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Cultural etiquette, politeness, and good manners are passed down through societies

from generation to generation.Etiquette refers to the cultural guidelines for what is
appropriate or inappropriate and polite or impolite. It gives a culture structure,
integrity, grace, and finesse—all of which are uniquely adapted from one culture to
another.
Fortunately, simple business and social etiquette are often based on basic common
sense. Although etiquette styles and fads may come and go, the fundamentals of
global etiquette remain essentially the same.The following tips on what to do and
what to avoid will help you engage in successful global business and social
interactions. They will help to avoid embarrassing faux pas and guide you toward
establishing quality relationships and friendships.
(Read More: Mistakes to Avoid When Leading a Meeting)
Tips for what to do
Show respect. The most important of the global etiquette tips is to show respect for
what is important to another person and his or her culture. Although cultural
conditioning has deep roots, respect is universally understood—and is an essential
step in bridging the cultural gap.
Show you care. Be proactive and learn about what's important to the cultures you
visit or interact with. This will help you win friendships and develop business
relationships.
Strike a balance. Find the comfortable middle ground between your culture and that
which you're visiting or working with. No one expects you to be just like him or her,
nor would that be congruent. Be yourself and adapt to develop rapport in a way that
works for all concerned.
Know your geography. There is nothing more embarrassing than not knowing the
exact location of the country you are visiting or the locality of its neighboring
countries and surrounding areas!
(Read More: Risky Business: Howto Manage Up)
Mind your manners. What is polite in one culture may not be considered so in
another, so know your manners for the countries you visit.
Know how to address people. The practice of using first names, surnames, titles,
university degrees, or religious designations varies from country to country, so learn
what is appropriate.

group-oriented approach in their communication style Asking personal questions: When in doubt. slang. and even a country's economic condition out of the conversation—again. including the U.. hugs. avoid any hand gestures that you think could be potentially offensive to other cultures so you don't unintentionally offend someone. There are handshakes. Define. Know the appropriate greetings.) until someone poses these kinds of questions to you first. global affairs. Touching: Many cultures. Speak clearly and slightly slower—about 20 percent slower—when communicating across linguistic borders. Greetings are as diverse as the cultures themselves. unless the other person brings it up first. this might be uncomfortable and inappropriate for people from other cultures. and some Latin American cultures. clarify. or shoulder touched. However. kisses. . etc.S.Clearly enunciate and speak slower. Discussing religion: It's safest to avoid touching on the topic of religion. (Read More: Want to Get More Done? Get Out of the Office) Tips for what to avoid Using rude hand gestures: Unless you are counting on your fingers. are comfortable with back pats or having an arm. but they aren't deaf! Define acronyms. and jargon that other cultures may not understand or even worse —take literally. abbreviations. southern European. Appearing self-important: Although the United States is known to prize selfconfidence and the entrepreneurial spirit. slang. There's no need to speak louder— multilingual speakers may be cross-translating. some cultures—including many in Europe and Asia—prefer a more humble. or eliminate any acronyms. and bows—and they come in all shapes and sizes. Discussing politics: It's advisable to keep politics. it's safest to wait to ask personal questions (about family. There is always a chance that religious prejudice could be a problem. and jargon. elbow. unless the other person brings it up first.

J. In Iran.com 4. Which of the following should not be given as gifts in the Chinese culture? • clocks • straw sandals • a handkerchief • all of the above 8. no one expects perfection. Kom verder. Which one? • China • Japan • Czech Republic • Denmark • Bolivia 5. Kom verder.Unintentionally causing embarrassment: People are embarrassed by different things in different cultures. In Great Britain. Kom verder. Quiz What do you know about Business Etiquette? Source: http://international-business-etiquette. Dealing with cultural differences in international business Drs. Which behavior is a common gesture of friendship between men in Saudi Arabia? • a high-five • holding hands while walking • a handshake • winking 6. Saxion. Saxion. Agenda 1. G. 6. Doing your research on the potentially embarrassing factors of specific cultures beforehand will help you avoid this. tapping your nose indicates that something is: • confidential • inappropriate • very important • incredibly boring 7. Regional cultures: sources and measurement – Geert Hofstede’s 6 dimensions – Exercise 2: deeper understanding 3. Saxion. Saxion. the most appropriate tipping strategy would be: • 15% tip • 20% tip • 50% tip • no tip at all 9. When treating a client to a business meal in China. Saxion. consider saying "no" directly to be impolite. Saxion. 3. Saxion. Kom verder. including the Middle East and parts of Asia. Saxion. but showing the sole of your shoe is offensive in many cultures. they are likely to enjoy the same with you!          Kom verder. 1. Kom verder." they will become very uncomfortable. If pushed for a firm "no. 5. 2. while doing business. 4. If you enjoy working with or visiting other cultures. a woman should cover her: • mouth • eyes • arms and legs • arms. Awareness is the first step in bridging the cultural gap. (Gerrit Jan) Kerkdijk “When in Rome do like the Romans do!” 2. Kom verder. legs and hair . including the Asian and some Latin American cultures. When it comes to cultural etiquette. Kom verder. A little advance preparation and being observant will likely help you figure out most of what you need to know. Concluding remarks 3. Cultural differences in communication – Quiz – Exercise 1: prepare 1st meeting abroad – Definition and importance for business – Four tips for intercultural communication – Some deadly sins to avoid 2. Saxion. Showing the soles of your shoes: This may seem like a strange one. Kom verder. In all of these countries you are expected to bring a gift to a business meeting EXCEPT one. Saying "no": Many cultures.

Denmark First: each group. They must adapt! – “If English was good enough for Jesus Christ then it is good enough for me”. Japan 4. Saxion. • “Group” what group? : nation. listen and ask – When you don’t understand reactions. Africa 3. Amnesia => we have no history. family. organization.. Saudi Arabia 9. Gifts giving: – Type of gift? – Colour of wrapping? – Wait for unpacking or not? 6. Huntington: Clash of civilizations . Kom verder.youtube. Saxion. profession. Female participation? 5. I don’t need to understand others. ask! Source: http://www. Seating order? Type of conversation: social or business? 9. How should I behave at. Right hand/left hand? More do’s and don’ts? 10. Source: http://ed. Surprising/shocking? 17. Making eye contact? 7.ted. Kom verder. France 8.com/on/lLJQX8SU 18. The assignment • Your firm is going to sent a team to the selected country to establish business contacts. – So.com 2.. •Study folkways=>business etiquette –learn about rules for interaction 13. Kom verder. Kom verder. Indonesia 6. •Speak at least 2 languages –and know some words or expressions . Kom verder. Why is culture-awareness important? Globalization causes large increase in multi-cultural diversity and international business relations and an increased need for intercultural communication skills. Four tips for interacting 1. socker-supporters . 14. legal and political aspects .. Appreciate differences – Show “courting behavior” 3. Kom verder. changing all the time! 11. China 7. Best moment for making a business deal? a dinner meeting: 8. What is culture? • Definition: A group’s system of learned values and norms. Saxion. • Preparing yourself for the trip you ask yourself: “What would be (un)appropriate behavior when meeting with business partners in that country”? 15. For this particular country: – Find answers to 9 questions (see next slide). Saxion. Be patient. Last/First names? 4. Intercultural communication skills are fundamental for your business success! 12. – My behavior & norms are standard for everybody else. Saxion. Kom verder. Saxion.com/watch?v=ZDvLk7e2Irc&feature=related Dr. How to do this? 1..bottom). Saxion. Kom verder. Chile 2. Dress code? 3. Kom verder. – Find surprising/shocking example (question 10) 5. “National” cultures: sources and measurement • Huntington: 7 civilizations • Geert Hofstede: 6 dimensions 20. Snéha Khilay on intercultural interaction on YouTube 19. Observe body language and mirror it – Mirroring behavior builts rapport 2. – “I don’t know why my behavior should shock you”..           10. please select a different country from list. Find “business etiquette” (left . Respect individuality (avoid stereotyping) – A person is not his nationality nor his culture ! 4. Look up the selected country in the list. •Make sure you know local rules –religious. yes? – All civilizations/nations: good + bad. Three “deadly sins” Being unaware => denying cultural influence – Assuming all behavior is personal and intended. Timeliness? 2. 4.. Share your findings with the class. past + present. Saxion. Kom verder. both vague and visible. 3. 16. Excercise 1 1. Saxion. a general meeting: 1. Ethnocentrism => I am the center of the world . region. • Culture is mythical. Visit: http://international-businesscenter. In international relations. Mexico 10. Saxion. Saxion. New Zealand 5. Kom verder. – “Our civilization is and has always been superior”.

• http://geert-hofstede. organizations. "silence is linked to credibility. regions.com/watch?v=CW7aWKXB5J4 27. Kom verder.com/culturaltools. Saxion. An intercultural attitude Hey. Saxion.com/on/lLJQX8SU I and WE cultures • http://www. Saxion. Evaluation • Get your “proof of attendance” • Please fill out the evaluation form.com/watch? v=wxrp7u86SGs Hofstede: seven deadly sins http://ed.. groups. 25. those differences are fun! Disrespectfulness is never Ok! If a person’s behavior seems odd to you it does NOT necessarily follow that this person’s intentions are disrespectful.        21. Saxion. • Compare: what are the most striking differences? 24." Silence speaks loudly . let's take a look at Japan's values and what it means for you in observing the country's etiquette rules:  Silence is Golden  In a business setting. • Next: select your own country or the country of one or more members of your group. Compare this country’s culture with your national culture following Hofstede’s theory..Truth depends on situation & time/TRUTH is eternal. Hofstede: 6 dimensions Power Distance: acceptance of hierarchy in society – Respect for social and organizational position . 26. Hofstede: 6 dimensions Uncertainty Avoidance: by the book/taking initiative – Low vs Moderate to High risk behavior – Ritualistic behavior vs open for new experiencs Pragmatic/Normative: adapt/obey strict norms – Adapting/respecting social obligations + traditions . Indulgence/Restraint: tolerance/intolerance – allowing hedonistic behavior or not 23. Kom verder. Kom verder. Saxion. sits first etc. Saxion.html • First: select the foreign country. families. Kom verder. “We”: I am part of larger society – Promotion based on loyalty or initiative? Masculinity/Femininity: hard or “soft” interaction – Low/high interpersonal skills – Achievement/Rewards versus Caring/Cooperating 22. As Larry Samovar. Exercise 2 • Your firm wants to do business in the country you selected.youtube.com/watch?v=fa_GCK-Czqs&feature=related International business and culture • http://www.CEO not easily approached. Richard Porter and Edwin McDaniel put it in Communication Between Cultures. Individualism/Collectivism: center of identification – “I”:Me & my family. Avoid error of Level Confusion • The concept of Culture applies to collectives: nations. Kom verder.youtube. Saxion. Some interesting Links Gestures: • http://www. professions. • Individuals don’t have cultures but Personalities For the individual “culture” is the answer to the question: “what behavior (of others) is familiar and makes me feel safe and at home”? • But there is always room for personal choices. Kom verder.ted. age-groups.youtube. genders. silence is valued over an overabundance of talking. Kom verder. With this in mind.

This may run counter to our approach back at home.about wisdom and emotional self-control." This cultural mindset impacts certain behaviors such as how praise is received. made this astute observation about silence: "In times of stress or difficulty during a meeting." Take a cue from your Japanese counterparts and tailor your approach. While we value individual contributions and strongly believe in . especially at the beginning of a business relationship. such as. is likely to be better received when doing business in Japan. The Japanese have many proverbs that signal the importance that they place on silence. A more introverted. as the famous Japanese saying implies: "A single arrow is easily broken.  Group Solidarity is Paramount  It's widely known that Japan is a group-oriented culture—group solidarity is valued over individualism. "The duck that quacks is the first to get shot. a company that specializes in global cultural differences. but not ten in a bundle.  World Business Culture. formal approach." Resist the urge to fill the silence with more talk about an issue your Japanese counterpart would rather avoid at the moment. where being more outgoing can facilitate communication. the Japanese will often resort to silence in order to release the tension in the room and allow people to move away from the area of difficulty (to preserve harmony which is tantamount). There is strength in the group.

Therefore.recognition and individual praise. Always remember that the team concept is very important for the Japanese and strive to give public credit to the entire group.  Age Equals Seniority  Notwithstanding the many changes in modern Japan. It's considered a big faux pas to place their business card in your back pocket or wallet. no matter how helpful he is to you. briefly read it and place it in your business card holder if you are standing. Singling out an individual in the group for special recognition. A survey of companies in the Nikkei 225 Index shows that the CEOs of these companies . Even if you are sitting far away from the person in a group. a business card (Meishi. the opposite is true in Japan. don't toss or push the card across the table. pronounced "MAY-SHEE") is an extension of their identity.  Business Cards are Talismans  For Japanese business professionals. When presenting your business card. is likely to embarrass that individual. if you are seated. age is revered in that country and can be synonymous with rank in a business setting. it's important to observe some engrained rules of etiquette that signal respect for the person. have the Japanese-printed side facing the person you are offering it to. Get up and walk over to them. and give your card with both hands. Accept the card with both hands. place it on the table for the duration of the meeting and then place it in your business card holder.

This might be the reason why Japan lags . with an average age of 62." So.  Hard Sell Doesn't Sell  A hard-sell approach will not succeed in Japan. Don't drive too hard on decisions and deadlines. asking a lot of personal questions at the beginning of the relationship—which to us is a way of building rapport— may be regarded as pushy or rude. Understand that the Japanese decision-making style is by consensus—trying to speed up the process may appear to be disrespectful of their way of doing business. Replace the high pressure.were consistently older than those of other countries. Likewise. confrontational approach with a more gentle. Windows are designed so people can't look in. For example. Treat older executives with a more marked deference than you do younger ones in the group you're interacting with. Rather than be impatient. People can have their names removed from phone books if they want. The youngest CEO was 43. offer your business card to the senior person first. Hierarchy is paramount. be sure to greet the most senior person before you greet others.  Privacy is Valued  Japanese people are notoriously private and reserved. try to see the long process as an opportunity to build trust and cement the relationship. As businessman Jeffrey Hays puts it: "Privacy is important in Japan. persuasive presentation that showcases the virtues of what you are proposing. Find points of agreement and build on those.

if there are no utensils for serving yourself. avoid red. And buying a set of four of anything is deemed unlucky.8 percent in the U. leave your place setting close to how you found it. Furthermore. this means placing your used chopsticks in their paper envelopes or holder.the world in social media adoption. on the damp towel (oshibori) provided at the start of the meal.9 percent. According to a 2012 article in Ad Age Digital. wipe your hands only. only 28 percent of Japanese Internet users visit social media sites on a monthly basis. Potted plants also carry negative superstitions. What can possibly go wrong when giving a small gift? Many things. it seems: Flowers such as lilies. especially at the first meeting.S. use the opposite end of your chopsticks to pick up food to add to your plate. and time spent on social networking in that country is a mere 2. even if it is slippery. The number nine is also inauspicious. When you finish eating. not your face. Don't use chopsticks to pierce food—pick it up. compared to 16. lotus blossoms and camellias are used for funeral services and should. The same applies for any white flowers. as funeral notices are customarily printed in red.  What You Don't Know Can Hurt You  We all know that a business gift exchange is an important tradition in Japan.  Chopstick Manners Speak Loudly  Unlike on airlines. and replacing lids on . be avoided. When you serve yourself from shared dishes. if you send Christmas cards. therefore.

with the prevalence of sushi restaurants in North America. And here is a more hardcore sushi guide. "wrap it left over right! Only corpses wear them wrapped right over left. and wearing the slippers your Japanese host will provide. Today.small dishes. such as in a meeting room."  The Small Stuff Matters  Observing the small details of politeness is a big way of showing respect in Japan. And if you wear a kimono. says Terri Morrison. in Doing Business in Japan. you might have to remove your slippers once inside if you encounter a tatami floor—a type of mat. Men wear conservative business suits and blend in with the group. It may have been quaint at one time to be ignorant about the different types of sushi. Women are encouraged to keep jewelry to a minimum so as not to stand out. which should only be stepped on . For example. is considered in poor taste. blowing your nose in public. it doesn't stop there. best to excuse yourself and walk out. When invited to a Japanese home. However. It is also considered in good taste for women not to wear high heels if this results in towering over their male Japanese counterpart. We all know about taking our shoes off at the door. it pays to know some of these differences so as not to appear unsophisticated.)  Honor the Unofficial Dress Code  The operative word here for business clothes is conservative. (Here is a brief sushi primer.

or Shake Hands (The Bestselling Guide to Doing Business in More than 60 Countries. While you're not expected to know all of this.  They are directed toward some object about which a person has feelings and beliefs. it's noticed and appreciated when you do.)  Read more articles on company culture.  ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR SUBMITTED BY : GREESHMA. Remember to remove them before going back to your seat. It simply means you've done some homework to honor your hosts. There is a lot of goodwill in this—or as David Syrad. put it: "Use your knowledge of Japanese business etiquette to demonstrate your flexibility and sensibility. THE NATURE AND DIMENSIONS OF ATTITUDES  “Attitudes”  Persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards some object  Characteristics of Attitudes  They tend to persist unless something is done to change them. Bow. OVERVIEW  NATURE & DIMENSIONS OF ATTITUDE  TYPES OF ATTITUDE  COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE  JOB ATTITUDE & ACTUAL BEHAVIOUR  THE THEORIES  JOB ATTITUDE  JOB SATISFACTION  THE EFFECT OF JOB SATISFACTION ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE  ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR  SUMMARY  REFERENCES 3. Culture. CEO of AKI Japan Ltd.with bare feet or socks. and Manners.. you have yet another pair of slippers that's reserved for use in the washroom.V SUBMITTED TO: MR." It will pay dividends. SRINIVASA RAO ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR 2. If you go to the washroom.   .  They can fall anywhere along a continuum from very favorable to very unfavorable. and Terri Morrison's book: Kiss.  You can gain more information in this area from sites such as Japan Business Etiquette. A.

ATTITUDE BEHAVIOUR 10. behavior.  Cognitive component: this involves a person’s belief / knowledge about an attitude object. thing.e. and considering performance important to self. When a person's attitude and behavior differ. Attitude is a person's inner thoughts and feelings. 7. there will still be legal consequences to deal with. actively participating in it. For instance. place. emotions) Attitude Behavior 5. This model is known as the ABC model of attitudes. psychopaths are people whose attitudes are composed of low morality. For example: “I am scared of spiders”.e. this does not mean that they always commit immoral acts. and wishing to maintain membership in the organization. and a change in attitude or behavior will be the probable outcome. This knowledge. Attitude and behavior are two quite different things. Psychopaths are usually intelligent. The behavioral intention is a verbal indication or typical behavioral tendency of an individual. 6.  It can also be defined as. there is evidence that the cognitive and affective components of behavior do not always match with behavior.  People can also be conflicted or ambivalent toward an object. They reflect how one feel about something. Most attitudes are the result of either direct experience or observational learning from the environment.” A complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways. The three components are usually linked.  Job Involvement  Identifying with the job.  Attitudes are generally positive or negative views of a person. They develop on the ABC model (affect.  Organizational Commitment  Identifying with a particular organization and its goals. TYPES OF ATTITUDES  Job Satisfaction  A collection of positive and or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job. A person can have . COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES  Attitudes structure can be described in terms of three components. and cognition). They evaluative statements in an attitude are either favorable or unfavorable.  Behavioral (or cognitive) component: the way the attitude we have influences how we act or behave. • Only behavioral can be directly observed Behavioral – tendencies to behave in a particular manner towards an object (usually behavioral intentions) Informational – beliefs and information about the object Emotional – feelings about an object THE NATURE AND DIMENSIONS OF ATTITUDES  Components of Attitudes 8.       4.  Affective component: this involves a person’s feelings / emotions about the attitude object. However. if someone says that “I like my Job”.” For example. 9. ATTITUDE MODEL Informational/ Cognitive (i. Attitudes are judgments. For example: “I will avoid spiders and scream if I see one”. while behavior is usually an outward expression of attitude. The cognitive response is a cognitive evaluation of the entity that constitutes an individual's beliefs about the object.worth. This statement expresses his attitude towards his Job. so they know that even though there will be no moral consequences for them. governs their behavior. beliefs) Affective (i. but the two are not always related. The affective response is an emotional response that expresses an individual's degree of preference for an entity. For example: “I believe spiders are dangerous”. dissonance will likely result. or event-this is often referred to as the attitude object. meaning that they simultaneously possess both positive and negative attitudes toward the item in question. However. in addition to their attitude.

a manager who values hard and sincere work will be more vocal against an employee who is having a very casual approach towards work. But OB focuses on a limited number of job-related attitudes. Attitudes provide individuals with a basis for expressing their values. For example. the older members might feel somewhat threatened by him.  These include job satisfaction. the management should try to change their attitude and help develop a more positive attitude in them. Here management may conclude that a negative attitude toward new work rules led to increased absenteeism. Attitudes often help people to adjust to their work environment. In other words.image.       thousands of attitudes. whatever the management does. DIFFERENT ATTITUDE’S OF A PERSON 13.  The Knowledge Function. 12. If one has a strong negative attitude towards the management. joins the organization. FORMATION OF ATTITUDE  How attitudes are formed? How do you develop your attitude? Essentially attitudes are the outward manifestation of your inner values and beliefs. that the workers are not too happy about it. These are as follows. As you grow you watch the significant people around you behaving in a particular way. you are being told to cherish certain things over others and you learn from your teachers and peers and come to value certain thins over other. If the management can successfully develop a.  Ego-Defensive Function. 17. even employee welfare programmes can be perceived as something ‘bad’ and as actually against them. When a young faculty member who is full of fresh ideas and enthusiasm.  During the subsequent week it is found that the attendance of the employees drops sharply from the previous standard. Attitudes provide standards and frames of reference that allow people to understand. FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDE  According to Katz.  The Adjustment Function. if employees believe that their employer does not look after their welfare. management and the organization in general while berated and ill treated organizational members develop a negative attitude. it is found from an attitude survey.  However. 11. But they tend to disapprove his creative ideas as ‘crazy’ and ‘impractical’ and dismiss him altogether. For example. identification with the organization).  These develop over time. After introducing a particular policy. 16. and.  The Value-Expressive Function.  job involvement (the degree to which person identifies  with his or her job and actively participates in it)  And organizational commitment (an indicator of loyalty to. the process of . Attitudes help people to retain their dignity and self.  Attitudes help predict work behavior  The following example might help to illustrate it. Welltreated employees tend to develop a positive attitude towards their job. they will be better adjusted to their work 15. attitudes serve four important functions from the viewpoint of organizational behavior. attitudes help employees adjust to their environment and form a basis for future behavior. thus forming your value system. These in turn give rise to development of your attitudes.positive attitude among the employees. 14. CHANGING ATTITUDES  Employees’ attitudes can be changed and sometimes it is in the best interests of managements to try to do so.  Attitudes help people to adapt to their work environment  An understanding of attitudes is also important because attitudes help the employees to get adjusted to their work. and perceive the world around him.

g.  There are two major categories of barriers that come in the way of changing attitudes:  Prior commitment when people feel a commitment towards a particular course of action that have already been agreed upon and thus it becomes difficult for them to change or accept the new ways of functioning. If for example. this traditional model has been questioned as being too simple and some more comprehensive alternatives have been developed. Scanty and incomplete information can be a major reason for brewing negative feeling and attitudes.  Influence of friends and peers A very effective way of changing one’s attitude is through his friends and colleagues. 22.  Like in the case where one is to choose from” between two alternative courses of action. People might resort to change their work habit for the fear of fear of unpleasant consequences.  Resolving Discrepancies: Whenever “people face “a dilemma or conflicting situation they feel confused in choosing a particular course of action. Their opinion and recommendation for something often proves to be more important. There are two major categories of barriers that come in the way of changing attitudes: 18. If you want to change the attitude of some body who belongs to a different group. intention sequence is presumably followed by actual behavior. can be the person who takes active initiative in implementing a new policy when he had participated in that decision making process himself. JOB ATTITUDES AND ACTUAL BEHAVIOR  The belief. the degree of the arousal of fear will have to be taken into consideration as well. SELF-PERCEPTION THEORY 25. attitude. chances are high that an individual will slowly accept that even when he had initial reservations for that. it is often becomes very effective if you can include him in your own group. 21.  This traditional model suggests that behaviors (including job performance) are largely influenced by job attitudes. Sometimes people simply see any reason to change their attitude due to unavailability of adequate information. 23. it is often become difficult for him to decide which is right for him. THE THEORY OF COGNITIVE DISSONANCE Desire to reduce dissonance • Importance of elements creating dissonance • Degree of individual influence over elements • Rewards involved in dissonance 24.  Insufficient information also acts as a major barrier to change attitudes. If some one helps him in pointing out the positive points in favor of the chosen course of action. he might still feel confused. Sometimes a dramatic change in attitude is possible only by providing relevant and adequate information to the person concerned. AN APPLICATION: ATTITUDE SURVEYS . There are some barriers which have to be overcome if one strives to change somebody’s attitude.  Use of Fear. Even when he chooses one over the other.. 19. (e.  Co-opting. Attitudes can be changed through the use of fear.        changing the attitude is not always easy. 20. they are all praise for a particular policy introduced in the work place. he person might resolve the his dilemma. absenteeism)  Recently. However. SOME OF THE POSSIBLE WAYS OF CHANGING ATTITUDES  Providing New Information. Like in the case of the union leader who are all the time vehemently against any management decision.

which predict behavioral intentions..  Job satisfaction is strongly related to OCB. beliefs predict feelings. EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE 27.  The different forms of OCB:  Helping behaviour and offering assistance. 35. SUMMARY  Attitudes have traditionally been described as a process in which we logically calculate our feelings toward the attitude object based on an analysis of our beliefs. informal behaviour that contributes to organizational effectiveness.  Satisfaction and Turnover  Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. which have an important influence on attitudes and behavior  Behavior sometimes influences our subsequent attitudes through cognitive dissonance. MAJOR JOB ATTITUDES  Job Satisfaction  Job Involvement  Psychological Empowerment  Organizational Commitment  Affective commitment  Continuance commitment  Normative commitment  Perceived Organizational Support (POS)  Employee Engagement 28.  Courtesy and cooperation. THE EFFECT OF JOB SATISFACTION ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE  Satisfaction and Productivity  Satisfied workers aren’t necessarily more productive.  Satisfaction and Absenteeism  Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences.  Organizations take actions to cultivate high performers and to weed out lower performers.  Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers.g. WHAT CAUSES JOB SATISFACTION?  The Work Itself – the strongest correlation with overall satisfaction  Pay – not correlated after individual reaches a level of comfortable living  Advancement  Supervision  Coworkers 32. People also have personality traits which affect their emotions and attitudes. Thus.  Being a good sport. MEASURING JOB SATISFACTION  Single Global Rating Method  Only a few general questions  Remarkably accurate  Summation Score Method  Identifies key elements in the job and asks for specific feeling about them 31.  Job Satisfaction  Affects many behaviors that are not directly related to performance (e.  Two aspects of satisfaction. ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR (OCB)  Voluntary.  Facet satisfaction refers to the tendency for an employee to be more or less satisfied with various facets of the job:  The work itself  Compensation  Career opportunities 29.  Belief + Value = Attitude > Behavior.  A good “fit” between the values of employees and their supervisors and organization enhances job attitudes and behaviours. HOW EMPLOYEES CAN EXPRESS DISSATISFACTION EXIT VOICE NEGLECT LOYALTY PASSIVETOACTIVE DESTRUCTIVE TO CONSTRUCTIVE 34. absenteeism.           26. But this traditional perspective overlooks the role of emotions. 33.  Conscientiousness to the details of work. OCBs)  Fostering commitment is . HISTORY OF JOB SATISFACTION  Based in history of Job Satisfaction  Formal research began in mid-1930’s  1932 I/O textbooks had no mention of job satisfaction or organizational commitment  By 1972 over 3000 articles published specifically exploring worker attitudes  Why interest developed  Methodological breakthroughs  Survey methods  Statistical techniques 30. which predict behavior. 36. WHAT IS JOB SATISFACTION?  A collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs.

org/attitudes. %20attitude%20and%20job%20satisfaction.ca/ca_ph_johns_ob_7/67/17350/4441642. Attitudes. Retrieved from http://highered.).behavior/drivers-ofbehavior/attitudes-influence-on-behavior/  Luthans.d. and Job Satisfaction: http://www.my/pdf/Download/PostgraduateStudent/OB . pdf  McLeod.).  important  Continuance commitment lower performance. S. Retrieved from  Values.boundless. (2005).edu.com/2012/11/27/organisation-behaviour.ftms. & Vaughan.).simplypsychology.  What Are Attitudes? (n.edu. Values. (n.d. (n. and Job Satisfaction.. Attitudes and Behavior . Attitudes.pearsoned. Organizational Behavior.d. London: Prentice-Hall .  WORKPLACE EMOTIONS. (n.  ORGANISATION BEHAVIOUR – ATTITUDE.Simply Psychology. while affective commitment increases performance 37. (2008). F. (n. A.ftms.).d. (2009).). Retrieved from http://mbanotesravi. cw/index. Social Psychology (4th edition).mcgrawhill.attitude/. Mc Graw Hill International Edition.html  Hogg.html 38.pdf.  www. Retrieved from boundless Better than your assigned text books: https://www.d.lecture%202%20values.com/sites/dl/free/0070876940/355897/sample_ch04.com/management/organizational. REFERENCES  Attitudes Influence on Behavior. Retrieved from Pearson Education : http://wps. G. M. Retrieved from http://www. .