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a.

Nodule
Nodule juga disebut konkresi, biasanya terbentuk dalam sedimen setelah
pengendapan. Mineral-mineral yang sering terdapat pada nodul adalah
kalsit, dolomit, siderit, pirit, colophane dan kuarsa. Nodul kalsit, pirit dan
siderit diameternya bisa beberapa milimeter sampai beberapa sentimeter,
biasanya terdapat dalam batuan lumpur. Nodul chert biasanya terdapat
dalam batugamping, nodul kalsit dan dolomit kadang-kadang terdapat
dalam batupasir. Bentuk nodule bervariasi, bisa bulat, pipih, memanjang
dan bisa juga tidak teratur.

Gambar 16. Struktur setelah pengendapan berupa : Nodule (Concretion)

Struktur buluh (burrow) biasanya dibuat oleh crustacea. Struktur sedimen asal jasad (Biogenic sedimentary structures) Fosil jejak dapat diinterpretasikan aktifitas binatangnya yang menyebabkan timbulnya struktur ini. tetapi sifat alami binatangnya sendiri sulit untuk ditentukan karena organisme yang berbeda sering mempunyai cara hidup yang sama. a. sedangkan permukaan track dan trail dibuat oleh crustacea. Berupa : Struktur Bioturbasi (Bioturbation) b. annelid. bivalve dan echinoid. gastropod dan vertebrata. trilobite.2. Struktur yang agak mirip buluh (burrow) dapat dihasilkan oleh akar tumbuhan. kandungan air dan sebagainya. Bioturbation Bioturbation menunjukkan gangguan sedimen oleh organisme. walapun yang terakhir sering mengandung karbonat. Trace fossil (fosil jejak) . Gambar 17 & 18. anellid. Suatu binatang dapat menghasilkan struktur yang berbeda tergantung pada tingkah lakunya dan sifat sedimen seperti ukuran butir.

Jejak merayap biasanya dihasilkan oleh crustacea. trilobita dan annelid/Vertebrata seperti dinosaurus meninggalkan cetakan kaki sebagai fosil jejak. Kelompok utama yang terdapat pada permukaan lapisan dan permukaan bawah lapisan adalah crawling. Struktur menghuni (Dwelling structure) adalah macam-macam buluh (burrow) dari bentuk tebing tegak sampai hurup U. Struktur biogenik ini mempunyai pola terputar. grazing (Jejak makan) dan resting (Jejak istirahat). orientasinya bia tegak. mendatar atau miring dengan perlapisan. meandering dan radial. sedangkan yang terdapat dalam lapisan adalah struktur feeding (Jejak sedang mencari makan) dan dwelling (Jejak menguni). .Fosil jejak adalah struktur sedimen yang dihasilkan pada sedimen yang tidak terkonsolidasi oleh kegiatan organisme.

Corrosion zones 3. B. Graded bedding 4. Wavy bedding (“secondary”) A. Nodules stromatolites) 2. Solution structures Organic Stucture A. oolicasts. Cross bedding 2. and 1. Berupa : Burrow dan Grazing Trail Inorganic Structure Mechanical (“primary”) Chemical A. Growth bedding and so on B. geometry 1.Gambar 19 & 20. 1. Vugs. Petrifactions 1. Bedding (Weedia structures. Bedding. Concretions other . Accretionary B. Laminations 2. Ripple bedding 3. Stylolites 2. Bedding internal structures.

Cast & molds 4. Parting lineation . Color banding C. Scour or current mark (flutes) 2. Wave and swash marks 2. Bedding-plane markings (on sole) 1. Veinlets 5. Geodes 2. Cone in cone trails 3. Miscellaneous structures 1. Tracks 2. Crystal aggregates (spherulites and rosettes) 4. Bedding plane markings (on surface) 1. Pits and and prints (rain and so on) 3.3. Borings 1. Faecal pellets and coprolites D. Tool marks (grooves and so on) C. Septaria 3. Composites C.

 Liesegang bands are colored bands of cement observed in sedimentary rocks that typically cut-across bedding. 43. usually formed by replacement of inside of living thing 8. Biogenic sedimentary structures: Biogenic structures result from bioturbation. 44. crawl.  Vugs may also result when mineral crystals or fossils inside a rock matrix are later removed through erosion or dissolution processes.  Color Banding: They are formed in sedimentary rocks when some variation occur in the mineral composition or due to the cementing material present in the rock.  These secondary sedimentary structures exhibit bands of minerals that are arranged in a regular repeating pattern.  Frequent occurrence in sedimentary rocks. 4. 7. apatite (phosphorite). Concretions are formed from mineral precipitation around some kind of nucleus while a nodule is a replacement body. Concretions are often ovoid or spherical in shape. This can occur by the organisms moving across the surface of sediment or burrowing into the first few centimeters. uncomplicated pattern linear  Grazing traces: more complicated surface trails. . 3. a nodule is small.  Resting traces: impression of where animal rested during life (but not a fossil mold). Cast : Duplicate of the original organism. rings composed of iron oxide can also occur in permeable igneous and metamorphic rocks that have been chemically weathered.  Most commonly cracks and fissures opened by tectonic activity (folding and faulting) are partially filled by quartz. or drag their body parts through the sediment. 47.  Minerals that typically form nodules include calcite. 40. or lump of a mineral or mineral aggregate that typically has a contrasting composition. from the enclosing sediment or sedimentary rock. 6. and other secondary minerals. such as a pyrite nodule in coal. 42. a chert nodule in limestone.  Fine crystals are often found in vugs where the open space allows the free development of external crystal form.  Nodules: In sedimentology and geology. mass. Molds: Reproduction of the inside or outside surface of a living thing. although irregular shapes also occur. 46.  There is an important distinction to draw between concretions and nodules. irregularly rounded knot. Tracks and trails: These features result from organisms moving across the sediment as they walk. calcite. compact mass of matter formed by the precipitation of mineral cement within the spaces between particles. symmetrical or ordered pattern. leaving behind irregular voids.  Crawling traces: trails. chert.  Concretions: A concretion is a hard. anhydrite. 2. and pyrite. 41. 45. and is found in sedimentary rock or soil.  Vugs: They are small to medium-sized cavities inside rock that may be formed through a variety of processes. or a phosphorite nodule in marine shale. 5. the post-depositional disturbance of sediments by living organisms.1.

sand-size sediment. Bioturbation: One of the agents of organic weathering. the holes made by such organisms can later become filled with water that deposits new sediment in the holes. 12. Bioturbation aids the penetration of air and water and loosens sediment 51. bioturbation is the disturbance of the soil or sediment by living things. 48. more rarely. 11. 49.  Dwelling structures: simple to complex burrow systems.  Feeding structures: simple to complex burrow systems commonly with well organized and defined branching pattern indicating systematic reworking of sediment. 50. burrows can be lined or small ball of mass. have also been reported in siliciclastic sediments. • Most ancient stromatolites occur in limestones however. .9. Burrow Marks: Any organism that burrows into soft sediment can disturb the sediment and destroy many of the structures.  They are organosedimentary structures formed largely by the trapping and binding activities of blue-green algae  The laminated structure forms because fine sediment is trapped in the very fine filaments of algal mats. the process of forming a boring by an organism is bioerosion.  Such burrow marks can be excellent top and bottom indicators.  If burrowing is not extensive.  Stromatolites: They are organically formed. laminated structures composed of fine silt or clay-size sediment or. 10. Boring : A boring is any biogenic structure that involves erosion of an already consolidated substrate by an organism.