You are on page 1of 9

US006617549B2

(12)

United States Patent
Ihde

(54)

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR WELDING
WITH RESTRIKE
_

-

(10) Patent N0.:
US 6,617,549 B2
(45) Date of Patent:
Sep. 9, 2003

OTHER PUBLICATIONS
Miller® The Power of Blue XMT® 304 (230/460 And
460/575 Volt Models) Owner’s Manual Oct. 1999.

(75) Inventor' Je?rey Ihde’ Greenvlne’ WI (Us)

(73) Assignee: Illinois Tool Works Inc., Glenview, IL
(US)

Miller® The Power of Blue S—64M Technical Manual Dec.

1998

Mlller® The Power of Blue S—64M Owner’s Manual Jun.
2000.

(*)

Notice:

Subject‘ to any disclaimer, the term of this

* Cited by examiner

gusenct 1i5?$;n§e%21raa:]mted under 35

Primary Examiner—Clifford C. Shaw

' ' '

y

y '

(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm—George R. Corrigan

(21) Appl. No.: 10/010,510
(22) Filed;

Dec, 6, 2001
_

(65)

(57)

_

ABSTRACT

A method and apparatus for welding, and particularly for
_

clearing a short while welding is disclosed. If a short occurs,

Pnor Pubhcatlon Data
Us 2OO3/0111452 A1 Jun 19 2003
7

output current is increased from a ?rst magnitude to a second
magnitude and the short is monitored. If the short has not
cleared after the current has reached the second magnitude

Int. (:1-7 ................................................ ..

the Current is increased to a

(52)

US. Cl. ......................... .. 219/137 PS; 219/130.21;

between the second and ?rst magnitudes is less than the

219/130-51

difference between the third and second magnitudes. The

(58)

Field of Search .................... .. 219/137 PS, 130.21,

current may be is increased from a fourth magnitude (which

219/130.51

may be the normal operating magnitude) to the ?rst mag
nitude before the increase to the second magnitude. The
difference between the ?rst and fourth magnitudes is less
than the difference between the third magnitude and the
second magnitude. The current is increased to the second
magnitude only if the short has not cleared after the current
is increased to the ?rst magnitude.

(56)

References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
4,697,062 A

*

4,889,969 A
5,866,873 A

* 12/1989 KaWai et a1. ........ .. 219/130.21
* 2/1999 Wang et al. ......... .. 219/137 PS

6,329,636 B1

9/1987 Awano et al. ........ .. 219/130.21

magnitude The di?erenee

34 Claims, 3 Drawing Sheets

12/2001 Geissler

306 308

307
304

/

313

311

._.__

309

2 (PRIOR ART) vf l l / . Patent Sep.S.549 B2 I FIG. 9. 1 .617. (PRIOR ART) vf SHORT \ If ? __ 8H0? > FIG.U. 2003 Sheet 1 of3 US 6.

U. 9.549 B2 . Patent Sep.617. 2003 Sheet 2 of3 US 6.S.

.

and determining if the short has cleared: in MIG and pulse spray Welding is a Miller S64MTM Wire feeder used With a Miller XMT304TM poWer supply. Electric arc Welding is Well known. microprocessors. A typical hard-restriking output is shoWn in FIG. More speci?cally. current to above the peak current. hard restriking clears According to a fourth aspect of the invention a method of small or Whisker short circuits poorly. and the increase is completed even if the short clears When the current is increasing. This is repeated at least one more time. DSPs. The Wire feeder typically includes a controller. as used herein. Hard-restriking entails very rapidly increasing the 55 and fourth magnitudes is less than the difference betWeen the third magnitude and the second magnitude. 45 Prior art controllers then adjust the output current and or poWer to clear the short. in the event the short hasn’t cleared. According to a second aspect of the invention a method of clearing a short in a Welding process includes increasing an output current from a ?rst magnitude to a second magnitude and detecting if the short has cleared after the current has reached the second magnitude. The last increase is greater than any earlier increase. includes digital and analog. a system for Welding that clear both hard and soft shorts is desirable. the controller provides a command signal to the poWer supply Which causes the poWer supply to to increase incrementally to the neXt level. hardWare and ?rmWare. includes providing a gradual or incremental included). An eXample of a prior art system for Welding used separate from the Wire feeder. tial contact is made betWeen the Wire and the Workpiece) Well because hard-restriking provides the needed poWer to clear hard short circuits. second magnitude. Prior to increasing the current by the neXt increment. soft-restriking clears small or Whisker short circuits Well. HoWever. such as to or near the maXimum current available. Hard-clearing a short.. for eXample by detecting When output voltage drops beloW a threshold. The difference betWeen the second and ?rst mag nitudes is less than the difference betWeen the third and There are tWo prior art methods of clearing a short. discrete or integrated circuitry. Without adversely affecting the Weld. Clearing a short generally requires increasing the poWer provided to the arc to burn off the end increased to a third magnitude. and termi nating the clearing routine if the short has cleared before the ?nal clearing magnitude is reached. The difference betWeen the second magnitude and the ?rst magnitude is less than the difference betWeen the hard clearing magnitude and the The controller receives feedback. as used herein. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION If the short has not cleared. the controller causes the current 10 restriking doesn’t provides the needed sudden increase in poWer to clear hard short circuits quickly enough. The current is increased to the second magnitude only if the short has not cleared after the current is increased to the ?rst magnitude. second magnitudes. The current is linearly of the Wire (that is touching the Workpiece). The current is increased to a or output current or other parameters. Soft-restriking clears bigger or hard short circuits poorly because soft controlling a Welding process includes detecting if a short is present and increasing an output current if the short is detected. and used to control processes such as MIG. etc. the maXimum third magnitude. hard-restrike (or hard-clearing) and soft-restrike (or soft clearing). The difference betWeen the ?rst current output of the poWer supply (maximum current). such as 5 amps. includes providing a sudden and substantial increase According to a third aspect of the invention a method of clearing a short in a Welding process includes increasing an output current from a ?rst magnitude to a second magnitude and detecting if the short has cleared after the current has reached the second magnitude. thus in current to the ?nal clearing magnitude.617. pulse spray. Accordingly. Controller. such as output or arc voltage. During a MIG process the arc Will occasionally or frequently be shorted—Wire Will at times touch the Workpiece (often during or at the end of the peak current). If the short 65 is not cleared the current is increased to a second clearing magnitude. and is performed With a variety of processes using a variety of types of equipment. 2. thus shorting the arc. and softWare. The current is increased to a hard clearing magnitude. TIG. it relates to clearing a shorted arc While arc Welding. located on one or more 35 MIG Welding often is performed by cycling or pulsing betWeen background current and a peak current (called normal operating currents). in a MIG process. and Which controls the Wire feeder. Which is because the incremental increases in poWer clear the short typically performed using a system for Welding including a Wire feeder and a poWer supply (a source of gas may also be 15 change in poWer.549 B2 1 2 Soft-restriking entails increasing the current from the METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR WELDING WITH RESTRIKE normal operating current by a series of small steps or increments. used to control devices such as poWer supplies. such FIELD OF THE INVENTION as for 2 msec. Which may be part of or prior to reaching the ?nal clearing magnitude. Typically. typically. Soft-clearing a short. and the Wire feeder pro vides the Wire and poWer to the arc. poWer is provided from the poWer supply to the Wire feeder. in the event the short hasn’t cleared. Hard restriking clears bigger or hard short circuits (When substan adversely affecting the Weld. Wire feeders. and or the arc is re-established. One electric arc Welding process is a MIG process. and determines When a short occurs. The difference betWeen the second and ?rst magnitudes is less than the difference betWeen the third and second magni tudes. the current is maintained at that level for a brief period. The present invention relates generally to the art of arc Welding. SUMMARY OF THE PRESENT INVENTION 25 output a current and voltage at a desired magnitude. . because the sudden increase in poWer increases stick-out and arc voltage. After each incremental increase. as used herein. etc. The current is increased from a fourth magnitude (Which may be the normal operating magnitude) to the ?rst mag nitude in one embodiment. HoWever. the controller determines if the short has cleared. 1. According to a ?rst aspect of the invention a method of clearing a short in a Welding process includes increasing an output current from a ?rst magnitude to a second magnitude and detecting if the short has cleared after the current has feed speed and boards. A short is cleared When contact betWeen the Wire and the Workpiece is eliminated. circuitry. Additionally. A typical prior art soft-clearing Waveform is shoWn in FIG. The command is produced in response to a user-selected Wire reached the second magnitude. in the event the short hasn’t cleared.US 6.

As shoWn. and if the short clears the current reverts back to the background normal operating current. The third magnitude is a maximum current output and or the ?rst tWo increases are of the same magnitude in various embodiments. The third increment is greater than the ?rst and second increments. The controller also has a restrike module that. and current is controlled to provide one or more small incre ments in the current to soft-clear small shorts. According to a sixth aspect of the invention a system for Welding includes a source of Welding poWer a feedback module. Increment soft-clears a short and hard-clears the short if the short did 308 309 hard-clears large shorts. logarith 65 mic changes. and the third increment is provided from the second clearing magnitude to a third clearing magnitude.e. the system determines if the short has cleared before incrementing the current. dance With the present invention. or more than tWo. folloWed by a plateau 305. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS ments to hard-clear big shorts. Also. and clearing the arc With an output suitable for both hard-clearing and soft-clearing. and has an incre processes. Thus. 3 shoWs current and voltage Wave-forms for short According to a third aspect of the invention a method of clearing a short in an arc Welding process includes raising an clearing in accordance With the present invention. More specially. The normal Welding control) When the short clears. Where the voltage ments. The current is raised by a third increment if the short has not cleared. the second increment is provided from the ?rst clearing magnitude to a second clearing magnitude. 3 shoWs output current and voltage (the poWer applied to the arc) Waveforms for a short-clearing in accor the controller is part of the Wire feeder in various embodi background normal operating current and voltage is shoWn as 302 and 312. exponential changes.549 B2 4 3 FIG. The third increment is greater than the ?rst and second increments. and the routine. and a controller. again folloWed by a plateau 309. again folloWed by a 30 plateau 307. 2 shoWs current and voltage Wave-forms for prior art hard-clearing. Before explaining at least one embodiment of the inven tion in detail it is to be understood that the invention is not limited in its application to the details of construction and the arrangement of the components set forth in the folloWing description or illustrated in the draWings. 1 shoWs current and voltage Wave-forms for prior art soft-clearing. module. The controller also includes a short detection module that indicates the presence or absence of a shorted arc. If the short clears the current Would then revert back to the background normal operating current.US 6. The invention is capable of other embodiments or of being practiced or carried out in various Ways. the output normal operating magnitude to a ?rst clearing magnitude. cleared Without unduly disrupting the Weld process. having a current command output connected to the control input on the source.617. and large shorts are cleared by the sudden poWer increase from increment 308 309. additional large incre Other principal features and advantages of the. and FIG. The second increment is greater. According to yet another aspect of the invention a system 45 drops beloW the normal process voltage. the short did not clear and the current is substantially increased for Welding includes a source of Welding poWer. The ?rst increment is provided from the Generally. Increments 304 305 and 306 307 soft-clear small shorts. FIG. having a current command output connected to a control input on the source. The ?rst and second increments are equal. 5 shoWs a block diagram of a controller of a system for Welding in accordance With the present invention. it is to be understood that 15 Increasing the current to soft-clear includes incrementing the current by at least tWo increments in another alternative. The command is responsive to the short detect output. A short occurs at 313. Preferably. invention Will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon revieW of the folloWing draWings. Without completing the short-clearing and second increments in various alternatives. Then. Also. The controller also includes a short detection module having a short detect the phraseology and terminology employed herein is for the purpose of description and should not be regarded as lim iting. a feed back module. it should be understood at the outset that indicates the presence or absence of a shorted arc. the detailed description and the appended claims. According to another aspect of the invention a controller for clearing a short includes a current command output that 55 at step 308 (to the system maximum in the preferred embodiment). the invention provides for detecting a shorted arc. Wherein current and voltage is shoWn as 301 and 311. 4 shoWs a system for Welding in accordance With the present invention. and gradual changes in FIG. After the peak phase is completed. small increments to soft-clear. provides incremented current command having at least ?rst and second increments. current (rather than abrupt). The short clearing module includes a time delay module and the incremented current command module is responsive to the time delay module in yet another alternative. Alternatives including providing only one. According to a ?fth aspect of the invention a method of clearing a short of an arc-Welding process. the current is incremented in a small step 304. the short did not clear and the current is increased at step 306. The peak normal operating AWire feeder connected to the source of poWer. Arestrike the system can also be used With other systems and in other 25 module receives the short detect output. As shoWn. in response to a shorted arc. the short may be monitored continuously or intermittently such as after the current has reached a . or changes based on other functions and slopes. small shorts are not clear in response to the soft-clearing. includes increas ing an output current to soft-clear the short and then increas ing the current to hard-clear the short if the short did not clear from the soft-clear increase. Like reference numerals are used to indicate like components. mented current command output With at least ?rst. a large 35 or the third increment is not less than the sum of the ?rst increment in the current is provided (to a hard-clearing magnitude) that hard-clears the short if it is a big short. output current by a ?rst increment and then raising the current by a second increment if the short has not cleared. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS While the present invention Will be illustrated With ref erence to a particular system for Welding used in a MIG output that is responsive to the feedback. FIG. FIG. and a controller. and Welding process. and the control reverts back to the process control (i. second and third increments.

includes softWare and The feedback module receives signals indicative of arc parameters such as current. 2. 5 is a block diagram of a portion of a controller 500 that implements one embodi ment of the present invention. Current 45 e) if a short is present increasing the current to a second clearing magnitude. or the increase may be stopped When accordance With the present invention method and apparatus the short clears. The result of that comparison is provided to current command module 506 as a short detect 4. may include the poWer supply and Wire feeder. but it may be a gradual change. Although the Referring noW to FIG. if( ( restrikeidaciout+=340)>ABSOLUTEi DACiMAX) 60 second magnitude. Written in C. Control signals may be provided betWeen poWer property or privilege is claimed are de?ned as folloWs: source 101 and Wire feeder 103 on cable 113. Voltage 1. output. Wire feeder 103. A method of clearing a short in a Welding process 65 comprising: else increasing an output current from a ?rst magnitude to a restrikeidaciout=ABSOLUTEiDACiMAX. PoWer is provided from poWer 10 in the art. Wherein the increase of step e) is greater than any increase of step b). a system for Welding 100 in invention has been described in conjunction With speci?c accordance With the present invention includes a poWer embodiments thereof. it is intended to embrace all such alternatives. Restrike module 504 may have other commands or the third magnitude and the second magnitude.617. Source of poWer. The functions of controller 500 are implemented. a Wire feeder. large eXtent. and any other components that deliver the Welding poWer to the arc. and the clearing process ended immediately or Numerous modi?cations may be made to the present invention Which still fall Within the intended scope hereof. Wherein the third increment is greater than the ?rst and second increments. or functions thereof. poWer.US 6. or external to both. The method of claim 4. The feedback is provided to short detect module 508 detecting if the short has cleared after the current has reached the second magnitude. A controller may reside in poWer source 101. and a signal from time delay module 510. Incremented current command module 506 also receives c) repeating a) and b) at least one additional time. d) detecting if the short is present. . A method of controlling a Welding process comprising: a) detecting it a short is present. FIG. The folloWing code. and 35 (Which may or may not be part of restrike module 504) Which compares the voltage feedback to a threshold to determine if the arc is shorted. for Welding a Workpiece 106. b) if a short is detected increasing an output current. voltage. upon detection and failure to clear a short. on cables 114 and spirit and broad scope of the appended claims. poWer. raising the current by a second increment if the short has not cleared. as used herein. 7. The method of claim 1 Wherein the third magnitude is a maXimum current output. 5. Current feed 15 comprising: back may be obtained Within poWer source 101 or Wire feeder 103. as used herein. and increasing the current to a third magnitude. modi?cations and variations that fall Within the source 101 (such as a Miller XMT 304®). With softWare and a microprocessor in the preferred embodiment. additional time is the same as the increase of b) the ?rst time. command 506. Module. and raising the current by a third increment if the short has not cleared. Amethod of clearing a short in an arc Welding process. The current may be increased Without regard to the short clearing When the Thus. determining if the short has cleared. 9. 3. 115 to Workpiece 106 and Wire feeder 103 (such as a Miller The embodiments of the invention in Which an exclusive S64M®). 3. 5 for a system and method for Welding that fully satis?es the objectives and advantages set forth above. Wherein the difference betWeen the second magnitude and the ?rst magnitude is less than the difference betWeen comprising: 55 if( I1€WiCllIT6I11>CURRENTiSENSEiMIN ) if( tWoistepicounter++<1) raising an output current by a ?rst increment. The system may be referred to as a source of increasing an output current from a ?rst magnitude to a second magnitude. a source of gas 105 Which modi?cations and variations Will be apparent to those skilled cooperate to provide Welding poWer to a torch 108. MAX. etc. and can include digital commands. and a time delay module 510 that cooperate to provide a current command output such as that correspond 25 magnitude and the fourth magnitude is less than the difference betWeen the third magnitude and the second or hardWare that cooperates to perform one or more tasks. it is evident that many alternatives. it should be apparent that there has been provided in current is increasing. The method of claim 1. a short detect module 508. both. and includes a feedback module 502. source 100. poWer circuitry. 8. Wherein the ?rst increment is restrikeidaciout=ABSOLUTEiDACi equal to the second increment. Preferably the increment is an abrupt change.549 B2 5 6 magnitude. increments the current as described above. Will result in a current command that produces the graph of FIG. to a 6. a short clearing or restrike module 504. netWork magnitude. Wherein the difference betWeen the ?rst ing to FIG. A method of clearing a short in a Welding process feedback may be provided from clamp 117. further comprising: increasing the current from a fourth magnitude to the ?rst magnitude. an incremented current command module 506. Which sets the length of the plateau before a subsequent current increase. if( Startipeakitimer==0) Wherein the current is increased to the second magnitude only if the short has not cleared after the current is increased to the ?rst magnitude. Accordingly. Wherein the increase of b) the circuitry used to clear the short. in the event the short hasn’t cleared. The method of claim 5 Wherein the second clearing magnitude is a maXimum current output. ing hardWare. sometime after the short clears. The method of claim 7. 4. 3.

?rst clearing magnitude to a second clearing magni increment is greater than the ?rst increment. a feedback module. Wherein the difference betWeen the ?rst module responsive to the short detect output. and a short detection module having a short detect output. 16. further Wherein the incremented current command output has at least ?rst. and a short detection module having a short detect output.617. The system for Welding of claim 21. and if the shorted arc has not cleared. the third magnitude and the second magnitude. a restrike module receiving as an input short detect output. and increasing the current to a hard clearing magnitude. further comprising: increasing the current from a normal operating magnitude to the ?rst magnitude. further comprising: magnitude. a source of Welding poWer. 17. responsive to the feedback module. incremented current command has at least a third increment. Wherein the means for incrementing is such that the ?rst increment is tude. Wherein the current is increased to the second magnitude only if the short has not cleared. 22. and having an incremented current command a shorted arc such that the current is incremented at least a ?rst increment and a second increment. further Wherein the incremented current command output has at least ?rst and second increments. The system for Welding of claim 16 Wherein the third 1O 15 18. 25. 19. means for providing Welding poWer and the means for 55 responsive to the feedback module. second and third increments. 23. determining if the short has cleared. and further Wherein the third increment is greater than the ?rst and second increments. Wherein the controller is part of the Wire feeder. further Wherein the second increment is provided from the 65 . A system for Welding comprising: the controller is part of the Wire feeder. The system for Welding of claim 20. Wherein the difference betWeen the second magnitude and the ?rst magnitude is less than the difference betWeen increment is not less than the sum of the ?rst and second increments. 11. Wherein the ?rst increment is provided from a normal detected. The method of claim 11. The method of claim 11. Wherein the Wherein the current is increased to the second magnitude only if the short has not cleared. having increasing an output current from a ?rst magnitude to a a current command output connected to the control second magnitude. such that the ?rst increment is performed after a shorted arc is module responsive to the short detect output. 35 determining if the short has cleared. The system for Welding of claim 15 further compris ing a Wire feeder connected to the source of poWer. Wherein the short clearing module includes a time delay and Wherein the incremented current command module is responsive to the time delay. Wherein the short clearing module includes a time delay module and Wherein the incremented current command module is responsive to the time delay module. input. Wherein increasing the current to soft-clear includes incrementing the current by at least tWo increments. Wherein the difference betWeen the ?rst magnitude and the normal operating magnitude is less than the difference betWeen the hard clearing magnitude and the second magnitude. A method of clearing a short of an arc-Welding process. in the event the short hasn’t cleared. 45 magnitude to the ?rst magnitude. and indicative of 25 the presence or absence of a shorted arc. The system for Welding of claim 21 further compris ing a Wire feeder connected to the source of poWer. The method of claim 9.549 B2 8 7 further Wherein the third increment is provided from the detecting if the short has cleared after the current has reached the second magnitude. A system for Welding comprising: a source of Welding poWer having a control input. The system for Welding of claim 17. A system for Welding comprising: means for providing Welding poWer. and further such that the second increment is performed after the ?rst increment. Wherein the third increment is provided from a fourth 13. further Wherein the second increment is greater than the ?rst increment. having a current command output connected to the control input. means for feeding back. detecting if the short has cleared after the current has reached the second magnitude. a feed back module. having a control input. and 21. Wherein the ?rst increment is provided from a ?rst mag nitude to a second magnitude. a restrike module receiving as an input the short detect output.US 6. in the event the short hasn’t cleared. The system for Welding of claim 24. and second clearing magnitude to a third clearing magni tude. Wherein 15. performed after a shorted arc is detected. and linearly increasing the current to a third magnitude. Wherein the difference betWeen the second magnitude and the ?rst magnitude is less than the difference betWeen the hard clearing magnitude and the second magnitude. 12. 10. Wherein the means for controlling includes means for incrementing an output current command in response to the presence or absence of a shorted arc. increasing the current to hard-clear the short if the short did not clear from the soft-clear increase. connected to the a controller. and Without regard to the short clearing When the current is increasing. and indicative of feeding back. magnitude and the fourth magnitude is less than the difference betWeen the third magnitude and the second further Wherein the second increment is provided from the second magnitude to a third magnitude. The system for Welding of claim 15. 14. Wherein the ?rst and second increments are equal. 24. and further Wherein the second increment is greater than the third increment. comprising: increasing an output current to soft-clear the short. A method of clearing a short in a Welding process 20. and means for controlling the Welding poWer. and further Wherein the second operating magnitude to a ?rst clearing magnitude. comprising: a controller. and having an incremented current command increasing the current from a fourth magnitude to the ?rst magnitude.

means for increasing an output current from a ?rst mag nitude to a second magnitude. 34.617. means for feeding back. Wherein the means for clearing includes means for increasing by a third comprising: increment. A system for Welding comprising: means for providing Welding poWer. Wherein the third increment is less that the second increment. means for hard-clearing the short if the short did not clear in response to the means soft-clearing. The controller of claim 29.US 6. An apparatus for clearing a short in a Welding process comprising: means for increasing an output current from a ?rst mag nitude to a second magnitude. and further Wherein the second increment is greater than the ?rst increment. . means for raising an output current by a ?rst increment. means for providing current. and Wherein the means for controlling includes means for clearing a short by increasing current by at least ?rst and second increment. connected to the means for providing. connected to the source 29. incre a source of current. comprising: a source of current. the means for the soft-clearing includes means for incrementing an output current by at least tWo increments. and increasing the current to a third magnitude. 26. and Wherein the third increment is less than the second. ment. and means for controlling the Welding poWer. in the event the short hasn’t cleared. An apparatus for clearing a short in a Welding process 28. means for detecting if the short has cleared after the current has reached the second magnitude. Wherein. means for detecting if the short has cleared after the current has reached the second magnitude. Wherein the third increment is greater than the ?rst and second increments. comprising: 27. and the source of current. the means for incrementing is such that the current is incre mented a third increment. temporally before the ?rst increment. increasing the current to hard-clear the short if the short did not clear from the soft-clear increase. temporally before the ?rst increment. connected to the means for providing. The system for Welding of claim 27. 32. connected to the means for providing Welding poWer and the means for 10 feeding back. An apparatus for clearing a short in an arc Welding process. means for increasing an output current to soft-clear the short. means for soft-clearing the short. 31. providing. Acontroller that commands a Welding system to clear a short comprising: 25 a current command output. 30. connected to the current com mand input an further connect tot he means for detect ing. A method of clearing a short of an arc-Welding process.549 B2 10 Wherein the difference betWeen the second magnitude and the ?rst magnitude is less than the difference betWeen the third magnitude and the second magnitude. connected to the current command output. connected to 35 Wherein the difference betWeen the second magnitude and the ?rst magnitude is less than the difference betWeen the third magnitude and the second magnitude. wherein. con nected to the source of current. connected to the means for 15 means for raising the current by a third increment if the short has not cleared. means for raising the current by a second increment if the short has not cleared. of current. and means for linearly increasing the current to a third magnitude. connected to a current command input. in the event the short hasn’t cleared. The system for Welding of claim 24. 33. Wherein an output current is increased if the short has not cleared prior to the increase.