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Tutorial

Current Transformer Requirements
for Protection

Consider a conductor diameter of 2 cm’s and allow 2 cm’s on each side of the core for the secondary winding and the insulation. (iv) The Kv factor in volts/tesla (v) The Ki factor in mm/turn Note* Take Bm – Max flux density of stalloy = 1Wb/m2 CDG11 Rct 5 Amp Relay Set at 10% Ip/N Xct CT Ratio = 400/5A ∴ N = 80 Turns RCT is ignored in this example. ensuring that the CT will fit in the available housing space of 20 cm’s diameter and 15 cm’s deep. (ii) The cross sectional area of the core. System frequency is 50Hz. 3VA . A 400/5A bar primary CT with a Stalloy core supplies a 3VA CDG11 set at 10% of nominal current. neglecting the CT resistance and any non linearity in the relay impedance.1. Find (i) The minimum knee point voltage. It is required to cater for a current of 10 times relay setting. (iii) A possible set of CT dimensions.

What is: a. . Assume relay burden at setting is 3VA for the phase fault relays and 2. and a CDG11 20-80% earth fault relay set at 40%.2 Ω Kv = 20V/tesla Ki = 4mm/turn The CT’s are connected to give phase and E/F protection using a CDG31 50-200% overcurrent relay set to 125%.2. Three CROSS (Cold Rolled Grain Orientated Silicon Steel) 400/5A Bar Primary current transformers have the following characteristics: Secondary resistance = 0.) The minimum primary current for operation of the phase fault relays for a 3 phase fault b.4VA at setting for earth fault relays.) The minimum primary current for operation of the earth fault relay for a single phase to ground fault. Use the magnetising curves provided to estimate the magnetising currents of both the active and idle CT’s.

1-0. An earthed 132kV transformer is protected by Restricted Earth Fault protection using 4 CT’s and an MCAG14 relay plus stabilising resistor. and the loop impedance from relay to the CT’s = 2.3.4A. set at 0. Relay setting range 0. scale the Kv and Ki factors to calculate the magnetising current.08 mm/turn R = 0. Use magnetising curve supplied.4A.7 Ω Find the primary fault setting and the minimum stabilising resistor value. The system fault level is 3500MVA.0 Ω The CT details are as follows: Ratio = 500/1 Material = CROSS Kv = 272 V/tesla Ki = 2. Assume relay burden is 1VA. 500/1 Rs 500/1 MCAG14 .

76 cm .003378 m 2 222 × 80 = 33. then the CT must have a minimum knee point voltage of 10 x 6 V.ay. minimum internal diameter = 6 cm’s.8 cm2 = 5 cm x 6. Assume core to be approximately square e. If the CT is to be capable of driving 10 x setting current through the re. Calculation of a possible set of CT dimensions With 2 cm’s diameter primary conductor and 4 cm’s for winding and insulation.5 Amps CDG11 consumes constant VA at setting.5 A must demand 6 V at the relay terminals (VA = V x I).78 cm2 (area of Stalloy Core) III. Calculate the cross sectional area of the core using the formula ES = 4. therefore 3VA at 0. 33.44 x 50 x 1 x A x 80 ∴A = 60 = 0. I. 60 = 4. II.g.Solutions: 1. Setting of relay = 10% of 5A = 0. ∴ Minimum Vk = 60 V.44 f Bm A N (all metric units) All factors but A are known so.

76 cm 20 cm 2 cm This CT will fit within the available space of 20cm x 15cm. Calculation of Kv Factor Employing metric units with core area in cm2 KV = AN 1 × 10 − 4 = 4.76 cm 6 cm Mean magnetic diameter = 16 cm 6 + 16 = 11cm 2 Overall dimensions.78 × 80 = = 60 4. IV.44 × 50 ∴ Kv = 60 V/ tesla AN 33.5 45 . 6. including windings and insulation (2 cm) 10.Proposed size for core.

Calculation of Ki factor Employing metric units with mean magneetic length in mm Mean magnetic length = πD = π x 11 x 10 = 346 mm Ki = Mean magnetic length/ N = 346 = 4.V.32mm / Turn 80 .

including magnetising impedances O/C 0.6 Ohms .077 Ohms 0.252 = 0. 400/5 O/C Earth Fault Relay Impedances: Phase Overcurrent = 3 VA at 125% of 5 A ∴ Z = 3/6.077 Ω E/F = 2.2 Ohms E/F 0.077 Ohms Rct 0.2 Ohms 0.6 Ω Full equivalent circuit.077 Ohms 0.4/22 = 0.2.4 VA at 40% of 5 A ∴ Z = 2.2 Ohms Z mag 0.

2) = 1.25 A ∴ Voltage which needs to be developed within the CT = 6.73 V 0.077 1.077 + 0.a.08 A . Setting current of overcurrent relays = 6.25 x total impedance. Assume all impedances have the same angle for simplicity ∴ V at CT = 6.25 A In = 0 To calculate expected magnetising current in CT: I.73 V 0.25(0. Scale magnetising curve with the Kv and Ki factors given in the question ( as traced) 8V 4V 1.73 V 0.2 6.) Calculate 3 phase fault primary setting The phase currents are balanced for this condition and no current will flow in the neutral.

II.0 x 0.02 A Neglecting any phase angle differences Isec’y = 6.25 A + Imag = 6. noting they have 1.2 V Step B Calculate the magnetising current in the 2 idle sound phase CT’s.2 V 0.08 A .27 x 80 = 501.27 Amps ∴ Primary setting for O/C relays = 6. Scale of 1.16 A 0.2 V impressed across them Use magnetising curve – scaled by Kv and Ki – as before 8V 4V 1.) Calculate earth fault primary setting Step A Calculate voltage across E/F relay = Setting Current x E/F relay impedance = 2.6 Ω = 1.6 A for 3 phase faults b.73 V – Result = 0.

016 A 2A Step D 1.077 Ohm 0.2 V + 2.2 V + Total current x 0.032 A Sound Phase Imag = 0.2 Ohm Faulted Phase 2.016 A Sound Phase Imag = 0.277 Ohm = 1.Step C Draw the known parameters so far 0.032 x 0.2 V 0.02 A 0.76 V 0.277 = 1.763 V Step E Calculate the magnetising current taken by the CT Use mag curve – Scaled as before 8V 4V 1.08 A .6 Ohm Calculate the voltage at the driving CT V at CT = 1.

2 3 Calculate CT secondary current (prospective) IS = I P 15300 A 30.016 A Sound Phase Imag = 0.077 Ohm 0.052 A sec’y = 164. 2.2 V 0.2 Ohm Faulted Phase 2.016 A 2A 1. assuming all currents are in phase.032 A 0.3kA 132 76. Step A Calculate E/F rating MVA rating/phase = 3500/3 Phase/neutral voltage = 132/ √3 ∴ Fault level = Step B 3500 3 = 1166.6 A = n 500 .02 A Sound Phase Imag = 0.15 A primary ∴ Primary E/F sensitivity = 164.2A 3.6 Ohm Current in driving CT = 2.052 A 0.Step F Construct the final diagram.67 = 15.

6 V 54. MCAG14 + RSTAB V setting = If (sec’y) x resistance in one leg of supply. .4 V 0.Step C Draw detailed diagram.0 Rstab Fault Is = 30.7 2.6 V Step E Calculate the mag current taken by the CT – using curve supplied and scaled by the Kv and Ki factors given 108.6 A x (0. ie.8 V 82. = 30.025 A Step F 0. as seen from the CT on the neutral Rct Rloop 0.6 A If other CT's Saturate Step D Calculate recommended voltage setting of high impedance relay.0) = 82.0416 A Calculate total current in driving CT (assuming currents are in phase) at setting.7 + 2.

25 Ω .5 A So Primary setting = 500 x 0.1 A 0.4 A CAG14 set 0. ∴ Total magnetising = 4 x 0.025 0.025 A = 0.025 A + 0.42=6.025 0.4 A Total Is for setting = 4 x 0.25 = 200.5 – 6.025 Setting Current = 0.4 Subtract CAG14 Ohms = 1 VA / 0.025 0.Worst case scenario is one CT driving its own magnetising current plus 3 idle CT’s in parallel.4 A = 0.25 Ω ∴ RSTAB = 206.5Ω Re laySettingCurrent 0.6 = = 206.5 A = 250 A Step G Calculate total Z of relay leg = Re laySettingVoltage 82.Note:.