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Forming adjectives
Adding ‘y’.Drop Add ‘ful’.* ChangeAdd ‘ous’ or
‘e’.
‘y’ to ‘i’.
‘ious’. *Drop ‘y’.
anger
care
mountain
ease*
doubt
danger
greed
peace
industry
ice*
beauty*
mystery*
oil
pity*
glory*
Add ‘al’. * Drop Add ‘able’.
Add ‘ic’.*Drop ‘y’.
‘e’.
music
accept
acrobat
nation
comfort
artist
person
enjoy
photograph
nature*
fashion
sympathy*
agriculture*
respect
robot

Add ‘less’.
aim
end
harm
sense
use
Add ‘ive’.
attract
effect
act
instruct
progress

Adjectives can be formed from Nouns.
Noun
accident
danger
length
star
wind

Adjective
accidental
dangerous
long
starry
windy

Adjectives can be formed from Verbs.
Verb
enjoy
help
obey
play
talk

Adjective
enjoyable
helpful
obedient
playful
talkative

Adjectives can be formed from Adjectives.
Adjective
comic
correct
elder
red
sick

Adjective
comical
corrective
elderly
reddish
sickly

Comparison of adjectives
 We use the Positive degree to compare two equal nouns.
For example: His house is as big as my house.
 We use the Comparative degree to compare two unequal nouns.
For example: His house is bigger than my house.

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We use the Superlative degree to compare three or more Nouns.
For example: His house is the biggest in the neighbourhood.

Positive
bold
deep
near
rich
tall
Positive
careful
enjoyable
forgetful
useful
wonderful
Positive
bad
good
little

Comparative
bolder
deeper
nearer
richer
taller
Comparative
more careful
more enjoyable
more forgetful
more useful
more wonderful
Comparative
worse
better
less

Superlative
boldest
deepest
nearest
richest
tallest
Superlative
most careful
most enjoyable
most forgetful
most useful
most wonderful
Superlative
worst
best
least

Comparison of Adverbs
Similar to the comparison of adjectives, adverbs have three degrees of comparison –
the Positive, the Comparative and the Superlative. Most adverbs which end in ‘ly’ form the Comparative with ‘more’ and the Superlative with ‘most’.
Positive
comfortably
happily
kindly
loudly
noisily

Comparative
more comfortably
more happily
more kindly
more loudly
more noisily

Superlative
most comfortably
most happily
most kindly
most loudly
most noisily

Forming Adverbs Adverbs can be formed from nouns, adjectives and verbs.
Most adverbs end in ‘-ly’.
Nouns
beauty
success

Adjectives

Verbs

angry
foolish
continue
know

Adverbs
beautifully
successfully
angrily
foolishly
continually
knowingly

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COLLECTIVE NOUNS
PEOPLE
an army of soldiers
a bevy of beauties/girls
a band of musicians
a band of robbers
a board of directors
a body of men
a bunch of crooks
a caravan of gypsies
a choir of singers
a class of pupils
a class of students
a company of actors
a company of soldiers
a congregation of worshippers
a crew of sailors
a crowd of spectators
a crowd of people
a dynasty of kings
a galaxy of beautiful women
a galaxy of film stars
a gang of crooks
a gang of labourers
a gang of prisoners
a gang of robbers

a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a

gang of thieves
horde of savages
host of angels
line of kings/rulers
mob of rioters
group of dancers
group of singers
pack of rascals
pack of thieves
party of friends
patrol of policemen
posse of policemen
regiment of soldiers
staff of employees
staff of servants
staff of teachers
team of players
tribe of natives
troop of scouts
troupe of artistes
troupe of dancers
troupe of performers
party of friends

THINGS
an album of autographs
an album of photographs
an album of stamps
an anthology of poems
an archipelago of islands
a bale of cotton
a basket of fruit
a batch of bread
a battery of guns
a block of flats
a book of exercises
a book of notes
a bouquet of flowers
a bowl of rice
a bunch of bananas
a bunch of flowers
a bunch of grapes

a hail of bullets
a hand of bananas (each a finger)
a harvest of wheat/corn
a heap of rubbish
a heap of ruins
a hedge of bushes
a heap of stones
a layer of soil/dirt
a library of books
a line of cars
a list of names
a mass of ruins/hair
a necklace of pearls
an outfit of clothes
an orchard of fruit trees
a pack of cards
a pack of lies

4 a bunch of keys a bundle of rags/old clothes a bundle of firewood/sticks a bundle of hay a catalogue of prices/goods a chain of mountains a chest of drawers a cluster of coconuts a cluster of grapes a cloud of dust a clump of bushes a clump of trees a collection of coins a collection of curiosities a collection of pictures a collection of relics a collection of stamps a column of smoke a comb of bananas a compendium of games a constellation of stars a cluster of diamonds a cluster of stars a clutch of eggs a crate of fruit a crop of apples a fall of rain a fall of snow a fleet of motor-cars/taxis a fleet of ships a flight of aeroplanes a flight of steps a forest of trees a galaxy of stars a garland of flowers a glossary of difficult words/phrases a group of islands a grove of trees a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a packet of cigarettes packet of letters pair of shoes pencil of rays quiver of arrows range of hills range of mountains ream of paper reel of thread/film roll of film/cloth rope of pearls row of houses series of events set of china set of clubs set of tools sheaf of arrows sheaf of corn sheaf of grain sheaf of papers sheaf of wheat shower of blows shower of rain stack of arms stack of corn stack of hay stack of timber stack of wood stock of wood string of beads string of pearls suit of clothes suite of furniture suite of rooms tuft of grass tuft of hair wad of currency/notes wreath of flowers ANIMALS an army of ants a bevy of quail a brood/flock of chickens a catch of fish a cloud of flies a cloud of insects a cloud of locusts a a a a a a a litter of kittens litter of puppies menagerie of wild animals muster of peacocks nest of ants nest of mice nest of rabbits .

5 a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a colony of gulls drove of cattle drove of horses flight of birds flight of doves flight of locusts flight of swallows flock of birds flock of geese flock of sheep gaggle of geese haul of fish herd of buffaloes herd of cattle herd of deer herd of elephants herd of goats herd of swine hive of bees host of sparrows kindle of kittens litter of cubs litter of piglets FORMS OF PRESENT TENSE arise awake bear beat become begin bend bid bind bite bleed blow break breed bring build burn burst buy cast catch THE VERB PRESENT PARTICIPLE arising awaking bearing beating becoming beginning bending bidding binding biting bleeding blowing breaking breeding bringing building burning bursting buying casting catching a pack of hounds a pack of wolves a plague of insects a plague of locusts a pride of lions a school of herrings/other small a a fish a school of porpoises a school of whales a shoal of fish a skein of wild geese in flight a string of horses a stud of horses a swarm of ants a swarm of bees a swarm of insects a swarm of locusts a team of horses a team of oxen a train of camels a tribe of goats a troop of lions a troop of monkeys a zoo of wild animals PAST TENSE arose awoke bore beat became began bent bid.borne beaten become begun bent bid.bade bound bit bled blew broke bred brought built burned.bade bound bitten bled blown broken bred brought built burned.burnt burst bought cast caught PAST PARTICIPLE arisen awoken born.burnt burst bought cast caught .

6 choose cling come cost creep cut deal dig do draw dream drink drive dwell eat fall feed feel fight find flee fling flow fly forbid forecast choosing clinging coming costing creeping cutting dealing digging doing drawing dreaming drinking driving dwelling eating falling feeding feeling fighting finding fleeing flinging flowing flying forbidding forecasting forget forgive freeze get give go grab grind grow hang hang (kill) have hear hide hit hold hurt keep kneel knit know lay forgetting forgiving freezing getting giving going grabbing grinding growing hanging hanging having hearing hiding hitting holding hurting keeping kneeling knitting knowing laying chose clung came cost crept cut dealt dug did drew dreamed. forecasted forgotten forgiven frozen got given gone grabbed ground grown hung hanged had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt knitted known laid . forecasted forgot forgave froze got gave went grabbed ground grew hung hanged had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt knitted knew laid chosen clung come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn dreamed. dreamt drank drove dwelt ate fell fed felt fought found fled flung flowed flew forbade forecast. dreamt drunk driven dwelt eaten fallen fed felt fought found fled flung flowed flown forbidden forecast.

spoilt . leant leapt learned. lit Lost Made Meant Met Paid Put Read Ridden Rung Risen Run Sawn Said Seen Sold Sent Set Sewn Shaken Shone Shot Shown Shrunk Shut Sung Sunk Sat Slept Slid smelled. lit lost made meant met paid put read rode rang rose ran sawed said saw sold sent set sewed shook shone shot showed shrank shut sang sank sat slept slid smelled. learnt left lent let lain lighted. smelt sowed spoke speeded. spelt Spent spilled. leant leapt learned. spelt spent spilled. learnt left lent let lay lighted. sped spelled. smelt Sown Spoken speeded.7 lead lean leap learn leave lend let lie light lose make mean meet pay put read ride ring rise run saw say see sell send set sew shake shine shoot show shrink shut sing sink sit sleep slide smell sow speak speed spell spend spill spin spit split spoil leading leaning leaping learning leaving lending letting lying lighting losing making meaning meeting paying putting reading riding ringing rising running sawing saying seeing selling sending setting sewing shaking shining shooting showing shrinking shutting singing sinking sitting sleeping sliding smelling sowing speaking speeding spelling spending spilling spinning spitting splitting spoiling led leaned. spilt Spun Spat Split spoiled. spoilt led lean. sped spelled. spilt Spun Spat Split spoiled.

8 spread spring stand steal stick sting strike swear sweep swell swim swing take teach tear tell think throw wake wear win wind write Antonyms spreading springing standing stealing sticking stinging striking swearing sweeping swelling swimming swinging taking teaching tearing telling thinking throwing waking wearing winning winding writing spread sprang stood stole stuck stung struck swore swept swelled swam swung took taught tore told thought threw woke wore won wound wrote Spread Sprung Stood Stolen Stuck Stung Struck Sworn Swept Swollen Swum Swung Taken Taught Torn Told Thought Thrown woken. waked Worn Won Wound Written .

9 above abroad absent absent accept active add admit adult alive all allow always arrive asleep back backwards bad barren beautiful before begin bent best better big black blameless bless blunt bold bold boss bravery break bridge bright broad busy buy capture catch cheap below home present present refuse passive subtract deny child dead none refuse never depart awake front forward good fertile ugly after end straight worst worse small white guilty curse sharp timid timid employee cowardice repair tunnel dull narrow idle sell release throw dear Hill Humble Husband In Include Increase Increase Indifferent Inner Inside Insult Interested Interesting Joy Junior Kind Kind Knowledge Lazy Lead Least Leave Lend level life liquid long loss loud love majority many masculine master mean miser modern most motorist mountain natural near never valley proud wife out exclude decrease decrease interested outer outside praise bored dull sorrow senior cruel cruel ignorance industrious follow greatest arrive borrow steep death solid short gain soft hate minority few feminine servant kind spendthrift ancient least pedestrian valley artificial far always .

10 city clean clever cloudy clumsy coarse cold come comedy comfort common common contract cool coward cowardly create cry daily danger dark dawn day deep depth die difficult dim discourteous divide doctor drunk Dry dwarf early east easy ebb empty enemy enjoy entrance evening country dirty foolish clear graceful fine hot go tragedy disturb rare unusual expand warm hero bold destroy laugh nightly safety bright dusk night shallow height live easy bright polite multiply patient sober wet giant late west difficult flow full friend dislike exit morning niece noise noisy normal north notice obey obtain often old omit open order overlook pardon part past peace plural polite polite poor powerful praise public public punish pupil purchase push question quick raw raw real right rise rough sad safe safe same separate nephew silence quiet abnormal south ignore command give seldom new include shut/close chaos notice punish whole future war singular rude rude rich weak blame private private reward teacher sell pull answer slow cooked cooked imaginary left fall smooth cheerful dangerous dangerous different join .

11 ever everybody everywhere exit fact failure fair famous fancy far fat fat few find finish first flatter foe foolish foreign forget found freeze fresh fresh friend full future generous give give graceful guilty guilty happy happy hard hard head heavy hell help here never nobody nowhere entrance fiction success dark unknown plain near thin skinny many lose start last insult friend wise local remember lost thaw stale stale enemy vacant past selfish receive take awkward innocent innocent sad sad easy soft tail light heaven hinder there several silly similar slim smile smile straight straight strange strong summer sweet sweet talk tall tame teach teacher these thick this tight tiny top true trust truth under unusual up upset vacant vacant valuable victory villain war wide win wise within work wrong few serious different fat frown frown crooked crooked familiar weak winter sour sour listen short wild learn student those thin that loose huge bottom false doubt lie over ordinary down comfort occupied occupied worthless defeat hero peace narrow lose foolish without rest right .

12 hide high show low yes young no old Antonyms (un-) arm certain comfortable common conscious dress equal fair fold friendly happy healthy just kind known unarm uncertain uncomfortable uncommon unconscious undress unequal unfair unfold unfriendly unhappy unhealthy unjust unkind unknown like lock necessary popular safe screw seen selfish steady suitable tidy tie true willing wise disagree disallow disappear disarm disarrange disbelieve disconnect continue honest like loyal obey order trust unlike unlock unnecessary unpopular unsafe unscrew unseen unselfish unsteady unsuitable untidy untie untrue unwilling unwise Antonyms (dis-) agree allow appear arm arrange believe connect Antonyms (in-) accurate active adequate admissible attentive correct inaccurate inactive inadequate inadmissible inattentive incorrect Antonyms (im-) mature mobile immature immobile discontinue dishonest dislike disloyal disobey disorder distrust .

13 moral mortal movable patient perfect polite possible probable proper pure immoral immortal immovable impatient imperfect impolite impossible improbable improper impure Antonyms (mis-) handle judge spell understand use mishandle misjudge misspell misunderstand misuse Antonyms (-less) careful harmful helpful hopeful painful pitiful powerful shameful useful careless harmless helpless hopeless painless pitiless powerless shameless useless SYNONYMS abduct abhor above abridge abroad abrogate abstain accord kidnap detest over shorten overseas cancel refrain agreement leery legacy legible licentious listen lithe little livid cautious bequest readable lewd hear supple small enraged .

bold strength shinning wide tolerate rustic loathe lofty logo look loquacious lost loving loyal lucrative ludicrous luminous lure luster luxuriant macabre mad maelstrom magnitude malice margin meager mean messy middle misshapen moral morsel mundane name narrate near nefarious negate negligible nepotism new noisy noted obey obstinate odyssey often old abhor high symbol see talkative misplaced fond true profitable absurd bright entice gloss lush gruesome insane whirlpool size spite edge scanty cruel untidy center deformed ethical piece ordinary title tell close evil cancel insignificant favouritism unused.14 admit adversary affable aggravate agree air akin alive allocate allow also ameliorate amount annul answer appease arraign ask assembly assent attire avarice baby bad badger beg begin behaviour belief benevolent berate big bilk blamed blank bliss bottom brave brawn bright broad brook bucolic confess opponent friendly worsen consent discuss related lively distribute permit too improve quantity cancel response pacify indict Inquire. modern rowdy well-known submit stubborn journey frequently ancient . request gathering agree dress greed infant evil pester implore commence conduct opinion kind scold large swindle accused empty happiness foot daring.

15 build busy buy calamity canon capitulate careen careful careful castigate catastrophic catch caucus cavort cede celestial centre champion change cheat chide choose chubby circumspect clemency clergyman close clothes clout coagulate coddle coercion collusion commend commodity compulsory Concise construct active purchase disaster rule surrender swerve cautious cautious criticize disastrous capture meeting frolic Relinquish heavenly middle winner alter deceive scold select plump cautious forgiveness minister near dress influence thicken pamper force conspiracy praise product obligatory Brief omen omnipotent omniscient oppress opulence oral orator outset outside ovation pacify paltry pandemic paranormal parcel part patent paucity peddle pen perhaps perilous perish persevere pertinent pick pious placate plentiful policeman polite poor port portion praise prank pretty concur confer conversant converse copy agree bestow familiar opposite imitate protect pull purloin push putrefy sign all-powerful all-knowing persecute wealth verbal speaker beginning exterior applause appease scarce widespread supernatural package portion obvious scarcity sell write maybe dangerous die persist relevant choose devout appease abundant constable courteous destitute harbour piece compliment joke Beautiful .attractive guard drag steal thrust decay .

16 cordial correct courtesan covert crave culvert cunning cure curtail damp dangerous deadly dear dearth debilitate deceive decimate decipher decrease deduce deleterious delude demeanour demise demobilize demoralize denigrate denounce depart deplete deride desecrate desiccate despot destitute detain detrimental devise devout diabolical diffident discernible discreet friendly accurate prostitute secret desire drain sly remedy shorten moist risky fatal expensive scarcity weaken trick destroy decode reduce conclude harmful deceive behaviour death disband dishearten defame condemn leave exhaust ridicule profane dehydrate tyrant poor confine harmful plan pious devilish shy visible prudent quack qualms quay queen queue quick quiet quill quip rare rarely rash read ready real reap rebuke receptacle reckless recollect rectify recur red reek regal rein rejoice relic remain remedial remember remnant remorse renown replenish retain revenue rich rift riot roam robust rostrum charlatan misgivings wharf empress line rapid peaceful feather joke scarce seldom hasty peruse alert genuine harvest reprimand container rash remember correct repeat ruddy smell royal curb celebrate antique stay corrective recollect residue guilt fame refill keep income wealthy split revolt wander vigorous podium .

wrong rough round rude rue rule ruse rustic sack sad safe saga sanction saturate savour scant scared scatter schism scion scorn sear secede seclusion seduce seldom semblance separate serene sham sheen short shorten show shun sibling sick siege silent silly simple sinister site sceptical coarse circular impolite regret govern trick rural pillage unhappy secure story approval soak relish inadequate frightened disperse rift offspring disdain burn withdraw solitude lure rarely likeness sever peaceful pretense luster brief abbreviate exhibit avoid brother/sister ill blockage quiet foolish easy evil location doubtful . lure undertaking lure plead messenger short-lived era fair mistake elude expensive expel myth drop untrue. weird building effective self-centered voters explain evade vacant conclusion foe sufficient trap.17 disease disfigure dismal disorder dispatch disperse disseminate distend distract diversity divulge dodder dull dumb duress eatable ebb eccentric edifice efficacious egocentric electorate elucidate elude empty end enemy enough ensnare enterprise entice entreat envoy ephemeral epoch equitable error escape exorbitant exorcise fable fall false sickness mar gloomy chaos send scatter distribute swell divert variety disclose tremble gloomy mute coercion edible recede odd.

18 fantasy far feather feign fertile fidelity fierce fight filch find first fiscal flagellate float force foretell free friend friend funny furtive gain game gargantuan garrulous gather gay general genesis ghastly give glad glaring gnarl gory guest guffaw habit habituate hale hallucination hamper hapless daydream distant plume pretend fruitful loyalty ferocious battle steal discover initial monetary whip drift compel predict release companion. ally ally amusing stealthy profit recreation large talkative collect cheerful common beginning horrible donate happy dazzling deform bloody visitor laughter custom accustom healthy delusion obstruct unlucky slay sleepy slim sloth smart smell smite snare snub sovereign specimen squalid squander static steed stern stick stifle stimulate stingy stop strange strife strive strong student studious style subdue submit subside succulent superb surmount surprise surrender surround susceptible sustenance swamp taint talk talon kill drowsy slender laziness intelligent scent strike trap ignore monarch sample filthy waste inactive horse strict adhere suppress excite miserly halt odd conflict endeavour powerful pupil diligent fashion conquer yield diminish juicy excellent overcome astonishment yield encircle vulnerable food marsh pollute conversation claw .

covert modest mysterious beneath weaken emphasize comprehend excessive together .19 harangue hard hate haven height help herald hew hide hideous high home hone horde hue hug huge humane hygienic hyperbole idiosyncrasy illicit illimitable illustrious imbibe imitate immaterial immense impale impasse impassive impeccable impede impending imperil implicate implore inculcate incursion indelible indigent indiscriminate indolent tirade difficult detest refuge altitude assist harbinger cut conceal horrible tall residence sharpen group colour embrace enormous compassionate sanitary exaggeration peculiarity unlawful limitless famous drink copy irrelevant huge pierce deadlock calm faultless hinder imminent endanger incriminate entreat instill raid permanent poor random lazy tangible tarnish taut teach teacher tedious tempest tempo tempt tenet tepid terse tested thief thin thrive throng titillate titular toil top trail tranquilize transient transitory traverse trek trick trite trust try twain tyrannical ubiquitous ulterior unassuming uncanny under undermine underscore understand unduly unison touchable taint tight educate instructor boring storm speed entice doctrine lukewarm concise tried burglar lean prosper crowd arouse figurehead drudgery summit path calm. anesthetize temporary fleeting cross journey hoax commonplace believe attempt two dictatorial omnipresent hidden.

strong necessary occupation fashion unstable obscenity susceptible bet salary forgo indulge need look feeble damp stimulate entire shrivel amazement court anger.20 industrious inexorable infamous infamy infer infirmity influx infraction infuriate inhibit iniquitous initiate inkling innate innocuous innuendo inordinate inquisitive inscribe inside insignia insolvent instigate inter interesting intrepid intricate intrigue intrinsic inundate involve irate irrational jeer jest jocular join jostle judicious jump just kudos last hardworking relentless notorious shame conclude ailment inflow violation enrage restrain unjust begin hint inborn harmless insinuation excessive curious engrave interior emblems bankrupt incite bury fascinating fearless complex plot inherent flood implicate angry illogical mock joke humorous connect push prudent leap fair acclaim final usually utter vacant vacillate vain valiant value vanish vanquish vehement vendetta venom venue verbose verdict veto vex vicious victory vie vilify virile vital vocation vogue volatile vulgarity vulnerable wager wages waive wallow want watch weak wet whet whole wither wonder woo wrath wrest generally complete empty waver unsuccessful brave worth disappear conquer adamant feud poison location wordy decision reject annoy evil. fury snatch . cruel triumph compete defame manly.

21 lazy least leave indolent minimum abandon writ yearly young summons annually youthful HOMONYMS Homonym is a word that sounds the same as another but is different in meaning. air ail allowed arc ate bad bail bald ball bare beach bean bear beat bee beet bell berry birth blue boar board bough bow boy brake buy ceiling cell cent cheap check coarse cord dear heir ale aloud ark eight bade bale bawled bawl bear beech been bare beet be beat belle bury berth blew bore bored bow bough buoy break by/bye sealing sell sent cheep cheque course chord deer loan made mail main meat medal missed muscle none oar one pail pain pair patience peace peal plain plane pore practice praise pray principal profit rain rap read read right ring road role root rose lone maid male mane meet meddle mist mussel nun ore won pale pane pear patients piece peel plane plain pour practise prays prey principle prophet reign wrap reed red write wring rode roll route rows .

two toad earn vein veil vane. vain waste weight weigh week where hole which would right yolk your .22 die dun Dye ewe eye fair feat find flea flew flour flower fool fore forth foul fur gait grate groan hair hall heal hear heard here higher him hole hour idle key knew knight knot know lain lead leak lessen dye done die you I fare feet fined flee flu flower flour full four fourth fowl fir gate great grown hare haul heel here herd hear hire hymn whole our idol quay new night not no lane led leek lesson PARENT AND YOUNG sale scene sea seam sew sight soar sole son soot stair stake steal stile suite tail tear their threw throne tide to told too towed urn vain vale vein waist wait way weak wear whole witch wood write yoke yore sail seen see seem sow site sore soul sun suit stare steak steel style sweet tale tier there through thrown tied two tolled to.

23 ADULT (ANIMALS) YOUNG .

nestling chicken squab duckling eaglet gosling gosling poult. cheeper chick owlet poult .24 bear boar buck (rabbit) buffalo bull (cattle) bull (elephant) camel cat cow deer dog elephant fox giraffe goat hippopotamus horse kangaroo leopard lion pig possum rat rhinoceros seal sheep stallion tiger wallaby wolf zebra ADULT (BIRD) bird cock cock (pigeon) drake eagle gander goose grouse ostrich owl partridge cub piglet. pigling rack calf calf calf calf kitten calf fawn puppy calf cub calf kid calf foal joey cub cub piglet joey pup calf pup lamb foal cub joey cub foal YOUNG fledgling.

25 pheasant pigeon swan turkey ADULT (INSECTS) ant bee beetle butterfly cockroach dragonfly grasshopper housefly mosquito moth ADULT (FISH) eel oyster shark trout whale ADULT (AMPHIBIAN) Frog Toad Turtle poult squab cygnet poult YOUNG grub grub grub caterpillar nymph nymph nymph maggot wriggler caterpillar YOUNG elver spat cub fry calf YOUNG tadpole tadpole hatchling Forming Abstract Nouns Common Noun Abstract Noun Common Noun Abstract Noun brother child friend king leader Verb behave die free grow know laugh Brotherhood Childhood friendship kingship leadership Abstract Noun behavior death freedom growth knowledge laughter man member mother neighbor scholar Verb lose marry please sell speak think manhood membership motherhood neighborhood scholarship Abstract Noun loss marriage pleasure sale speech thought .

-s. -sh. and -x Singular Plural Singular Plural beach beaches dish dishes inch inches thrush thrushes match matches boss bosses watch watches dress dresses bus buses glass glasses octopus octopuses kiss kisses syllabus syllabuses box boxes virus viruses fox foxes brush brushes six sixes bush bushes tax taxes By adding –s to nouns ending in -o .26 Adjective angry beautiful brave great happy hungry king long Abstract Noun anger beauty bravery greatness happiness hunger kindness length Adjective new strong thirsty true unique weak wide wise Abstract Noun newness strength thirst truth uniqueness weakness width wisdom The Plurals of Nouns By adding -s Plural Singular antPlural Singular ants bicycle bicycles cow cows daughter daughters egg eggs flower flowers grape grapes house houses jug jugs king kings lock magazine nose orange picture rose spoonful toy vase well locks magazines noses oranges pictures roses spoonfuls toys vases wells By adding -es to nouns ending in –ch. -ss.

27 Singular Plural Singular dynamo dynamos studio photo photos tattoo piano pianos torso radio radios trio solo solos zero By adding -–es to nouns ending in -o Singular Plural Singular buffalo buffaloes potato echo echoes tomato hero heroes tornado mosquito mosquitoes veto negro negroes Plural studios tattoos torsos trios zeros Plural potatoes tomatoes tornadoes vetoes By adding –s or –es to nouns ending in -o Singular Plural Singular Plural banjo banjos/banjoes memento mementos/mementoes archipelago archipelagos/es peccadillo peccadillos/es cargo cargos/cargoes lasso lassos/lassoes mango mango/mangoes indigo Indigos/indigoes motto mottos/mottoes volcano volcanos/volcanoes By changing –y into –ies if a noun ends in a consonant before the -y Singular Plural Singular Plural beauty beauties fairy fairies cherry cherries family families curry curries nappy nappies diary diaries spy spies duty duties theory theories By adding –s if there is a vowel before the -y Singular Plural Singular Plural chimney chimneys kidney kidneys donkey donkeys monkey monkeys guy guys toy toys jersey jerseys trolley trolleys key keys valley valleys By changing –f or –fe into –ves Singular Plural Singular Plural calf calves life lives elf elves loaf loaves half halves sheaf sheaves knife knives thief thieves .

The plural and singular forms of some nouns are the same advice advice knowledge knowledge . the plural is mice or mouses.28 leaf leaves wife By adding –s to nouns ending in –f or –fe Singular Plural Singular chef chef handcuff chief chiefs reef cliff cliffs roof giraffe giraffes safe gulf gulfs sheriff By adding –s or changing –f into –ves Singular Plural dwarf dwarf/dwarves handkerchief Handkerchiefs/ves hoof hoof/hooves scarf scarfs/scarves turf turfs/turves wharf wharfs/wharves By changing the vowels Singular Plural axis axes cactus cacti crisis crises emporium emporia/emporiums fungus fungus/funguses By adding –en or –ren Singular Plural ox oxen By changing the vowels Singular Plural axis axes cactus cacti crisis crises emporium emporia/emporiums fungus fungi/funguses wives Plural handcuffs reefs roofs safes sheriffs Singular goose louse mouse oasis tooth Plural geese lice mice oases teeth Singular child Plural children Singular goose louse mouse oasis tooth Plural geese lice mice* oases teeth * For computer mouse.

The Comparison of Adjectives Positive big black bold brave bright busy clean clear clever cold cool dark dear deep dirty dry easy fair fast fat fine funny great green happy hard healthy heavy high hot Comparative bigger blacker bolder braver brighter busier cleaner clearer cleverer colder cooler darker dearer deeper dirtier drier easier fairer faster fatter finer funnier greater greener happier harder healthier heavier higher hotter Superlative biggest blackest boldest bravest brightest busiest cleanest clearest cleverest coldest coolest darkest dearest deepest dirtiest driest easiest fairest fastest fattest finest funniest greatest greenest happiest hardest healthiest heaviest highest hottest .29 aircraft baggage cattle cod deer fish furniture information aircraft baggage cattle cod deer fish** furniture information music news offspring scenery series sheep species music news offspring scenery series sheep species 16.

30 kind large late lazy light long low lucky mad merry narrow naughty near new noisy old pale poor pretty proud quick red rich sad safe shallow sharp short slow small smooth strong sweet tall thick thin tiny ugly warm wealthy wet white wide kinder larger later lazier lighter longer lower luckier madder merrier narrower naughtier nearer newer noisier older paler poorer prettier prouder quicker redder richer sadder safer shallower sharper shorter slower smaller smoother stronger sweeter taller thicker thinner tinier uglier warmer wealthier wetter whiter wider kindest largest latest laziest lightest longest lowest luckiest maddest merriest narrowest naughtiest nearest newest noisiest oldest palest poorest prettiest proudest quickest reddest richest saddest safest shallowest sharpest shortest slowest smallest smoothest strongest sweetest tallest thickest thinnest tiniest ugliest warmest wealthiest wettest whitest widest .

31 wild wise young Positive ancient beautiful brilliant careful careless cheerful comfortable dangerous delightful difficult enjoyable foolish forgetful frightening generous handsome helpful ignorant important intelligent interesting pleasant powerful prosperous sensible terrible thoughtful unusual useful valuable wonderful Positive bad far far good little many much wilder wiser younger Comparative more ancient more beautiful more brilliant more careful more careless more cheerful more comfortable more dangerous more delightful more difficult more enjoyable more foolish more forgetful more frightening more generous more handsome more helpful more ignorant more important more intelligent more interesting more pleasant more powerful more prosperous more sensible more terrible more thoughtful more unusual more useful more valuable more wonderful Comparative worse farther further better less more more wildest wisest youngest Superlative most ancient most beautiful most brilliant most careful most careless most cheerful most comfortable most dangerous most delightful most difficult most enjoyable most foolish most forgetful most frightening most generous most handsome most helpful most ignorant most important most intelligent most interesting most pleasant most powerful most prosperous most sensible most terrible most thoughtful most unusual most useful most valuable most wonderful Superlative worst farthest furthest best least most most .

32 Compiled by.K. Ms. Sivajothi Arnasalam S. Jln. Selangor (1) / Year 2011 .