final classic Acheulean” (Obermaier and Wernert. 2000. In order to gain a better geoarchaeological understanding of the site. 2012. in the last stretch of the middle Manzanares valley. A key point in this discussion has been the significance of the bifacial pieces recovered at the site.25 m deep.. technological. and eventually to evaluate its implications for the discussion on the human occupation of Central Iberia during the Late Pleniglacial (MIS 2). although researchers currently recognize the existence of some Solutrean occurrences in Central Iberia. 3). we excavated mechanically 0. et al. chronometric and environmental data gathered at this site demand the reconsideration of Central Iberia as a marginal area during MIS 2.. 2011. IIb. and corresponds to the southern foreland basin of the Central System range. taphonomic. 92). even besides the existence of several modern reanalyses that confirmed the Solutrean character of some assemblages. http://dx. Santonja ginnings of the 20th century (Baena and Carrio et al. 2000). We propose that a more permanent human occupation of this region should be considered.org/10.. 2. In Sector I we opened an area of 10 square meters. Corcho n et al. Spain). This has allowed the preservation of its Pleistocene deposits. 1984). anthropic fillings were lowered 0. Alcaraz-Castan Manzanares River terraces (Madrid city center) (Fig.~ o et al. northwest (Pe Las Delicias has been one of the classical references for the Palaeolithic of the Madrid region. 4). where very few traces of lithic industry Fig. Sector II is located very close to the area excavated by Obermaier and Wernert in 1917.. 1925) or “Presolutrean” (Freund. Wernert in the late 1917 (Obermaier and Wernert. 4. 2002: Fig.. and the stretch where Las Delicias is located is in the central sector of the Madrid Neogene basin. 2000: 561. 2002). In this paper. such as those from El Sotillo (Martínez de Merlo. 2012..65 m (level I) until we reached the Quaternary levels (IIa. we present the results obtained from new field and laboratory works conducted at a classic site of the Manzanares River valley: Las Delicias. we devised a new research project that was initiated in December 2008. These works were carried out in three successive seasons between December 2008 and July 2009. The human settlement of Central Iberia during MIS 2: New technological.1016/j. Thus.

they are located in a small depressed semi-endorheic area of around 6 ha. All the sediment was screened with water through 0. This surface divides the drainage between the Manzanares River and the old  n stream (Fig.org/10. a tributary of the Abron ~ igal stream Carcavo currently buried by the urban expansion of Madrid (Royo et al. http://dx.5 mm sieves to recover small flakes and debris.. 3. 1975: 693e694. Spain). Orientation and dip of the lithic products (Lo were also registered. Only around 15 square meters shown archaeological material (Fig. M. and we reached a maximum depth from the surface of 2. lez-Echegaray and Freeman. 1998: 54e55). / Quaternary International xxx (2015) 1e21 M. Location of mechanical test pits and systematic excavations conducted at the Solutrean site of Las Delicias (Madrid) during 2008 and 2009. 2014). extending between the Manzanares alluvial plain and a NWeSE oriented structural surface of hard flint. ~ o. 5). Las Delicias deGonza posits do not belong to the terrace system of the Manzanares River. were located. The horizontal distributions of lithic products located in Sectors I and II are represented.069 .5 m. Geomorphology. 3)..2015. 4. Instead. Both these levels and every archaeological object larger than 2 cm were three-dimensionally recorded using a Total Station  pez-Fraile et al. in an area of 13 square meters in the first season.quaint.doi.06. and subsequently of 7. After obtaining an appropriate platform of 105 square meters.. et al. Fieldwork methodology followed the excavation of natural levels. The human settlement of Central Iberia during MIS 2: New technological. Please cite this article in press as: Alcaraz-Castan chronological and environmental data from the Solutrean workshop of Las Delicias (Manzanares River valley. Alcaraz-Castan Fig.. Quaternary International (2015).1016/j.4 ~ o et al.5 square meters more in a second season. we proceeded to the manual excavation of the basal levels (3b and 4). chronostratigraphy and site formation processes Contrary to previous claims (Freeman.

. 5). Alcaraz-Castan 5 Fig.069 .~ o et al. it seems reasonable to posit that Las Delicias knappers obtained their flint from one or several of these nearby outcrops. below a first level containing contemporary remains (level I). ~ o. 4). et al. It is shown the relative location of the two excavated sectors and the excavation conducted by Obermaier and Wernert in 1917. ~o 1929) and some recent salvage test-pits (see Alcaraz-Castan et al.6 m and are mainly composed of clayey silts.1016/j.quaint. Geological and stratigraphic profiles of the Solutrean site of Las Delicias (Madrid).doi. It is drained by rills or gullies that originated thin accumulations of alluvial-colluvial sediments.2015. This could have been done either by accessing directly to the outcrops. Although we have recorded lithic industry all along the Quaternary levels. These reach a maximum depth of 0. Location of pollen and OSL sampling is also shown. Please cite this article in press as: Alcaraz-Castan chronological and environmental data from the Solutrean workshop of Las Delicias (Manzanares River valley. Although the current urban situation of the site area and surroundings (where no flint levels are currently accessible) makes it very difficult to obtain more direct data on this subject. 8). IIc. 4 and 5). especially. / Quaternary International xxx (2015) 1e21 M. M.. The human settlement of Central Iberia during MIS 2: New technological. 2012). whose relative quantity allows distinguishing sublevels IIa and IIb.org/10. In Sector I.06. Quaternary International (2015). we have documented a stratigraphic sequence consisting of several Quaternary levels and sublevels (Fig. we have documented a sandy-silt sublevel (IId) with limited continuity. According to data coming both from old surveys (Royo et al. 4. Lastly. we have identified several flint and flint-carbonates outcrops within a range of 200 m to the north and northeast of Las Delicias site. and is located at þ16/20 m over the current Manzanares River channel. The excavated sectors in Las Delicias (Fig. Spain).. containing also a small percentage of sandy fraction and gravels. 1929). Sublevels IIc and IId display an erosive contact with the Neogene greenish clayey substratum (level T). This semi-endorheic depression lies over a substratum composed of Miocene grayish-green and bluish clays. being Sector I in a more external and higher topographic position than Sector II (Figs. They also contain carbonate concretions of edaphic origin. Below IIb there is a thin matrix-supported fine gravel layer (IIc) that was deposited in an alluvial environment with a strong carbonate cementation (Fig. or just by collecting on the slopes the blocks eroded and dragged by the channels draining water to the site. http://dx. 3) are located in the periphery of this semi-endorheic depression.. most of the products come from sublevels IIb and. The nearest outcrop is 50 m north of Sector I (Fig.

The lack of stratigraphic continuity between the two sectors of Las Delicias. and fills in the southwest -oriented small stream mentioned above.6 to 0. with occasional fine gravel layers between and within them. which consists of olive (5 Y 5/3) clayey silts with a few sandy fraction. with the same compositions and percentages than the granules. and especially in the upper layer of fine-gravels. 26: Alluvial fans (Late PleistoceneeHolocene).8 m in a length of 3 m. posits a problem for the morphostratigraphic understanding of the site. which were transported in a small alluvial fan environment.85 to 0.1016/j. 4).org/10.doi. The aforementioned researchers (Alcaraz-Castan stratigraphic depth of this sector ranges from 1. 4e6: Clays and arkosic sands with levels of carbonates and flints (transition from unit 4 to 6) (Middle Miocene).2 and 0. 38: Valley bottoms (Holocene). 31: Lower terraces (Late Pleistocene). The human settlement of Central Iberia during MIS 2: New technological.. Here we have documented several stratigraphic layers that can be directly correlated with those described by the ~ o et al. However.quaint. Spain). (1989). Sector II is adjacent to the area excavated by Obermaier and Wernert in 1917. Below a first level of anthropic fillers (level 1). that most of the lithic products are found (Fig..069 . and carbonate cements do not appear as in Sector I. Quaternary International (2015). and are composed mostly of carbonates. and consists of matrix-supported fine gravel layers mixed with a fine layer of silt (Fig. (1989) and Calvo et al. At the base of the Quaternary sequence of Sector II occurs level 4. from 0. Please cite this article in press as: Alcaraz-Castan chronological and environmental data from the Solutrean workshop of Las Delicias (Manzanares River valley. Alcaraz-Castan Fig. The basal levels lay out on a small stream that drained towards the Southwest (Fig. 29: Semi-endorheic bottoms (Late PleistoceneeHolocene). 20: Mantled pediments (i. 2012). 3: Green and brown clays (Middle Miocene). First occurrences of lithic industry occur in level 3b. level 4 is composed of sediments with different granulometry and composition. It is in this level. which is 20e30 cm wide.2015.06. 4). and occasionally of thin layers of fine gravels with little continuity (2c). considering the topographic and ~ o. 5. we find a first Quaternary unit consisting of several clayey silts levels with carbonate concretions (2a. Similar to level IIc of Sector I. A third unit is found below them. et al. 4). 2b and 2d).4 cm. 4: Thick sands and arkosic sands (Middle Miocene). Geology and geomorphology of Las Delicias area. This level displays some degree of compaction and also some grooved fractures (slickensides). M. The fine gravel layers have a thickness varying from 7 to 13 cm. in which we have distinguished a very clayey silt level (3a) and a clayey silt level (3b). 6: Green clays with levels of carbonates and flints (Middle Miocene). Legend of Geological units according to Goy et al. and occasionally flint and granules of quartz between 0. 32: Colluvial deposits (Holocene). The matrix consists of gray-olive to brown clayey silts.e. http://dx.6 ~ o et al. Glacis) (Lower-Middle Pleistocene). This level displays an erosive contact with the clayey substratum. 35: Alluvial plains (Late PleistoceneeHolocene). / Quaternary International xxx (2015) 1e21 M. together with the significant topographic alteration that this area has suffered due to human activity during the last century. There are also some larger pebbles.4 cm..

et al. Please cite this article in press as: Alcaraz-Castan chronological and environmental data from the Solutrean workshop of Las Delicias (Manzanares River valley. 6.. A: Orientation of lithic products from Sector I.. the reader is referred to the web version of this article.2015.~ o et al. C: Percentages of orientation patterns of Sector I and II compared.069 .1016/j. mean vector (red line) and kernel density (n ¼ 556). Spain). http://dx. B: Orientation of lithic products from Sector II. Alcaraz-Castan 7 Fig. D: Dips (total numbers) of lithic products from Sector I (n ¼ 467).doi. showing total number of analyzed objects. mean vector (red line) and kernel density (n ¼ 464). I: Flake from Las Delicias Sector I showing pseudoretouches and microfractures interpreted as signs of trampling.quaint. E: Dips (total numbers) of lithic products from Sector II (n ¼ 553). Fabric analysis and trampling signs of Las Delicias lithic assemblages.06. G: Stereogram showing dip patterns of Sector II (excluding the “0” values). F: Stereogram showing dip patterns of Sector I (excluding the “0” values). (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend. Sector II ¼ Sector II e level 4. H: Normalized frequencies of dips from Sector I and II compared. / Quaternary International xxx (2015) 1e21 M.) ~ o. The human settlement of Central Iberia during MIS 2: New technological.org/10. showing total number of analyzed objects. Quaternary International (2015). M. *Sector I ¼ Sector I e level IIc.

the obtained results come from levels directly overlying them. and an examination of their surface alterations. Therefore.3 BP for level IIb of Sector I. Quaternary International (2015).. 6. being both samples large enough to be statistically valid (Lenoble and Bertran.90 cm) Sector I e IIb (1. 6: DeE) could point to a higher degree of autochthonous disturbance due to postdepositional edaphic processes. Overall. http://dx. such as rounding.doi... form that divided the Carcavo Therefore. Therefore. 4). a whitish patina and a thin carbonate rind on one surface (Fig. we interpret that the sediments are arranged in two levels of stepped deposits with an altimetric difference of 3 m (Fig.5%) we have recorded abrupt and random pseudo-retouches and microfractures (Fig. 2014 for a discussion on the convenience of increasing this index to 2 cm. as proposed by Lenoble and Bertran (2004. we have conducted a taphonomic study of the lithic assemblages and their location within the sedimentary levels. According to them.8%) (Fig. the described sequences at Las Delicias correspond to alluvial facies that reached a semi-endorheic area from the plat n stream and the Manzanares River. we have not documented any important sign of water erosion.33 2. Also. 6: AeC) shows that alterations due to water flows were also limited. OSL dating Sediment samples for luminescence dating have been obtained in the two excavated sectors of Las Delicias. Taking into account that lithic assemblages are not in primary position. and not to the production or abandon of the knapping products.. 2004: 458). et al. Results are presented by means of different diagrams in Fig. Samples were subjected to a previous anomalous fading test which showed losses of signal under 1%.org/10. 2007). Although it is not easy to assess the exact lapse of time ~ o. and 12 values within 360 for measuring dips (to which the value “0” was added for objects lacking any dip). These correspond to levels considered optimal for OSL analysis according to their sedimentological composition and morphology. The high number of objects lacking any dip (i. The dating results are 18.1016/j. Orientation and dip of the products were described in consonance with the geographic North. Bird et al. Since the sediments of Sector II are further away from their probable area of origin than those of Sector I. Nambi and Aitken (1986) and Arribas et al. in most of the objects. Thus. 6. Alcaraz-Castan 8 compositional data obtained. besides the pseudo-retouches and microfractures recorded in Sector I. it is reasonable to expect slightly different depositional conditions between the two sectors.10 cm) 2e10 2e10 33. in some products (16. However. This is also supported by the presence in this sector of some surface alterations in the lithics. and 12 ± 0. Dates were obtained from layers IIb (Sector I) and 3b (Sector II). In doing so. but they were transported from their original location together with Miocene clays and flints eroded from the outcrops located at the slopes and the top of the platform.e.175 ± 1333 combined with the depositional conditions explained above. suggest that in this sector disturbance during deposition was somewhat higher. the low degree of anisotropy recorded in both contexts (Fig. and a lower find density including a scarce presence of <2 cm items in Sector II (see section 7).069 . although depositional and post-depositional disturbance were present at both sectors of Las Delicias.44 ± 3. and eventually to know the formation processes of the archaeological deposits of Las Delicias. (2) Although dip patterns in both sectors does not show striking differences (Fig.50 12. This study consists of a fabric analysis of the lithics. but see Domínguez-Rodrigo et al. Table 1 OSL dating results for Las Delicias sediment samples.2 ± 1. since they confirm that the upper levels (Sector I) are older than the lower ones (Sector II). Las Delicias deposits were deposited under low-energy transport conditions that did not caused important selections or disturbance of materials in the process of sedimentation. In order to gain a more in-depth understanding of this sedimentation conditions. the lithic assemblages contained in the deposits are not in primary position.8 ka BP for level 3b of Sector II.68 ± 1. / Quaternary International xxx (2015) 1e21 M. 8). 5. Lab reference Location e level (depth) Grain size (mm) Paleodose (Gy) Annual dose rate (mGy/year) OSL age (BP) MAD-5566SDA MAD-5585SDA Sector II e 3b (1. Also. using 5 values within 360 for the orientation of the major axes (A-axis). in consonance with geomorphological data. and that water flow was at least capable of sorting small-size lithic products. both for Sector I (21.2015. at least for bones). The chronometric dating supports this interpretation. Lastly. we only considered objects larger than 2 cm and with elongation values greater than 1. The fabric analysis was based in the recording of orientations and dips of the lithic products found at Las Delicias. in the case of level 4. Please cite this article in press as: Alcaraz-Castan chronological and environmental data from the Solutrean workshop of Las Delicias (Manzanares River valley. we conclude that. and in Sector II 556. mostly composed of sandy and clayey silts (Fig. 6. 1971) for OSL (TL-DA-10 system). they were produced under low-energy conditions. the obvious conclusion is that they are older than the dates obtained. Spain). and therefore did not caused significant alterations of the lithic assemblages. although so far we have not been able to date the most significant Solutrean assemblages of Las Delicias (see section 7). we can conclude that the upper levels (Sector I) are older than the lower ones (Sector II). 1998. Complete dating results are presented in Table 1.94 45. which can be related to post-depositional processes such as trampling (McBrearty et al. I). that of Sector II reflects a slightly more pronounced preferential (East-West) orientation (Fig. 6. These dates refer to the formation of the sedimentary deposits where the lithic assemblages are contained. there are some differences between the two sectors that demand further explanations: (1) Despite none of the orientation patterns show clear anisotropy. These data are consistent with our geomorphological interpretation of the site as a terraced deposit. within the lithic assemblages. In Sector I we measured 464 lithics.6 cm. none of the levels in which this paper has focused (IIc of Sector I and 4 of Sector II) were analyzed due to their high content of fine gravels and. Calculation of paleodoses and annual dose rates has been based on the standard protocols proposed by Aitken (1985).quaint. lying flat on the stratification plane). it is important to note that. in which Solutrean industries have also been found. They were processed at n y Radioquímica of the Autonomous the Laboratorio de Datacio University of Madrid (UAM) using the fine-grain dating method (Zimmermann.6%) and Sector II (35. FeH). Although we collected samples from all sedimentological layers of both sectors of Las Delicias. This. 6: DeE) points to a relatively low extent of post-depositional disturbance. its excessive thinness. M.80 2. and also because they lay out on a small stream. the lower presence of objects lying flat on the stratification plane in Sector I (Fig.06. This strengthens our interpretation that. These alterations include.~ o et al. only two samples have been analyzed up to the present time.. 4). The human settlement of Central Iberia during MIS 2: New technological. B).028 ± 794 18. (1990).

.5 ka BP). 2010. pollen from Sector II of Las Delicias points to less severe climatic and environmental conditions than those ~ o. Therefore. a number of factors can be considered on this issue. The development of evergreen Quercus and Oleaceae points to a low increase in temperature values. Quaternary International (2015). this sequence corresponds to the final phases of MIS 1. 7). are consistent with our geoarchaeological interpretation of the site. The 19 ka cal BP (Sa sequence of Sector II is younger. Taxa identified in Sector I. and Moore et al. et al. In sum. The residue obtained was then subjected to enrichment techniques. based on the standard protocol proposed by Coûteaux (1977). M. falling within the limits of the Younger Dryas Event (Greenland Stadial 1). although still scarce.. and their relative quantity. 2012. we have chosen to group together samples from the same stratigraphic levels (see Fig. 1987). that its basal layers could be related to the final stages of the Last Glacial Maximum. and is therefore totally out of the Solutrean time range. 2014).2. Broadly. Girard and Renault-Miskovsky (1969).org/10.2015. Arsuaga et al. palynological data gathered at Las Delicias e Sector I entails a first approach for the palaeoecological reconstruction of the Manzanares valley during the second half of MIS 2. If we take into account these factors. which suggests a thermal improvement and an increase in the availability of water. but also occurred in a shorter period of time after the abandon of the lithics than in Sector 2. at around nchez-Gon ~ i and Harrison. 21e17 ka 14C BP or 25e20 ka cal BP) (see references in Banks et al. concentrating the pollen grains by flotation in Thoulet dense liquor (Goeury and Beaulieu. and totally unknown in the Madrid basin. The pollen was extracted by chemical treatment with acids (HCI and HF) and alkalis (KOH). sedimentological and taphonomic characteristics of levels of Sector I.~ o et al. it is not possible to propose a direct correlation between the environmental and climatic information derived from the pollen data and the human behaviors inferred from the Solutrean assemblages. According to the date obtained in level 3b. the OSL dates obtained at Las Delicias. and a decrease in diversity. 6. / Quaternary International xxx (2015) 1e21 M.06. which is currently dated between 12.  pez-Sa ez using standardized techniques for archaeological sites (Lo et al. and also of coprophilous and meso-eutrophic MNPs. Martínez-Pillado et al.). Please cite this article in press as: Alcaraz-Castan chronological and environmental data from the Solutrean workshop of Las Delicias (Manzanares River valley.1.8 and 11. together with the presence of deciduous Quercus. Nitrophilus taxa (Plantago and Rumex) are developed together with the herbaceous plants characteristic of the whole sequence.. Subzone Ia (samples 8 and 9): The dominance of xeric and steppe herbaceous taxa shows a progressive decrease in humidity. Due to this scarcity of data. their proximity to the probable origin of the archaeological materials (see Section 4). define the following phases for Sector I: Zone II: (Samples 1e3). probably including the final stages of the LGM. Asteraceae tubuliflorae and Poaceae) and xeric (Chenopodiaceae. coupled with a local open forest consisting of Oleaceae and deciduous Quercus.e. 2014). 7. The pollen was zoned (only for Sector I) using a divisive classification with the CONISS software included in the TILIA® package.. three sub-zones can be distinguished: Subzone Ic (samples 4 and 5): It is defined by the presence of Pinus and Juniperus.. these data point to the existence of a dry and typical Mediterranean landscape. These data suggest an intensification of aridity and cold... The presence throughout the sequence of the non-pollinic microfossil (NPM) Glomus fasciculatum indicates open landscapes. However. data for Sector II show a predominance of Pinus as the main taxon of the regional forest. Vegas et al... This has been documented in other areas of the Iberian plateau during different periods of the Late Pleistocene (Lopez-Garcia et al. and not to the production or abandon of the lithic products. (1991). and it is even possible. evergreen Quercus. These data point to a general dry and cold period dominated by open landscapes and steppe environments. In sample 2 there is an increase in the values of pollen grains. 2010. as minimum ages for the Solutrean assemblages of Las Delicias.. as palynological information corresponding to MIS 2 is scarce in the whole Spanish plateau (Ruiz-Zapata et al.. points to a probable cold and dry environment. and also their higher find density compared to those of Sector 2 (see Section 7) point to the hypothesis that sedimentation not only involved a lower energy process at this area. and results obtained in the correspondence analysis (Fig.069 . 2010. 2009). the presence of Pinus and Juniperus point to regional vegetation in consonance with a cold climate. Zone I: it is characterized by high pollen values and the development of herbaceous taxa. According to the composition of forest. As in the case of OSL dating.1016/j. Ruiz-Zapata et al. hence complicating their climatic interpretation.quaint. Asteraceae liguliflorae and Chenopodiaceae. Subzone Ib (samples 6 and 7): The increase of local forests (Betula. Palynology Sediment samples for palynological analysis were taken on the previously cleaned profiles at both sectors of Las Delicias (Fig. Samples 1 and 3 are defined only by presences. Artemisia and Ephedra). In general.doi.5 ka cal BP (Muscheler et al. The alternation of taxa throughout the sequence. Both the geomorphological. http://dx. The big picture shown in this 9 sequence is dominated by an open landscape composed by herbaceous taxa. and the development of aquatic plants suggest a climate amelioration. which matches the general characteristics of Mediterranean Europe during MIS 2 (Fletcher and nchez-Gon ~ i. Fraxinus and Ericaceae). both steppe (Asteraceae liguliflorae. modified according to the specific requirements of the lithology of each sample. 4). they are acceptable. are represented as a histogram in Fig. 2012. circa 19. Together with the presence of Chenopodiaceae and the NPM 3b (Pleospora sp. 2010. Pollen of Sector II Pollen quantity gathered at this area is very low and it shows a low degree of diversity.. it is important to bear in mind that the pollen found at the site relates to the formation of the sediments. the date obtained for Sector I must be closer to the real age of the lithics contained in its deposits than the one obtained for Sector II. 2008). Alcaraz-Castan between the production of the lithics and their sedimentary preservation at each sector of Las Delicias.. 6. However. Sa 6. Moreover. Therefore. showing a development of the local mixed forest (deciduous Quercus. Corylus. Under these conditions we observe an increase of nitrophilus taxa. 2008: 456e457). the sequence of Sector I still falls within the MIS 2 chronological limits. if we assume the positive error of the OSL date for sublevel IIc (i. Corylus and Ulmus). which suggest a cold environment. The human settlement of Central Iberia during MIS 2: New technological. Spain). to different extents. 2010: Table 2). the expansion of xeric and steppe taxa. although still scarce. 2003). The data obtained were statistically analyzed and plotted using the TILIA® and TILIA-GRAPH® software packages (Grimm. Pollen of Sector I Pollen data gathered at Sector I is especially relevant. the high values of Pinus. 4). Despite the fact that none of these dates fall within the chronological limits of the Iberian Solutrean (c. 1979). Graphic representation of data is not presented because it would not be informative. Vegas et al. Martínez-Pillado et al.

all of them exhibit a significant number of flakes that show specific attributes and stigmata typically found in the context of bifacial reduction technologies aimed at the production of foliate points. In Sector II. thus pointing to the disappearance of the local forest. although scarcer than those of Sector I. 4 and 11). which were previously contracted in favor of Mediterranean forests at the beginnings of MIS 1. Andrefsky. 2008: 457). The human settlement of Central Iberia during MIS 2: New technological. while cores and retouched blanks are very scarce (Tables 4 and 5).quaint. From bottom to top.10 ~ o et al.5%) 2337 (100%) 59 173 232 223 (19.5%) 1145 (100%) Flint knapped products are the only archaeological remains preserved in the sediments of both sectors. suggest the permanence of a dry and typical Mediterranean landscape. Therefore.. Alcaraz-Castan Fig. suggest a relatively dry environment. 7. Level 3a (samples 7e12): The increase of the Pinus forest. In order to propose a chrono-cultural assignment for them. and ultimately to understand the cultural processes taking place at the site.2015. These data. M. Although petrological studies have not been carried out yet.06.4%) 310 (13. Please cite this article in press as: Alcaraz-Castan chronological and environmental data from the Solutrean workshop of Las Delicias (Manzanares River valley. but most of them come from level 4 (Figs..e.1016/j. The identification of these ~ o. IId). Although there are some differences between the assemblages preserved at both sectors of Las Delicias. 11e13). 1999. being especially abundant in sub-level IIc (Figs.3%) 1327 (56. a macroscopic inspection of the lithic objects has revealed that flints exploited at Sector I were different than those exploited at Sector II. and the consolidation of the local Mediterranean forest (deciduous Quercus and Oleaceae) together with Chenopodiaceae and Glomus fasciculatum. Lithic technology In both sectors of Las Delicias we have recovered an important number of flint knapping products (Table 2). et al. The most abundant lithic products in both sectors are raw (i.doi.5%) 922 (80. Table 2 Total amount of lithic products found in every level of both sectors excavated at Las Delicias.org/10. / Quaternary International xxx (2015) 1e21 M. probably as a consequence of a worsening in the climatic conditions. the sequence can be interpreted as follows: Level 4 (sample 1): The low values of deciduous Quercus suggest the existence of an open landscape dominated by Chenopodiaceae. Level 2 (samples 13e17): The only detected taxa are Pinus and Rosaceae. http://dx. Quaternary International (2015). occurring during the LGM (Fletcher and Sa 7. the only decisive analytical method implies studying techniques and methods of knapping within a theoretical framework based on operative chains (chaînes op eratoires) and lithic reduction sequences (e. together with the presence of the MNP 3b (Pleospora sp). Spain). some lithic products have been found in sub-level 3b. unretouched) flakes. This event is also a cold and dry period dominated in Mediterranean Europe by a re-expansion of steppe environments. typological approaches are virtually irrelevant for the study of these assemblages. inferred from Sector I. 4 and 8). together with taxa present in the previous phase. 2008).069 . * NPM ¼ “Non-pollinic” microfossils. IIb. are consistent with the attribution of part of this sequence eat least levels 3a and 3be to the Younger Dryas (YG). Comparison of both sequences of Las Delicias also confirms that the decline of arboreal populations was much less marked during the YG than that nchez-Gon ~ i. Levels >2 cm Las Delicias e Sector I IIa 456 IIb 206 IIc 806 IId 32 Total 1500 Las Delicias e Sector II 3b 164 4 749 Total 913 <2 cm Total (%) 185 104 521 27 837 641 (27. IIc. points to a slight thermal improvement. In Sector I. Level 3b (samples 2e6): The appearance of Oleaceae. Inizan et al. Pollen histogram corresponding to the sequence of Las Delicias e Sector I. these are present all along level II (sublevels IIa.8%) 59 (2.g. These conditions. 8e10 and Figs. A regional Pinus forest is now detected.. both in color and surface alterations (Figs.

We have also found that lithics exhibit a high degree of technological homogeneity in each sector. we have considered that a product can be securely defined as a ‘bifacial reduction flake’ when it shows at least 3 among the most relevant of these attributes (Table 3)..~ o et al. Baena.g. Thin products: Ratio thickness/width less than 0.1016/j. while technological ones respond to the bifacial knapping method employed and the specific shaping of foliates. 7. and thus fall into the non-diagnostic flakes category (Tables 4 and 5). ~ o. Alcaraz-Castan thinning flakes or bifacial reduction flakes has been the most relevant feature in the characterization of these assemblages as the product of Solutrean bifacial technologies. b: Detail of knapping products and carbonates in level IIc.. Cortex is Fig. most of them can be placed within the process of bifacial reduction aimed at their configuration. in both sectors of Las Delicias we have found some products that can be characterized as blanks for the production of bifacial pieces abandoned in different stages of the reduction process.g.. probably obtained through direct percussion with hard hammers. are very likely to be missed in our classification. Pelegrin and Chauchat. 1993.1. 1998. they have been described as typical of the middle and final phases of bifacial reduction processes through experimental knapping (Pelegrin and Chauchat. At least 3 of the attributes highlighted in bold must be fulfilled. As in the studied assemblages we have identified other (although minority) knapping processes besides bifacial reduction (flakes and blades productions). The human settlement of Central Iberia during MIS 2: New technological. Tiffagom. Sub-level IIc of Sector I In the 10 m2 excavated in Sector I (see Section 3). Furthermore. we have established a number of technological and technical attributes that have to be fulfilled in a given product so that it can be defined as belonging to a bifacial reduction process. 2001. have been systematically recognized in several Solutrean workshops of Southwest Europe (Aubry et al. these products have been considered as preforms (e. 8. Technical attributes and stigmata Technological attributes Platform edge grinding Lipped platforms Absent or diffused bulbs Facetted or dihedral platforms Oval morphologies Interior platform (flaking) angles close to 90 More than 3 negatives in the dorsal face. Furthermore. thinning flakes). Callahan.2015. Technical attributes are basically related to the use of organic soft hammers (antler or wood). Aubry et al. 2006: 48. 1998. and also sublevel 3b and level 4 of Sector II. IIb and IIc. a: Sublevel IIc in the process of excavation. while 778 present fractures. in this paper we will focus on the results obtained in the technological analysis of the most significant assemblages of each of the two excavated areas at Las Delicias: those coming from sublevel IIc of Sector I and level 4 of Sector II. we have recorded a total number of 1327 flint products in sub-level IIc. Las Delicias e Sector I. flakes corresponding to the initial phases. Quaternary International (2015). These two assemblages can be taken as representatives of each of the two archaeological contexts found at the site. Therefore. 2000) of Solutrean foliates. Although only few of these pieces clearly resemble typical Solutrean foliate points. Table 3 Technical and technological attributes considered in this study to identify a lithic product as a ‘bifacial reduction flake’. c: Vertical distribution of lithic findings in sublevels IIa. Please cite this article in press as: Alcaraz-Castan chronological and environmental data from the Solutrean workshop of Las Delicias (Manzanares River valley. / Quaternary International xxx (2015) 1e21 M. These attributes. in the absence of refitting studies we are not able to securely classify these products as part of the bifacial reduction or any other operative chain. Callahan. et al. Therefore.doi. In order to strictly identify these flakes. 51) and also in a significant number of Paleo-Indian sites in America (e.quaint. Only 546 of them are complete.. 1993. M. can be securely related to Solutrean knapping processes. shown in Table 3. 2012). 2008).06.e. Apel. http://dx. Our study has shown that all sub-levels from level II in Sector I.org/10.20 11 The established requirements to identify bifacial reduction flakes are only fulfilled in the products belonging to the middle and final phases of the reduction process (i. Klaric. Therefore. Spain). especially if showing opposite directions.069 . 2000. In our study.

06. expedient in nature. although broken and unfinished.4  18. which can be related to post-depositional processes such as trampling (McBrearty et al.3% of the products larger than 20 mm) and 1 unidirectional prismatic-like blade core (Fig. Finally. compared to Sector I in this level there is a higher variety of cores and by-products related to blade and especially flake productions (Table 5).7 mm Preforms mean sizec 80. Table 4 Technological categories and main indexes for Las Delicias Sector I. 6.quaint.7/square meter a b c Non-diagnostic in terms of bifacial reduction. In this level we have recorded 5 pieces classified as Solutrean bifacial preforms.06. 9: 5.5%) we have recorded abrupt and random pseudo-retouches and microfractures. in the initial or middle stages of the reduction process (Fig. 10: 1.6% 76. as it was the case with some pieces in Sector I.06. Regarding knapping processes other than the bifacial reduction. I). In this level we have documented 7 products that have been interpreted as preforms of bifacial Solutrean pieces. Bird et al. which altogether sum 90.quaint. ~ o. Find density. Technological categories (Sector I) Number % % >2 cm Natural flint fragments Non-diagnostic flakesa Highly cortical (100-66% cortex) Cortical (66-33% cortex) Partially cortical (33-10% cortex) Cortical flake fragments Non-cortical flakes Non-cortical flake fragments Bifacial reduction flakes Bifacial pieces Initial preform Preform (middle stages) Preform (final stages) Blades Partially cortical (33-10% cortex) Cortical blade fragments Non-cortical blades Non-cortical blade fragments Cores & by-products Expedient flake cores Blade core Rejuvenation flake (semi-tablet) Retouched blanks Retouched flakes Chunks <2 cm products (D ebris) <2 cm flakes <2 cm flake fragments <2 cm bifacial reduction flakes Splinters Total 13 616 28 20 61 93 159 255 88 (21 broken) 7 (all broken) 3 2 2 27 3 1 7 16 4 2 1 1 5 5 (4 broken) 46 521 129 344 21 (7 broken) 27 1327 (806 >2 cm) 1% 46.3% 5. Videos 3. except for 1 slab and 1 tabular fragment. level IIc.3% 0. Video 1. Supplementary data related to this article can be found online at http://dx.quaint. 476 are complete and 446 show fractures. 6. 12: 3 & 4). fracture index. Alcaraz-Castan 12 found in 239 objects.4% 1. while two others were discarded in more advanced phases (Fig. Only a very limited number of products point to the presence of other operative schemes besides the bifacial reduction. and mean size of flakes larger than 20 mm are presented in Table 4. a whitish patina and a thin carbonate rind on one surface (Fig.2. Video 3. 4 of them configured on flakes and 1 on a wide blade. but are best characterized as expedient tools. we have classified as bifacial reduction flakes a total number of 36 pieces. 12: 1). Quaternary International (2015). Finally.2015.doi. None are curated artifacts. 1998.6% 3.org/10.org/10. Cortex is found in 348 products. None show relevant macroscopic signs of natural or mechanical alterations.doi. retouched blanks are very few (0. Video 6).9% 0.069. 10: 3. http://dx. flakes larger than 20 mm that can be securely related to Solutrean bifacial knapping processes (Table 3) are proportionally lower in this level. these pieces also show expedient strategies and therefore can be related to opportunistic tasks. in most of the products. Moreover. 2 endscrapers. such as lipped platforms.7% e 1. Video 2). 3D PDF 1).1016/j.. Taking into account only the objects larger than 20 mm. Preforms mean size includes broken pieces. 3D PDF 2). 21 of which are smaller than 20 mm.5% 10. M.. However.org/10. Supplementary data related to this article can be found online at http://dx. The human settlement of Central Iberia during MIS 2: New technological. Sub-level IIc lithic assemblage is dominated by raw flakes and flake fragments.7  37.4% 6. 10: 1. / Quaternary International xxx (2015) 1e21 M.doi. Spain). cortical index. As in Sector I. Supplementary data related to this article can be found online at http://dx.6% Find density 132. in these flakes significant stigmata produced by organic percussion.~ o et al. Video 7).069. Level 4 of Sector II In the 15 m2 with knapped lithic remains in this level.3  9. Therefore. and 1 backed blade. 4. 13: 1. while 2 were rejected in a very initial stage of the process (Fig. Three were discarded in the middle stages (Fig. 7. 5 of which are smaller than 20 mm. Find density. 8).9% 2% 3. cortical index.6% 0. making up only 4. making up 1.06.1016/j. The surface conditions include.5  54. including a Levallois-like core (Fig. 9: 1. None of these preforms were knapped up to advances stages of the reduction sequence.1% of the total (Table 5).org/10.1016/j.06.069 .4% 0. are not so marked as in Sector I (Fig. and limited to 2 notches and 3 flakes with discontinuous retouches. 11). 4). Blades (Fig. flakes than can be securely related to the middle and final stages of the reduction process make up 10. Supplementary data related to this article can be found online at http://dx.1% of the products larger than 20 mm. 12: 5e8.7% of products >20 mm. fracture index. 12: 2e3) sum up to 4.9% of the assemblage (Table 4). We have identified 109 bifacial reduction flakes. Mean size (length  width  thickness) of complete flakes larger than 20 mm. retouched blanks are slightly higher than in Sector I.quaint. Video 5). Even one of the latter can be classified. raw flakes and flake fragments are the dominant categories in the lithic assemblage of level 4.org/10.. and mean size of flakes larger than 20 mm are presented in Table 5. 2007) (Fig.doi.2015. They sum 821 products. Besides flakes with continuous or discontinuous retouches (n ¼ 8). and typologically unstandardized (Fig. we have recovered 922 objects (Fig. 2. Attributes and stigmata typical of the use of soft hammers are clearly recognizable in most of these pieces (Fig.3% 0.1016/j.069. These are represented by 27 blades (3. as a laurel leaf point (Fig.2015.5% 39. 2 & 3). Their mean size is shown in Table 5. Their mean size is shown in Table 4.4% of the total products). Please cite this article in press as: Alcaraz-Castan chronological and environmental data from the Solutrean workshop of Las Delicias (Manzanares River valley.5% 0. 7. which is 89% of the total amount of objects.2015.8 mm Cortical index 29.7% Fracture index 58.6% 100% 100% Flakes mean sizeb 36.3% (n ¼ 1198) of the total amount of products. Blanks for these pieces were flakes in 5 cases. 13: 2. Five of them were abandoned. Among them. et al.069.1016/j.doi.quaint. due to different knapping accidents. we found 2 notches.. In some pieces (16.2015.

http://dx. thin profile.7 mm Cortical index 46.5/square meter a 1.4% Find density 61.3% 2.8 mm Preforms mean sizec 79. 1 & 2: Blades. Preforms mean size includes broken pieces.1% 0. absence of bulb.5% 4.doi. M. Mean size (length  width  thickness) of complete flakes larger than 20 mm.1% 18. 7: Bifacial reduction flake showing platform edge grinding.1  37.4% 1.org/10. 4: Non-diagnostic flake probably related to the first stages or the bifacial reduction sequence.4% 4. The human settlement of Central Iberia during MIS 2: New technological.5% 48. lipped platform. Table 5 Technological categories and main indexes for Las Delicias Sector II. right flaking angle and 9 negatives showing opposite directions. level IIc. Lithic products from Las Delicias e Sector I.1016/j.1  66  23.quaint.5% 100% 100% b 41. absent bulb. Bifacial reduction flake showing platform edge grinding.8% 2. 9. right flaking angle and 10 negatives showing opposite directions. Spain). thin profile. Please cite this article in press as: Alcaraz-Castan chronological and environmental data from the Solutrean workshop of Las Delicias (Manzanares River valley.4% 82.. oval morphology and right flaking angle.1% 0.5% - Flakes mean size 3. 5.4% 0.6  11.06. Quaternary International (2015). level 4. thin profile. / Quaternary International xxx (2015) 1e21 M.5% Fracture index 1. absence of bulb. 3: Unidirectional blade core.7% 3. ~ o.9% Table 5 (continued ) Technological categories (Sector II) Number % % >2 cm Chunks <2 cm products (D ebris) <2 cm flakes <2 cm flake fragments <2 cm bifacial reduction flakes Splinters Total 19 173 33 131 5 4 922 (749 > 2 cm) 2. et al. Alcaraz-Castan 13 Fig.~ o et al. 6: Bifacial reduction flake showing platform edge grinding.2% 1. oval morphology. Technological categories (Sector II) Number % % >2 cm Natural flint fragments Non-diagnostic flakesa Highly cortical (100-66% cortex) Cortical (66-33% cortex) Partially cortical (33-10% cortex) Cortical flake fragments Non-cortical flakes Non-cortical flake fragments Bifacial reduction flakes Bifacial pieces Initial preform Preform (middle stages) Blades Partially cortical (33-10% cortex) Cortical blade fragments Non-cortical blades Non-cortical blade fragments Cores & by-products Expedient flake cores Expedient flake cores on flake Expedient blade core Levallois-like core Crested blade Retouched blanks Retouched flakes Retouched blades 18 621 33 50 98 117 194 129 31 (12 broken) 5 2 (1 broken) 3 (all broken) 31 2 7 5 17 11 5 3 (1 broken) 1 1 1 13 10 (3 broken) 3 2% 67.2015..7% b c Nondiagnostic in terms of bifacial reduction.069 .

http://dx. 2: Small point in advanced stage of reduction abandoned due to hinged removals and a double fracture. Large flake in a middle stage of reduction abandoned due to excessively thick and sinuous edges.2015. The human settlement of Central Iberia during MIS 2: New technological. 10. level IIc. Flake in initial-middle stage of reduction abandoned due to excessively thin edges and a medial fracture. Laurel leaf point in advanced stage of reduction abandoned due to a double fracture. Please cite this article in press as: Alcaraz-Castan chronological and environmental data from the Solutrean workshop of Las Delicias (Manzanares River valley.06.. Quaternary International (2015).doi. 1. M.org/10.1016/j. Bifacial preforms from Las Delicias e Sector I.. ~ o.quaint. 4. Spain).069 . et al. 3.Fig.

blanks for their production are ~ o. those interpretations were biased by a static and essentialist typological perspective that understood every single archaeological lithic object as a final product conceived as such by the Palaeolithic knappers. A more dynamic technological approach has revealed that pieces previously interpreted as handaxes (Fig.1016/j. the presence of a laurel leaf point in level II of Sector I (Fig. 13: 1e2). / Quaternary International xxx (2015) 1e21 M. and also considering the scarcity of finished retouched tools recovered at the site. Nonetheless. 2009). must correspond at least to the Middle or. Banks et al. Please cite this article in press as: Alcaraz-Castan chronological and environmental data from the Solutrean workshop of Las Delicias (Manzanares River valley. belong to the initial and middle phases of bifacial reduction processes.~ o et al.069 .org/10. 7. ~ o et al. Spain). who related level 4 of Sector II first to the Acheulean. Future refitting studies will be of paramount importance to test this hypothesis. 10: 2e4 and Fig.doi. we can conclude that the knapping processes that took place in these two levels of Las Delicias correspond to Solutrean technologies. have been related to the initial phases of Solutrean reduction schemes in several sites (Tiffagom.3. 11. These products. and subsequently to the Mousterian. This interpretation is also strengthened by the OSL dates obtained at the site. 2) are unfinished and discarded foliate preforms. et al. We therefore interpret both sectors of Las Delicias as showing the existence of catchment and knapping areas specialized in the production of foliate pieces during Solutrean times. Although the presence of natural flint blocks is scarce in both sectors (Tables 4 and 5). b. 2006: 51). Discussion on the Solutrean lithic assemblages On the basis of both the significant number of bifacial reduction flakes and the several bifacial preforms documented in the two lithic assemblages presented in this paper. Thus. where the catchment and knapping activities took place. Quaternary International (2015). most probably. As the presence in both sectors of products securely related to blade and flake production is marginal in number (especially in Sector I) and expedient in nature. Las Delicias e Sector II.2015. 5). g. in some cases similar to the backed flakes described in Discoid or Levallois contexts. However.. and thus typologically nondiagnostic. Upper Solutrean. 2012: As we have explained elsewhere (Alcaraz-Castan 445e446). Level 4 in the process of excavation (2009-2 campaign). Therefore. a: Level 4 in the process of excavation (2009-1 campaign). dashed line separates sterile sediments to the West from those yielding lithic remains to the East. levels of Sector II. it is difficult to propose a concise chrono-cultural definition for Las Delicias Solutrean assemblages. our interpretation of Las Delicias occupations as belonging to the Solutrean contradicts those proposed in several papers by Obermaier and Wernert. The human settlement of Central Iberia during MIS 2: New technological..) suggests that it can be related to either the Middle or Upper Solutrean.. As can be attested in most of the bifacial preform pieces of both sectors (Fig. since these points were absent in prior Protosolutrean and Lower Solutrean stages (e. http://dx. it was probably at any of the flint outcrops located no more than 200 m to the north (Fig. Detail of knapping products in level 4. even less typologically informative. In our view.. C. considering that these dates have to be taken as minimum ages.1. 10. M.quaint. this fact can be explained by the fact that both lithic assemblages are not in primary position. Alcaraz-Castan 15 Fig.06. it is fair to conclude that most of the non-diagnostic flakes classified as such in Tables 4 and 5.

Quaternary International (2015).069 .. Alcaraz-Castan ~ o.2015. The human settlement of Central Iberia during MIS 2: New technological.1016/j.06. / Quaternary International xxx (2015) 1e21 M. Spain).16 ~ o et al. http://dx. et al.org/10. M.doi. Please cite this article in press as: Alcaraz-Castan chronological and environmental data from the Solutrean workshop of Las Delicias (Manzanares River valley..quaint.

1: Levallois-like flake core. 3: Notch on blade. although both lithic assemblages can be securely related to Solutrean technologies.2015.1016/j. 1). However. Level 4 of Sector II points to a strategy in which the main objective is probably limited to the configuration of middle-staged bifacial preforms. such as Cantalouette 2 (Dordogne) (Bourguignon et al.5 km2 (Fig. these data suggest that the Manzanares valley functioned as an organized territory for human activity during the Solutrean. both show most of the phases of the bifacial operative chain including procurement. this should also highlight the importance of the bifacial assemblages recovered in the nonsystematic excavations of the Manzanares terraces during the early 20th century. as is also suggested by the fabric analysis. These geomorphological differences could influence the higher density of findings in Sector I. 2014). Therefore.doi.3 km from Las Delicias). old collections (Martínez de Merlo. Martínez. and both present high find densities. Concerning the second. Alcaraz-Castan mostly large flakes. level 4. most of these sites are interpreted as focused on procurement and knapping activities. Recent research on the Sorbe River valley (Guadalajara province). the presence in this sector of 2 bifacial pieces in an advanced stage of reduction. Sese colder and drier environments. 2012). as proposed in the classic and still widely accepted models (Straus et al. Concerning the first. which were later finished and used once they were taken to the nearby residence and hunting camps... thin profile. Indirectly.. Please cite this article in press as: Alcaraz-Castan chronological and environmental data from the Solutrean workshop of Las Delicias (Manzanares River valley. its lower mean size of flakes larger than 20 mm. Put together. 4: Expedient endscraper on large cortical flake fragment.org/10. now also supported on the basis of paleoclimate simulations (Burke et al. On the contrary. This functional difference is supported by the higher presence of bifacial reduction flakes and debris in Sector I. 5). Although there are no strong signs of consumption activities at any sector of Las Delicias. as shown by pollen of Las Delicias-Sector I. lipped platform. especially. On these flakes. current data. and then the other face in subsequent phases (e. 2008). and the more advanced of Sector I. 2012) and the well-known site of Les Maîtreaux (Indre-et-Loire) (Aubry et al. its higher amount of debris and. http://dx. 5: Bifacial reduction flake showing a hinged removal. in ered lithic workshops (Baena and Carrio some of them. / Quaternary International xxx (2015) 1e21 M.  et al.. According to modern studies of  n.quaint. Ríos-Garaizar 17 and Ortega. there are some relevant differences between the lithic assemblages of the 2 sectors that demand further discussion. Callahan. As is the case with century excavation (Baena and Carrio Las Delicias. in Sector I a number of features show that the Solutrean knappers reached the advanced stages of the bifacial operative chain.g. and none of them can be classified as totally configured. However. absence of bulb. This picture is not consistent with the depiction of Central Iberia as a region where only occasional uses or ephemeral visits occurred during Solutrean times.. 2002). close to the south-eastern foothills of the Central System Range and belonging to the Upper Tagus Basin. Nicasio Poyato. its lower flake mean size (but see Marwick. most of which have been demonstrated as undoubtedly Solutrean (Fig. These traits are not typical of sites just responding to ephemeral visits or used occasionally. which shows that transport energy in this area was probably higher than in Sector I. 2002). 2000). and hence can be considn. especially level IIc of Sector I. 2011. oval morphology. 2000).. and points to a more sporadic use of organic hammers in contrast to Sector I. is strong enough to propose new avenues of research aimed at testing the hypothesis of Central Iberia as a more populated area than previously thought. 7: Bifacial reduction flake showing absence of bulb. absence of bulb. et al. oval morphology. the reduction sequence starts with the preparation of striking platforms aimed at the reduction of one face in a first stage. These differences can be explained along 2 lines of evidence: (1) the site formation processes and (2) the technological processes taking place at the site.06. 8: Bifacial reduction flake showing platform edge grinding. right flaking angle and 6 dorsal negatives showing opposite directions. 8. Callahan. where a laurel leaf point has been described among the lithics from a late 19th n.. its higher find density. Both sectors of Las Delicias are multilayered archaeological deposits. the existence of a number of retouched tools (Fig. and not necessarily a subsidiary region of the coastal areas of the Iberian Peninsula. Besides the fact that the flints exploited in the two sectors are different. 1). 1998. its lower cortical index (Tables 4 and 5) and. This valley was a rich ecosystem that harbored both abiotic and biotic resources during the warmest periods of the Middle and Late Pleistocene (Conde et al. However. the minority presence of retouched tools could point to a secondary use of the site as a residential area. we cannot certificate that the very final steps of thinning and retouching (e. such as El Sotillo (located 1. 2000) were carried out at the site. In sum. thin profile. 6: Bifacial reduction flake showing platform edge grinding. in secure stratigraphic position..g. 2: Blade. Our interpretation is that both the unfinished preforms of Sector II. 14). Las Delicias can be taken as important evidence of an organized settlement of this area of Central Iberia during Solutrean times. ~ o. Discussion: the Solutrean settlement of Central Iberia Data presented in this paper confirms Las Delicias as the first Solutrean site in the Manzanares River valley excavated with modern methods. 2008: 1193). Moreover. This behavior has been described for other open-air flint workshops in France. platform edge grinding. The human settlement of Central Iberia during MIS 2: New technological. right flaking angle and 4 dorsal negatives showing opposite directions.069 . also Fig. Panera et al. Level IIc of Sector I shows knapping processes which include all stages of the reduction sequence except the very final ones. diffused bulb. Another site in the nearby Jarama River valley has to be added (Fig. at least seven other Solutrean sites (and probably more) can be currently recognized in the middle and lower stretches of the Manzanares valley. served as reserves of foliate tools. archaeological data collected at both sectors of Las Delicias inform us on how hunter-gatherers groups exploited flint outcrops in the Manzanares valley and developed bifacial technologies during Solutrean times. 12. to some extent. which in any case would be subject to the main use of Las Delicias as a flint procurement and lithic workshop (see Aubry et al. right flaking angle and 5 dorsal negatives.. However. 14) reveals that foraging and consumption activities were also taking place at this area during Solutrean times. The lower presence of stigmata related to organic percussion in Sector II also strengthens this interpretation. since no pressure technique has been attested in any of these pieces. 1998.. Spain). in an area of around 5. 2014 for discussions on the functional variability of sites focused on knapping activities). Lithic products from Las Delicias e Sector II. while in Sector II only the initial and middle phases were carried out. although still scarce.~ o et al. 1984. right flaking angle and 7 dorsal negatives showing opposite directions. Although subject to 2000. 2014). current data suggest that the Manzanares valley was also a habitable area during MIS 2. we must note that sediments of Sector I are closer to the platform where they were originated than those of Sector II (Fig. there are some differences in their lithological and technological composition. thin profile. Baena and Carrio 2002) and new rescue excavations (Tapias et al. but they denote some degree of intense and recurrent use of the territory. Quaternary International (2015). and yielding chronometric and palaeoenvironmental data. M. including at least the last part of the LGM.. or El Cojo. although slightly influenced by depositional and postdepositional processes. level 4 of Sector II lies along a small stream. thin profile. as it is shown in Tables 4 and 5.

Bifacial preforms from Las Delicias e Sector II. / Quaternary International xxx (2015) 1e21 M.e.doi. et al.06. The human settlement of Central Iberia during MIS 2: New technological. Alcaraz-Castan Fig. Spain). Quaternary International (2015).18 ~ o et al.069 . http://dx.. ~ o. M. 2: Flake in a middle stage of reduction abandoned due to a medial fracture. level 4. 1.1016/j. Please cite this article in press as: Alcaraz-Castan chronological and environmental data from the Solutrean workshop of Las Delicias (Manzanares River valley.quaint.org/10.. Large flake in initial stage of reduction (i.2015. tested blank) abandoned due to sinuous and excessively thick edges. 13.

13: Bladelet core/endscraper. 12: broken willow leaf point. El Cojo (modified after Baena and Carrio  n. All pieces come from non-systematic excavations carried out in the early 20th century. except number 14. including the LGM. this refugium was not limited to the coastal areas of the peninsula. El Sotillo (modified after Martínez de Merlo. 3 and 4:  n. and especially chronometric and palaeoecological data from Central Iberia.06. despite their less favorable environmental and climatic conditions. finished.. However. Conclusions Although historically underestimated and subject to preservation problems typical of open-air sites located at current urban areas.. probably finished. These data demand the reconsideration of Central Iberia as a mere crossing-area during the coldest stages of the Upper Palaeolithic. 4. Martínez (modified after Conde et al.1016/j. Middle Solutrean. Quaternary International (2015).14 and endscraper.. 2002: Figs.doi. 1) has revealed a prolonged sequence of human settlement during MIS 2. Nicasio Poyato (modified after Baena and Carrio mina I): 9 and 10: finished laurel leaf points. the rock shelter of Pen (Fig. Las Delicias has shown solid data supporting the human occupation of the Manzanares valley during MIS 2.org/10. / Quaternary International xxx (2015) 1e21 M. Acknowledgements The archaeological excavations conducted at Las Delicias were n General de Patrimonio authorized and funded by the Direccio rico de la Comunidad de Madrid. Therefore. 8: backed bladelets. The human settlement of Central Iberia during MIS 2: New technological. 1 and La 4. For the first time in the history of Spanish Palaeolithic research. comprising at least Protosolutrean. Upper Solutrean. We are very much grateful to Histo all students from University of Alcal a and Autonomous University of Madrid who participated in field and laboratory works. 2 and 5: endscrapers. finished. Bienvenido Martiínez-Navarro. 2012: Fig. cultural data. 7): 14: broken laurel leaf point. broken by overshot. the middle and lower stretches of the Manzanares valley currently show data suggesting the existence of an important focus of human settlement in Central Iberia during Solutrean times. strengthens the importance of the Solutrean settlement of at least ~ a Capo n some regions of Central Iberia. ~ o.21 and 4. 4. Spain). and comments made by 2 anonymous reviewers. 14. 9 and 11): 1. 2013).quaint. and probably Gravettian occupations (Alcaraz~ o et al.2015. et al. We also appreciate the work of Dr. Here.069 ..~ o et al. are still insufficient to build specific models on humaneenvironment interactions at the local and regional levels. Please cite this article in press as: Alcaraz-Castan chronological and environmental data from the Solutrean workshop of Las Delicias (Manzanares River valley. http://dx.23): 7: bifacial point. If Iberia functioned as a human refugium during the LGM. which contributed to improving the scientific quality of this article. 2000: Fig. Solutrean industries from different sites of the Manzanares River valley. Alcaraz-Castan 19 Fig. further research on this and other regions of Central Iberia are very much needed in order to develop new perspectives on population dynamics during MIS 2 in the Iberian Peninsula and Southwest Europe.. Castan 9. Fran Lo  pez-Fraile developed the 3D-scans videos presented cisco-Jose in this paper. 2002: Figs. At least some territories of the upland regions of the plateau were also part of it. M. and point towards approaching this region in its own cultural and ecological terms. 6: broken laurel leaf point. 1984: Figs.26): 11: broken laurel leaf point. Puente de los Tres Ojos (modified after Tapias et al.

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